Books of Samuel撒母耳记上 书

General Information一般资料

The two books of Samuel, which follow Judges in the Hebrew Bible and Ruth in the English, tell the stories of Samuel, Saul, and David.两书的塞缪尔,遵循在希伯来文圣经和露丝在英语的法官,告诉撒母耳,扫罗和大卫的故事。The events from the cataclysmic breakup of Israel's premonarchic league through the foundation of Saul's monarchy and the beginnings of David's political emergence to the death of Saul are narrated in 1 Samuel.从以色列通过扫罗的君主制和大卫的政治出现扫罗死亡的开端的基础premonarchic联赛的灾难性解体的事件是叙述在撒母耳记上。 David's unification of Israel and Judah, his imperial expansion, and the subsequent struggle to decide who would succeed David are described in 2 Samuel.大卫统一以色列和犹大,他的帝国扩张,和随后的斗争,决定将接替大卫是在2塞缪尔。

The books are named after Samuel, the last major representative of the old league, who figured prominently in the transition to monarchy.书籍被命名后,旧的联赛,谁想通突出君主制过渡的最后一个主要代表塞缪尔。He plays no role in 2 Samuel, however, which may explain why the Septuagint and Vulgate versions designate 1 - 2 Samuel as 1 - 2 Kings.他扮演的角色,在2塞缪尔然而,这也许可以解释为什么译本和武加大版本1 - 2塞缪尔为1 - 2国王。

Both volumes are part of the Deuteronomistic History (compiled in the time of Josiah, c. 640 - 609 BC), but they largely consist of preexisting literary sources, such as the pre Davidic narrative about the Ark (1 Sam. 2, 4 - 6) and the Solomonic Throne Succession Narrative (2 Sam. 9 - 20), that the final editor used relatively unchanged.两卷Deuteronomistic历史(编译约西亚,C. 640 - 609 BC)的一部分,但它们主要包括预先存在的文学的来源,如前大卫叙事关于方舟(1萨姆2,4,​​ - 6),并在所罗门的王位继承叙事(2萨姆9 - 20),最后的编辑器中使用相对不变。

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Bibliography 参考书目
PR Ackroyd, The First Book of Samuel (1971); FM Cross, Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic (1973); HW Hertzberg, 1 and 2 Samuel (1964); PK McCarter, 1 Samuel (1980); RN Whybray, The Succession Narrative (1968).公关,阿克罗伊德的萨穆埃尔第一册(1971);调频交叉,迦南神话和希伯来语史诗(1973);硬件赫茨伯格,1和2塞缪尔(1964); PK McCarter,撒母耳记(1980);护士Whybray,继承叙事(1968年)。


Books of Samuel塞缪尔的书籍

Brief Outline简述

  1. Samuel as Judge (1Sam 1-7)作为法官塞缪尔(1Sam 1-7)
  2. Saul as King (1Sam 8-2Sam 1)扫罗为王(1Sam 8 2Sam 1)
  3. David as King (2Sam 2-24)作为大卫王(2Sam 2-24)


Samuel塞缪尔

Advanced Information先进的信息

Samuel, heard of God.萨穆埃尔,听说神。The peculiar circumstances connected with his birth are recorded in 1 Sam.与他出生的特殊情况都记录在1萨姆。1:20.1:20。Hannah, one of the two wives of Elkanah, who came up to Shiloh to worship before the Lord, earnestly prayed to God that she might become the mother of a son.汉娜,以利加拿的两个妻子,前来希洛在耶和华面前敬拜,认真向上帝祷告,她可能成为一个儿子的母亲。Her prayer was graciously granted; and after the child was weaned she brought him to Shiloh nd consecrated him to the Lord as a perpetual Nazarite (1:23-2:11).她的祷告,慷慨地给予孩子断奶后,她带他到希洛ND奉献,他作为一个永久的拿细耳人(1:23-2:11)的主。 Here his bodily wants and training were attended to by the women who served in the tabernacle, while Eli cared for his religious culture.在这里,他的身体要和培训,参加了由妇女担任幕,而礼关心他的宗教文化。Thus, probably, twelve years of his life passed away.因此,也许,12年他的生活去世。"The child Samuel grew on, and was in favour both with the Lord, and also with men" (2:26; comp. Luke 2:52). “孩子塞缪尔长大,并有利于与主,而且也与男人”(2:26;比赛路加福音2:52)。It was a time of great and growing degeneracy in Israel (Judg. 21:19-21; 1 Sam. 2: 12-17, 22).这是一个伟大的和不断增长的的在以色列的简(21:19-21; Judg. 1萨姆2:12-17,22)的时间。

The Philistines, who of late had greatly increased in number and in power, were practically masters of the country, and kept the people in subjection (1 Sam. 10:5; 13:3).非利士人,后期在数量和权力已大大增加,实际上是国家的主人,并保持在隶属的人(1萨姆10时05分; 13时03分)。 At this time new communications from God began to be made to the pious child.此时,新的通信开始从神虔诚的孩子。A mysterious voice came to him in the night season, calling him by name, and, instructed by Eli, he answered, "Speak, Lord; for thy servant heareth."了一个神秘的声音在夜间季节来到他,呼唤他的名字,并指示由Eli,他回答说:“说,主;仆人听见。”The message that came from the Lord was one of woe and ruin to Eli and his profligate sons.从主来到的消息是一个悲哀和毁灭,以利和他的挥霍无度的儿子。Samuel told it all to Eli, whose only answer to the terrible denunciations (1 Sam. 3:11-18) was, "It is the Lord; let him do what seemeth him good", the passive submission of a weak character, not, in his case, the expression of the highest trust and faith.塞缪尔说,所有以礼,其唯一的答案可怕的谴责(1萨姆3:11-18),“这是主,让他做什么seemeth他好”,一个性格软弱被动提交,而不是在他的案件中,最高的信任和信心的表达。

The Lord revealed himself now in divers manners to Samuel, and his fame and his influence increased throughout the land as of one divinely called to the prophetical office.主透露,自己现在撒母耳在潜水员的举止,以及他的名气和他的影响力,增加整个作为一个神圣的呼吁预言办公室的土地。 A new period in the history of the kingdom of God now commenced.一个在神的国度的历史新时期,现在开始。The Philistine yoke was heavy, and the people, groaning under the wide-spread oppression, suddenly rose in revolt, and "went out against the Philistines to battle."非利士人的枷锁是沉重的,和人民,广泛的压迫下呻吟,突然上升起义,和“去攻打非利士人战斗。”A fierce and disastrous battle was fought at Aphek, near to Ebenezer (1 Sam. 4:1, 2).一个激烈的和灾难性的战斗是在Aphek作战,埃比尼泽(1山姆。4:1,2)附近。The Israelites were defeated, leaving 4,000 dead "in the field."以色列人被击败了,留下4000人死亡“的领域。”The chiefs of the people thought to repair this great disaster by carrying with them the ark of the covenant as the symbol of Jehovah's presence.酋长的人认为与他们的账面方舟“公约”作为象征耶和华的存在,来修复这个巨大的灾难。They accordingly, without consulting Samuel, fetched it out of Shiloh to the camp near Aphek.因此,他们没有咨询塞缪尔,希洛提取出来Aphek附近的营地。

At the sight of the ark among them the people "shouted with a great shout, so that the earth rang again."在看到其中的约柜的人“喊一个伟大的大喝,使地球再次响起。”A second battle was fought, and again the Philistines defeated the Israelites, stormed their camp, slew 30,000 men, and took the sacred ark.第二次战役战斗,和非利士人击败以色列人,冲进他们的营地,摆30000男子,并参加了神圣的方舟。The tidings of this fatal battle was speedily conveyed to Shiloh; and so soon as the aged Eli heard that the ark of God was taken, he fell backward from his seat at the entrance of the sanctuary, and his neck brake, and he died.这种致命的战斗音信迅速传达到示罗;岁礼听到神的约柜,他这么快就下跌了落后的庇护所的入口,从他的座位和他的颈部制动,和他死了。 The tabernacle with its furniture was probably, by the advice of Samuel, now about twenty years of age, removed from Shiloh to some place of safety, and finally to Nob, where it remained many years (21:1).帐幕可能是其家具,塞缪尔的意见,现在大约20年的年龄,从希洛删除一些安全的地方,终于到诺布,它保持多年(21:1)。 The Philistines followed up their advantage, and marched upon Shiloh, which they plundered and destroyed (comp. Jer. 7:12; Ps. 78:59).非利士人跟进他们的优势,游行后,希洛,他们掠夺和摧毁(comp.耶7:12;诗篇78:59)。

This was a great epoch in the history of Israel.这是以色列历史上的伟大时代。For twenty years after this fatal battle at Aphek the whole land lay under the oppression of the Philistines.二十年来Aphek致命的战斗后,这整个土地打下非利士人的压迫下。During all these dreary years Samuel was a spiritual power in the land.在所有这些沉闷多年塞缪尔是一个在土地的精神动力。From Ramah, his native place, where he resided, his influence went forth on every side among the people.从拉玛,他的籍贯,他居住的地方,他的影响力在每边去的人之间来回。With unwearied zeal he went up and down from place to place, reproving, rebuking, and exhorting the people, endeavouring to awaken in them a sense of their sinfulness, and to lead them to repentance.他孜孜不倦的热情上升和下降从一个地方到另一个地方,责备,斥责,并告诫人们,努力唤醒他们的罪孽感,并带领他们悔改。 His labours were so far successful that "all the house of Israel lamented after the Lord."他的劳动力,到目前为止,成功的,“以色列的所有的房子后,主感叹。”Samuel summoned the people to Mizpeh, one of the loftiest hills in Central Palestine, where they fasted and prayed, and prepared themselves there, under his direction, for a great war against the Philistines, who now marched their whole force toward Mizpeh, in order to crush the Israelites once for all.塞缪尔召见人民Mizpeh,巴勒斯坦中央,在那里他们禁食祷告中最崇高的丘陵之一,并准备自己,在他的领导下,为一个伟大的战争攻打非利士人,现在谁对Mizpeh他们的整体合力游行,为了粉碎以色列人一次。

At the intercession of Samuel God interposed in behalf of Israel.在塞缪尔上帝说情插嘴在代表以色列。Samuel himself was their leader, the only occasion in which he acted as a leader in war.塞缪尔自己是他们的领袖,唯一的一次,在他作为一个在战争中的领导者采取行动。The Philistines were utterly routed.非利士人完全路由。They fled in terror before the army of Israel, and a great slaughter ensued.他们在恐怖出逃之前,以色列的军队,一个伟大的屠宰接踵而至。 This battle, fought probably about BC 1095, put an end to the forty years of Philistine oppression.这一仗,打大概是约公元前1095,市侩的压迫第四年结束。In memory of this great deliverance, and in token of gratitude for the help vouchsafed, Samuel set up a great stone in the battlefield, and called it "Ebenezer," saying, "Hitherto hath the Lord helped us" (1 Sam. 7:1-12).在这个伟大的拯救记忆体,并在令牌赐予的帮助表示感谢,塞缪尔设立在战场上的大石头,并把它称为“心光”,说:“迄今为止祂所主帮助我们”(1萨姆7。 1-12)。This was the spot where, twenty years before, the Israelites had suffered a great defeat, when the ark of God was taken.这是,二十年前,以色列人已经蒙受了巨大的失败,当神的约柜被带到现场。This victory over the Philistines was followed by a long period of peace for Israel (1 Sam. 7:13, 14), during which Samuel exercised the functions of judge, going "from year to year in circuit" from his home in Ramah to Bethel, thence to Gilgal (not that in the Jordan valley, but that which lay to the west of Ebal and Gerizim), and returning by Mizpeh to Ramah.这是一个长期的和平对以色列在非利士人的胜利(1萨姆7点13分,14),在此期间,塞缪尔行使法官的职能,“在电路每年从他的家在拉玛伯特利,吉甲(不是在约旦谷地,但奠定以巴录和盖里济姆以西),Mizpeh返回拉玛至。

He established regular services at Shiloh, where he built an altar; and at Ramah he gathered a company of young men around him and established a school of the prophets.他建立了定期服务在希洛,他在那里筑了一座坛,和他在拉玛公司聚集了他身边的年轻男子,并建立了学校的先知。The schools of the prophets, thus originated, and afterwards established also at Gibeah, Bethel, Gilgal, and Jericho, exercised an important influence on the national character and history of the people in maintaining pure religion in the midst of growing corruption.学校的先知,从而起源,之后成立基比亚,伯特利,吉甲,和杰里科,也行使在日益腐败的情况下保持纯宗教的人的民族性格和历史上的一个重要的影响。 They continued to the end of the Jewish commonwealth.他们继续犹太英联邦结束。Many years now passed, during which Samuel exercised the functions of his judicial office, being the friend and counsellor of the people in all matters of private and public interest.许多年过去了,在此期间,塞缪尔行使他的司法办公室的职能,在私人和公共利益的所有事项的人民的朋友和辅导员。 He was a great statesman as well as a reformer, and all regarded him with veneration as the "seer," the prophet of the Lord.他是一位伟大的政治家,以及作为一个改革者,都把与崇拜他的“先见”耶和华的先知。

At the close of this period, when he was now an old man, the elders of Israel came to him at Ramah (1 Sam. 8:4, 5, 19-22); and feeling how great was the danger to which the nation was exposed from the misconduct of Samuel's sons, whom he had invested with judicial functions as his assistants, and had placed at Beersheba on the Philistine border, and also from a threatened invasion of the Ammonites, they demanded that a king should be set over them.在这一时期结束时,他现在是一个老人时,以色列的长老来到他在拉玛(1萨姆8时04分,5,19-22。);感觉有多大的危险的国家塞缪尔的儿子,其中他曾与司法职能的投资作为他的助手们的不当行为被曝光,从曾在贝尔谢巴放置在非利士人的边界,并也从一个亚扪人威胁入侵,他们的要求,一个国王应该是对他们设置。 This request was very displeasing to Samuel.这一要求是非常不高兴塞缪尔。He remonstrated with them, and warned them of the consequences of such a step.他出面与他们,和他们警告说,这样一个步骤的后果。 At length, however, referring the matter to God, he acceded to their desires, and anointed Saul (qv) to be their king (11:15).长度,但是,提及此事上帝,他加入了他们的愿望,并受膏者扫罗(QV)是他们的国王(11:15)。Before retiring from public life he convened an assembly of the people at Gilgal (ch. 12), and there solemnly addressed them with reference to his own relation to them as judge and prophet.从公共生活退休前,他召开了一次大会的人在吉甲(章12),并郑重处理他们与自己的关系为法官和先知。

The remainder of his life he spent in retirement at Ramah, only occasionally and in special circumstances appearing again in public (1 Sam. 13, 15) with communications from God to king Saul.他的生活剩下他花了拉玛在退休时,只是偶尔和在特殊情况下,再次出现在公众通信与神扫罗王(1萨姆,13,15)。While mourning over the many evils which now fell upon the nation, he is suddenly summoned (ch.16) to go to Bethlehem and anoint David, the son of Jesse, as king over Israel instead of Saul.虽然在许多罪恶,现在请全国哀悼,他突然召见(ch.16)去伯利恒和膏,耶西的儿子大卫,在以色列,而不是扫罗为王。 After this little is known of him till the time of his death, which took place at Ramah when he was probably about eighty years of age.在此之后很少有人知道他,直到他的死亡,发生在拉玛的地方时,他大概是约八十岁的时候。 "And all Israel gathered themselves together, and lamented him, and buried him in his house at Ramah" (25:1), not in the house itself, but in the court or garden of his house. “所有以色列聚集起来,并感叹他,和他在拉玛的房子埋在他”(25:1),而不是房子本身,但在法庭上他家的花园。(Comp. 2 Kings 21:18; 2 Chr. 33:20; 1 Kings 2:34; John 19:41.) Samuel's devotion to God, and the special favour with which God regarded him, are referred to in Jer.(Comp. 2国王21点18分; 2 CHR 33:20; 1国王2时34分;约翰19时41分)Samuel的献身上帝,与上帝认为他的特别青睐,被称为在哲。15:1 and Ps.15:1和PS。 99:6.99:6。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Books of Samuel塞缪尔的书籍

Advanced Information先进的信息

The LXX. LXX。translators regarded the books of Samuel and of Kings as forming one continuous history, which they divided into four books, which they called "Books of the Kingdom."翻译视为萨穆埃尔和国王的书籍,形成一个连续的历史,他们划分成四本书,他们称之为“王国的书籍。”The Vulgate version followed this division, but styled them "Books of the Kings."武加大版本遵循这样的划分,但他们自称“国王的书籍。”These books of Samuel they accordingly called the "First" and "Second" Books of Kings, and not, as in the modern Protestant versions, the "First" and "Second" Books of Samuel.这些书籍的塞缪尔因此,他们所谓的“第一”和“二”​​国王的书籍,并没有,因为在现代新教的版本,“第一”和“第二”的塞缪尔书籍。 The authors of the books of Samuel were probably Samuel, Gad, and Nathan.塞缪尔书的作者很可能是塞缪尔,盖德,与弥敦道。Samuel penned the first twenty-four chapters of the first book.塞缪尔写作的第一本书的第一个二十四章。Gad, the companion of David (1 Sam. 22:5), continued the history thus commenced; and Nathan completed it, probably arranging the whole in the form in which we now have it (1 Chr. 29:29).盖德,大卫(1萨姆22时05分)的同伴,继续,从而展开的历史;弥敦道完成了它,可能安排在整个的形式,在其中,我们现在有(1 CHR 29:29)。

The contents of the books.书的内容。

The first book comprises a period of about a hundred years, and nearly coincides with the life of Samuel.第一册包括约一百年的时间,几乎与塞缪尔的生活不谋而合。It contains (1) the history of Eli (1-4); (2) the history of Samuel (5-12); (3) the history of Saul, and of David in exile (13-31).它包含了(1)礼(1-4)的历史;(2)历史塞缪尔(5-12);(3)扫罗的历史,以及流亡海外的国宝(13-31)。

The second book, comprising a period of perhaps fifty years, contains a history of the reign of David (1) over Judah (1-4), and (2) over all Israel (5-24), mainly in its political aspects.第二本书,包括也许五十多年的时间,包含了犹大(1-4)(1)大卫王朝的历史,和(2)对所有以色列(5-24),主要是在政治方面。 The last four chapters of Second Samuel may be regarded as a sort of appendix recording various events, but not chronologically.二塞缪尔最后四个章节,可视为一种附录记录各种事件,但没有按时间顺序。

These books do not contain complete histories.这些书不包含完整的历史。Frequent gaps are met with in the record, because their object is to present a history of the kingdom of God in its gradual development, and not of the events of the reigns of the successive rulers.频繁的差距是在记录会见的,因为他们的对象是目前在其逐步发展的一个神的国度的历史,历任统治者的统治的事件。It is noticeable that the section (2 Sam. 11:2-12: 29) containing an account of David's sin in the matter of Bathsheba is omitted in the corresponding passage in 1 Chr.值得注意的是,一节(2山姆11:2-12:29),包含在拔示巴问题帐户大卫的罪是在相应的通道在1 CHR省略。20.20。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


First and Second Books of Kings第一届和第二届图书国王

Catholic Information天主教信息

(Also know as the FIRST AND SECOND BOOKS OF SAMUEL.)(也塞缪尔的第一和第二的书籍。)

For the First and Second Books of Kings in the Authorized Version see KINGS, THIRD AND FOURTH BOOKS OF.对于授权版本国王的第一和第二的书籍,看到国王队,第三和第四书籍。

In the Vulgate both titles are given (Liber Primus Samuelis, quem nos Primum Regum dicimus, etc.); in the Hebrew editions and the Protestant versions the second alone is recognized, the Third and Fourth Books of Kings being styled First and Second Books of Kings.在武加大双料冠军(LIBER博智Samuelis,quem NOS Primum Regum dicimus等);在希伯来文版本和新教版本仅是公认的第二,第三和第四的书籍是风格的第一届和第二届图书国王国王。To avoid confusion, the designation "First and Second Books of Samuel" is adopted by Catholic writers when referring to the Hebrew text, otherwise "First and Second Books of Kings" is commonly used.为了避免混淆,在指定的“第一届和第二届图书塞缪尔”是通过天主教作家指希伯来文时,否则“第一届和第二届图书国王”是常用的。 The testimony of Origen, St. Jerome, etc., confirmed by the Massoretic summary appended to the second book, as well as by the Hebrew manuscripts, shows that the two books originally formed but one, entitled "Samuel".奥利,圣杰罗姆,等确认后,由希伯来文手稿,最初形成,但之一,题为“塞缪尔”两书显示,第二册,以及附加的massoretic总结的证词。 This title was chosen not only because Samuel is the principal figure in the first part, but probably also because, by having been instrumental in the establishment of the kingdom and in the selection of Saul and David as kings, he may be said to have been a determining factor in the history of the whole period comprised by the book.这个称号不仅是选择,因为塞缪尔是在第一部分的主要数字,但也可能是因为,已在英国成立,并选择在扫罗和大卫国王,他可能会说已经在整个时期的历史的一个决定性因素,包括经书。 The division into two books was first introduced into the Septuagint, to conform to the shorter and more convenient size of scrolls in vogue among the Greeks.划分成两书是首次引入的译本,以符合尺寸更短,更方便的希腊人之间的时尚滚动。The Book of Kings was divided at the same time, and the four books, being considered as a consecutive history of the Kingdoms of Israel and Juda, were named "Books of the Kingdoms" (Basileiôn biblía).国王的图书被划分在同一时间,四书,被认为作为以色列和犹大王国的连续历史,被命名为“图书王国”(Basileiôn biblía)。St. Jerome retained the division into four books, which from the Septuagint had passed into the Itala, or old Latin translation, but changed the name "Books of the Kingdoms" (Libri Regnorum) into "Books of the Kings" (Libri Regum).圣杰罗姆保留到四书,从七十到伊泰莱通过,或旧拉丁语翻译师,但改为“图书的国王”(Libri Regum)命名为“图书王国”(Libri Regnorum) 。The Hebrew text of the Books of Samuel and of the Books of Kings was first divided in Bomberg's edition of the rabbinical Bible (Venice, 1516-17), the individual books being distinguished as I B. of Samuel and II B. of Samuel, I B. of Kings and II B. of Kings.第一分邦贝里的犹太教圣经(威尼斯,1516年至1517年)版的希伯来文和萨穆埃尔的书国王书籍,我萨穆埃尔和II B.塞缪尔B.区分个别书籍,我B.国王和II B.国王。This nomenclature was adopted in the subsequent editions of the Hebrew Bible and in the Protestant translations, and thus became current among non-Catholics.这个术语是通过在后续版本的希伯来文圣经和新教翻译,从而成为非天主教徒之间的电流。

CONTENTS AND ANALYSIS内容及分析

I-II Books of Kings comprise the history of Israel from the birth of Samuel to the close of David's public life, and cover a period of about a hundred years.国王的I - II的书籍包括以色列的历史,从诞生塞缪尔大卫的公共生活的结束,并覆盖了约一百年的时间。The first book contains the history of Samuel and of the reign of Saul; the second, the history of the reign of David, the death of Saul marking the division between the two books.第一本书包含撒母耳和扫罗统治的历史;第二,大卫统治时期的历史,扫罗的死亡,标志着两书之间的分工。The contents may be divided into five main sections: (1) I, i-vii, history of Samuel; (2) viii-xiv or, better, xv, history of Saul's government; (3) xvi-xxxi, Saul and David; (4) II, i-xx, history of the reign of David; (5) xxi-xxiv, appendix containing miscellaneous matter.的内容可能会被划分为五个主要部分:(1)I - VII,塞缪尔的历史; VIII - 14或更好,,扫罗的政府的历史XV;(2)(3)十六,第三十一条,扫罗和大卫〔(4)二,I - XX,大卫王朝的历史;(5),附录XXI - XXIV含有杂事。The division between (3) and (4) is sufficiently indicated by the death of Saul and by David's accession to power; the other sections are marked off by the summaries, vii, 15-17; xiv, 47-58; xx, 23-26; xv, however, which is an introduction to what follows, according to the subject-matter belongs to (2). (3)之间的分工(4)充分表明死亡扫罗和大卫加入其他部分摘要15日至17日,第七,标记;第十四XX,23,47-58; -26;第十五,然而,这是下面的介绍,根据标的物属于(2)。

(1) History of Samuel(1)历史的塞缪尔

Samuel's birth and consecration to the Lord, I, i-ii, 11.撒母耳的出生和奉献的主,我,I - II 11。 Misdeeds of the sons of Heli and prediction of the downfall of his house, ii, 12-36.劣迹斑斑的儿子直升机和预测,他的房子,二,12-36倒台。Samuel's call to the prophetic office; his first vision, in which the impending punishment of the house of Heli is revealed to him, iii.萨穆埃尔的预言办公室的号召,他第一次的视觉,在其中的合力房子即将处罚是向他透露,第三。 The army of Israel is defeated by the Philistines, Ophni and Phinees are slain and the ark taken; death of Heli, iv.Ophni和Phinees以色列军队打败非利士人,被杀害和方舟采取;死亡的合力,四。The ark among the Philistines; it is brought back to Bethsames and then taken to Cariathiarim, v- vii, 1.非利士人之间的约柜带回Bethsames,然后采取Cariathiarim,V - VII,1。Samuel as judge; he is instrumental in bringing the people back to the Lord and in inflicting a crushing defeat on the Philistines, vii, 2-17.塞缪尔作为法官,他是在使人们回主,造成对非利士人,七,2-17惨败。

(2) History of Saul's Government(2)历史扫罗的政府

The people demand a king; Samuel reluctantly yields to their request, viii.人民要求一个王塞缪尔勉强屈服于他们的要求,八。Saul, while seeking his father's asses, is privately annointed king by Samuel, ix-x, 16.扫罗,同时寻求父亲的驴,是私人受膏者塞缪尔王,IX - X,​​16。Samuel convokes the people at Maspha (Mizpah) to elect a king; the lot falls on Saul, but he is not acknowledged by all, x, 17-27.塞缪尔convokes Maspha(米斯巴)人民选出一位国王,很多落在扫罗,但他不承认,X,17-27。Saul defeats the Ammonite king, Naas, and opposition to him ceases, xi.扫罗击败菊王,NAAS,并反对他停止,第十一。Samuel's farewell address to the people, xii.塞缪尔的告别演说的人,十二。War against the Philistines; Saul's disobedience for which Samuel announces his rejection, xiii.对非利士人的战争;扫罗的不顺服塞缪尔宣布他的拒绝,十三。Jonathan's exploit at Machmas; he is condemned to death for an involuntary breach of his father's orders, but is pardoned at the people's prayer, xiv, 1-46.乔纳森的利用Machmas;他被判处死刑不自主违反父亲的订单,但在人们的祈祷,14,1-46赦免。Summary of Saul's wars; his family and chief commander, xiv, 47- 52.扫罗的战争的总结;他的家人和总司令,第十四条,47 - 52。War against Amalec; second disobedience and final rejection of Saul, xv.反对Amalec战争,第二次不服从和最终拒绝扫罗,十五。

(3) Saul and David(3)扫罗和大卫

David at Court大卫阁

David, the youngest son of Isai (Jesse), is anointed king at Bethlehem by Samuel, xvi, 1-33.Isai(杰西)最小的儿子,大卫,是受膏者国王在伯利恒,十六,由塞缪尔1-33。He is called to court to play before Saul and is made his armour-bearer, xvi, 14-23.他被称为法院发挥之前扫罗和他的装甲旗手,十六,14-23。David and Goliath, xvii.以弱胜强,十七。Jonathan's friendship for David and Saul's jealousy; the latter, after attempting to pierce David with his lance, urges him on with treacherous intent to a daring feat against the Philistines by promising him his daughter Michol in marriage, xviii.乔纳森的友谊后,试图与他的长矛刺穿大卫大卫和扫罗的嫉妒;后者,敦促他与一个大胆的壮举,他看好他的女儿在婚姻Michol,第十八攻击非利士人的奸诈意图。 Jonathan softens his father for a time, but, David having again distinguished himself in a war against the Philistines, the enmity is renewed, and Saul a second time attempts to kill him, xix, 1-10.乔纳森软化他的父亲,一时间,但是,大卫再次区分自己对非利士人的战争,敌意续期,扫罗一个第二次试图杀死他,十九,1-10。 Michol helps David to escape; he repairs to Samuel at Ramatha, but, seeing after Jonathan's fruitless effort at mediation that all hope of reconciliation is gone, he flees to Achis, King of Geth, stopping on the way at Nobe, where Achimelech gives him the loaves of proposition and the sword of Goliath. Michol帮助大卫,以逃避;他修理在Ramatha撒母耳,但,看到乔纳森在调解无果而终的努力,都希望和解是走了后,他出逃到Achis,国王的Geth的,停在路上在Nobe,其中Achimelech给他命题和歌利亚的剑的面包。 Being recognized at Geth he saves himself by feigning madness, xix, 11-xxi.在Geth的认可,他保存自己佯装疯狂,19,11 - XXI。

David as an Outlaw大卫作为一个奥特洛

He takes refuge in the cave of Odollam (QR88-->Adullam), and becomes the leader of a band of outlaws; he places his parents under the protection of the King of Moab.他把Odollam洞穴(QR88 - >亚杜兰)避难,并成为领导人的不法分子带;他的地方他的父母保护下,摩押王。 Saul kills Achimelech and the priests of Nobe, xxii.扫罗杀死Achimelech Nobe,22祭司。David delivers Ceila from the Philistines, but to avoid capture by Saul he retires to the desert of Ziph, where he is visited by Jonathan.大卫从非利士人提供Ceila,但要避免捕获由Saul他退休Ziph的沙漠,在那里他是由乔纳森参观。He is providentially delivered when surrounded by Saul's men, xxiii.他是天意交付扫罗的男子包围时,二十三。He spares Saul's life in a cave of the desert of Engaddi, xxiv.他不遗余力扫罗的生活在山洞Engaddi,XXIV沙漠。Death of Samuel.死亡的塞缪尔。 Episode of Nabal and Abigail; the latter becomes David's wife after her husband's death, xxv.纳巴尔和阿比盖尔的情节;后者成为大卫的妻子,她丈夫去世后,二十五。During a new pursuit, David enters Saul's camp at night and carries off his lance and cup, xxvi.在一个新的追求,大卫在夜间进入扫罗的阵营,并带走他的枪和世界杯,XXVI。He becomes a vassal of Achis, from whom he receives Siceleg (Ziklag); while pretending to raid the territory of Juda, he wars against the tribes of the south, xxvii.他成为一个Achis的附庸,他收到Siceleg(洗革拉);而假装RAID对南部,XXVII部落的犹大,他战争的领土。 New war with the Philistines; Saul's interview with the witch of Endor, xxviii.新的战争与非利士人;扫罗的ENDOR,XXVIII巫婆的采访。David accompanies the army of Achis, but his fidelity being doubted by the Philistine chiefs he is sent back.大卫伴随的Achis军队,但他的保真度被非利士人的首领怀疑他被送回。On his return he finds that Siceleg has been sacked by the Amalecites during his absence, and Abigail carried off with other prisoners; he pursues the marauders and recovers the prisoners and the booty, xxix-xxx.在他的回归,他发现Siceleg已被解雇的Amalecites在他缺席的情况下,并与其他囚犯阿比盖尔进行;他追求的掠夺者和恢复战俘和战利品,XXIX - XXX。Battle of Gelboe; death of Saul and Jonathan, xxxi.Gelboe战役;扫罗和约拿单死亡,三十一。

(4) History of the Reign of David(4)大卫王朝的历史

David at Hebron大卫在希伯伦

He hears of the death of Saul and Jonathan; his lament over them, II, i.他听见扫罗和约拿单死亡;他慨叹过他们,二,一He is anointed King of Juda at Hebron, ii, 1-7.他是受膏者国王犹大在希伯伦,二,1-7。War between David and Isboseth, or Esbaal (Ishbaal), the son of Saul, who is recognized by the other tribes, ii, 8-32.大卫和Isboseth,或Esbaal(Ishbaal),扫罗的儿子,谁是其他部落的认可,二,8-32之间的战争。 Abner, the commander of Isboseth's forces, having quarrelled with his master, submits to David and is treacherously slain by Joab, iii.押尼珥Isboseth的部队的指挥官,他的主人争吵,提交给大卫和背信弃义约押,三中被杀。 Isboseth is assassinated; David punishes the murderers and is acknowledged by all the tribes, iv-v, 5. Isboseth被暗杀;大卫惩罚凶手,并承认所有部落,IV - V,5。

David at Jerusalem大卫在耶路撒冷

Jerusalem is taken from the Jebusites and becomes the capital, v, 6-16.耶路撒冷是从耶布斯人,并成为资本,V,6-16。War with the Philistines, v, 17-25.战争与非利士人,V,17-25。The ark is solemnly carried from Cariathiarim to Sion, vi.方舟是庄严地进行,从Cariathiarim锡永,六。David thinks of building a temple; his intention, though not accepted, is rewarded with the promise that his throne will last forever, vii.大卫认为建设一个寺庙,他的意图,但没有被接受,是回报的承诺,他的王位将永远持续下去,七。Summary of the various wars waged by David, and list of his officers, viii.由大卫和他的军官名单,第八发动的历次战争的总结。 His kindness to Miphiboseth, or Meribbaal, the son of Jonathan, ix. Miphiboseth,或Meribbaal他的好意,儿子乔纳森,IX。War with Ammon and Syria, x.战争与阿蒙和叙利亚,X.

David's Family History大卫的家族史

His adultery with Bethsabee, the wife of Urias, xi.他Bethsabee,Urias,喜的妻子通奸。His repentance when the greatness of his crime is brought home to him by Nathan, xii, 1-23.他的悔改时,他的罪行的伟大之处在于他弥敦道,第十二,1-23带回家。Birth of Solomon; David is present at the taking of Rabbath, xii, 24-31.所罗门出生,大卫出席采取Rabbath,12,24-31。 Amnon ravishes Thamar, the sister of Absalom; the latter has him assassinated and flies to Gessur; through the intervention of Joab he is recalled and reconciled with his father, xiii-xiv.暗嫩ravishes Thamar,押沙龙的妹妹,后者他暗杀,飞往Gessur;约押的干预,他被召回,并与他的父亲,十三,十四不甘心。Rebellion of Absalom; David flies from Jerusalem; Siba, Miphiboseth's servant, brings him provisions and accuses his master of disloyalty; Semei curses David; Absalom goes in to his father's concubines, xv-xvi.叛乱押沙龙;大卫苍蝇;斯巴,Miphiboseth的仆人,从耶路撒冷带来了他的规定,并指责他的不忠主; Semei咒骂大卫;押沙龙在他父亲的妾,XV - XVI。Achitophel counsels immediate pursuit, but Absalom follows the advice of Chusai, David's adherent, to delay, and thus gives the fugitive king time to cross the Jordan, xvii. Achitophel律师立即追求,但押沙龙如下Chusai,大卫的贴壁的意见,延迟,从而使逃犯国王时间跨越约旦,十七。Battle of Mahanaim; Absalom is defeated and slain by Joab against the king's order, xviii.战役玛哈念,押沙龙被打败和约押对国王的命令,第十八被杀。David's intense grief, from which he is aroused by Joab's remonstrance.大卫的强烈的悲痛,他是约押的谏引起。At the passage of the Jordan he pardons Semei, receives Miphiboseth back into his good graces, and invites to court Berzellai, who had supplied provisions to the army, xix, 1-39.在约旦,他赦免Semei的推移,Miphiboseth接收到他的青睐,并请法院Berzellai,曾提供军队的规定,19,1-39。 Jealousies between Israel and Juda lead to the revolt of Seba; Amasa is commissioned to raise a levy, but, as the troops are collected too slowly, Joab and Abisai are sent with the bodyguard in pursuit of the rebels; Joab treacherously slays Amasa.以色列和犹大之间的猜忌,导致西巴起义;亚玛撒是委托,以提高征费,但是,作为部队收集太慢,约押和Abisai发送保镖在追求叛军;约押背信弃义杀害亚玛撒。 Summary of officers, xix, 40-xx.摘要人员,19,40 - XX。

(5) Appendix(5)附录

The two sons of Respha, Saul's concubine, and the five sons of Merob, Saul's daughter, are put to death by the Gabaonites, xxi, 1-14. Respha,扫罗的妾,和五个儿子,扫罗的女儿Merob的两个儿子,把死亡Gabaonites,XXI,1-14。Various exploits against the Philistines, xxi, 15-22.对非利士人,XXI,15-22的各种漏洞。David's psalm of thanksgiving (Ps. xvii), xxii.大卫的诗篇的感恩节(诗篇十七),22。His "last words", xxiii, 1-7.他的“遗言”,二十三,1-7。Enumeration of David's valiant men, xxiii, 8-39.大卫的英勇的男子,二十三,8-39枚举。The numbering of the people and the pestilence following it, xxiv.人民和瘟疫的编号,XXIV。

UNITY AND OBJECT团结和OBJECT

I-II Books of Kings never formed one work with III-IV, as was believed by the older commentators and is still maintained by some modern writers, although the consecutive numbering of the books in the Septuagint and the account of David's last days and death at the beginning of III Kings seem to lend colour to such a supposition.国王I - II期书籍从来没有形成之一III - IV级的工作,如被认为在年龄较大的评论家和是仍然保持一些现代作家,在septuagint连续虽然书籍的编号和大卫的最后天及死亡的帐户在年初三国王似乎借给这样一个假设的颜色。 The difference of plan and method pursued in the two pairs of books shows that they originally formed two distinct works.在两对书籍的追求计划和方法的差异表明,他们最初形成两个截然不同的作品。The author of III-IV gives a more or less brief sketch of each reign, and then refers his readers for further information to the source whence he has drawn his data; while the author of I-II furnishes such full and minute details, even when they are of little importance, that his work looks more like a series of biographies than a history, and, with the exception of II, i, 18, where he refers to the "Book of the Just", he never mentions his sources.III - IV级的作者给出了或多或少的每一个王朝的简短素描,然后他的读者进一步资料,他绘制了他的数据来源何处,是指,而I - II期作者furnishes充分和微小的细节,甚至当他们意义不大,他的作品看起来更像是一个比历史传记系列,除第二,我,18日,在那里他是指“的公正书”,他从来没有提到他的消息来源。 Moreover, the writer of III-IV supplies abundant chronological data.此外,III - IV级的作家提供了丰富的年代学数据。

Besides giving the length of each reign, he usually notes the age of the king at his accession and, after the division, the year of the reign of the contemporary ruler of the other kingdom; he also frequently dates particular events.除了给予每个王朝的长度,通常他注意到,在他加入国王的年龄,师后,一年的其他王国的当代统治者统治,他也经常日期特定的事件。 In the first two books, on the contrary, chronological data are so scant that it is impossible to determine the length of the period covered by them.在头两书,相反,按时间顺序的数据是如此稀少,这是不可能的,以确定他们所涵盖的期间长度。The position taken by the author of III-IV, with regard to the facts he relates, is also quite different from that of the author of the other two.III - IV级的作者,考虑到他所涉及的事实,采取的立场,也是作者的其他两个完全不同的。The former praises or blames the acts of the various rulers, especially with respect to forbidding or allowing sacrifices outside the sanctuary, while the latter rarely expresses a judgment and repeatedly records sacrifices contrary to the prescriptions of the Pentateuch without a word of censure or comment.前称赞或指责的各种统治者的行为,特别是关于禁止或允许的庇护所外的牺牲,而后者则很少表达了一种判断和反复记录牺牲相反的pentateuch的处方,没有一个字的谴责或评论。 Lastly, there is a marked difference in style between the two sets of books; the last two show decided Aramaic influence, whereas the first two belong to the best period of Hebrew literature.最后,两套书之间在风格上有一个明显的差别,近两年显示决定阿拉姆语的影响,而前两个属于希伯莱文学最好的时期。 At the most, it might be said that the first two chapters of the third book originally were part of the Book of Samuel, and were later detached by the author of the Book of Kings to serve as an introduction to the history of Solomon; but even this is doubtful.充其量,它可能会说,最初是第三册的前两个章节塞缪尔书的一部分,后来由国王作为所罗门的历史介绍的图书的作者分离,但甚至,这是值得怀疑的。 These chapters are not required by the object which the author of the Book of Samuel had in view, and the work is a complete whole without them.这些章节是不是必需的图书的作者塞缪尔鉴于对象,工作是一个完整的整体没有他们。 Besides, the summary, II, xx, 23-26, sufficiently marks the conclusion of the history of David.此外,总结,二,XX,23-26,充分标志着大卫的历史结论。In any case these two chapters are so closely connected with the following that they must have belonged to the Book of Kings from its very beginning.在任何情况下,这两章是如此紧密相连,他们必须从一开始就属于国王书以下。

The general subject of I-II Kings is the foundation and development of the Kingdom of Israel, the history of Samuel being merely a preliminary section intended to explain the circumstances which brought about the establishment of the royal form of government.一般的I - II国王的主题是以色列,英国,塞缪尔正在只是一个初步节旨在解释的情况下,皇家的政府形式的建立,使历史的基础和发展。On closer examination of the contents, however, it is seen that the author is guided by a leading idea in the choice of his matter, and that his main object is not to give a history of the first two kings of Israel, but to relate the providential foundation of a permanent royal dynasty in the family of David.然而,在仔细检查的内容,可见,作者是在选择他的问题的一个主导思想的指导下,和他的主要目的是不给前两个以色列诸王的历史,而是要与的一个永久性的家庭在大卫王朝的天赐基础。 This strikingly appears in the account of Saul's reign, which may be summarized in the words: elected, found wanting, and rejected in favour of David.这惊人地出现在扫罗的统治,这可能是概括的话帐户​​:当选后,发现自己的不足,并有利于大卫拒绝。The detailed history of the struggle between David and Saul and his house is plainly intended to show how David, the chosen of the Lord, was providentially preserved amid many imminent dangers and how he ultimately triumphed, while Saul perished with his house.详细询问病史大卫和扫罗和他的房子之间的斗争显然是意在表明如何大卫,主的选择,是天意保存中许多迫在眉睫的危险,他最终取得了胜利,而扫罗与他的房子中丧生。 The early events of David's rule over united Israel are told in few words, even such an important fact as the capture of Jerusalem being little insisted on, but his zeal for God's worship and its reward in the solemn promise that his throne would last forever (II, vii, 11-16) are related in full detail.大卫的统治对美国以色列的早期事件是说很少的话,即使这样一个在耶路撒冷的捕获正在一点坚持对重要事实,但他的神的崇拜和它的庄严承诺,他的王位会最后永远奖励的热情( II,VII,11-16)相关的全部细节。The remaining chapters tell how, in pursuance of this promise, God helps him to extend and consolidate his kingdom, and does not abandon him even after his great crime, though he punishes him in his tenderest feelings.其余各章告诉如何,根据这项承诺,上帝帮助他扩大和巩固了他的王国,并没有放弃他即使在他伟大的犯罪,虽然他在他的温柔的感情来惩罚他。 The conclusion shows him in peaceful possession of the throne after two dangerous rebellions.结论表明他在和平占有两个危险叛乱后宝座。The whole story is thus built around a central idea and reaches its climax in the Messianic promise, II, vii, 11 sqq.因此,整个故事是围绕着一个中心思想,并达到高潮救世主的承诺,二,七,11 SQQ。Besides this main object a secondary one may be observed, which is to convey to king and people the lesson that to obtain God's protection they must observe His commands.除了这个主要对象中一可观察到,这是传达给国王和人民的教训,以获得神的保护,他们必须遵守他的命令。

AUTHOR AND DATE作者和日期

The Talmud attributes to Samuel the whole work bearing his name; this strange opinion was later adopted by St. Gregory the Great, who naïvely persuaded himself that Samuel wrote the events which occurred after his death by prophetic revelation.犹太法典属性塞缪尔整个工作,他的名字命名这个陌生的意见,后来通过圣格雷戈里太好了,天真地说服自己,塞缪尔写的事件发生后,他的死亡预言的启示。 Rabbinical tradition and most of the older Christian writers ascribe to this prophet the part referring to his time (I, i-xxiv), the rest to the Prophets Gad and Nathan.犹太教的传统和最旧的基督教作家赋予这个先知的一部分,指的是他的时间(我,我二十四),其余的先知盖德及弥敦道。 This view is evidently based on I Par., xxix, 29, "Now the acts of king David first and last are written in the book of Samuel the seer, and in the book of Nathan the prophet, and in the book of Gad the seer."这种观点显然是我票的基础上,XXIX,29,“现在的行为大卫王第一个和最后都写在先见撒母耳的书,并在书的弥敦道先知,和迦得的书先见。“ But the wording of the text indicates that there is question of three distinct works.但文本的措辞表明,有三个不同的工程问题。Besides, the unity of plan and the close connection between the different parts exclude composite authorship; we must at least admit a redactor who combined the three narratives.此外,计划的不同部分之间的紧密联系的统一排除复合著作权,我们至少要承认一个redactor谁合并三个叙述。 This redactor, according to Hummelauer, is the prophet Nathan; the work, however, can hardly be placed so early.这redactor的,根据胡梅劳尔,先知拿单的工作,但是,几乎可以被放置在这么早。Others attribute it to Isaias, Jeremias, Ezechias, or Esdras.其他属性伊萨亚,赫雷米亚斯,埃泽希亚什,或埃斯德拉斯。None of these opinions rests on any solid ground, and we can only say that the author is unknown.这些意见都没有掌握任何坚实的基础上,我们只能说,作者不详。The same diversity of opinion exists as to the date of composition.相同的意见多样性的存在组成的日期。Hummelauer assigns it to the last days of David.胡梅劳尔将其分配给大卫的最后几天。Vigouroux, Cornely, Lesêtre, and Thenius place it under Roboam; Kaulen, under Abiam the son of Roboam; Haevernick, not long after David, Ewald, some thirty years after Solomon; Clair, between the death of David and the destruction of the Kingdom of Juda. Vigouroux,Cornely,Lesêtre,Thenius置于Roboam;考伦,下Abiam的儿子Roboam; Haevernick后不久,大卫,所罗门了约30年后,埃瓦尔德;月光,大卫的死亡和破坏王国之间犹大。According to recent critics it belongs to the seventh century, but received retouches as late as the fifth or even the fourth century.根据最近的批评,它属于公元七世纪,但收到retouches作为第五个甚至第四世纪后期。No sufficient data are at hand to fix a precise date.手头没有足够的数据修复的确切日期。We can, however, assign cedrtain limits of time within which the work must have been composed.然而,我们可以指定cedrtain的时间限制内的工作必须已经组成。The explanation concerning the dress of the king's daughters in David's time (II, xiii, 18) supposes that a considerable period had elapsed in the interval, and points to a date later than Solomon, during whose reign a change in the style of dress was most likely introduced by his foreign wives.关于礼服在大卫的时间王的女儿(第二,第十三,18)的解释假设,相当一个时期已过的时间间隔,和点的日期比所罗门在其统治的着装风格改变了,最有可能引进他的外籍妻子。 How much later is indicated by the remark: "For which reason Siceleg belongeth to the kings of Juda unto this day."多少后来表示这句话:“对于Siceleg belongeth到犹大诸王所不欲,这一天的原因。”(I, xxvii, 6).(一,二十七,6)。 The expression kings of Juda implies that at the time of writing the Kingdom of Israel had been divided, and that at least two or three kings had reigned over Juda alone.犹大表达国王意味着,在写作以色列王国时已分割,至少有两个或三个国王在位仅比犹大。The earliest date cannot, therefore, be placed berfore the reign of Abiam.的最早日期,因此不能放在berfore Abiam统治。 The latest date, on the other hand, must be assigned to a time prior to Josias's reform (621 BC).最新的日期,另一方面,必须分配时间之前Josias的改革(公元前621)。As has been remarked, the author repeatedly records without censure or comment violations of the Pentateuchal law regarding sacrifices.正如已经指出,作者多次记录没有关于牺牲的Pentateuchal法律的责难或评论侵犯。 Now it is not likely that he would have acted thus if he had written after these practices had been abolished and their unlawfulness impressed on the people, since at this time his readers would have taken scandal at the violation of the Law by such a person as Samuel, and at the toleration of unlawful rites by a king like David.现在是不太可能的,他会采取行动,因此,如果他写的这些做法后,已取消和这样的人,他们不合法的人民留下深刻印象,因为此时他的读者会采取违法的丑闻塞缪尔,并在容忍非法仪式由国王像大卫。 The force of this reason will be seen if we consider how the author of II-IV Kings, who wrote after Josias's reform, censures every departure from the Law in this respect or, as in 1 Kings 3:2, explains it.如果我们考虑如何II - IV国王Josias的改革后,谁写的,指责在这方面,每一个从“出发,或作者在国王队3时02分,解释这个原因的力量将被视为。The purity of language speaks for an early rather than a late date within the above limits.谈到上述范围内的一个晚的日期,而不是​​早期语言的纯洁性。The appendix, however, may possibly be due to a somewhat later hand.然而,阑尾,可能是由于一个有点迟手。Moreover, additions by a subsequent inspired revisor may be admitted without difficulty.此外,随后的启发revisor的增加可能会被录取,而不会有任何困难。

SOURCES来源

It is now universally recognized that the author of I-II Kings made use of written documents in composing his work.现在人们普遍认识到的I - II国王作者在撰写他的工作使用的书面文件。One such document, "The Book of the Just", is mentioned in connection with David's lament over Saul and Jonathan (II, i, 18).一个这样的文件,“中提到的公正书”,是大卫对扫罗和约拿单的感叹(II,I,18)。The canticle of Anna (I, ii, 1-10), David's hymn of thanksgiving (II, 22:2-51; cf. Psalm 17), and his "last words" were very probably also drawn from a written source.颂歌安娜(I,II,1-10),大卫的感恩赞歌(二22:2-51;比照诗篇17),和他的“遗言”,很可能也来自书面来源。 But besides these minor sources, the writer must have had at hand, at least for the history of David, a document containing much of the historical matter which he narrates.但除了这些未成年人的来源,,作家必须有在手,至少大卫,他叙述的历史问题,一个文件,其中载有历史。This we infer from the passages common to I-II Kings and the First Book of Paralipomenon (Chronicles), which are shown in the following list:–这是我们常见的I - II期国王和第一本书的Paralipomenon(编年史),这是在下面的列表所示:从段落推断 -

I K., xxxi II K., iii, 2-5 v, 1-10 v, 11-25 vi, 1-11 vi, 12-23我K.,三十一光二,三,2-5 v,v 1-10,11-25六,1-11六,12-23

viiI Par., x, 1-12 iii, 1-4 xi, 1-9 xiv, 1-16 xiii, 1-14 xv, 25-29 xvi, 1-3, 43 xviiI K., viii x,1-xi, 1 xii, 26-31 xxi, 18-22 xxiii, 8-39 xxiv八杆,X,1-12第三,1-4 XI,1-9 XIV,1-16第十三1-14第十五,十六25-29,1-3,43 XVIII光,第八x,1。 - 十一,1第十二,26-31 XXI,18-22 XXIII,8-39 XXIV

I Par., xviii xix, 1-xx.我票,十八19,1 - XX。1 xx, 1-3 xx, 4-8 xi, 10-46 xxi 1 XX 1-3 10-46 4-8席,XX,XXI

Although these passages often agree word for word, the differences are such that the author of Paralipomenon, the later writer, cannot be said to have copied from I-II Kings, and we must conclude that both authors made use of the same document.虽然这些通道往往同意逐字逐句的差异等,作者的Paralipomenon,后来的作家,不能说有复制从I - II国王,我们必须得出结论,两位作者都使用相同的文件。This seems to have been an official record of important public events and of matters pertaining to the administration, such as was probably kept by the court "recorder" (2 Samuel 8:16; 20:24), and is very likely the same as the "Chronicles of King David" (1 Chronicles 27:24).这似乎一直是重要的公共活动和有关当局的事项,如可能是由法院保持“录音机”(2塞缪尔8时16分,20时24分),正式记录的,而且很可能相同“大卫王的编年史”(历代志上27:24)。 To this document we may add three others mentioned in I Par.本文件,我们可以添加其他三个我票中提到。(xxix, 29) as sources of information for the history of David, namely, the "Book of Samuel", the "Book of Gad", and the "Book of Nathan".(二十九29),大卫的历史,即“塞缪尔书”,“迦书”,和“弥敦道书”的信息来源。 These were works of the three Prophets, as we gather from II Par., ix, 29; xii, 15; xx, 34, etc.; and our author would hardly neglect writings recommended by such names.这三个先知的作品,因为我们从第二杆收集,第九,第29条;第十二,15,XX,34,等;和我们的作者将很难忽视这样的名称建议的著作。 Samuel very probably furnished the matter for his own history and for part of Saul's; Gad, David's companion in exile, the details of that part of David's life, as well as of his early days as king; and Nathan, information concerning the latter part, or even the whole, of his reign.萨穆埃尔很可能布置为自己的历史和扫罗的问题;盖德,大卫的同伴在流亡中,大卫的生活的部分细节,以及作为国王他的早期天及弥敦道,后半部的信息,甚至整体而言,他的统治。 Thus between them they would have fairly covered the period treated of, if, indeed, their narratives did not partially overlap.之间因而他们会相当的覆盖治疗期间,事实上,如果他们的叙述没有部分重叠。Besides these four documents other sources may occasionally have been used.除了这四个文件其他来源可能偶尔有被使用。A comparison of the passages of I-II Kings and I Par.一个比较的I - II国王和我票的通道。given in the list above shows further that both writers frequently transferred their source to their own pages with but few changes; for, since one did not copy from the other, the agreement between them cannot be explained except on the supposition that they more or less reproduce the same document.鉴于上述列表中显示进一步,都是作家经常转移它们的来源他们自己的网页,但很少变化;为,自之一并没有复制其他,它们之间的协议不能除的假设解释他们或多或少复制相同的文件。 We have therefore reason to believe that our author followed the same course in other cases, but to what extent we have no means of determining.因此,我们有理由相信,我们的作者在其他情况下的同一门课程,但到什么程度,我们没有确定的一种手段。

THE CRITICAL THEORY批判理论

According to recent critics, I-II Kings is nothing but a compilation of different narratives so unskillfully combined that they may be separated with comparative ease.据最近的批评,我的第二国王只不过是一个编译unskillfully结合,他们可能会比较容易地分离不同的叙事。In spite of this comparative ease in distinguishing the different elements, the critics are not agreed as to the number of sources, nor as to the particular souce to which certain passages are to be ascribed.尽管这种区分不同的元素比较容易,批评者不同意源的数量,也以特定的烃源的某些段落要冲高。At present the Wellhausen-Budde theory is accepted, at least in its main outlines, by nearly the whole critical school.目前豪森布德理论被接受的,至少在其主要轮廓,几乎整个批判学派。According to this theory, II, ix-xx, forms one document, which is practically contemporary with the events described; the rest (excluding the appendix) is chiefly made up of two writings, an older one, J, of the ninth century, and a later one, E, of the end of the eighth or the beginning of the seventh century.根据这一理论,二,IX - XX,形成一个文件,这实际上是当代与事件的描述;(不包括附件),其余主要是由两个著作,一个旧的,歼第九世纪,以后,电子,第八或第七世纪初结束。 They are designated J and E, because they are either due to the authors of the Jahwist and Elohist documents of the Hexateuch, or to writers belonging to the same schools.他们是J和E,因为它们要么由于Jahwist和Elohist文件的Hexateuch的作者,或属于同一所学校的作家。 Both J and E underwent modifications by a revisor, J² and E² respectively, and after being welded together by a redactor, RJE, were edited by a writer of the Deuteronomic school, RD. J和E都进行了修改由revisor,歼²和个人平方米,分别和一个redactor的,RJE焊接在一起后,是由一个作家的Deuteronomic学校,RD编辑。 After this redaction some further additions were made, among them the appendix.在此之后节录一些进一步增加,其中的附录。 The different elements are thus divided by Budde:–因此,不同的元素分为布德: -

J.–I, ix, 1-x, 7, 9-16; xi, 1-11, 15; xiii, 1-7a, 15b-18; xiv, 1-46, 52; xvi, 14-23; xviii, 5-6, 11, 20-30; xx, 1-10, 18-39, 42b; xxii, 1-4, 6-18, 20-23; xxiii, 1-14a; xxvi; xxvii; xxix-xxxi.J. - I,IX,1 - X,​​7,9-16;十一,1月11日,15日;第十三,1 - 7A,15B - 18;十四,1-46,52;十六,14-23;第十八5-6,11,20-30; XX,1-10,18-39,42B,22,1-4,6-18,20-23; XXIII,1 - 14A; XXVI; XXVII; XXIX XXXI 。II, i, 1-4, 11-12, 17-27; ii, 1-9, 10b, 12-32; iii; iv; v, 1-3, 6-10, 17-25; vi; ix-xi; xii, 1-9, 13-30, xiii-xx, 22.第二,我,1-4,11-12,17-27;第二,1-9,10B,12-32;第三; IV,V,1-3,6-10,17-25;六; IX -第十一,第十二,1-9,13-30,第十三- XX,22。J².–I, x, 8; xiii, 7b- 15a, 19-22.J平方米.-我,X,8;第十三7B - 15A,19日至22日。

E.–I, iv, 1b-vii, 1; xv, 2-34; xvii, 1-11, 14-58; xviii, 1-4, 13-29; xix, 1, 4-6, 8-17; xxi, 1- 9; xxi, 19; xxii, 19-xxiv, 19; xxv; xxviii.,四,五,我1B - VII,1;十五,2-34;十七,1-11,14-58;十八,1-4,13-29;十九,1,4-6,8-17 XXI,1 - 9; XXI,19,19 22,19 - XXIV XXV; XXVIII。II, i, 6-10, 13-16; vii.第二,我,6-10,13-16;第七。E².–I, i, 1-28; ii, 11- 22a, 23-26; iii, 1-iv, 1a; vii, 2-viii, 22; x, 17-24; xii.E ² .-我,我,1-28;二,11 - 22A,23日至26日;三,1 - IV,1A;第七,2 - VIII,22,X,17-24;第十二。

RJE.–I, x, 25-27; xi, 12-14; xv, 1; xviii, 21b; xix, 2-3, 7; xx, 11-17, 40-42a; xxii, 10b; xxiii, 14b-18; xxiv, 16, 20-22a.RJE. - I,X 25日至27日,十一,12-14;第十五,十八,21B;第十九2-3,7,XX,11-17,40 - 42A,10B XXII XXIII,14B -18,24,16,20 - 22A。II, i, 5.第二,我5。RD.–1, iv, 18 (last clause); vii, 2; xiii, 1; xiv, 47-51; xxviii, 3.路 - 1,IV,18(最后一句);第七,2;十三,1;十四,47-51;二十八,3。II, ii, 10a, 11; v, 4-5; viii; xii, 10-12.II,II,10A,11 V,4-5;第八,第十二,10-12。

Additions of a later editor.–I, iv, 15, 22; vi, 11b, 15, 17-29; xi, 8b; xv, 4; xxiv, 14; xxx, 5.我以后editor.四,15,22;六,11B,15,17-29;第十一,8B;十五,4; XXIV,14,XXX,5添置。 II, iii, 30; v, 6b, 7b, 8b; xv, 24; xx, 25- 26.30 II,III,V,6B,7B,8B,XV,24,XX,25 - 26。

Latest additions.–I, ii, 1-10, 22b; xvi, 1-13; xvii, 12-13; xix, 18-24; xx, 10-15; xxii, 5.最新additions. - I,II,1-10,22B; 1-13十六,十七,12-13;十九18-24; XX,10-15; XXII,5。II, xiv, 26; xxi-xxiv.二,第十四条,26条; XXI - XXIV。

This minute division, by which even short clauses are to a nicety apportioned to their proper sources, is based on the following grounds.这一分钟的分工,甚至短期条款是一个精密分摊到其应有的来源,是基于以下的理由。(1) There are duplicate narratives giving a different or even a contradictory presentation of the same event.(1)有重复叙述,给人一种不同的,甚至对同一事件的矛盾演示。There are two accounts of Saul's election (I, viii, 1-xi), of his rejection (xiii, 1-14 and xv), of his death (I, xxxi, 1 sqq., and II, i, 4 sqq.), of his attempt to pierce David (I, xxiii, 10-11, and xix, 9-10d).有两个帐户扫罗的选举(第一,第八,1席),(十三,1-14和XV)他拒绝对他的死亡,(我,三十一,1 SQQ,和第二,我4 SQQ。 ),他的企图大卫皮尔斯(10-11,二十三,我和第十九条,9 - 10D)。There are also two accounts of David's introduction to Saul (I, xvi, 14 sqq. and xvii, 55-58), of his flight from court (xix, 10 sqq., and xxi, 10), of his taking refuge with Achis (xxi, 10 sqq., and xxvii, 1 sqq.), of his sparing Saul's life (xxiv, and xxvi).也有两本账,他从法院的飞行(十九,10 SQQ。XXI,10),大卫扫罗的介绍(55-58)我,十六,14 SQQ和第十七条,的,他与Achis避难(XXI,​​10 SQQ。,和二十七,1 SQQ。),他不遗余力扫罗的生活(24,和XXVI)号决议。 Lastly, there are two accounts of the origin of the proverb: "Is Saul too among the prophets?"最后,有两个帐户的谚语的起源:“扫罗先知吗?”(x, 12; xix, 24). (X,12,19,24)。Some of these double narratives are not only different, but contradictory.这种双重叙述不仅是不同的,但矛盾。In one account of Saul's election the people demand a king, because they are dissatisfied with the sons of Samuel; the prophet manifests great displeasure and tries to turn them from their purpose; he yields, however, and Saul is chosen by lot.在扫罗的选举帐户中,人民要求一个国王,因为他们的儿子塞缪尔不满;先知体现了很大的不满,并试图把他们从他们的目的;他的产量,不过,和扫罗是通过抽签决定。 In the other, Samuel shows no aversion to the kingdom; he privately anoints Saul at God's command that he may deliver Israel from the Philistines; Saul is proclaimed king only after, and in reward of his victory over the Ammonite king, Naas.在其他塞缪尔没有厌恶王国,他私下anoints扫罗在上帝的命令,他可能会提供以色列从非利士人;扫罗宣布国王后,他在菊王,NAAS的胜利奖励。 According to one version of Saul's death, he killed himself by falling on his sword; according to the other, he was slain at his own request by an Amalecite.据扫罗的死的一个版本,他杀害了自己落在他的剑;根据其他,他是在他自己Amalecite要求被杀害。Again, in xvi, David, then arrived at full manhood and experienced in warfare, is called to court to play before Saul and is made his armour-bearer, and yet in the very next chapter he appears as a shepherd lad unused to arms and unknown both to Saul and to Abner.再次,在第十六,大卫随后赶到充分气概和在战争中所经历,被称为向法院发挥之前扫罗和他的装甲旗手,但在下一章中,他作为一个牧羊人的小伙子出现未使用的武器和未知既扫罗和对押尼珥。 Moreover, there are statements at variance with one another.此外,报表与另一个有差异。In I, vii, 33, it is stated that "the Philistines . . . did not come any more into the borders of Israel . . . all the days of Samuel"; while in ix, 16, Saul is elected king to deliver Israel from them, and in xiii a Philistine invasion is described.在我七,33,它是说:“非利士人没有进入以色列境内的任何所有的萨穆埃尔的日子。。。”,而16日,在第九,扫罗当选王向以色列提供从他们,并在第十三非利士人入侵描述。 In I, vii, 15, Samuel is said to have judged Israel all the days of his life, though in his old age he delegated his powers to his sons (viii, 1), and after the election of Saul solemnly laid down his office (xii).在我七,15,塞缪尔说,判断以色列所有他的生活的日子,虽然在他的晚年,他授予他的权力给他的儿子(八,1),和扫罗的选举后,郑重地放下他的办公室(十二)。 Finally, in I, xv, 35, Samuel is said never to have seen Saul again, and yet in xix, 24, Saul appears before him.最后,在我35岁的第十五,塞缪尔说从来没有看到扫罗再次,但在十九,24,扫罗在他面前出现。All this shows that two narratives, often differing in their presentation of the facts, have been combined, the differences in some cases being left unharmonized.两个叙述,往往在其提出的事实的不同,已被合并的这一切都表明,在某些情况下被左unharmonized的差异。 (2) Certain passages present religious conceptions belonging to a later age, and must therefore be ascribed to a later writer, who viewed the events of past times in the light of the religious ideas of his own. (2)某些段落,目前属于一个年龄较晚的宗教观念,因此必须冲高到以后的作家,谁认为在自己的宗教思想的过去时代的事件。A difference of literary style can also be detected in the different parts of the work.文学风格的差异,也可以检测到在工作的不同部分。If all this were true, the theory of the critics would have to be admitted.如果这一切是真实的,批评的理论都必须承认。In that case much of I-II Kings would have but little historical value.在这种情况下的I - II国王,但历史价值不大。The argument from the religious conceptions assumes the truth of Wellhausen's theory on the evolution of the religion of Israel; while that from literary style is reduced to a list of words and expressions most of which must have been part of the current speech, and for this reason could not have been the exclusive property of any writer.的宗教观念的论点假定豪森的以色列的宗教演变理论的真理;而从文学风格是减少的话和其中大多数必须有被电流讲话的一部分表达式列表,并为这原因可能不会有任何作家的独家财产。 The whole theory, therefore, rests on the argument from double narratives and contradictions.整个理论,因此,由双重叙述和矛盾的论点。As this seems very plausible, and presents some real difficulties, it demands an examination.由于这似乎很有道理,并提出了一些实际困难,它要求的考试。

DOUBLETS AND CONTRADICTIONS双峰和矛盾

Some of the narratives said to be doublets, while having a general resemblance, differ in every detail.一些叙述说,双峰,而一般的相似,不同的每一个细节。This is the case with the two accounts of Saul's disobedience and rejection, with the two narratives of David's sparing Saul's life, and of his seeking refuge with Achis.这是与扫罗的不服从和排斥的两个帐户,与大卫饶扫罗的生活,以及他与Achis寻求避难的两个叙述,一样。Such narratives cannot be identified, unless the improbability of the events occurring as related be shown.这些说明不能确定,相关的证明,除非发生的事件是不可能的。But is it improbable that Saul should on two different occasions have disregarded Samuel's directions and that the latter should repeat with greater emphasis the announcement of his rejection?但它是不可能扫罗应在两个不同场合无视塞缪尔的指示,后者应更加重视重复他拒绝公布?Or that in the game of hide-and-seek among the mountains David should have twice succeeded in getting near the person of Saul and should on both occasions have refrained from harming him?或者说,在游戏的隐藏和争取山区大卫在扫罗的人越来越近,应避免伤害他两次都应该有两次成功的呢?Or that under changed conditions he should have entered into negotiations with Achis and become his vassal?或者在变化的条件下,他应该已经进入到与Achis谈判,并成为他的附庸?Even where the circumstances are the same, we cannot at once pronounce the narratives to be only different accounts of the same occurrence.即使在这种情况下是相同的,我们不能发音一次叙述同一事件不同的帐户。It is not at all strange that Saul in his insane moods should twice have attempted to spear David, or that the loyal Ziphites should twice have betrayed to Saul David's whereabouts.这是不奇怪的,在他的疯狂情绪扫罗两次曾试图矛大卫,或忠诚Ziphites应两次背叛了扫罗大卫的下落。 The two accounts of Saul among the prophets at first sight seem to be real doublets, not so much because the two narratives are alike, for they differ considerably, as because both incidents seem to be given as the origin of the proverb: "Is Saul too among the prophets?"扫罗的两个帐户之间一见钟情的先知似乎是真正的双峰,没有那么多,因为两个叙述的都是一样的,因为他们相差很大,就因为这两起事件似乎是谚语的起源:“是扫罗太之间的先知吗?“ The first, however, is alone said to have given rise to the proverb.第一,然而,仅表示,已引起谚语。The expression used in the other case–"Wherefore they say, Is Saul also among the prophets?"–does not necessarily imply that the proverb did not exist before, but may be understood to say that it then became popular.用于表达式的其他情况下,“所以他们说,扫罗也列在先知?”并不一定意味着谚语之前并不存在,但可能会被理解为说,它则成了流行。 The translation of the Vulgate, "Unde et exivit proverbium", is misleading.翻译的武加大,“Unde等exivit proverbium”,是一种误导。There is no double mention of David's flight from court.有没有提到大卫的飞行从法院的双重。When in xxi, 10, he is said to have fled from the face of Saul, nothing more is affirmed than that he fled to avoid being taken by Saul, the meaning of the expression "to flee from the face of" being to flee for fear of some one. XXI,10时,他说已经逃离面对扫罗,仅此而已,肯定比他逃离,以避免被扫罗采取的表达“逃离面对”正在逃离的意思有人害怕。The double narrative of Saul's election is obtained by tearing asunder parts which complement and explain one another.扫罗的选举中获得双重叙事撕裂四分五裂部分补充和解释。Many a true story thus handled will yield the same results.许多因此处理一个真实的故事会产生相同的结果。The story as it stands is natural and well connected.的故事,因为它是自然的,以及连接。The people, disgusted at the conduct of the sons of Samuel, and feeling that a strong central government would be an advantage for the defence of the country, request a king.人,塞缪尔的儿子的行为反感,而且感觉是一个强大的中央政府,将是一个国家的国防,请求国王的优势。Samuel receives the request with displeasure, but yields at God's command and appoints the time and place for the election.塞缪尔收到的要求与不满,但产量在上帝的命令,并任命为选举的时间和地点。In the meanwhile he anoints Saul, who is later designated by lot and acclaimed king.在此期间,他anoints扫罗,谁是后来被很多著名的国王指定。All, however, did not recognize him.然而,所有没认出他来。Influential persons belonging to the larger tribes were very likely piqued that an unknown man of the smallest tribe should have been chosen.属于较大的部落有影响力的人很可能激起一个陌生男子的最小部落应已选定。Under the circumstances Saul wisely delayed assuming royal power till a favourable opportunity presented itself, which came a month later, when Naas besieged Jabes.扫罗在这种情况下明智地推迟,直到提出本身的有利时机,里面传来一个月后,当NAAS围攻Jabes假设王权。It is objected, indeed, that, since the Jabesites did not send a message to Saul in their pressing danger, chap.的确,这是反对,因为在Jabesites没有派出他们的紧迫的危险的消息扫罗,第一章。xi, 4 sq., must have belonged to an account in which Saul had not yet been proclaimed king, whence a double narrative is clearly indicated.十一,4平方米,必须有属于扫罗尚未被宣布为国王,何处双重叙事清楚地表明的帐户。But even if the Jabesites had sent no message, the fact would have no significance, since Saul had not received universal recognition; nothing, however, warrants us to read such a meaning into the text.但即使Jabesites发送任何消息,其实就没有意义,因为扫罗没有得到普遍承认;无关,但是,认股权证我们看这样一个进入文本的意义。 At all events, Saul on hearing the news immediately exercised royal power by threatening with severe punishment anyone who would not follow him.在所有的事件,对听证会立即行使严​​厉的惩罚任何人,谁也不会跟着他威胁王权的新闻扫罗。Difficulties, it is true, exist as to some particulars, but difficulties are found also in the theory of a double account.困难,这是事实存在的一些细节,但困难还发现,在双帐户的理论。The two accounts of Saul's death are really contradictory; but only one is the historian's; the other is the story told by the Amalecite who brought to David the news of Saul's death, and nothing indicates that the writer intends to relate it as true.扫罗的死亡的两个帐户是真的矛盾,但只有一个是历史学家的,其他是故事的Amalecite谁带来了对大卫扫罗的死亡的消息告诉,并没有什么表示,作家有意以与为真,。 We need have little hesitation in pronouncing it a fabrication of the Amalecite.我们需要在宣告它制造的Amalecite有点犹豫。Lying to promote one's interests is not unusual, and the hope of winning David's favour was a sufficient inducement for the man to invent his story.卧,以促进自己的利益,是不寻常,希望赢得大卫的青睐,是一个男人发明了他的故事足够的诱因。

With regard to the apparent contradiction between xvi, 14-23, and xvii, it should be remarked that the Vatican (B) and a few other manuscripts of the Septuagint omit xvii, 12-31 and xvii, 55-xviii, 5.关于十六世,14日至23日,第十七之间明显的矛盾,应该说,梵蒂冈(二)和其他一些手稿的译本省略十七,12-31和第十七条,55十八,5。 This form of the text is held to be the more original, not only by some conservative writers, but by such critics as Cornill, Stade, WR Smith, and HP Smith.举行这种形式的文字更原始,不仅一些保守的作家,但作为Cornill,体育场,西铁的史密斯,史密斯和惠普等批评。 But though this text, if it were certain, would lessen the difficulty, it would not entirely remove it, as David still appears as a boy unused to arms.不过,虽然这段文字,如果它是一定的,减轻困难,但不会完全删除它,因为大卫仍然是一个未使用的武器的男孩出现。The apparent contradiction disappears if we take xvi, 14-23, to be out of its chronological place, a common enough occurrence in the historical books both of the Old and of the New Testament.明显的矛盾消失,如果我们把十六世,14日至23日,其实际的地方,一个共同的足够发生在旧和新约的历史书籍。 The reason of the inversion seems to be in the desire of the author to bring out the contrast between David, upon whom the spirit of the Lord came from the day of his anointing, and Saul, who was thenceforth deserted by the spirit of the Lord, and troubled by an evil spirit.反转的原因似乎是作者带出大卫之间的对比的愿望后,其中主的精神,来自他的恩膏一天,和扫罗,此后谁是主的精神冷清,和一个邪恶的精神困扰。 Or it may be due to the fact that with xvii the author begins to follow a new source.或者它可能是由于这样的事实,与十七作者开始按照新的源。This supposition would explain the repetition of some details concerning David's family, if xvii, 17-21, is original.这个假设可以解释一些关于大卫的家庭,17,17日至21日,是原的细节的重复。According to the real sequence of events, David after his victory over Goliath returned home, and later, having been recommended by one who was aware of his musical skill, he was called to court and permanently attached to the person of Saul.大卫根据真实的事件序列,他对巨人的胜利后回到家里,和以后,有一个人知道他的音乐技巧的建议,他呼吁法院和永久连接到扫罗的人。 This explanation might seem inadmissible, because it is said (xviii, 2) that "Saul took him that day, and would not let him return to his father's house."这样的解释似乎不予受理,因为它是说(十八,2)扫罗说:“把他那一天,不会让他回到他父亲的家。”But as "on that day" is often used in a loose way, it need not be taken to refer to the day on which David slew Goliath, and room will thus be left for the incident related in xvi, 14-23.但“那一天”,往往是在一个松散的方式使用,它不需要采取指大卫摆巨人,和房间14-23十六,在相关的事件将因此离开的一天。 It is not true, therefore, that it is impossible to reconcile the two accounts, as is asserted.这是不正确的,因此,它是无法调和的两个帐户,作为被断言。The so-called contradictory statements may also be satisfactorily explained.所谓的相互矛盾的陈述,也可能是令人满意的解释。As vii is a summary of Samuel's administration, the words "the Philistines . . . did not come any more into the borders of Israel" must be taken to refer only to Samuel's term of office, and not to his whole lifetime; they do not, therefore, stand in contradiction with xiii, where an incursion during the reign of Saul is described.由于七是塞缪尔的行政摘要,的话“。。。非利士人没有来任何进入以色列境内”必须是采取仅指Samuel的长期办公,并没有他的整个一生;他们不因此,站在第十三,扫罗统治期间的入侵描述相矛盾。 Besides, it is not said that there were no further wars with the Philistines; the following clause: "And the hand of the Lord was against the Philistines, all the days of Samuel", rather supposes the contrary.此外,它是不是说,有没有进一步的战争与非利士人;以下条款:“耶和华的手攻击非利士人,所有的萨穆埃尔的日子”,而假设相反。 There were wars, indeed, but the Philistines were always defeated and never succeeded in gaining a foothold in the country.的确,有战争,但总是打败非利士人,从来没有成功地获得了在全国立足。Still they remained dangerous neighbours, who might attack Israel at any moment.尽管如此,他们仍然是危险的邻居,随时可能袭击以色列。Hence it could well be said of Saul, "He shall save my people out of the hands of the Philistines" (ix, 16), which expression does not necessarily connote that they were under the power of the Philistines.因此,它可以被扫罗说,“他要救我的人,非利士人的手”(九,16),表达并不一定意味着,他们在非利士人的力量。 Ch.CH。xiii, 19-21, which seems to indicate that the Philistines were occupying the country at the time of Saul's election, is generally acknowledged to be misplaced.十三,19日至21日,这似乎表明,非利士人占领了扫罗的选举时间的国家,是公认的错位。Further, when Samuel delegated his powers to his sons, he still retained his office, and when he did resign it, after the election of Saul, he continued to advise and reprove both king and people (cf. I, xii, 23); he can therefore be truly said to have judged Israel all the days of his life.此外,当塞缪尔授予他的权力给他的儿子,他仍保留了他的办公室,而当他没有辞职,扫罗的选举后,他继续提供意见和谴责国王和人民(参见我,12,23);他因此可以说真正判断以色列所有他的生活的日子。 The last contradiction, which Budde declares to be inexplicable, rests on a mere quibble about the verb "to see".布德宣布莫名,最后的矛盾,由有关的动词“看”的单纯的狡辩。The context shows clearly enought that when the writer states that "Samuel saw Saul no more till the day of his death" (xv, 35), he means to say that Samuel had no further dealings with Saul, and not that he never beheld him again with his eyes.上下文清楚地表明,当作家塞缪尔说:“直到他死亡的那一天看到扫罗没有更多”(十五,35),他的意思是说,撒母耳与扫罗没有进一步的交易,而不是说他从来没有看见他足够多的再次与他的眼睛。 Really, is it likely that a redactor who, we are told, often harmonizes his sources, and who plainly intends to present a coherent story, and not merely a collection of old documents, would allow glaring contradictions to stand?说真的,很可能,一个人,我们被告知修订者,往往协调他的消息来源,显然打算提出一个连贯的故事,而不仅仅是一个旧文件集合,将允许的突出矛盾立场? There is no sufficient reason, then, why we should not grant a historical character to the section I, i-II, viii, as well as to the rest of the work.有没有足够的理由,那么,为什么我们不应该给予历史人物的部分一,I - II,VIII,以及剩下的工作。Those internal marks–namely, lifelike touches, minuteness of detail, bright and flowing style–which move the critics to consider the latter part as of early origin and of undoubted historical value, are equally found in the first.这些内部标志,即,栩栩如生的接触,微小的细节,明亮,流畅的风格,其中移动批评考虑后者的一部分作为早期起源和勿庸置疑的历史价值,也同样在第一次发现。

THE HEBREW TEXT, THE SEPTUAGINT, AND THE VULGATE希伯来文的译本,武加大

The Hebrew text has come down to us in a rather unsatisfactory condition, by reason of the numerous errors due to transcribers.希伯来文已回落到我们在一个不太理想的条件,由于誊写的许多错误的原因。The numbers especially have suffered, probably because in the oldest manuscripts they were not written out in full.的数字,特别是遭受了,可能是因为在最古老的手稿,他们不写全。In I, vi, 19, seventy men become "seventy men, and fifty thousand of the common people."在I,VI,19,七十男性变成了“七十矣,五十万老百姓。”In I, xiii, 5, the Philistines are given the impossible number of thirty thousand chariots.在我十三,5,非利士人有三万战车不可能。Saul is only a year old when he begins to reign, and reigns but two years (I, xiii, 1).扫罗只有一岁,当他开始统治,统治,但两年(我,十三,1)。Absalom is made to wait forty years to accomplish the vow he made while in Gessur (II, xv, 7).押沙龙是等待40年才能完成他的誓言而在Gessur(二十五,7)。In I, viii, 16, oxen are metamorphosed into "goodliest young men", while in II, x, 18, forty thousand footmen are changed into horsemen.在I,VIII,16,牛都幻化成“goodliest年轻人”,而在二,X,18,45万步兵到骑兵改变。Michol, who in II, vi, 23, is said to have had no children, in II, xxi, 8, is credited with the five sons of her sister Merob (cf. I, xviii, 19; xxv, 44; II, iii, 15). Michol,谁在第二,第六,23岁,是说有没有孩子,在二,XXI,8,贷记五个儿子与她的妹妹Merob(参见我,十八,十九; XXV,44; II,三,15)。In II, xxi, 19, Goliath is again slain by Elchanan, and, strange to say, though I Par., xx, 5, tells us that the man killed by Elchanan was the brother of the giant, some critics here also see a contradiction.在二,XXI,19日,巨人再次被杀Elchanan,说来也怪,虽然我票,XX,5,告诉我们,Elchanan杀害的人是巨人的兄弟,有些评论家在这里也看到了矛盾。 Badan in I, xii, 11, should be changed to Abdon or Barak, and Samuel, in the same verse, to Samson, etc. Many of these mistakes can readily be corrected by a comparison with Paralipomenon, the Septuagint, and other ancient versions.巴丹在我,12,11,应改变阿夫东或巴拉克和萨穆埃尔,在相同的诗句,大力士等许多这些错误可以很容易地得到纠正Paralipomenon的译本,和其他古老的版本比较。 Others antedate all translations, and are therefore found in the versions as well as in the Massoretic (Hebrew) text.其他早于所有的翻译,因此在版本的massoretic文本(希伯来文),以及在发现。In spite of the work of correction done by modern commentators and textual critics, a perfectly satisfactory critical text is still a desideratum.尽管现代评论家和文本批评的校正工作,一个完全令人满意的关键文本仍然是所愿望之物。The Septuagint differs considerably from the Massoretic text in many instances; in others the case is not so clear.七十很大的不同,在许多情况下massoretic文本;在其他情况下不是那么清楚。The Vulgate was translated from a Hebrew text closely resembling the Massoretic; but the original text has been interpolated by additions and duplicate translations, which have crept in from the Itala.武加大翻译从希伯来文本极为相似的massoretic的,但原来的文本已被补充和重复翻译,蹑手蹑脚从伊泰莱插值。 Additions occur: I, iv, 1; v, 6, 9: viii, 18; x, 1; xi, 1; xiii, 15; siv, 22, 41; xv, 3, 12; xvii, 36; xxi, 11; xxx, 15; II, i, 26; v, 23; x, 19; xiii, 21, 27; xiv, 30; duplicate translations, I, ix, 15; xv, 32; xx, 15; xxiii, 13, 14; II, i, 18; iv, 5; vi, 12; xv, 18, 20.添置发生:第一,四,1,V,6,9:八,18,X,1席,1;十三,15; SIV,22,41;十五,3,12;第十七条,36条; XXI,11 XXX,15,第二,我26 V,23,X,19,第十三,21,27,14,30;重复翻译,我,九,15;十五,32,XX,15; XXIII,13, 14;第二,我,18,四,五,六,十二,十五,18,20。

Publication information Written by F. Bechtel.楼柏克德公司编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by WGKofron.转录WGKofron。With thanks to St. Mary's Church, Akron, Ohio The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.与感谢圣玛丽教堂,阿克伦,俄亥俄州天主教百科全书,第八卷。Published 1910.发布1910。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

Catholic: GIGOT, Special Introd.天主教:GIGOT,特别Introd。(New York, 1901), 251-65; CORNELY, Introductio, (Paris, 1897), i, 240-76; HUMMELBAUER, Comm. (纽约,1901),251-65; CORNELY,Introductio,(巴黎,1897年),我,240-76; HUMMELBAUER,COMM。in Libros Samuelis (Paris, 1886); FILLION in VIG., Dict.Libros Samuelis(巴黎,1886年);菲利安在VIG,快译通。 de la Bible, sv Rois (les quatre livres des); VIGOROUX, Manuel Bibl., 10th ed., II (Paris, 1899), 80 sqq.; CLAIR, Livres des Rois (Paris, 1884); DHORME, Les Livres de Samuel (Paris, 1910); KAULEN, Einleitung (3rd ed., Freiburg im Br., 1890), 223-30; SCHÄFERS, I Sam., i-xv literarkritisch untersucht in Bibl.德拉圣经,SV罗伊斯(LES卡特勒里弗DES); VIGOROUX,曼努埃尔Bibl,第10版,二(巴黎,1899年),80 SQQ;。克莱尔,里弗DES罗伊斯(巴黎,1884年);多尔姆,莱斯里弗DE塞缪尔(巴黎,1910年);考伦,导论(第3版,1890年,弗莱堡BR。),223-30; SCHÄFERS,我心,I - 15 literarkritisch untersucht Bibl。Zeitschr., V (1907), 1, 126, 235, 359; VI, 117; PETERS, Beiträge zur Text-und Literaturkritik der B252;cher Samuels (Vienna, 1904); WIESMANN, Die Einführung des Königtums in Israel in Zeitsch. 。Zeitschr,五(1907年),1,126,235,359;六,117;彼得斯,Beiträge楚文字和Literaturkritik DER B252;雪儿塞缪尔(维也纳,1904年);维泽曼,模具Einführung以色列Königtums Zeitsch。für Kathol.献给Kathol。 Theologie, XXXIV (1910), 118-153; IDEM, Bemerkungen zum I Buche Samuels, ibid., XXXII (1908), 187, 597; XXXIII, 129, 385, 796.神学,三十四(1910),118-153;同上,Bemerkungen ZUM我布车塞缪尔,同上,三十二(1908年),187,597;第三十三,129,385,796。

Non-Catholic: STENNING in HAST., Dict of the Bible, sv Samuel, I and II; DRIVER, Literat.非天主教:STENNING在服务队,快译通“圣经”,SV塞缪尔,我和第二;驱动,Literat。of the OT, 8th ed.旧约,第八版。 (Edinburgh, 1909), 172-85; IDEM, Notes on Heb.(爱丁堡,1909),172-85;同上,在希伯来书注释。Text of the B. of Samuel (Oxford, 1890); HP SMITH, Comm.B.塞缪尔(牛津,1890年); HP史密斯,COMM文本。on the B. of Samuel (New York, 1899); WELLHAUSEN, Composition des Hexateuchs und der Histor. B.塞缪尔(纽约,1899年);豪森,组成Hexateuchs和DER Histor。Bücher des AT (Berlin, 1899); IDEM, Text der Bücher Samuels (Göttingen, 1871); BUDDE, Die Bücher Richter und Samuel (Giessen, 1890); IDEM, The Books of Samuel in HAUPT, Sacred Books of the OT (Baltimore, 1894); IDEM, Die Bücher Samuel in MARTI, Kurzer Hand Comm.书刊DES AT(柏林,1899年);同上,文本DER书刊塞缪尔(哥廷根,1871年);布德,模具书刊里克特和萨穆埃尔(吉森,1890年);同上,图书的塞缪尔在豪普特,旧约圣书(巴尔的摩,1894);同上,模具书刊塞缪尔马蒂Kurzer手COMM。 zum AT, (1902); CORNILL in Zeitschr.ZUM(1902年);在Zeitschr CORNILL。für kirchl.献给kirchl。 Wissensch.Wissensch。 und kirchl.和kirchl。Leben (1885), 113 sqq.; IDEM in Königsberg.别人的生活“(1885年),113 SQQ;在柯尼斯堡同上。Studien (1887); 25 sqq.; IDEM in Zeitsch.(研究)(1887年); 25 SQQ; Zeitsch同上。für AT Wissensch., (1890), 96 sqq.; THENIUS, Die Bücher Samuels, ed.AT Wissensch献给(1890年),96 SQQ;。THENIUS,模具书刊塞缪尔,编辑。LÖHR (Leipzig, 1898); KLOSTERMANN, Die Bücher Samuels und der Könige (Munich, 1887).LOHR(莱比锡,1898年); KLOSTERMANN,模具书刊塞缪尔和DER Könige(慕尼黑,1887年)。


Books of Samuel塞缪尔的书籍

Jewish Perspective Information犹太透视信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章标题:

-Biblical Data:- 圣经的数据:

Name and Contents.名称和内容。

First Book of Samuel:塞缪尔的第一本书:

Saul Assumes the Kingship.扫罗假设汉王。

Saul's Jealousy of David.扫罗的嫉妒大卫。

Closing Days of Saul's Reign.闭幕日扫罗的统治。

Second Book of Samuel:第二本书的塞缪尔:

David in Hebron.大卫在希伯伦。

The Ark Brought to Jerusalem.方舟带来耶路撒冷。

David and Uriah.大卫和乌利亚。

David and Absalom.大卫和押沙龙。

Complex Documentary Sources.复杂的文件来源。

-Critical View:- 批评的看法:

Oldest Literary Strata.最古老的文学阶层。

Story of the Ark.方舟的故事

Supposed Time of Redaction.所谓的密文的时间。

-Biblical Data:- 圣经的数据:

Two books in the second great division of the canon, the "Nebi'im," or Prophets, and, more specifically, in the former of its subdivisions, the "Nebi'im Rishonim," or Earlier, Prophets, following upon Joshua and Judges; the third and fourth of the historical writings according to the arrangement of the Masoretic text.后两本书在佳能的第二大分化,“Nebi'im”,或先知,而且,更具体地说,在其下属的前“Nebi'im Rishonim,”或更早,先知,后约书亚法官,根据马所拉文本的安排的历史著作的第三和第四。Originally the two books of Samuel formed a single book, as did the two books of Kings.本来两书的塞缪尔形成一个单一的书,两书国王。In the Septuagint Samuel and Kings were treated as one continuous and complete history of Israel and Judah, and the work was divided into four books under the title Βίβλια Βασιλειῶν ("Books of Kingdoms").七十塞缪尔和国王被视为一个连续的,完整的以色列和犹大的历史,和工作分为四书的标题下ΒίβλιαΒασιλειῶν(“演义丛书”)。 This division was accepted in the Vulgate by Jerome, who changed the name to "Books of Kings."这个师接受了杰罗姆,更名为“国王的书籍”在武加大。Thence it passed into the editions of the Hebrew Bible published by Daniel Bomberg of Venice in the sixteenth century; and it has since reappeared in every Hebrew printed edition though the individual books retained the captions they had in the Hebrew manuscripts, viz., "I Samuel" and "II Samuel" for the first two of the four Kings, and "I Kings" and "II Kings" for the last two.那里,它通过由丹尼尔威尼斯邦贝里发表在16世纪的希伯来文圣经版本,并从此在每一个希伯来文印版又出现了,虽然个别书籍保留他们在希伯来文手稿标题,即“我。撒母耳记“和”二塞缪尔“四大天王前两个,和”我国王“和”二王“在过去两年。 But the Masorah continued to be placed after II Samuel for both I and II.但Masorah继续二塞缪尔后可以同时为I和II。

Name and Contents.名称和内容。

The name "Samuel," by which the book, now divided into two, is designated in Hebrew, was construed to imply that Samuel was the author (see below). “塞缪尔”,通过指定的书,现在一分为二,是在希伯来文,解释为意味着,塞缪尔是作者(见下文)。More likely, the title was chosen because Samuel is the most important of all the personages mentioned in the record, he having a prominent, even dominant, part in most of the events related in book I. The two books comprise, according to the Masoretic note at the end, thirty-four "sedarim" (the mnemonic word is given as ); in the printed editions the first book has thirty-one chapters and the second twenty-four, making fifty-five chapters in all.更可能的是,标题是选择,因为塞缪尔是最重要的记录中提到的所有人士,他有一个突出的,甚至是主导一书相关的事件,两书包括大部分,第一部分,根据马所拉在年底的注意,三十四个“sedarim”(助记词是作为);在印刷版的第一本书有三十一章,第二次二十四,在所有五十个篇章。 They give the history of Israel from the concluding days of the period of the Judges-Samuel being considered the last of them-through the reigns of the first two kings, Saul and David, and continue the story not up to the latter's death, but merely to his incipient old age, the account of his declining years forming the prelude to the history of Solomon in I Kings.他们给以色列的历史,从了的法官,塞缪尔正在考虑通过他们的的第一次两个国王,扫罗和大卫的统治去年期间的结论天,并继续的故事达不到后者的死亡,但只是他早期的老年,他的晚年,我国王所罗门在历史形成的序幕。

First Book of Samuel:塞缪尔的第一本书:

This book consists of three main sections, to which the following headings may respectively be prefixed: (1) Eli and Samuel, ch.这本书由三个主要部分,以下标题分别为前缀组成:(1)礼和萨穆埃尔,CH。i.-vii.; (2) Samuel and Saul, viii.-xv.; and (3) Saul and David, xvi.-xxxi.一,第七;(2)撒母耳和扫罗,viii.-xv.;(3)扫罗和大卫,xvi. - XXXI。In detail the contents are as follows:详细内容如下:

(1) Eli and Samuel: Samuel's Younger Days and the Story of Eli: Birth of Samuel and his dedication to Yhwh (i.); Hannah's song (ii. 1-10); Samuel's service in the sanctuary (ii. 11-iv. 1). (1)礼和Samuel:塞缪尔的年轻时代和礼的故事:萨穆埃尔和他的献身精神耶和华(一)出生;汉娜的歌曲(白介素1-10);撒母耳在圣殿服务(白介素11 - IV 1)。The Story of the Ark: Loss of the Ark and its dire consequences (iv.); the Ark retained by the Philistines (v.); return of the Ark (vi. 1-18); the Ark at Beth-shemesh and Kirjath-jearim (vi. 19-vii. 1).方舟的故事:方舟及其可怕的后果(iv.)的损失;非利士人(五)保留了方舟,方舟的回报(VI. 1-18),在伯示麦和Kirjath方舟基列耶琳(19 VI.七,1)。Samuel as Judge: The people's sorrow (vii. 2-6); defeat of the Philistines (vii. 7-12); Samuel judges Israel (vii. 12-17).作为法官塞缪尔:人民的悲痛(vii. 2-6)打败非利士人(vii. 7-12);塞缪尔法官以色列(vii. 12-17)。

(2) Samuel and Saul: Israel Clamors for a King: The desire of the people (viii. 1-5); Samuel consults Yhwh (viii. 6-9); Samuel admonishes the people (viii. 10-18); their persistence (viii. 19-22).(2)撒母耳和扫罗:国王:以色列叫嚣的人的愿望(viii. 1-5);塞缪尔咨询耶和华(6-9 viii.);塞缪尔告诫的人(viii. 10-18);持久性(viii. 19-22)。Saul Anointed as King: Details of Saul's pedigree and character (ix. 1-2); his adventure with his father's asses and his visit to the seer (ix. 3-14); meeting of Samuel and Saul (ix. 15-21); meal set before Saul (ix. 22-24); Saul anointed by Samuel (ix. 25-x. 8); Saul's home-coming (x. 9-16).作为国王扫罗受膏者扫罗的血统和性格(ix. 1-2)的详情;他与父亲的驴和他的访问先知(ix. 3-14)的冒险;撒母耳和扫罗会议(ix. 15-21 );一顿设置之前,扫罗(ix. 22日至24日);扫罗受膏者塞缪尔(ix. 25 × 8);扫罗的家未来(十9-16)。Saul's Election to the Kingship: The election by lot (x. 17-25a); dismissal of the people (x. 25a-27a).扫罗的选举汉王:通过抽签选举(X. 17 - 25A);解雇的人(X. 25A - 27A)。Saul Assumes the Kingship.扫罗假设汉王。

The Peril of Jabesh-gilead; Saul's Valor and Its Reward-the Crown: Siege of Jabesh-gilead; outrageous conditions of peace (xi. 1-3); messengers for relief at Gibeah; Saul, stirred by the spirit, calls Israel to arms (xi. 4-8); Saul relieves the city (xi. 9-11); his kingship acknowledged and confirmed (xi. 12-15).雅比基列黄祸;扫罗的勇气和奖励,官方:雅比基列的围困;离谱的和平条件(xi. 1-3);在基比亚救济的使者;扫罗,激起的精神,呼吁以色列武器(xi. 4-8);扫罗免除城市(xi. 9-11);承认他的王位,并确认(xi. 12-15)。Samuel Relinquishes His Judgeship: Samuel's challenge to prove malfeasance in office against himself (xii. 1-6); his pleading with the people in a retrospect of Israel's history (xii. 7-15); he calls down thunder and rain upon the people, who are thereby compelled to request his intercession for them as sinners; he exhorts them to fear Yhwh (xii. 16-25).塞缪尔放弃他的法官地位:塞缪尔的挑战,以证明对自己(xii. 1-6)在办公室渎职;,他与人在以色列的历史回顾(xii. 7-15)的承认;他呼吁风头,并呼吁人民的雨,从而被迫,要求他们为罪人他说情,他激励他们敬畏耶和华(xii. 16-25)。

War Against the Philistines: Saul begins his reign(xiii. 1); war breaks out; the people in distress hide for their lives (xiii. 2-7a); Saul's failure; his rejection at Gilgal (xiii. 7b-15); Philistines in possession of the mountains of Ephraim (xiii. 16-18, 23); the people of Israel are unarmed, the Philistines having forbidden work at the smithies (xiii. 19-22); Jonathan's great feat of arms (xiv. 1-15); battle with the Philistines (xiv. 16-24); Saul's curse on the man that should eat, and Jonathan's violation of the prohibition (xiv. 25-30); Saul prevents the people from eating blood (xiv. 31-35); discovery of Jonathan's transgression; his rescue by the people (xiv. 36-45); brief exposition of Saul's wars; names of his sons and daughters; and other details (xiv. 46-52). :扫罗攻击非利士人的战争开始了他的统治(xiii. 1);战争爆发;(xiii. 2 - 7A)在他们的生活窘迫隐藏的人,扫罗的失败,他拒绝在吉甲(xiii. 7B - 15);非利士人在占有以法莲山(xiii. 16日至18日,23);以色列人民是手无寸铁,非利士人禁止在smithies(xiii. 19日至22日)的工作;乔纳森的伟大壮举武器(xiv. 1 -15);与非利士人的战斗(xiv. 16-24);扫罗的诅咒的人应多吃,和乔纳森的违反禁止(xiv​​. 25-30);扫罗防止吃血的人(xiv. 31 -35);乔纳森的侵的发现,他救援的人(xiv. 36-45);扫罗的战争简要的阐述,他的儿子和女儿及其他细节(xiv. 46-52);名称。 War Against the Amalekites; Saul's Rejection: Command to Saul to destroy Amalek (xv. 1-3); the war; Saul disobeys by sparing Agag and the flocks (xv. 4-9); Samuel's censure and menace for this disobedience (xv. 10-23); Saul, repentant, pleads for mercy (xv. 24-31); death of Agag (xv. 32-33); Samuel's complete separation from Saul (xv. 34-35).亚玛力人的战争,反对扫罗的拒绝:命令扫罗摧毁亚玛力(xv. 1-3);战争;扫罗饶亚甲和羊群(xv. 4-9)不服从;塞缪尔的谴责,并威胁不服从(XV 10-23);扫罗,痛改前非,恳求怜悯(xv. 24-31);亚甲死亡(xv. 32-33);撒母耳扫罗(34-35 xv.)完全分离。

(3) Saul and David: David's Family and Qualifications: Selection and consecration of David, the son of Jesse, after the rejection of his brothers (xvi. 1-13); David, as a cunning player on the harp, is brought to Saul to drive away the evil spirit from the king (xvi. 14-23); David's valor; his victory over Goliath (xvii. 1-54); David becomes Jonathan's friend and a general of Saul (xvii. 55-xviii. 5).(3)扫罗和大卫:大卫的家人和资格:拒绝后,他的兄弟(xvi. 1-13)选择和奉献,耶西的儿子大卫,大卫,作为一个狡猾的播放器上的竖琴,提请扫罗驱走邪恶的精神,从国王(xvi. 14日至23日)大卫的英勇;他战胜巨人(xvii. 1-54),大卫成为乔纳森的朋友和一般的扫罗(xvii. 55 - XVIII 5。 )。

Saul's Jealousy of David.扫罗的嫉妒大卫。

David Distrusted by Saul; His Flight: Saul's jealousy; the women's song, "Saul has slain his thousands, and David his ten thousands"; the king hurls his spear at David; the latter is relieved of the duty of attending on Saul; David is loved by all Israel and Judah; Saul attempts to lure David to his death at the hands of the Philistines by the promise of his elder daughter, Merab, in marriage; David weds Michal, the king's younger daughter, in spite of the dangerous conditions Saul imposes for the marriage (xviii. 6-30); Jonathan's intercession leads to a reconciliation between Saul and David; futile attempt by Saul to assassinate David; the latter, aided by a ruse of Michal, flees (xix. 1-17); David with Saul at Ramah; Saul repeatedly attempts to seize him, but is foiled (xix. 18-24); David and Jonathan (xx.); David at Nob with Ahimelech the priest; he eats the Showbread, feigns madness before Achish (King of Gath), takes refuge in the cave of Adullam, and goes to Mizpah of Moab; he returns to Judah upon the advice of the prophet Gad; Saul's revenge against Ahimelech, who is killed under his orders by Doeg (xxi.-xxii.).大卫不信任由Saul他的飞行:扫罗的嫉妒;女性的歌曲,“扫罗被杀害他的数千名,和大卫他的十个数千名”;王投掷他在大卫矛,后者是对扫罗出席的职责缓解;大卫是爱的所有以色列和犹大,扫罗试图以引诱在非利士人手中大卫他死后由他老的女儿,梅拉布在婚姻中,承诺;大卫新婚夫妇不顾危险条件米哈乌,国王的年轻的女儿,扫罗对婚姻(xviii. 6-30),乔纳森的说情,导致扫罗和大卫之间的和解;扫罗妄图刺杀大卫,后者的米哈尔诡计的协助下,逃离(xix. 1-17) ;在拉玛大卫与扫罗,扫罗一再试图抓住他,但被挫败(xix. 18-24);大卫和乔纳森(xx.),大卫与祭司亚希米勒在诺布,他吃的陈设饼,佯装亚吉前的疯狂(国王迦特),在洞穴亚杜兰避难,和摩押的米斯巴去,他返回犹太先知迦得的意见后,扫罗的报复亚希米勒,谁是杀害他的命令下Doeg(xxi. - 二十二。)

David a Freebooter in Philistia: David and the city of Keilah; Saul threatening to besiege him there, David consults Abiathar's ephod and at the oracle's advice departs (xxiii. 1-13); David's adventures while pursued by Saul in the wilderness of Ziph and in the strongholds of En-gedi (xxiii. 14-xxiv. 23); Samuel's death (xxv. 1a); David in the wilderness of Paran; his dealings with Nabal and Abigail (xxv.); his night visit to Saul's camp (xxvi.); his escape into the land of the Philistines, where he finds protection at the hand of Achish at Gath, receiving later Ziklag as a gift; he dwells in the land a year and four months, raiding his neighbors, while duping the king into the belief of his loyalty to him and in his active hostility to the people of Judah (xxvii.).大卫在非利士一个劫掠者:大卫和基伊拉城市;扫罗威胁围攻他,大卫咨询亚比亚他的以弗得和Oracle的意见出发(xxiii. 1-13);而追求Ziph荒野扫罗和大卫的冒险他晚上在EN GEDI(xxiii. 14 XXIV 23。)的据点; Samuel的死亡(xxv. 1A),大卫在巴兰的旷野;与他打交道纳巴尔和阿比盖尔(xxv.);访问扫罗的阵营( XXVI)号决议;他逃避到非利士人的土地,在那里他发现在迦特亚吉的手保护,收到后作为礼物洗革拉,他住在土地一年零四个月,袭击他的邻居,而欺骗王到他的忠诚,以他的信念,在他的积极犹大(xxvii.)人民的敌意。

Closing Days of Saul's Reign.闭幕日扫罗的统治。

Saul's End: War breaks out between Achish and Philistia, and Saul of Israel (xxviii. 1-2); Saul and the witch of En-dor (xxviii. 3-25); Achish, upon the complaint of his chieftains, who distrust David, dismisses him to Ziklag (xxix.); David's expedition against the Amalekites, who, during his absence, had raided Ziklag and set it on fire, taking large booty and carrying off among the women David's wives.扫罗的终结:亚吉和非利士,以色列(xxviii. 1-2)扫罗,扫罗和女巫的EN - DOR(xxviii. 3-25)之间爆发战争;亚吉后,他的头领的投诉,谁不信任大卫,驳回他洗革拉(xxix.);大卫的远征对亚玛力人,在他缺席的情况下,搜查了洗革拉,并放火,采取大的战利品和执行之间的妇女大卫的妻子。 Consulting the ephod, David pursues the marauders.咨询的以弗得,大卫奉行的掠夺者。Meeting on the way an Egyptian slave abandoned by the Amalekites, David is led by him to where the enemies are feasting.会议的方式亚玛力人遗弃的埃及奴隶,大卫是由他率领的敌人是灯红酒绿。He fights them till sundown, slaying or capturing all save 400, and recovering his own; David's ordinance concerning the division of the spoils; his gifts to the elders of Judah (xxx.); the last battle of Saul; death of his sons Jonathan, Abinadab, and Melchi-shua; Saul, after the refusal of his armor-bearer to kill him, dies by falling upon his own sword; his body and those of his sons are stripped; Saul's head is cut off, to be sent as a trophy into the cities of Philistia; his body is fastened to the wall of Beth-shan, whence it is recovered by the men of Jabesh-gilead, who burn it, together with the remains of his sons, at Jabesh, and later bury the bones under a tamarisk-tree (xxxi.).他战斗,直到日落,杀害或捕获400,所有保存和恢复自己;大卫条例“有关的战利品分工;他的礼物长老犹太(xxx.);扫罗的最后一战,他的儿子乔纳森死亡,亚比拿达,和Melchi -唰;扫罗,在他的铠甲,承载拒绝杀死他后,死亡属于他自己的剑后,他的身体和他的儿子被剥离;扫罗的头上中断,到被发送作为到非利士城市的奖杯,他的身体是固定在墙伯山,何处是雅比基列的男人,谁烧,连同他的儿子的遗体在雅比,恢复,以及后来埋葬下柽柳树(xxxi.)的骨头。

Second Book of Samuel:第二本书的塞缪尔:

This book likewise readily lends itself to a division into three main parts: (1) David as king (i.-viii.); (2) David and his crown princes (ix.-xx.); and (3) complementary appendixes consisting of various historical glosses (xxi.-xxiv.).这本书同样容易借给自己一个划分成三个主要部分:(1)大卫为王(一八),(2)大卫和他的王储(ix.-xx.)及(3)互补性附录包括各种历史粉饰(xxi. XXIV)。。The details are as follows:详情如下:

(1) David as King: David Learns of Saul's Death: Arrival of the messenger (i. 1-5); he reports that he had slain Saul at the latter's own request (i. 6-10); David mourns for Saul and Jonathan (i. 11-12); he directs that the messenger, "the son of a stranger, an Amalekite," be surreptitiously killed (i. 13-16). (1)王大卫:大卫获悉扫罗的死亡使者(一1-5)抵达,他报告说,他已被杀害扫罗在后者对自己的要求(一6-10);大卫为扫罗和哀悼乔纳森(一11-12);他领导的信使,“一个陌生人的儿子,亚玛力人,”暗中杀害(一13-16)。 The Lament ("Ḳinah") of David for Saul and Jonathan: Superscription, with note that the lamentation is written in the Book of Jashar (i. 17-18); the lamentation (i. 19-27).扫罗和约拿单大卫哀叹(“Ḳinah”):上标,与注意,Jashar(一17-18)“的书面哀悼;哀悼(一19-27)。

David in Hebron.大卫在希伯伦。

David Reigns in Hebron; War Against Abner, Ishbosheth's (Esh-baal's) Captain: Upon Yhwh's advice, David goes up to Hebron with his two wives, his men, and their households; he is anointed king by the men of Judah (ii. 1-4); he sends a message of approval to the men of Jabesh-gilead for having buried Saul (ii. 5-7); Abner is loyal to Saul's son Ish-bosheth or Esh-baal (ii. 8-11); Abner meets Joab, David's captain, by the pool of Gibeon, where twelve young men on each side engage in a trial by combat, all twenty-four falling; Abner is defeated in the battle which ensues (ii. 12-19); Abner is pursued, but slays Asahel, his pursuer, after vainly imploring him to desist (ii. 20-23); Joab, after parleying with Abner, blows the trumpet as a signal for the pursuit to cease (ii. 24-32).大卫王朝在希伯伦反对押尼珥,伊施波设的ESH -巴尔上尉战争:耶和华的意见后,大卫云达与他的两个妻子,他的部下和他们的家庭希布伦;他是受膏者国王犹大人(白介素1-4);他发送埋葬扫罗(白介素5-7)基列雅比男性批准的消息;押尼珥是忠于扫罗的儿子ISH - bosheth或ESH -巴尔(白介素8-11) ;押尼珥符合约押,大卫的船长,由池基遍,每侧12个年轻男子在审讯从事打击所有二十四下降;押尼珥是在战斗中击败随之而来(白介素12-19);押尼珥追求,但杀害后,徒劳地恳求他停止(白介素20日至23日),他的追求者,亚撒黑;约押与押尼珥parleying后,吹小号追求停止信号(白介素24-32) 。

The Extermination of Saul's House: War between the house of Saul and that of David (iii. 1, 6a); enumeration of David's sons (iii. 2-5); relations betweenAbner and Ish-bosheth disturbed by suspicions on the latter's part (iii. 7-11); Abner makes treasonable overtures to David, inducing him to demand his wife Michal from Ish-bosheth, who takes her away from her second husband, Paltiel, and sends her to David (iii. 12-16); Abner urges the elders of Israel to go over to David; he himself pays a visit to him and promises to deliver over to him all Israel (iii. 17-21); Abner is treacherously slain by Joab (iii. 22-30); David mourns for Abner; he refuses to eat until sunset, which pleases the people (iii. 31-39); Ish-bosheth is assassinated; and his head is taken to David, who, however, causes the assassins to be killed (iv. 1-3, 5-12; verse 4 is a gloss giving an account of the escape of Mephibosheth, Jonathan's son, when five years old, and of his fall from the arms of a nurse, which resulted in his lameness).灭绝扫罗的家:战争之间的扫罗家和大卫(6A III. 1,);大卫的儿子(III. 2-5)枚举;关系betweenAbner和ISH - bosheth不安怀疑后者的一部分(三7-11);押尼珥叛逆性的序曲大卫,诱导他要求他的妻子米哈尔ISH - bosheth,把她离她的第二任丈夫,Paltiel,并送她到大卫(12-16 III.);押尼珥敦促以色列的长老走了过来给大卫,他本人自付访问他,并承诺提供他所有以色列(III. 17-21);押尼珥是背信弃义约押(22-30 III.)被杀;大卫哀悼押尼珥;他拒绝进食,直到日落,为所欲为的人(III. 31-39); ISH​​ - bosheth是暗杀;他的头是采取大卫,谁,但是,原因被杀死刺客(四1-3,5-12;第4节是光泽,给人一种逃离,约拿单的儿子米非波设,5岁的时候,他从一名护士,导致他跛行)的武器下跌帐户。

David and Jerusalem: David is made king over all Israel (v. 1-3); his age and length of reign (v. 4, 5); he takes Jerusalem from the Jebusites; comment on David's growing power (v. 6-10); Hiram of Tyre sends materials and workmen and builds David a house (v. 11-12); David increases his harem; names of his sons born in Jerusalem (v. 13-16); war with the Philistines leading to their defeat (v. 17-25).大卫和耶路撒冷:大卫国王在所有以色列(1-3节),他的年龄和元年(第4节,5)的长度;他从耶路撒冷的耶布斯人对大卫的不断增长的电力(第6节评论 - 10);轮胎西贡发送材料和工人,并建立了大卫的房子(11-12节);大卫增加他的后宫,他的儿子的名字出生在耶路撒冷(13-16节);战争与非利士人导致其失败(17-25节)。

The Ark Brought to Jerusalem.方舟带来耶路撒冷。

Removal of the Ark: The Ark is brought on a new cart out of the house of Abinadab, David and the Israelites playing before it on all sorts of instruments; its arrival at the thrashing-floor of Nachon; Uzzah, to save the Ark from falling when the oxen stumbled, puts forth his hand, for which act he is smitten dead (vi. 1-8); David, afraid to remove the Ark to Jerusalem, carries it aside to the house of Obed-edom, the Gittite, where it remains for three months (vi. 9-12); hearing that Obed-edom has prospered in consequence, David brings the Ark to Jerusalem, offering sacrifices along the way; David dances before the Ark, which causes Michal to despise him; the Ark is set in the midst of a tent, David offering "'olot" and "shelamim" before Yhwh, and the people receiving a share of the sacrificial meal; Michal's censure of David; her reproof and punishment (vi. 13-23).拆除方舟:方舟带来一个新的车亚比拿达,大卫和以色列人上播放之前,各种仪器的房子;在抵达Nachon颠簸楼;乌撒,以节省方舟下降时,迷迷糊​​糊的牛,提出了他的手,他的行为是重拳出击“死”(VI. 1-8),大卫,害怕删除方舟耶路撒冷,拿它预留的迦特人俄别以东,房子,它仍然为3个月(VI. 9-12)的审理后认为,俄别以东的后果繁荣,大卫带来方舟耶路撒冷,提供前进的道路上牺牲;大卫舞蹈前方舟,这将导致米哈尔鄙视他;方舟是设置在一顶帐篷,大卫提供“奥洛特”和“shelamim”之前,耶和华中,和人民祭祀的膳食中所占的份额;米哈尔的大卫谴责;她的谴责和惩罚(VI. 13-23 )。

Plans to Build Temple: Nathan and David; the prophet recalls that no permanent sanctuary has existed during Israel's history, and bids David desist from his plan to build one (vii. 1-12); the prophet promises that David shall have a successor, who will be permitted to carry out his (David's) plans (vii. 13-17); David's prayer of thanks for his own elevation and for the divine promise that his dynasty shall continue to rule (vii. 18-29).规划建设寺:弥敦道和大卫;先知回忆,没有永久的避难所存在已在以色列的历史,并出价大卫停止他的计划,以建立一个(vii. 1-12);先知承诺,大卫应当有一个继任者,他们将被允许开展他(大卫)计划(vii. 13日至17日);大卫的祷告感谢为自己的海拔和神圣的承诺,他的王朝将继续统治(vii. 18-29)。

Data Concerning David's Reign: David's wars (viii. 1-6); the spoils of gold and silver vessels dedicated to Yhwh (viii. 7-12); other military records (viii. 13-14); David as a just ruler; details of the administration and the names of his chief officers (viii. 15-18).关于大卫的统治:其他军事记录(viii. 13日至14日)的数据;;献给耶和华(7-12 viii.)的金银器皿的战利品,作为一个公正的标尺大卫大卫的战争(viii. 1-6);他(viii. 15-18)行政人员的管理和名称的详细信息。

(2) David and His Crown Princes: The Story of David and Jonathan's Son: Ziba, a servant, upon David's inquiry, reveals the existence and place of sojourn of Mephibosheth (ix. 1-5); David sends for him, receives him graciously, assigns him Ziba for a body-servant, restores to him all of Saul's lands, and accords him a place as a daily guest at the royal table (ix. 6-10a); Ziba, his fifteen sons, and twenty retainers serve Mephibosheth and his son Micha (ix. 10b-13). (2)大卫和他的王储:大卫和乔纳森的儿子的故事:奇巴,一个仆人,大卫的询问时,揭示了米非波设的逗留(ix. 1-5)的存在和地点;大卫为他发送,接收他客客气气,分配给他身体的仆人洗巴,恢复他的扫罗的所有土地,并符合他作为一个每天客人在皇家表(ix. 6 - 10A)的地方;奇巴,他十五个儿子,二十家臣服务米非波设和他的儿子米莎(ix. 10B - 13)。

David and Uriah.大卫和乌利亚。

The Expeditions Against Ammon and Syria: The first campaign; the provocation: Ammon's king having died, David sends a deputation to present his condolence to Hanun, the son and successor; his envoys are grossly insulted, and are sent back with one-half of their beards shaved off, and their clothes cut off in the middle, so that they have to wait at Jericho until they obtain fresh garments and their beards are grown (x. 1-5); the first battle: Ammon hires Syrian mercenaries, against whom David sends Joab and an army of mighty men; with fine strategy Joab and his brother Abishai defeat the enemy (x. 6-14); the second battle: Hadarezer leads the Syrians, against whom David in person takes the field, marching to Helam, where he defeats them (x. 15-19); war against Ammon is renewed, but David remains at Jerusalem; he sins with Bath-sheba, wife of Uriah the Hittite, who is with the army (xi. 1-5); to hide his sin David commands Uriah to return home, but is foiled in his designs (xi. 6-13); Uriah delivers to Joab a letter from David containing an order to place Uriah in the forefront of the battle so that he may be killed; this is done, and Uriah falls (xi. 14-17); Joab sends a report to David (xi. 18-25); David takes Bath-sheba into his house, where she gives birth to the first son born unto him while king; Yhwh is displeased (xi. 26, 27); Nathan's parable: "Thou art the man"; Nathan rebukes the king; David confesses (xii. 1-15); the child sickens; David fasts; death of the child; David, to the surprise of his servants, now eats; his explanation (xii. 16-23); Solomon born of Bathsheba; Nathan gives him the name "Jedidiah" (xii. 24-25); Joab calls upon David to join the army lest all the glory of the victory fall to his (Joab's) name; David captures Rabbah, taking the king's crown for himself, and treating the prisoners most cruelly; end of the war (xii. 26-31).的反对阿蒙和叙利亚探险:第一次活动;的挑衅:阿蒙的国王有死,大卫发送一个代表团向嫩,在儿子和继任他的慰问他的特使是严重的侮辱,和是发送的二分之一回剃掉胡须,和自己的衣服在中间切断,使他们不得不等待,直到他们获得新的服装和胡须的种植(十1-5)在杰里科;首战:阿蒙雇用叙利亚雇佣军,对其中大卫发送乔阿布和军队勇士与精品战略约押和他的兄弟亚比筛战胜敌人(十6-14);第二次战役:Hadarezer导致对人大卫的叙利亚人,在人需要的领域,踏着Helam,他在那里击败他们(十15-19);对阿蒙战争续约,但大卫仍然在耶路撒冷与拔示巴,赫人乌利亚的妻子,与军队是他的罪过(xi. 1-5 );隐藏他的罪过大卫命令乌利亚回家,但在他的设计挫败(xi. 6-13);乌利亚提供包含在战斗的最前沿,以地方乌利亚约押从大卫的信,让他可能会被杀死,这样做是的,并乌利亚瀑布(xi. 14-17);约押发送一份报告,大卫(xi. 18-25),大卫把他的房子,在那里她生下第一个儿子拔示巴对他出生,而王;耶和华是不满(xi. 26,27);弥敦道的比喻:“你的男人”;弥敦道斥责王大卫的交代(xii. 1-15);儿童sickens;大卫斋戒;死亡儿童;大卫,他的仆人的惊喜,现在吃,他的解释(xii. 16-23);所罗门出生的拔示巴;弥敦道给他命名为“Jedidiah”(xii. 24-25);约押呼叫后大卫参军,以免所有的辉煌胜利下降到他(约押)的名称;大卫捕捉拉巴,为自己国王的皇冠,和治疗的犯人最残酷的战争(xii. 26-31)结束。

Amnon and Absalom: Amnon, in love with Tamar, the sister of his half-brother Absalom, upon the counsel of his cousin Jonadab feigns sickness and secures his father's consent for Tamar to nurse him; he outrages her, and sends her off with insults (xiii. 1-19); Absalom, seeing her grief, consoles her, takes her to his house and awaits an opportunity to take revenge (xiii. 20-22); two years later Absalom invites the king and his sons to a sheep-shearing feast in Baal-hazor, in which Amnon, after the king's refusal to attend, takes part; at the bidding of Absalom, Amnon is killed at the table (xiii. 23-29a); the king's sons fleeing, David hears that all have been killed; Jonadab reassures him, revealing to him Absalom's plot; Absalom takes refuge with Talmai, King of Geshur, remaining in exile three years (xiii. 29b-38); the king yearns for Absalom; Joab's ruse in sending for a wise woman from Tekoah, who feigns to be a widow and to having had an experience with her two sons similar to that of the king; extracting a promise from David that the avenger of blood shall destroy no more, she invokes the promise in Absalom's case; she confesses to be in leaguewith Joab (xiii. 39-xiv. 20); Absalom is granted complete immunity; Joab is sent to bring him home; Absalom is bidden to stay in his own house without seeing the king (xiv. 21-24); Absalom's beauty; his sons and daughter (xiv. 25-27); Absalom, after living two years in Jerusalem without seeing the king, in order to force an interview with Joab sets fire to the latter's field; Joab meets Absalom, and at his bidding intercedes in his behalf with David; David pardons Absalom (xiv. 28-33).暗嫩和押沙龙:暗嫩,佯装在添马舰,他的同父异母兄弟押沙龙的妹妹,爱他的表弟约拿达的律师后疾病,并确保他的父亲的添马舰同意给他喂奶,他凌辱她,并发送与侮辱她关闭(xiii. 1-19);押沙龙,看到她的悲伤,游戏机她,带她到他家,并期待有机会采取报复(xiii. 20日至22日);两年后,押沙龙请王和他的儿子一只绵羊 - 剪切巴尔 - 夏琐的盛宴,这暗嫩,国王的拒绝出席后,需要的一部分;押沙龙招标,暗嫩是在餐桌上被杀害(xiii. 23 - 29A);国王的儿子逃离,大卫听到,都被杀害;约拿达安慰他,露出他押沙龙的阴谋;押沙龙需要与挞买,对基述王避难,在流亡中剩下的三年(xiii. 29B - 38);王为押沙龙渴望;约押的发送一个诡计聪明的女人从Tekoah,谁佯装到被一个寡妇和到有有一个与她的两个儿子的经验类似的国王;提取一个从大卫的承诺,血仇应销毁没有更多的,她调用押沙龙的案件中的承诺她交代leaguewith约押(xiii. 39十四20);押沙龙被授予完全豁免权;约押发送带他回家;押沙龙是bidden留在自己的房子,没有看到国王(xiv. 21 - 24);押沙龙的美丽;后,他的儿子和女儿(xiv. 25日至27日);押沙龙在耶路撒冷居住两年,以迫使与约押接受记者采访时没有看到王放火烧后者的领域;乔阿布符合押沙龙,和调解他与大卫代表在他的招投标;大卫赦免押沙龙(xiv. 28-33)。

David and Absalom.大卫和押沙龙。

Absalom's Rebellion: Outbreak of the rebellion at Hebron (xv. 1-12); David has to leave Jerusalem; incidents of the flight; Ittai; Zadok and the Ark; Ahithophel and Hushai; Ziba reveals Mephibosheth's plot against David, and is rewarded; Shimei curses David, who, however, will not have him punished (xv. 13-xvi. 14); Absalom at Jerusalem; Hushai joins him; Ahithophel advises Absalom to seize the harem (in token of his being the ruling sovereign), and asks to be allowed to pursue David; Hushai counsels that Absalom should go out in person at the head of all Israel; Hushai's advice is followed; Hushai sends to Zadok and Abiathar asking them to warn David; Jonathan and Ahimaaz, the messengers, are seen by a lad who betrays them, but they are hidden in a well by a woman, and Absalom can not find them; they warn David, who passes over the Jordan; Ahithophel commits suicide (xvi. 15-xvii. 23); David at Mahanaim; Absalom crosses the Jordan with Amasa as his general; Shobi, Machir, and Barzillai provide beds and food (xvii. 24-29).押沙龙的叛乱爆发的叛乱在希伯伦(xv. 1-12);大卫离开耶路撒冷的飞行事故;以太撒督和方舟; Ahithophel户筛;奇巴揭示米非波设对大卫的阴谋,是奖励;师妹咒骂大卫,谁,但是,没有惩罚他(xv. 13,十六14);押沙龙在耶路撒冷;户筛加入他; Ahithophel建议押沙龙抓住后宫(在他执政的主权的令牌),问可以到pursue大卫;户筛律师,押沙龙应该去亲自出在所有以色列的头;户筛的意见是其次;户筛发送撒督和亚比亚他要求他们以警告大卫;乔纳森和亚希玛斯,使者,是看到一个小伙子谁背叛了他们,但他们是隐藏在一个很好的女人,押沙龙无法找到他们,他们警告大卫,谁在约旦传递; Ahithophel自杀(xvi. 15十七23),大卫在玛哈念,押沙龙过他一般与亚玛撒约旦,尚美,玛吉,和巴西莱提供床和食物(xvii. 24-29)。

The Battle and Absalom's Death: David not allowed to go into battle; he gives orders to deal gently with Absalom; the battle in the forest of Ephraim; Absalom is defeated; he is caught by his hair in the boughs of an oak while his mule passes from under him; Joab, learning of this, takes three darts and thrusts them into Absalom's heart; this ends the pursuit (xviii. 1-16); glosses concerning Absalom's monument and grave (xviii. 17-18); Joab sends the Cushite to the king; Ahimaaz, after having been refused by Joab, is allowed to follow the Cushite, whom he outruns; Ahimaaz informs the king of the victory; David inquires after Absalom, and receives from Ahimaaz an evasive answer; the Cushite arriving, David learns of his son's fate; David's lamentation (xviii. 19-33); the people mourn, the soldiers entering the city as though they had been defeated; Joab forces David to show himself to the people (xix. 1-9); David returns at the solicitation of the people and the priests; Shimei supplicates for pardon; Mephibosheth, whose appearance shows grief, pleads that his servant deceived him; Ziba and he are told to divide the land; Barzillai invited to live at court; he declines, pleading old age, and begging that Chimham may take his place; jealousy between Judah and Israel (xix. 10-44).的战役和押沙龙的死亡:大卫允许进入战斗,他给出了订单,以处理与押沙龙轻轻地;以法莲森林的战斗;押沙龙被打败;他是由他的头发抓在橡树的树枝,而他的骡子从他的传递;约押,这种学习,需要三个飞镖和重点成押沙龙的心,这两端的追求(xviii. 1-16);粉饰有关押沙龙的纪念碑和坟墓(xviii. 17-18日);约押发送古示人王;亚希玛斯,约押拒绝后,允许按照古示人,他outruns;亚希玛斯通知的胜利之王大卫询问后押沙龙,亚希玛斯收到回避的答案,古示人抵达,大卫得知他的儿子的命运;,大卫的悲叹(xviii. 19-33);人民的哀悼,士兵进入城市,尽管他们被击败了;乔阿布部队大卫展示自己的人(xix. 1-9);大卫在征求人民和祭司的回报;师妹赦免supplicates;米非波设,其外观显示悲痛,他的仆人欺骗他的恳求;奇巴,他告诉划分土地;巴西莱邀请住在法院,他拒绝恳求年老,乞Chimham可能接替他的位置;嫉妒犹大和以色列之间(xix. 10-44)。

Sheba's Uprising and Amasa's Violent Death: Sheba instigates a rebellion on the part of Israel (xx. 1-2); David's return to Jerusalem; treatment of his concubines (xx. 3); Amasa, bidden to call the Judeans together, exceeds the prescribed limit of three days; Abishai given command to pursue Sheba; at the great stone in Gibeon, Amasa meets them; Joab in full equipment salutes him, and thrusts a sword into his bowels, killing him; kindness of a young man to the dying Amasa (xx. 4-13); Sheba besieged in Abel; the wise woman's parley with Joab to save the city; Joab asks that Sheba be delivered up, and the woman promises that his head shall be thrown to Joab over the wall; she induces the people to kill Sheba, and his head is cast out to Joab; the siege is raised (xx. 14-22); repetition of viii.巴起义和亚玛撒的暴力致死:巴煽动叛乱,是以色列的一部分(xx. 1-2);大卫返回耶路撒冷;治疗他的小妾(xx. 3);亚玛撒,吩咐调用Judeans一起,超过了开3天的限制;亚比筛给定的命令,以追求巴;在基遍的大石头,亚玛撒满足他们的全部设备礼炮他约押,和剑刺到他的肠子,杀害他;奄奄一息的一名年轻男子的恩情要求,巴交付亚玛撒(xx. 4-13);巴被围困在阿贝尔;聪明的女人与约押parley救市;约押,和女人的承诺,他的头在墙上,应抛出约押;她诱导人杀死巴,他的头赶出去约押;围困提出(xx. 14-22);第八重复。16-18 (xx. 23-26).16-18(23-26 xx.)。

(3) Complementary Appendixes: Famine and the extermination of Saul's house (xxi. 1-14); the four giants and their capture (xxi. 15-22); David's song of triumph (xxii.); his last words (xxiii. 1-7); his thirty-three "mighty men" (xxiii. 8-39); census (xxiv. 1-9), plague (xxiv. 10-17), and erection of the altar (xxiv. 18-25). (3)补充附录:饥荒和灭绝扫罗的房子(xxi. 1-14);四大巨头和他们的捕获(xxi. 15-22);大卫的胜利(xxii.)的歌曲;他的最后一句话(xxiii. 1-7),他的33个“勇士”(xxiii. 8-39);普查(xxiv. 1-9),鼠疫(xxiv. 10-17),和勃起的祭坛(xxiv. 18-25 )。Complex Documentary Sources.复杂的文件来源。

-Critical View:- 批评的看法:

Rabbinical tradition assigns to Samuel the prophet the authorship of ch.犹太教的传统分配给塞缪尔先知作者的CH。i.-xxiv.一,XXIV。(his own biography up to his death), while, on the strength of I Chron.(他自己的传记,他的死亡),同时,我专栏的实力。xxix.二十九。29, it credits Gad and Nathan with having written the remainder of the book (I and II forming one book in the Jewish canon; BB 14b, 15a; see Biblical Data, above). 29日,它学分与盖德及弥敦道写的书(I和II形成一书在犹太佳能; BB 14B,15A,看到圣经资料,上面)的其余部分。In so far as tradition recognizes that the books of Samuel are not by one author, it accords with the conclusions of the critical schools.到目前为止,作为传统认识,塞缪尔书作者之一,它符合的关键学校的结论。It is, however, needless to add that modern scholars reject the theory of the joint authorship of Samuel, Gad, and Nathan.它是,但是,不用添加现代学者拒绝理论的联合作者塞缪尔,盖德,与弥敦道。As preserved in the canon, the books of Samuel are clearly not the work of men contemporary with the events chronicled.佳能保留,塞缪尔书显然不是当代的事件记载的男性的工作。Behind these documents lie various and conflicting traditions which, in keeping with the method of early Hebrew historiography, the compiler has to a certain extent incorporated in his work without making any attempt to harmonize discrepancies.这些文件的背后,在于不同的和相互冲突的传统,在早期希伯来史学方法,编译器已经在一定程度上在他的工作中,没有作出任何努力,以协调差异。 Thus, in recording how Saul was chosen king, the first book in ch.因此,在录音如何扫罗被选为国王,在CH的第一本书。ix., x.IX。,X。1-16, xi.1-16,喜。1-11, 15, xiii., and xiv. 1-11,15,十三,和十四。1-46 proceeds on the theory that Yhwh had appointed a king over the people in order to liberate them from the yoke of the Philistines, commanding the seer to anoint young Saul, who had come to him while seeking his father's asses (ix. 15 et seq.). 1-46收益上的理论耶和华已经任命了一个国王对人民,为了从非利士人的枷锁中解放出来,指挥先知视作年轻扫罗,曾来找他,同时寻找父亲的驴(ix. 15及以下)。In the war against the Ammonites, Saul proves himself a hero and is chosen king by the people (xi.), after which he leads them against the Philistines (xiii. et seq.).扫罗在反对亚扪人战争,证明自己是英雄,并选择由人民(xi.),之后,他对非利士人(xiii.起。)王。It is for this war that he enlists young David's services (xiv. 52).这是这场战争中,他得到了年轻的大卫的服务(xiv. 52)。 An altogether different sequence of events and ideas is unfolded in vii.事件和思想完全不同的序列是在第七展开。2 et seq., viii., x. 2等以下,八,十,17-24a, xii., and xv.17 - 24A,十二和第十五。Samuel the judge is remembered as having finally and conclusively driven off the Philistines.塞缪尔法官记住最后和决定性关闭非利士驱动。Ungrateful Israel, in order to be like the other peoples, compels Samuel in his old age to yield to their clamor for a king; and Yhwh, though greatly incensed, at last gives His consent (viii., x. 17 et seq.).忘恩负义以色列,以其他国家的人民一样,在他的晚年迫使塞缪尔屈服于他们的国王的呼声;耶和华,虽然大大激怒了,最后给他的同意(viii.,十,17起。) 。With due solemnity Samuel relinquishes the office which he has administered so faithfully, but reserves for himself the post of censor and counselor, and interceder with Yhwh (xii.).随着由于严肃塞缪尔放弃他如此忠实地管理办公室,但为自己储备后,检查员和辅导员,与耶和华(xii.)interceder。 At the first test Saul is discovered to be disobedient and is rejected by Yhwh (xv.).在第一次测试,扫罗被发现是不听话,是耶和华(xv.)拒绝。

In the story of David a similar duplication and divergence are easily established.在大卫的故事类似的重复和分歧很容易建立。In xvi.在第十六。14-23 David is called to Saul's court to dispel the king's evilmoods by playing on the harp. 14-23大卫被称为扫罗人民法院打消国王的演奏竖琴evilmoods。He is a young but tried warrior, and is at once appointed armor-bearer to the monarch.他是一个年轻的,但试图的战士,在任命之后装甲旗手的君主。In ch.在CH。xvii.十七。David is a lad who, up to the time when the story opens, tended his father's flock.大卫是一个小伙子,最多的故事开始的时候,往往他的父亲的羊群。He is not inured to war and kills Goliath with a stone from his shepherd's sling.他不习惯于战争,杀死了巨人,一块石头从他的牧羊人的吊索。This feat of valor attracts to him the attention of Saul, who has him trained subsequently for a warrior's career.这种英勇的壮举吸引他的扫罗,他有他随后一个战士的职业生涯培训的注意。Analysis with reference to both the content and the religious conception thereby disclosed, and also to stylistic and linguistic peculiarities, makes it apparent that the books of Samuel in their present form are a compilation from various written and oral sources, their last editor being post-Deuteronomic.塞缪尔书,在其目前的形式是从各种书面和口头的资料汇编,他们最后的编辑后,分析的内容和宗教观念,从而披露,文体和语言特点,使得它明显申命记。

Oldest Literary Strata.最古老的文学阶层。

Undoubtedly, the oldest literary documents are David's elegies (on the death of Saul and Jonathan, II Sam. i. 18 et seq.; on Abner, a fragment, II Sam. iii. 33-34).毫无疑问,最古老的文献是大卫的挽歌(扫罗和约拿单,二,三一18等SEQ死亡;。押尼珥的一个片段,二,三三33-34)。 Next in age are those portions which are assigned to the "Jerusalem" cycle of stories.在年龄,其次是那些被分配到的“耶路撒冷”的故事周期的部分。This cycle takes its name from the fact that the scene of the happenings it purports to describe is always Jerusalem.这个周期从它的名字,事实上,它意图来形容,居然现场始终是耶路撒冷。It gives a history of David and his house, and is probably the work of a Judean writing shortly after Solomon (II Sam. v. 3-16, vi. 9-20).它提供了历史的大卫和他的房子,和一个犹太书面工作后不久,大概是所罗门(二山姆诉3-16,VI 9-20)。To the ninth century, and to a Judean, or perhaps a Benjamite, author, are credited the fragments of Saul's (I Sam. ix. 1-x. 16, xi., xiii., xiv.) and David's histories (I Sam. xvi. 14-23; xviii. 6-11, 20, 27; xx. 1-3, 11, 18-39; xxiii.-xxv.; xxvii.-xxxi.; II Sam. i.-iv.; v. 1, 2, 17-25; xxi. 15-22; xxiii. 8-39).第九世纪,并以一个犹大,也许是一个便雅悯的作者,都记入扫罗的片段(我山姆。IX。1 - X 16,第十一。,第十三。,XIV。)和大卫的历史(我心十六14-23;第十八6-11,20,27,XX 1-3,11,18-39; xxiii. - 25;。xxvii. XXXI;。II山姆i.-iv.;五,1,2,17-25; XXI 15-22; XXIII 8-39)。

Story of the Ark.方舟的故事

The story of the Ark (I Sam. iv. 1-vii. 1) displays a character of its own; it interrupts the story of Samuel begun in the preceding chapters; the punishment of Eli and his sons, which, according to ch.方舟(。。我心IV 1 - VII)的故事显示了自己的特点;中断塞缪尔的故事开始在前面的章节;惩罚礼和他的儿子,其中,根据CH。iii., might be expected to be the central event, is treated as a mere incident, the whole of Israel being involved in the catastrophe.三,预期可能是中央的事件,是作为一个单纯的事件处理,整个以色列被卷入灾难。Moreover, the fate of the Ark does not emphasize the misfortune of Israel nearly as much as it does the triumph of Elohim, and the episode seems to have been written to bring the latter idea into bold relief.此外,方舟的命运并不强调不幸以色列几乎一样多,因为它的耶洛胜利,情节似乎已书面大胆的救济,使后者的想法。 In this account the Ark is regarded as a tribal or national palladium, not as a mere case for the tablets of the Decalogue.此帐户中的方舟被视为一个部落或国家钯,而不是一个单纯的情况下十诫片。This part exhibits the coloring of a situation in which a resident of the Northern Kingdom, before the cruder conceptions of the Deity had given way to higher ones, would most likely be interested.这部分展品的情况之前的神的粗糙概念已让位给较高的北方王国的居民,在其中,最有可能感兴趣的着色。For this reason it has been held to be a fragment from a history of sanctuaries of northern origin.出于这个原因,它已被认为是从北部起源的避难所历史的一个片段。

The remaining portions of the book reflect the views of prophetism.书的其余部分反映prophetism的意见。The histories of Saul and Samuel are rewritten from a very rigid, prophetic point of view (I Sam. i.-iii.; viii.; x. 17-24; xv. [perhaps]; xvii. 1-xviii. 5 [for the most part], 12-19, 28-30; xix. [most]; xxi. 2-10; xxii.; xxvi.; II Sam. i. 6-10, 13-16).第八;; X. 17-24;扫罗和撒母耳的历史是非常严格的,预言的观点(我心一- III点改写。XV [也许];第十七1 - XVIII 5 [大部分],12-19,28-30;第十九[最];。XXI 2-10; XXII。XXVI;二,三一6-10,13-16)。Ch.CH。xv.十五。seems to be planned to connect the older Saul story with this newer prophetic reconstruction.似乎是这个新的预言重建计划连接旧扫罗的故事。It presupposes the details of the former (xv. 1, 17 [Saul's anointment] refers to x. 1; the phraseology of xv. 19 recalls xiv. 32), but the prophetic reconstruction of this chapter appears not to have been known when the old Saul story was incorporated.它预示前(xv. 1,17 [扫罗推举]指到X 1。第十五用语19回顾十四32)的细节,但本章的预言重建似乎不是已知道当老扫罗的故事成立。Otherwise there would have been no occasion for the elaborate justification of Samuel's right to counsel and command Saul.否则就不会有阐述理由塞缪尔的权利,律师和命令扫罗没有机会。Still, the point of view is similar to that of the prophetic reconstruction.尽管如此,观点是类似的预言重建。Samuel is the king's superior.塞缪尔是国王的优越。He is not the seer, but the prophet, of the type of Amos and Hosea.他不是先知,但先知,阿摩司和何西阿的类型。The story emphasizes the teaching that obedience is more precious than sacrifice (comp. Jer. vii. 21-26).故事强调教学服从更宝贵的牺牲(comp.哲七21-26)。

Supposed Time of Redaction.所谓的密文的时间。

These various components were probably gathered into one compilation shortly before the Exile.这些不同的组件可能聚集成一个汇编前不久流亡。The redactor (Rd) traces of whose hand are found mainly in I Sam.主要分布在我心的redactor(路),其手的痕迹。ii.II。27-36, vii.27-36,第七。 2b-16, xii., and II Sam.2B - 16,十二,二,三。vii., is held to have been under Deuteronomic influences, and thus to have been antecedent to the redactor whose views reflect those of the Priestly Code and through whose hands all of the historical books passed, though in Samuel there are few indications of his revisions, among them the glosses in I Sam.七,举行申命记的影响下,从而已先行的redactor的意见反映那些祭司源代码,并通过其手中所有的历史书籍通过,但在萨穆埃尔有他的一些修订迹象,其中在我心的敷衍了事。 ii.II。22b and the introduction of the Levites in I Sam.22B和引进的利未人在我心。vi.VI。15 and II Sam.15日和二,三。 xv.十五。24.24。Additions in loose connection are noticeable that can not be classified; for instance, I Sam.添置连接松动是明显的,不能归入,例如,我心。xix.十九。18-24 and xx.18-24和xx。 They break the sequence of the narrative and introduce several contradictions.他们打破序列的叙述和介绍几种矛盾。 Ch.CH。xix.十九。18-24 is an attempt to explain a proverbial idiom ("Saul among the prophets"), and, as such, is a double to I Sam.18-24是一个众所周知的成语(“之间的先知,扫罗”),试图解释,正因为如此,我心是一个双重的。x.X.11.11。According to ch.据CH。 xv.十五。35, Samuel never saw Saul again, but here Saul appears before him.35,塞缪尔从未看见扫罗再次,但在这里扫罗出现在他面前。Ch.CH。xx., an account David's flight, is similar to xix.XX,“大卫的飞行,是类似十九。1-7.1-7。Among such additions, gleaned from popular traditions or merely literary embellishments, are reckoned I Sam.在这样的补充,收集民间传统或仅仅是文学修饰,估计我山姆。xxi.XXI。11-16 and II Sam. 11-16和二,三。ii. II。13-16, viii., xxi.-xxiv.13日至16日,第八,xxi. XXIV。The song of Hannah (I Sam. ii. 1 et seq.), the psalm in II Sam.“汉娜”(我心二1起。),在二,三诗篇的歌曲。xxii., and David's "last words" (II Sam. xxiii. 1 et seq.) are very late.二十二,和大卫的“遗言”(二山姆。XXIII 1及以下)。很晚。These additions may have been made at various periods, but they antedate the final redaction as a part of the second larger division of the canon.这些增加的可能已经在各个时期,但他们早于佳能的第二大分工的一部分最后的节录。

Historically, the prophetic reconstruction is entitled to the least confidence.从历史上看,至少有信心的预言重建有权。So strongly is the "Tendenz" impressed upon the narratives of this group that some recent critics have come to the conclusion that they do not represent an originally independent source, but are due to the literary activity of the Deuteronomic redactor.如此强烈的“Tendenz”后,最近的一些批评者得出的结论是,他们并不代表一个原本独立的源组的叙述中留下深刻的印象,但由于文学的Deuteronomic redactor的活动。Being more naively primitive, the Saul and David histories reflect actual occurrences, colored, however, by the desire to exalt the national heroes.然而,更天真原始,扫罗和大卫的历史反映实际发生数,有色,发扬民族的英雄的愿望。The Jerusalem cycle intends to glorify David's dynasty as the legitimate royal family of all Israel.耶路撒冷周期打算美化的合法王室所有以色列的大卫王朝。

The Masoretic text is highly corrupt; that underlying the Septuagint version is more nearly correct.马所拉文本高度腐败,基本septuagint版本更接近正确。The literalism of the Greek has enabled scholars in many instances to reconstruct a text much nearer the original than is the extant Hebrew.希腊拘泥于字句,使学者在许多情况下,重建更接近原始比现存希伯来文本。Unfortunately, the Greek text of the Septuagint itself requires careful editing.不幸的是,希腊文的译本本身需要仔细的编辑。 In many passages the Septuagint shows interpolations based on the Masorah, so that it presents duplicate versions, while in others the original independent Greek has been replaced by the translated Hebrew of the Masoretic text.在许多段落的译本显示了Masorah基于插值,使其呈现重复的版本,而在另一些原来独立希腊已被马所拉文本翻译希伯来文取代。 The various Septuagint codices are not of equal value for purposes of textual criticism.考证的目的不是同等价值的各种译本抄本。The "Codex Vaticanus B" is the most important for the books ofSamuel while the Alexandrinus, itself shows too many emendations of the Greek after the extant Hebrew to be of much aid. “法典Vaticanus B”是最重要的书籍ofSamuel,而Alexandrinus,本身就说明了太多emendations希腊后,现存的希伯来文是多少援助。

Emil G. Hirsch埃米尔G.赫希

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版之间1901-1906。

Bibliography:参考书目:

Textual criticism: Friedrich Böttcher, Neue Exegetisch-Kritische Aehrenlese zum AT 1863, vol.考据学:弗里德里希Böttcher,第一卷,“新Exegetisch Kritische Aehrenlese 1863年ZUM。i.; Julius Wellhausen, Der Text der Bücher Samuelis, 1871; SR Driver, Notes on the Hebrew Text of the Book of Samuel, 1890; R. Kittel, Textkritische Erläuterungen (appendix to E. Kautzsch, Die Heilige Schrift des Alten Testaments, 1896); Karl Budde, in SBOT; A. Mes, Die Bibel des Josephus, 1895; H. Oort, Texti Hebraici Emendationes, 1900.一,朱利叶斯豪森,1871年,德文本DER书刊Samuelis; SR驱动程序,希伯来文,1890年塞缪尔书; R.基特尔,Textkritische Erläuterungen(附录E. Kautzsch,模具Heilige Schrift DES Alten旧约, 1896年);卡尔布德,在SBOT A. MES,模具Bibel约瑟夫,1895年,H.奥尔特,Texti Hebraici Emendationes,1900年。Commentaries: Otto Thenius, Die Bücher Samuels, 1898; August Klostermann, Die Bücher Samuelis und der Könige, 1887; HP Smith, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Books of Samuel, 1899; Karl Budde, Die Bücher Richter und Samuel, 1890; idem, Die Bücher Samuel (in KHC); Bleek, Einleitung, 1878; Guthe, Kurzes Bibelwörterbuch, 1903.EGH评:奥托Thenius,模具书刊塞缪尔,1898年8月Klostermann,模具书刊Samuelis和DER Könige,1887年,HP,萨穆埃尔,1899年图书的一个关键和训诂评史密斯卡尔布德,模具书刊里克特和萨穆埃尔,1890年;同上,模具书刊塞缪尔(KHC); Bleek,导论,1878年; Guthe,Kurzes Bibelwörterbuch,1903.EGH


Samuel塞缪尔

Jewish Perspective Information犹太透视信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章标题:

-Biblical Data:- 圣经的数据:

The Call of Samuel.塞缪尔的呼唤。

Samuel as Judge.塞缪尔作为法官。

Samuel and Saul.撒母耳和扫罗。

Samuel and David.撒母耳和大卫。

-In Rabbinical Literature:在犹太教文学:

Sources of Biography.传记的来源。

-Critical View:- 批评的看法:

Probably Shaped Under Influence of Deuteronomy.大概形状根据申命记的影响。

-Biblical Data:- 圣经的数据:

Samuel was the son of Elkanah and Hannah, of Ramathaim-zophim, in the hill-country of Ephraim (I Sam. i. 1).塞缪尔的儿子Ramathaim - zophim,以利加拿和哈拿在以法莲山地的国家(我心一1)。 He was born while Eli was judge.他出生而礼是法官。Devoted to Yhwh in fulfilment of a vow made by his mother, who had long been childless, he was taken to Shiloh by Hannah as soon as he was weaned, to serve Yhwh during his lifetime (i. 11, 22-23, 28).专门耶和华在履行他的母亲,曾长期被无子女的的发誓,他被带到示罗,只要他断奶,为耶和华在他的一生(一11,22-23,28)由Hannah 。

The Call of Samuel.塞缪尔的呼唤。

The sons of Eli being sons of Belial, wicked and avaricious, Samuel ministered before Yhwh in their stead, being even as a lad girded with a linen ephod (ii. 12 et seq., 22 et seq.).礼是恶魔,邪恶和贪婪,塞缪尔的儿子的儿子事奉之前,耶和华代之而起的,甚至被一个小伙子用麻布以弗得(白介素12及以下,22起。)束。 His mother, on her yearly visits, brought him a robe.他的母亲,她每年互访,给他带来了一件长袍。As he grew up Samuel won ever-increasing favor with Yhwh and with men (ii. 26).当他长大塞缪尔赢得了耶和华与男子(白介素26)不断增加的青睐。How he was called by Yhwh is related as follows: Eli, old and dim of vision, had lain down to sleep, as had Samuel, in the Temple of Yhwh, wherein was the Ark. Then Yhwh called "Samuel!"他是如何由耶和华是如下相关:礼,旧的和暗淡的视野,已经躺在了睡觉,正如塞缪尔,在耶和华的圣殿,其中阿肯色州,然后所谓的耶和华“塞缪尔!” Answering, "Here am I," Samuel, thinking Eli had summoned him, ran to him explaining that he had come in obedience to his call.回答,“我在这里,”塞缪尔,思维礼召见了他,跑到他解释说,他服从他的电话。Eli, however, sent him back to his couch.然而,礼,送他回到他的沙发上。Three times in succession Samuel heard the summons and reported to Eli, by whom he was sent back to sleep.在继承塞缪尔内三次听取了传票,以利报道,其中,他被送往回去睡觉。This repetition finally aroused Eli's comprehension; he knew that Yhwh was calling the lad.这终于引起重复礼的理解,他知道耶和华是调用的小伙子。Therefore he advised him to lie down again, and, if called once more, to say, "Speak, for Thy servant heareth."因此,他劝他再次躺下,如果调用一次,说:“你听见你的仆人,。”Samuel did as he had been bidden.塞缪尔没有,因为他一直吩咐。Yhwh then revealed to him His purpose to exterminate the house of Eli.耶和华然后向他透露,他的目的灭掉礼家。

Samuel hesitated to inform Eli concerning the vision, but next morning, at Eli's solicitation, Samuel related what he had heard (iii. 1-18).塞缪尔犹豫告知礼有关的眼光,但第二天早晨,在礼的邀约,塞缪尔有关他听说(III. 1-18)。Yhwh was with Samuel, and let none of His words "fall to the ground."耶和华是塞缪尔,并让他的话都没有“掉在地上。”All Israel from Dan to Beer-sheba recognized him as appointed to be a prophet of Yhwh; and Samuel continued to receive at Shiloh revelations which he imparted to all Israel (iii. 19-21).所有以色列从但到别是巴承​​认,他的任命是耶和华的先知和Samuel继续收到在希洛揭露他传授给所有以色列(III. 19-21)。

Samuel as Judge.塞缪尔作为法官。

During the war with the Philistines the Ark was taken by the enemy.在与非利士人的战争的方舟是敌人。After its mere presence among the Philistines had brought suffering upon them, it was returned and taken to Kirjath-jearim.后非利士人之间仅仅存在带来了他们的痛苦后,它返回,并采取以Kirjath基列耶琳。While it was there Samuel spoke to the children of Israel, calling upon them to return to Yhwh and put away strange gods, that they might be delivered out of the hands of the Philistines (vii. 2 et seq.).虽然有撒母耳对以色列的孩子们,呼吁他们返回耶和华放好奇怪的神,他们可能是非利士人(vii. 2及以下)。手中交付。 The test came at Mizpah, where, at Samuel's call, all Israel had gathered, under the promise that he would pray to Yhwh for them, and where they fasted, confessed, and were judged by him (vii. 5-6).测试,塞缪尔的呼吁,所有的以色列人都聚集在米斯巴,来到下的承诺,他将祈求耶和华为他们,他们禁食,事实供认不讳,并判断他(vii. 5-6)。Before the Philistines attacked, Samuel took a sucking lamb and offered it for a whole burnt offering, calling unto Yhwh for help; and as the Philistines drew up in battle array Yhwh "thundered with a great thunder" upon them, "and they were smitten beforeIsrael."非利士人攻击之前,塞缪尔了吸吮羊肉,提供了一个整体的燔祭,你们耶和华呼救;和非利士人提请后,他们在阵耶和华“带有很大的雷声轰隆隆”,“和他们重拳出击beforeIsrael。“ As a memorial of the victory Samuel set up a stone between Mizpah and Shen, calling it "Ebenezer" (= "hitherto hath the Lord helped us").作为胜利的纪念塞缪尔设立米斯巴和沈之间的石头,称其为“心光”(=“迄今为止祂所主帮助我们”)。 This crushing defeat kept the Philistines in check all the days of Samuel (vii. 7-14).检查所有的塞缪尔(vii. 7-14)天,这一败涂地保持非利士人。

In his capacity as judge Samuel went each year in circuit to Beth-el, and Gilgal, and Mizpah, but he dwelt at Ramah, where he built an altar (vii. 15 et seq.).在他担任法官塞缪尔的身份,每年在电路伯特利和吉甲和米斯巴,但他住在拉玛,他在那里筑了一座坛(vii. 15起)。 When he had grown old, and was ready to surrender his duties to his sons, neither Joel, the first-born, nor Abijah, the second, proved worthy; they "turned aside after lucre, and took bribes" (viii. 1-3).当他垂垂老矣,准备交出他的儿子的职责,既不乔尔,第一次出生,也不是亚比雅,第二,证明值得他们“驳回后,金钱,收受贿赂”(​​viii. 1 - 3)。This induced the elders to go to Ramah and request Samuel to give them a king, as all the other nations had kings.这引起的长老到拉玛和要求塞缪尔给他们一个国王,因为所有其他国家的国王。Samuel was much vexed, but upon praying to Yhwh and receiving the divine direction to yield, he acquiesced, after delivering a powerful address describing the despotism they were calling upon themselves and their descendants; this address, however, did not turn the people from their purpose (viii. 3 et seq.).塞缪尔很多困扰,但向耶和华祷告,接受神的方向屈服后,他默许描述专制,他们呼吁在他们自己和他们的后代提供了强大的地址后,这个地址,但是,没有转离他们的人民目的(viii. 3起。)In this crisis Samuel met Saul, who had come to consult him, the seer, concerning some lost asses.在这场危机中,塞缪尔会见了扫罗,曾前来咨询他,先见,一些失去驴。Yhwh had already apprised him of Saul's coming, and had ordered him to anoint his visitor king.耶和华已经通报了扫罗的未来他,并下令他要膏他的访客国王。When Saul inquired of him the way to the seer's house, Samuel revealed his identity to the Benjamite, and bade him go with him to the sacrificial meal at the "high place," to which about thirty persons had been invited.当扫罗询问他的方式,以先见的房子,塞缪尔透露他的身份的便雅悯,并吩咐他去与他的牺牲餐“高的地方,”约三十人已被邀请。 He showed great honor to Saul, who was surprised and unable to reconcile these marks of deference with his own humble origin and station.他表现出了极大的荣誉扫罗,感到惊讶和无法调和,用他自己的出身卑微和站的尊重这些标志。 The next morning Samuel anointed him, giving him "signs" which, having come to pass, would show that God was with him, and directing him to proceed to Gilgal and await his (Samuel's) appearance there (ix., x. 1-9).第二天早晨,塞缪尔膏抹他,给他“苗头”,来通过,​​将表明神与他同在,并指挥他进入吉甲,等待他(塞缪尔)外观(ix.,十1 - 9)。

Samuel and Saul.撒母耳和扫罗。

In preparation for the installation of Saul, Samuel called the people together at Mizpah, where the private anointment of Saul was confirmed by his selection by lot (x. 17-24).在准备安装扫罗,塞缪尔呼吁人民一起在米斯巴,其中私人推举扫罗证实他的很多选择(十17-24)。Samuel is reported also to have taken active part in the coronation of Saul at Gilgal (xi. 12-15).塞缪尔报道也已积极参与,在扫罗在吉甲(xi. 12-15)加冕。He profited by the opportunity to rehearse before the people his own life and secure their acknowledgment of his probity.他获利的机会,排练自己的生命和安全摆在人们面前承认他的正直。After a solemn admonition to the people to be loyal to Yhwh, Samuel, as a sign that the demand for a king was fundamentally wicked, called forth thunder and rain, which so impressed the people that they implored him to intercede with Yhwh for them, "that we die not."经过庄严告诫人们要忠于耶和华,萨穆埃尔,作为一个标志,为国王的需求是根本恶人,提出雷声大,雨点,如此深刻的印象的人,他们恳求他与耶和华为他们说情, “我们没有死。”Samuel turned the occasion into a solemn lesson as to what the penalties for disobedience would be (xii.).塞缪尔变成了一个庄严的教训,对不服从处罚(xii.)的场合。

At Gilgal a break with Saul came because, in the absence of Samuel, the king had offered the burnt offering.吉甲与扫罗的突破是因为,在塞缪尔的情况下,国王提供的燔祭。Samuel announced then and there that Saul's dynasty was not to be permitted to continue on the throne (xiii. 8-14).塞缪尔宣布然后扫罗王朝并没有被允许继续王位(xiii. 8-14)。Nevertheless, Samuel sent Saul to accomplish the extermination of Amalek (xv.).然而,塞缪尔发送扫罗完成灭绝亚玛力(xv.)。Again Saul proved refractory, sparing Agag, the Amalekite king, and the flocks, and everything that was valuable.扫罗再次证明难治,饶亚甲,亚玛力王,和羊群,一切是有价值的。Thereupon the word of Yhwh came unto Samuel, announcing Saul's deposition from the throne.于是,耶和华的话临到撒母耳,宣布扫罗的沉积从宝座。Meeting Saul, Samuel declared his rejection and with his own hand slew Agag (xv.).会议扫罗,塞缪尔宣布他拒绝与他自己的手摆亚甲(xv.)。This led to the final separation of Samuel and Saul (xv. 34-35).这导致了最终分离撒母耳和扫罗(xv. 34-35)。Mourning for Saul, Samuel was bidden by Yhwh to go to Jesse, the Beth-lehemite, one of whose sons was chosen to be king instead of Saul (xvi. 4).悼念扫罗,塞缪尔是耶和华吩咐去杰西,伯lehemite之一,其儿子被选择,而不是扫罗国王(xvi. 4)。Fearing lest Saul might detect the intention, Samuel resorted to strategy, pretending to have gone to Beth-lehem in order to sacrifice.恐惧以免扫罗可能检测的意图,塞缪尔诉诸战略,假装去了伯利恒,以牺牲。At the sacrificial feast, after having passed in review the sons of Jesse, and having found that none of those present was chosen by Yhwh, Samuel commanded that the youngest, David, who was away watching the sheep, should be sent for.在祭祀盛宴,通过审查耶西的儿子,并发现,这些目前都被耶和华选择后,塞缪尔指挥,最年轻的,大卫,谁不在看羊,应送交。 As soon as David appeared Yhwh commanded Samuel to anoint him, after which Samuel returned to Ramah (xvi. 5-13).只要大卫出现耶和华吩咐撒母耳膏他,之后,塞缪尔返回拉玛(5-13 xvi.)。

Samuel and David.撒母耳和大卫。

Nothing further is told of Samuel until David's flight to him at Ramah, when he accompanied his fugitive friend to Naioth.没有进一步告诉大卫在拉玛,当他陪同他的逃犯朋友到Naioth他的飞行,直到塞缪尔。There, through Samuel's intervention, Saul's messengers, as did later Saul himself, turned prophets "before Samuel" (xix. 18 et seq.).在那里,通过塞缪尔的干预,扫罗的使者,以及后来扫罗自己,变成了“前塞缪尔”先知(xix. 18起)。The end of Samuel is told in a very brief note: "And Samuel died, and all Israel gathered themselves together, and lamented him, and buried him in his house at Ramah" (xxv. 1, Hebr.).塞缪尔到底是在一个非常简短的的告诉:“撒母耳死了,所有的以色列人聚集起来,他感叹,他在拉玛的房子埋在他”(xxv. 1,黑布尔)。But after his death, Saul, through the witch of En-dor, called Samuel from his grave, only to hear from him a prediction of his impending doom (xxviii. 3 et seq.).但在他死后,扫罗,通过巫恩DOR,叫他的坟墓萨穆埃尔,只有从他听到了他的濒死(xxviii. 3及以下)。的预测。

In I Chron.在我专栏。xxvi.二十六。28 Samuel the seer is mentioned as having dedicated gifts to the Sanctuary.28撒母耳先知提到,有专门的礼品圣殿。He is again represented in I Chron.他再次代表我专栏。xi.十一。3 as having, in Yhwh's name, announced the elevation of David to the throne.作为有3,在耶和华的名义,宣布海拔大卫的王位。He is furthermore credited with having ordained the "porters in the gates" (I Chron. ix. 22).他是另外记受戒“搬运工在盖茨”(我专栏。九,22)。

In the Biblical account Samuel appears as both the last of the Judges and the first of the Prophets, as the founder of the kingdom and as the legitimate offerer of sacrifices at the altars (I Sam. vii. 9 et seq., ix. 22 et seq., x. 8, xi. 15, xvi. 1 et seq.).在圣经帐户塞缪尔出现最后法官和先知第一王国的创始人,并为合法的发货人牺牲在祭坛(我心。七,9 SEQ等。IX。22等1起。X. 8,十一15,十六及以下)。In fact, Chronicles (I Chron. vi. 28) makes him out to be of Levitical descent.事实上,历代志(我专栏。六,28)让他出的利未人的后裔。According to I Sam.据我心。 ix.IX。9, the prophets preceding Samuel were called seers, while it would appear that he was the first to be known as "nabi," or "prophet."9日,被称为前塞缪尔的先知预言家,而它会出现,他被称为“封神”,或“先知。”He was the man of God (ix. 7-8), and was believed by the people to be able to reveal the whereabouts of lost animals.他是神(ix. 7-8)的人,是由人民相信能够揭示失去了动物的行踪。In his days there were "schools of prophets," or, more properly," bands of prophets."在他的日子,有“先知学校”,或更确切地说,“先知的乐队。”From the fact that these bands are mentioned in connection with Gibeah (I Sam. x. 5, 10), Jericho (II Kings ii. 5), Ramah (I Sam. xix. 18 et seq.), Beth-el (II Kings ii. 3), and Gilgal (II Kings iv. 38)-places focal in the career of Samuel-the conclusion seems well assured that it was Samuel who called them into being.从这些频段基比亚(我心。十,5,10),杰里科(二世国王二5),拉玛中提到的事实(我山姆。十九,18及以下),伯特利(II王二3),并在职业生涯的焦点吉甲(二世国王四38),地方塞缪尔的结论似乎很放心,这是塞缪尔呼吁应运而生。 In the Acts of the Apostles (xiii. 20) Samuel occurs as the last of the Judges and the first true prophet in Israel (Acts iii. 24, xiii. 20; Heb. xi. 32), while a gloss in Chronicles (II Chron. xxxv. 18) connects his time with one of the most memorable celebrations of Passover.最后法官的行为的使徒(xiii. 20)塞缪尔发生在以色列的第一个真正的先知(徒三24,十三20;。。希伯来书十一32),而在编年史(二光泽专栏。XXXV 18)连接与逾越节最令人难忘的的庆祝活动之一,他的时间。The Old Testament furnishes no chronological data concerning his life.旧约furnishes没有关于他生活的年代学数据。 If Josephus ("Ant." vi. 13, § 5) is to be believed, Samuel had officiated twelve years as judge before Saul's coronation.约瑟夫(“蚂蚁。”六。13 § 5)如果是可以相信,塞缪尔主持了十二年扫罗的加冕前法官。The year 1095 BC is commonly accepted as that of Saul's accession to the throne.公元前1095这一年是普遍接受的扫罗的登基。 EGHEGH

-In Rabbinical Literature:在犹太教文学:

Samuel was a Levite (Lev. R. xxii. 6) of the family of Korah (Num. R. xviii. 17), and was also a Nazarite (Naz. 66a).塞缪尔是一个利未人(利未记R. XXII 6)可拉(民数记R.十八17)家庭,也是一个拿细耳人(Naz. 66A)。As a child he was extremely delicate (Ḥag. 6a), but highly developed intellectually.作为一个孩子,他是极其微妙的(Ḥag.6A),但高度发达的智力。Thus, when he was weaned and brought by his mother to Shiloh, he noticed that the priests were most careful that the sacrificial victims should be slain by one of their number.因此,当他断奶,并带来由他的母亲到希洛,他注意到,祭司们最认真的,应被杀害了他们的头号牺牲品。Samuel, however, declared to the priests that even a layman might offer sacrifice, whereupon he was taken before Eli, who asked him the grounds of his statement.塞缪尔然而,祭司宣布,即使是外行人可能提供的牺牲,于是他采取前礼,谁问他,他陈述的理由。Samuel answered: "It is not written that the priest shall slay the victim, but only that he shall bring the blood" (Lev. i. 5; comp. Zeb. 32a).撒母耳回答说:“不写,祭司杀死被害人,但只有他带来的血”(利未记一5;比赛瑞伯32A。)。Eli acknowledged the validity of his argument, but declared that Samuel merited the penalty of death for giving legal decisions in the presence of a master; and it was only the entreaty of Samuel's mother which saved the child (Ber. 31b).礼承认他的论点的有效性,但宣布,塞缪尔值得死刑给在主存在的法律问题的决定;这只是恳求撒母耳的母亲救孩子(Ber. 31B)。When God revealed Himself to Samuel for the first time and called his name, he cautiously answered only "Speak" (I Sam. iii. 10) and not, as Eli commanded him, "Speak, O God" (Shab. 113b).当上帝显露了自己的首次塞缪尔,并叫他的名字,他谨慎地回答,唯一的“发言”(我萨姆。三,10)和不作为礼吩咐他,“说吧,O上帝”(Shab. 113B)。

Samuel was very rich.塞缪尔是非常丰富的。On his annual journeys as judge to various cities (comp. I Sam. vii. 16-17) he was accompanied by his entire household, and would accept hospitality from no one (Ber. 10b; Ned. 38a).他每年的行程,判断各城市(comp.我萨姆七16-17。)他是伴随着他的整个家庭,并会接受从没有人的热情好客(Ber. 10B。斯内德38A)。While Moses commanded the people to come to him that he might declare the Law to them (comp. Ex. xviii. 14-16), Samuel visited all the cities of the land to spare the people weary journeys to him; and while Samuel was considered equal to Moses and to Aaron (Ber. 31b; Ta'an. 5b), he was favored above Moses in one respect; for the latter was obliged to go to the Tabernacle to receive a revelation from God, whereas God Himself came to Samuel to reveal His will to him (Ex. R. xvi. 4).虽然摩西所吩咐的人来找他,他可能宣布“他们(comp.前十八14-16),塞缪尔访问所有的土地的城市,他不遗余力的人疲倦的旅程;而塞缪尔认为是平等的摩西和亚伦(Ber. 31B;。Ta'an 5B),他赞成上述摩西在一个方面;后者不得不去幕接收来自神的启示,而神自己来塞缪尔透露他将他(出埃及记R.十六4)。 For ten years Samuel judged Israel; but in the tenth the people asked for a king.十年来塞缪尔判断以色列,但在第十届人民为国王问。 Samuel anointed Saul; and when the latter was rejected by God, Samuel grieved bitterly and aged prematurely (Ta'an. 5b).塞缪尔受膏者扫罗;当后者被神拒绝,塞缪尔痛心痛心疾首,年龄过早(Ta'an 5B)。Cruel though he was in hewing Agag to pieces, yet this was a righteous punishment for the Amalekite, who had been equally barbarous to the children of Israel (Lam. R. iii. 43).残忍虽然他在砍伐亚甲成碎片,但是这是一个正义的亚玛力人,谁已经对以色列的儿童(Lam. R.三43)。同样野蛮的惩罚。

Samuel wrote the books of Judges and Ruth, as well as those bearing his own name, although the latter were completed by the seer Gad (BB 14b-15a).塞缪尔写了法官和露丝的书籍,以及那些承载他自己的名字,尽管后者的先见迦(BB 14B - 15A)完成。 He died at the age of fifty-two (M. Ḳ. 28a).他死了在年龄五十两个(M. K。28A)。When he was raised from the dead by the witch of Endor at the request of Saul (comp. I Sam. xxviii. 7-19), he was terrified, for he believed that he was summoned to appear before the divine judgmentseat; he therefore took Moses with him to bear witness that he had observed all the precepts of the Torah (Ḥag. 4b).WBJZL由巫ENDOR在扫罗的请求(。comp.我萨姆XXVIII 7-19),当他从死里复活,他被吓坏了,因为他认为他被传唤出庭的神圣judgmentseat;因此,他摩西与他的见证,他观察所有戒律的律法(Ḥag.4B)。WBJZL

Sources of Biography.传记的来源。

-Critical View:- 批评的看法:

The outline of the life of Samuel given in the First Book of Samuel is a compilation from different documents and sources of varying degrees of credibility and age, exhibiting many and not always concordant points of view (see Samuel, Books of-Critical View).生活中的第一本书的塞缪尔塞缪尔纲要是从不同的文件和不同程度的可信性和年龄来源的编制,参展的许多观点并不总是一致的点(见撒母耳,查看书籍的关键)。 The name "Shemu'el" is interpreted "asked of Yhwh," and, as Ḳimḥi suggests, represents a contraction of , an opinion which Ewald is inclined to accept ("Lehrbuch der Hebräischen Sprache," p. 275, 3).“Shemu'el”是解释“耶和华问,”和,作为Ḳimḥi建议,代表了收缩,埃瓦尔德是倾向于接受(“Lehrbuch DER Hebräischen Sprache”,第275页,3)的意见。But it is not tenable.但它是站不住脚的。The story of Samuel's birth, indeed, is worked out on the theory of this construction of the name (i. 1 et seq., 17, 20, 27, 28; ii. 20).事实上,塞缪尔的诞生的故事,是制定出对这个理论的名称(一1及以下,17,20,27,28;二20)建设。But even with this etymology the value of the elements would be "priest of El" (Jastrow, in "Jour. Bib. Lit." xix. 92 et seq.).但即使有这样的的词源元素的值将是“神父萨尔瓦多”(贾斯特罗,“季刊。背带裤。点燃。”十九,92及以下)。 Ch.CH。iii.III。supports the theory that the name implies "heard by El" or "hearer of El."支持这一理论顾名思义,或“由萨尔瓦多听到”萨尔瓦多听话。“The fact that "alef" and "'ayin" are confounded in this interpretation does not constitute an objection; for assonance and not etymology is the decisive factor in the Biblical name-legends, and of this class are both the first and the second chapter. “ALEF”和“阿银”这种解释混淆的事实并不构成反对为谐音,而不是词源是圣经的名称,传说中的决定性因素,这个类是第一和第二章。The first of the two elements represents the Hebrew term "shem" (= "name"); but in this connection it as often means "son."这两个元素的第一个代表希伯来文的“闪”(=“姓名”);但在这方面,它往往意味着“儿子。”"Shemu'el," or "Samuel," thus signifies "son of God" (see Jastrow, lc). “Shemu'el,”或“塞缪尔”,从而标志着“神的儿子”(见贾斯特罗,LC)。

The older strata in the story are more trust worthy historically than are the younger.故事中的老地层更值得信赖的历史比年轻。In I Sam.在我心。ix.IX。1-x.1 - X。16 Samuel is a seer and priest at one of the high places; he is scarcely known beyond the immediate neighborhood of Ramah.16撒母耳先见和牧师在高的地方之一,他是很难超越近邻的拉玛。Saul does not seem to have heard of him; it is his "boy" that tells him all about the seer (ix.).扫罗似乎没有听说过他,这是他的“男孩”,告诉他所有关于先知(ix.)。But in his capacity as seer and priest, Samuel undoubtedly was the judge, that is, the oracle, who decided the "ordeals" for his tribe and district.但在他的先见和牧师的能力,塞缪尔无疑是法官,也就是甲骨文,谁决定他的部落和地区的“考验”。In order to apply to him the title of "judge" in the sense it bore in connection with the heroes of former days-the sense of "liberator of the people"-the story of the gathering at Mizpah is introduced (vii. 2 et seq.).为了适用于他在这个意义上的“法官”称号,它在连接前的英雄天的“人民的解放者”的意义孔聚集在米斯巴的故事介绍(vii. 2等起)。Indeed, the temptation is strong to suspect that originally the name (Saul) was found as the hero of the victory, for which later that of (Samuel) was substituted.事实上,诱惑是强烈的怀疑,原来的名称(索尔)是胜利的英雄,后来(塞缪尔)被替换。At all events, the story proceeds on the assumption that Samuel had given earnest thought to his people's plight, and therefore was prepared to hail the sturdy Benjamite as the leader in the struggle with the Philistines (ix. 15, 17, 20 et seq.; x. 1 et seq.).所有事件,假设,塞缪尔给予认真的故事收益以为他的人民的困境,并因此准备冰雹在与非利士人的斗争中的领导者(ix. 15,17,20及以下的坚固便雅悯。 ; X. 1起)。His hero was to be the champion of Yhwh and of Yhwh's people, the anointed prince ("nagid"), whose call would rouse the scattered tribes from their lethargy and whose leadership would unite the discordant elements into a powerful unit for offense and defense.他的英雄冠军的耶和华和耶和华的人,的受膏者王子(“nagid”),其呼叫将振奋其嗜睡的分散的部落和他的领导将团结成一个强大的单位的进攻和防守的不和谐元素。 Favoring Saul even before the people had recognized in him their predestined leader, Samuel soon had cause to regret the choice.塞缪尔偏袒扫罗甚至摆在人们面前,他承认自己命中注定的领导人,很快就引起后悔的选择。Common to both accounts of the rupture (xiii. 8 et seq. and xv. 10 et seq.) is the disobedience Saul manifested in arrogating to himself Samuel's functions as priest and offerer; the story concerning Agag's exemption from the ban (see Schwally, "Der Heilige Krieg im Alten Israel," p. 30) seems to be the more likely of the two, but in both instances the data show clear traces of having been recast into prophetic-priestly molds.常见的破裂。xiii. 8等SEQ和XV 10等SEQ两个账户是在抗命扫罗在冒用自己作为牧师和发货人Samuel的功能表现;的故事有关的禁令(见Schwally亚甲的豁免, “明镜Heilige克里格IM Alten以色列,”第30页)似乎是两个可能,但在这两种情况的数据显示清晰有被改写成的预言,祭司模具的痕迹。

Probably Shaped Under Influence of Deuteronomy.大概形状根据申命记的影响。

In fact, the majority of the reports concerning Samuel reflect the post-Deuteronomic, prophetic conception, and therefore, on the theory that before the erection of the central and permanent sanctuary the "altars" and "high places" were legitimate, no offense is manifested at his having, though not a priest, sacrificed at these places, though precisely for this reason the Book of Chronicles lays stress upon his Levitical descent.事实上,大多数关于塞缪尔报告反映后​​申命记,先知的概念,因此,前竖立中央和永久的避难所了“神坛”和“高的地方”是合法的理论,没有犯罪虽然表现在他有,但不是一个牧师,牺牲在这些地方,正是因为这个原因的编年史书规定后,他利未血统的压力。 In ch.在CH。iii.III。20 Samuel appears as the prophet of Yhwh, known as such from Dan to Beer-sheba. 20塞缪尔出现耶和华的先知,被称为从丹啤酒巴。In ch.在CH。xix.十九。18 et seq.18及以下。Samuel is at the head of prophet bands (differing from ix. 1 et seq., where these roving bands of "shouters" ["nebi'im"] appear to be independent of him). 1起。“呼喊派”这些巡回乐队“nebi'im”似乎是他独立)。撒母耳先知带的头(从第九不同。Again, ch.再次,CH。vii., viii., and ix.第七,八,九和。represent him as the theocratic chief of the nation.作为政教合一的国家行政代表他。Ch.CH。vii.七。7 et seq.7起。must be held to be pure fiction, unless it is one of the many variants of Saul's victory over the Philistines (comp. xiii. 1 et seq.).必须持有纯属虚构,除非它是许多变种扫罗对非利士人的胜利(comp.十三,1及以下)。之一。 Nor is there concordance in the conceptions of the rise and nature of the monarchy and the part Samuel played in its founding.也没有在君主制和部分塞缪尔发挥其创始的兴起与自然的观念一致。In ix.-x.在ix.-x.16 Yhwh legitimatizes the nomination of the king, but in ch.16耶和华legitimatizes国王的提名,但在CH。viii.VIII。the view of Deut.申观点。 xvii.十七。14 et seq.14及以下。predominates.占主导地位。This chapter could not have been written before Hos.本章没有被写入之前,居者有其屋计划。x.X.9, and the reign of Solomon and some of his successors.9,和所罗门统治和他的继任者。The fact is, the monarchy developed without the intervention of Samuel.事实是,君主没有干预塞缪尔。Such deeds as those performed at Jabesh caused the people to offer Saul the crown at Gilgal (xi. 1 et seq.), an act which Samuel, who at first may have welcomed the young leader as chief only, expecting him to remain under his tutelage, was compelled to ratify.在雅比执行者的这种言行引起人民提供扫罗在吉甲冠(xi. 1起。),萨穆埃尔,欢迎在第一只担任首席年轻的领导人,希望他留在他的行为指导下,被迫批准。

The story of David's elevation (xvi. 1-13) presents itself as an offset to that of Saul's (I Sam. x. 17 et seq.), the historical kernel in it being the fact that Samuel, disappointed in Saul, transferred his favor to the rival tribe of Judah, and intrigued to bring about the raising of a counter-king in the young freebooter David.大卫的故事海拔(xvi. 1-13)提出了自己作为一个偏移,扫罗的(我山姆。X. 17及以下),他在它的事实,萨穆埃尔,在扫罗失望,转移的历史内核有利于对手的犹太部落,和好奇带来的反王劫掠者大卫在年轻的提高。Ch.CH。xv.十五。is a prophetic apotheosis of Samuel, which rings with the accents familiar in the appeals of Amos, and which makes Samuel a worthy forerunner of Elijah.是一个先知塞缪尔神化,戒指在阿摩司上诉熟悉的口音,并使得塞缪尔一个值得以利亚先行者。The Levitical genealogy of I Chron.我专栏的利未的家谱。vi.VI。is not historical.是不是历史。

Emil G. Hirsch, Wilhelm Bacher, Jacob Zallel Lauterbach埃米尔G.赫希,威廉巴切尔,雅各Zallel劳特巴赫

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版之间1901-1906。

Bibliography: Guthe, Gesch.参考书目:Guthe,Gesch。des Volkes Israel, pp. 68 et seq., Freiburg, 1899; idem, Bibelwörterbuch, Tübingen and Leipsic, 1903; HP Smith, Old Testament History, p.DES Volkes以色列,SEQ - 68等,弗赖堡,1899年同上,Bibelwörterbuch,蒂宾根大学和Leipsic,1903年,惠普史密斯,旧约历史,第106, New York, 1903.EGH 106,纽约,1903.EGH



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