Second Vatican Council理二次梵蒂冈会议

General Information一般资料

The Second Vatican Council, the 21st ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic church, was announced by Pope John XXIII on Jan. 25, 1959.梵蒂冈第二次会议,21的罗马天主教教会的大公会议,宣布1959年1月25日,教皇约翰二十三世。On Oct. 11, 1962, after four years of preparation, the council formally opened. 1962年10月11日,经过4年的准备,安理会正式开业。Four sessions convened; the last three (1963-65) were presided over by Pope Paul VI, who succeeded John as pontiff in June 1963.四次会议召开,过去三年(1963-65)的主持下,成功地为教皇约翰在1963年6月的罗马教皇保罗六世。 The council ended on Dec. 8, 1965.该理事会,1965年12月8日结束。

Unlike previous ecumenical councils, the Second Vatican Council was not held to combat contemporary heresies or deal with awkward disciplinary questions but simply, in the words of Pope John's opening message, to renew "ourselves and the flocks committed to us, so that there may radiate before all men the lovable features of Jesus Christ, who shines in our hearts that God's splendor may be revealed."不像以前合一议会,梵蒂冈第二次会议没有举行,以打击与尴尬的纪律问题当代异端邪说或处理,但简单地说,教皇约翰的开放消息的话,要更新“自己和致力于向我们的羊群,因此,有可能辐射之前所有的人耶稣基督可爱的特点,照在我们的心中,上帝的辉煌可能会透露。“

The participants with full voting rights were all the bishops of the Roman Catholic church, of both the Western and Eastern rites, superiors-general of exempt religious orders, and prelates with their own special spheres of jurisdiction.具有完全投票权的参与者,无论是西方和东方的仪式,豁免宗教命令的上级一般,和自己管辖范围的特殊领域的主教,罗马天主教的主教。 Non-Catholic Christian churches and alliances and Catholic lay organizations were invited to send observers.非天主教的基督教堂和联盟和天主教教友组织应邀派观察员出席。These observers, however, had neither voice nor vote in the council deliberations.然而,这些观察员既不声音在安理会审议或表决。

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The council produced 16 documents--all of which had to be approved by the pope before they became official--on such subjects as divine revelation, the sacred liturgy, the church in the modern world, the instruments of social communication, ecumenism, Eastern Catholic churches, renewal of religious life, the laity, the ministry and life of priests, missionary activity, Christian education, the relationship of the church to non-Christian religions, and religious freedom.会产生16个文件 - 所有这些都必须由教皇批准,才成为正式的 - 神的启示,神圣的礼仪,教会在现代世界,社会沟通的工具,普世主义,东欧等科目天主教教堂,宗教生活的重建,俗人,部和生活的牧师,传教活动,基督教教育,教会对非基督宗教的关系,和宗教自由。 Of these, the most important and influential for the subsequent life of the Roman Catholic church have been the Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, which gave renewed importance to the role of the bishops; the Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy, which authorized vernacularization of the liturgy and greater lay participation; the Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World, which acknowledged the need for the church to adapt itself to the contemporary world; the Decree on Ecumenism; and the Declaration on Religious Freedom.其中,最重要和最有影响力的罗马天主教会的后续的生活已经教会主教的作用,这给了新的重要性的教条式的宪法,宪法的神圣礼仪,授权的礼仪vernacularization和更大打下参与;普世法令;和“宗教自由宣言”教会在现代世界,承认为教会的需要,适应当代世界的田园宪法。 Together these documents present a church that is primarily a worshiping and serving community open to various points of view and religious traditions.这些文件结合起来,目前主要是一个崇拜和服务的社会开放,各点的观点和宗教传统的一所教堂。

Although the Second Vatican Council had enormous impact, it cannot be isolated from prior and parallel liturgical, theological, biblical, and social developments.尽管梵蒂冈第二次会议已产生巨大的影响,它不能被孤立事先和平行礼仪,神学,圣经,和社会的发展。In few instances did the council initiate a new way of thinking for the church.在少数情况下会启动一个新的思考教会方式。 It endorsed specific approaches, tentatively in some cases, and planted seeds for other, possibly more radical, changes in the future.赞同的具体办法,暂定在某些情况下,和其他,可能更为激进,在未来的变化埋下种子。

Richard P. Mcbrien理查德体育Mcbrien

Bibliography 参考书目
Abbott, WA, ed., The Documents of Vatican II (1966); Deretz, Jacques, and Nocent, Adrien, eds., Dictionary of the Council (1968); Miller, JH, ed., Vatican II: An Interfaith Appraisal (1966); Vorgrimler, Herbert, ed., Commentary on the Documents of Vatican II, 5 vols.雅培,WA,编辑,梵蒂冈II(1966)的文件; Deretz,雅克,诺桑,阿德里安,EDS,理事会(1968年)的词典;米勒,JH,ED,梵二:。。一个宗教间的评价( 1966年); Vorgrimler,赫伯特,ED,梵二文件,5卷的评论。(1967-69).(1967-69)。

Second Vatican Council梵蒂冈第二次会议

General Information一般资料

The Second Vatican Council was the 21st ecumenical council recognized by the Roman Catholic church, which became the symbol of the church's openness to the modern world.梵蒂冈第二次会议是由罗马天主教教会21基督教会的认可,成为教会的开放的现代世界的象征。The council was announced by Pope John XXIII on January 25, 1959, and held 178 meetings in the autumn of each of four successive years.理事会是1959年1月25日,教皇约翰二十三世宣布,在连续四年每年秋季举行的178会议。 The first gathering was on October 11, 1962, and the last on December 8, 1965.首次聚会上,1962年10月11日,和去年12月8日,1965年。

Of 2908 bishops and others eligible to attend, 2540 from all parts of the world participated in the opening meeting.2908主教和其他人有资格参加,来自世界各地的2540参加在会议开幕式上。The US delegation of 241 members was second in size only to that of Italy.241名成员组成的美国代表团的规模,仅次于意大利。 Asian and African bishops played a prominent role in the council's deliberations.亚洲和非洲的主教起到了突出的作用在安理会审议的。

Only Communist nations were sparsely represented, the result of government pressures.只有共产党国家人口稀少的代表,政府压力的结果。The average attendance at the meetings was 2200.在会议的平均出席2200。

Preparations for the council began in May 1959, when the world's Roman Catholic bishops, theological faculties, and universities were asked to make recommendations for the agenda.立法会的筹备工作开始于1959年5月,世界的罗马天主教主教,神学学院,和大学时被要求做的议程提出建议。 Thirteen preparatory commissions with more than 1000 members were appointed to write draft proposals on a wide range of topics.超过1000个成员的13个筹备委员会被任命为范围广泛的议题上写提案草案。They prepared 67 documents called schemata, a number reduced to 17 by a special commission convoked between the council's 1962 and 1963 sessions.他们准备称为图式67份文件,这个数字减少到17之间的理事会1962年和1963年的会议召集了一个特别委员会。 Voting members of the council were Roman Catholic bishops and heads of male religious orders, but, in a radical departure from past practice, Orthodox and Protestant churches were invited to send official delegate-observers.理事会的投票权的成员,罗马天主教主教和男性宗教订单的负责人,但是,从以往的做法大相径庭,东正教和新教教堂被邀请派正式代表,观察员。 Male lay Roman Catholic auditors were invited to the 1963 session, during which two of them addressed the council.男奠定罗马天主教审计员被邀请到1963年的会议,在此期间,他们两个在安理会发言。Women auditors were added in 1964.妇女核数师于1964年加入。The agenda was extensive, and topics discussed included modern communications media, relations between Christians and Jews, religious freedom, the role of laity in the church, liturgical worship, contacts with other Christians and with non-Christians, both theists and atheists, and the role and education of priests and bishops.会议的议程是广泛的,讨论的主题包括现代通讯媒体,基督徒和犹太人之间的关系,宗教信仰自由,在教会中的作用的俗人,礼仪崇拜,与其他基督徒与非基督徒,有神论者和无神论者的接触,和神父和主教的作用和教育。

Major Documents and Conclusions主要文件和结论

The council issued 16 documents, notably the constitutions on divine revelation (Dei Verbum, November 18, 1965) and on the church ( Lumen Gentium, November 11, 1964) and the pastoral constitution on the church in the modern world (Gaudium et Spes, December 7, 1965).安理会发表了16个文件,特别是神的启示(DEI Verbum,1965年11月18日)和教会(流明Gentium,1964年11月11日)和教会在现代世界(Gaudium等SPES牧区宪法的宪法, 1965年12月7日)。The constitution on divine revelation was informed by the best modern biblical scholarship.神的启示宪法获悉,由最好的现代圣经奖学金。The council explained the Roman Catholic understanding of how the Bible, tradition, and church authority relate to one another in the exposition of divine revelation.安理会解释的圣经,传统,教会的权威如何在神的启示的论述的罗马天主教的理解。

The constitution on the church stressed a biblical understanding of the Christian community's organization, rather than the juridical model that had more recently been dominant.教会的宪法强调了圣经中的基督教社区的组织,而不是最近一直占据主导地位的法人模式的理解。Terming the church the "people of God," it emphasized the servant nature of offices such as those of priest and bishop, the collegial, or shared, responsibility of all bishops for the entire church, and the call of all church members to holiness and to participation in the church's mission of spreading the gospel of Christ. Terming教会的“神人”,​​它强调的仆人的性质,如司铎和主教,合议,或共享,整个教堂的所有主教的责任,并呼吁所有教会成员的办公室圣洁参与传播基督福音教会的使命。 The tone of the pastoral constitution on the church in the modern world was set in its opening words, which declared that the church shared the "joy and hope, the grief and anguish of contemporary humanity, particularly of the poor and afflicted."在其开幕式的话,教会分享“的喜悦和希望,当代人类的悲痛和痛苦,特别是贫穷和折磨,宣布成立的教会在现代世界上的田园宪法的语气。” It began with a theological analysis of humanity and the world, then turned to specific areas such as marriage and family, cultural, social, and economic life, the political community, war and peace, and international relations.它与人类和世界的神学分析开始,然后转向特定领域,如婚姻家庭,文化,社会和经济生活,政治社会,战争与和平,国际关系。

A constitution on liturgy promoted more active communal participation in the Mass as the central act of Roman Catholic public worship and was the initial step in changes that by 1971 included the replacement of Latin, the ancient language of the service, by vernacular languages.一个宪法上的礼仪在地下推动更积极的社区参与中央的罗马天主教公众崇拜行为,是在变化的初始步骤,包括1971年拉丁美洲的更换,服务的古代语言,方言,。 Other documents sought common ground in dealings with Orthodox and Protestant Christians and with those who are not Christians.其他文件,寻求共同点,在与东正教会和新教的基督徒与那些不是基督徒的交往。In a rare departure from its deliberate policy of avoiding condemnations, the council deplored "all hatreds, persecutions, and displays of anti-Semitism leveled at any time or from any source against the Jews."在罕见背离其深思熟虑的政策,避免谴责,安理会谴责“一切仇恨,迫害,并显示在任何时间或任何反犹太人的来源夷为平地的反犹太主义。” American delegates played a significant role in shaping the council's declaration upholding the universal right of religious freedom, a document in which the thought of the American theologian John Courtney Murray figured prominently.美国代表在塑造安理会的声明,坚持宗教信仰自由,美国神学家约翰考特尼穆雷的思想占有突出地位,在其中一个文件的普遍权利发挥了重大作用。

Pope John had launched the Second Vatican Council on a positive note, setting as its purposes the updating and renewal (aggiornamento) of the Roman Catholic church and achievement of Christian and human unity.教皇约翰发起了一个积极的梵蒂冈第二次会议,其目的设置的更新和重建的罗马天主教和基督教和人类团结的成就(aggiornamento)。 Pope Paul VI, who continued the council after John's death in 1963, endorsed those purposes and added that of dialogue with the modern world.教皇保罗六世,继续在1963年后,约翰的死亡会,通过这些目的,并补充说,与现代世界的对话。

Reception and Opposition接待和反对

Initial reaction to the council was generally favorable.理事会的初步反应普遍良好。One major result was the development of closer relations among Christian churches.一个主要的结果是基督教教会的发展之间的关系更加密切。But as currents of change, some of them unrelated to anything that had occurred at the council, continued to sweep through the church, conservative Roman Catholic groups began to fear that the reforms had become too radical.但是,随着电流的变化,其中一些发生在安理会的任何无关,继续通过教会来扫去,保守的罗马天主教团体开始担心,过于激进的改革已成为的。 Organized dissent surfaced, and some critics challenged the authority both of the council and of the popes who carried out its decrees.有组织异议浮出水面,一些批评者质疑理事会和谁进行了其法令的教皇的权威。Opposition to changes in the church's liturgy became a rallying point for those whose discontent with change ran far deeper.反对在教会的礼仪变化成为那些不满与改变跑远远更深的着力点。

The most prominent leader of the "Catholic traditionalists" who rejected the doctrinal and disciplinary reforms instituted by Vatican Council II was a retired French archbishop, Marcel Lefebvre, who in 1970 founded an international group known as the Priestly Fraternity of St. Pius X. He declared that the council's reforms "spring from heresy and end in heresy." “天主教传统主义者”,拒绝理论和梵二大公会议所制定的纪律改革最突出的领导者是一位退休的法国大主教马塞尔勒菲弗尔,成立于1970年被称为圣皮乌斯十,他的祭司联谊会国际集团宣布,安理会的改革“春天在异端邪教和结束。” Efforts at reconciliation between Rome and Archbishop Lefebvre were unsuccessful.在罗马和大主教勒费弗尔之间和解的努力均告失败。 Pope Paul VI suspended him from the exercise of his functions as priest and bishop in 1976, but he continued his activities, including ordination of priests to serve traditionalist churches.教皇保罗六世暂停他的牧师和主教在1976年行使其职能,但他继续了他的活动,包括为传统主义教堂的牧师的协调。 Lefebvre was excommunicated in 1988.列斐伏尔在1988年被逐出教会。

James Hennesey詹姆斯Hennesey

Second Vatican Council (1962-1965)第二次梵蒂冈会议(1962-1965)

Advanced Information先进的信息

Regarded by Roman Catholics as the twenty-first ecumenical church council, Vatican II was a deliberate attempt to renew and bring up to date (aggiornamento) all facets of church faith and life.第二,梵蒂冈,罗马天主教视为二十一合一教会理事会是故意更新和教会的信仰和生活的各个方面带来高达日期(aggiornamento)。 It was convened in October of 1962 by Pope John XXIII, and reconvened in September 1963 by his successor, Pope Paul VI.它是由教皇约翰二十三世于1962年10月召开,由他的继任者,教皇保罗六世在1963年9月再次举行会议。Altogether the council held four annual fall sessions, finally adjourning after approving sixteen major texts that were promulgated by the pope.共有理事会每年秋季举行了四次会议,最后批准十六个主要著作是由教皇颁布后休会。 At the opening session 2,540 bishops and other clerical members of council attended, and an average of 2,300 members were present for most major votes.在开幕式上,2540主教和其他文书理事会的成员参加,平均2300名成员目前大多数主要票。The council took on a profound and electrifying life of its own.安理会注意到其自身的深刻和电气化生活。Before the eyes of the world it succeeded in initiating an extraordinary transformation of the Roman Catholic Church.之前,全世界的目光,它成功地发起的罗马天主教会的非凡改造。

Occasion and Characteristics节假日特点

In January, 1959, Pope John XXIII announced his intention to convene an ecumenical council. ,1959年1月,教皇约翰二十三世宣布,他打算召开一次大公会议。After one full year of gathering suggestions throughout the church he established ten commissions to prepare draft documents for the council to consider.全年收集整个教会的建议后,他成立了10个委员会准备理事会审议的文件草案。He formally called the council in December, 1961, and opened it in St. Peter's Basilica, Rome, on October 11, 1962.他被正式命名,1961年12月的理事会,1962年10月11日,在圣彼得大教堂,罗马,打开。

In various communications, including his opening speech, Pope John indicated the needs of the hour.在各种通信,包括他的开幕致辞中,教皇约翰表示小时的需求。The Western world had experienced during the 1950s stupefying technical, scientific, and economic expansion that had given countless people occasion to put their trust in material goods even while other millions of people lived in devastating poverty and suffering.愚民20世纪50年代的技术,科学和经济的扩张,给予了无数人的场合把物质产品的信任,甚至以百万计的其他人在毁灭性的贫穷和苦难的生活经历过西方世界。 Militant atheism abounded, and the world was undergoing grave spiritual crisis.激进的无神论的天堂,世界正在经历严重的精神危机。But, proclaimed Pope John, and herewith he set the character of the entire council, the world needs not the condemnation of its errors but the full supply of "the medicine of mercy."但是,宣布教皇约翰,附上他的整个安理会的字符,世界需要的不是其错误的谴责,但充分供应“怜悯医药。”The church, via the council, aimed to help the world by rejuvenating its own faith and life in Christ, by updating itself, by promoting the unity of all Christians, and by directing Christian presence in the world to the works of peace, justice, and well-being.通过理事会,旨在帮助更新本身,通过促进所有基督徒的团结振兴自己的信仰和基督的生命,世界,通过引导基督教世界的存在,和平,正义的作品的教堂,和福祉。

Chief among the council's characteristics was a pastoral spirit which dominated throughout.各行政理事会的特点是牧区的精神主导。There was also a biblical spirit.也有一个圣经的精神。From the very beginning the bishops indicated that they would not accept the rather abstract and theologically exact drafts prepared for them.从开始的主教表示,他们不会接受为他们准备的比较抽象和神学确切草案。Instead, they desired to express themselves in direct biblical language.相反,他们所需的直接圣经的语言来表达自己。Moreover, there was an evident awareness of history, the history of salvation, the pilgrim church, the ongoing tradition, the development of doctrine, the openness to the future.此外,有一个明显的历史意识,救恩,朝圣者教会的历史,目前正在进行的传统学说的发展,未来的开放性。The council was ecumenical in its outreach to non-Catholic Christians (represented by observers from twenty-eight denominations) and humble in relation to non-Christian religions.安理会是在其推广普世非天主教的基督徒(由二十八个教派的观察员代表)和非基督教的宗教谦卑。It was remarkably open to the whole world, especially through massive global press coverage and by directly addressing the world in an opening "Message to Humanity," and in a series of closing messages to political rulers, intellectuals and scientists, artists, women, the poor, workers, and youth.这明显是向全世界开放,特别是通过大规模的全球新闻报道,并通过直接处理在一个开放的世界“的消息对人类”和一系列政治统治者,知识分子和科学家,艺术家,妇女,关闭消息差,工人和青年。 Yet the council kept the church thoroughly consistent with its Roman Catholic identity and tradition.然而,安理会保持教会与罗马天主教的身份和传统彻底一致。

On the Church在教会

Undoubtedly the central theme of the promulgated documents was the church.毫无疑问,中央颁布的文件的主题是教会。The "Dogmatic Constitution on the Church" (Nov. 1964) was the pivotal doctrinal statement of the entire council.“对教会的教条式的宪法”(1964年11月)是举足轻重的教义,整个安理会的声明。A second dogmatic constitution was "On Divine Revelation."第二教条式的宪法“在神圣的启示。”A third, called simply a constitution, was "On Liturgy," and a fourth, called a pastoral constitution, was "On the Church in the Modern World."三分之一,简称宪法,是“在礼仪”和第四,所谓的田园宪法,是“论教会在现代世界。”In addition, nine practical decrees and three declarations of principle were promulgated.此外,九个实用的法令和颁布了三个原则声明。Of these, five concerned the vocations of the church as fulfilled by bishops, priests (two), members of religious orders, and the media.其中,有五个关注由主教,司铎(二),宗教界人士和媒体履行教会的圣召。Four covered the church's relations with Eastern Catholics, ecumenism, non-Christian religions, and civil governments (religious liberty).四覆盖东部天主教徒,大公运动,非基督教的宗教和民间政府(宗教信仰自由)教会的关系。

The constitution "On the Church," in eight chapters (also called Lumen gentium), was the first ever issued on the subject by a council. “教会”,在八个章节(也称为流明gentium)宪法,是有史以来第一次由理事会的主题发出。In a direct way it explicitly continued and completed the work of Vatican I. In particular it incorporated (ch. 3) almost verbatim the controversial statement on papal infallibility, with the addition that infallibility also resided in the body of bishops when exercising the magisterium (doctrinal authority) in conjunction with the pope.在一种直接的方式,它明确地继续并完成的工作特别是梵蒂冈的一法(章),几乎是逐字争议声明教皇infallibility此外,犯错误也居住在主教的身体时行使的训导,(理论权威)与教宗一起。 The primacy of the Roman pontiff was again affirmed, but, significantly, the centrality of the bishops was also affirmed.罗马教皇的首要地位再次被肯定,但显着,主教的中心地位,也肯定。This was the principle of collegiality, that the bishops as a whole were the continuation of the body of the apostles of which Peter was head.这是集体领导的原则,作为一个整体的主教是使徒彼得是身体的延续。By placing episcopal collegiality in union with papal primacy and by shared infallibility the council resolved the ancient tension of pope versus councils.通过工会与罗马教皇的首要主教合议和共享犯错误安理会解决古教皇与议会的紧张关系。

The same document (ch. 4) introduced the biblical teaching that the church as a whole was the people of God, including both clergy and laity.同一文件(章4)介绍了圣经的教导,教会作为一个整体,是神的人,包括僧侣和俗人。This reversed centuries of virtually explicit assertion that the clergy alone were the church.这扭转世纪的教堂神职人员本身几乎明确断言。Both laity and clergy, the document affirmed, shared in the priestly, prophetic, and kingly functions of Christ.俗人和神职人员,该文件确认,在基督的祭司,先知,和王道功能共享。The decree "On the Laity" and the constitution "On the Church in the Modern World" (also called Gaudium et spes) charged lay people to undertake their work in the world in all walks of life as Christian vocations, as a lay apostolate which shared directly in the continuation of the work of the apostles of Christ. “俗人”宪法“论教会在现代世界”(也称为Gaudium等SPES)的法令控告奠定人在世界上开展他们的工作为基督徒的圣召各界,作为一个世俗的使徒直接共享,在基督的使徒工作的延续。 This too undid centuries of emphasis on the clergy, monks, and nuns as virtually the sole possessors of Christian calling.这也几乎毁掉了作为基督教调用的唯一拥有百年的重视神职人员,僧侣和尼姑。

On Divine Revelation在神圣的启示

This second dogmatic constitution continued the work of Vatican I, but profoundly modified it.这第二个教条式的宪法,继续梵蒂冈我的工作,但深刻地修改它。As continuation, it stressed the necessity of the magisterium of the church functioning within the ongoing sacred tradition "which comes from the apostles [and] develops in the Church with the help of the Holy Spirit."作为延续,它强调在正在进行的神圣的传统“从使徒[和],在教会与圣灵的帮助。”训导的教会运作的必要性The profound modification was the new de facto primacy given to sacred Scripture.深厚的修改是圣经的新的事实上的首要地位。 Four of the six chapters define the Scriptures of the OT and the NT as the sacred communication by God, under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, of "those things which he wanted."四六章定义为神圣的沟通OT和NT圣经神,圣灵的启示下,“他想的事情。”While use of critical methods is appropriate, "serious attention must be given to the content and unity of the whole of Scripture."虽然使用的关键方法是恰当的,“严重注意,必须考虑整个圣经的内容和团结。”Sacred Scripture is properly interpreted within the context of the sacred tradition and of the magisterium of the church; all three together and each differently are due to the action of the same Holy Spirit.正确解释圣经的神圣传统的背景下,教会的训导,三者结合起来,每个不同是由于同一圣灵的行动。 The biblical emphasis is made explicit here and in other decrees by the centrality given to Scripture in the revised liturgy, in the education of clergy, in the exposition of the council's teachings, and in the insistence that all persons be given full and easy access to Scripture. “圣经强调明确的在这里和其他的修订礼仪圣经的中心地​​位的法令,在神职人员的教育,在论述安理会的教诲,并坚持认为所有的人被给予充分和容易获得圣经。 The results were immediately experienced most dramatically in the transformation of parish worship into the vernacular languages throughout the world.结果立即被经验丰富的最显着的教区崇拜转变到世界各地的方言。

On Ecumenism在普世

The decree "On Ecumenism" likewise continued traditional teaching, but adapted it dramatically. “”普世法令同样延续传统的教学,但它极大地适应。The council reaffirmed that "it is through Christ's Catholic Church alone, which is the all-embracing means of salvation, that the fullness of the means of salvation can be obtained."安理会重申,“它是通过基督的天主教教会,这是救恩的包罗一切的手段,可以得到丰满的救赎手段。”Yet for the first time Protestants and Anglicans are explicitly regarded as Christians ("separated brethren"), and Eastern Orthodox are treated as directly descendant from the apostles.然而,新教和圣公会首次被明确视为基督徒(“分离的弟兄们”),和东正教处理直接从使徒的后裔。Most significantly, the Catholic Church, for the first time, did not claim that the solution to these divisions lies in a "return" of these churches to Rome, but in an open future in which all may be "tending toward that fullness with which our Lord wants His body to be endowed in the course of time."最重要的是,天主教会,第一次,没有索赔,解决这些分歧在于这些罗马教会在“回归”,但在一个开放的将来,所有可能是“朝着那个丰满趋向我们的主希望在时间的过程中赋予他的身体。“ Pope Paul made the point concrete by creating a permanent Secretariat for Promoting Christian Unity, and by issuing (Dec. 1965) with Patriarch Athenagoras, head of Eastern Orthodoxy, a declaration committing the mutual excommunications of AD 1054 to oblivion and hoping for restoration of full communion of faith and sacramental life.教皇保罗点具体的,通过建立一个常设秘书处为促进基督信仰合一的发行与祖师哥拉,东正教,公元1054年相互excommunications犯遗忘,并希望全面恢复的一个宣言(1965年12月)共融的信仰和圣事生活。

CT McIntireCT麦金太尔
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
Walter M. Abbott, ed., The Documents of Vatican II; JH Miller, ed., Vatican II: An Interfaith Appraisal; B. Pawley, ed., The Second Vatican Council; GC Berkouwer, Reflections on the Vatican Council; AC Outler, Methodist Observer at Vatican II; E. Schillebeeckx, The Real Achievement of Vatican II.沃尔特M.雅培,海关,梵二的文件; JH米勒,ED,梵二:。。一个宗教间的评价; B.波利,编辑,梵蒂冈第二次会议,GC Berkouwer,梵蒂冈会,交流Outler,反思卫观察员在梵蒂冈第二; E.施雷贝克,梵二的真正实现。

The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council第二届梵蒂冈大公会议
Dedicated to "The Immaculate".专用于“洁净”。

Advanced Information先进的信息

Sweet is the Providence that Overrules Us." Seton甜是推翻我们的普罗维登斯。“西顿

Opened Under Pope John XXIII in 1962根据教皇约翰二十三世于1962年开业
Closed by Pope Paul VI in 1965教皇保罗六世在1965年关闭
+ Jesus - Mary - Joseph +耶稣 - 玛丽 - 约瑟夫+

"I am aware that I owe this to God.他说:“我知道,我欠上帝
as the chief duty of my life.是我一生中的主要职责
That my every word and thought may speak of Him."我的每一个字和思想,可能对他说话 “
St. Hillary圣希拉里

The Second Vatican Council梵蒂冈第二次会议

An Assessment of this Council本会的评估




These notes are intended as an AID to study by Catholic Students of the Second Vatican Council. 这些笔记的目的是作为一种辅助手段,研究的第二次梵蒂冈会议的天主教学生They contain material, some written in a journalistic style, for the American reader. 它们包含的材料,一些书面的美国读者,在新闻风格To that extent they are biased; but they 'set the stage' and 'wet the appetite' for further study of this crucial historical event.从这个意义上,他们有偏见,但他们设定的阶段“这一重要历史事件的进一步研究和”湿的胃口 “。

Thirty odd years on the 'Aggiornamento' is still fermenting, the fresh air of the Holy Spirit still blowing, a self-destructive 'Civil War' still raging “Aggiornamento”30多年来仍然是发酵,圣灵的新鲜空气吹,一个自我毁灭的“内战”仍在肆虐 But His Peace will come to us all 但他的和平会到来对我们所有人

Students are reminded that, as with all serious study, research is necessary and recourse must be had, wherever possible, to original documentation.提醒学生们,与所有的认真研究,研究是必要的,必须有追索权,在可能的情况下,原始的文档。

These notes should lead the serious student to the libraries of our Catholic Colleges and Universities and to resources no computer system yet devised can replace.这些说明应导致严重的学生,我们天主教高校的图书馆和资源尚未制定任何计算机系统可以取代。

The First Vatican Council was adjourned in 1870, following the solemn definition of papal infallibility.第一梵蒂冈委员会会议于1870年,教皇infallibility庄严的定义。Only a part of its task had been accomplished, but it was destined never to meet again.只有部分已经完成其任务,但它是注定永远不会再见面。Pope Pius IX died in 1878, and five popes had come and gone before the Second Vatican Council was proclaimed by Pope John XXIII.教皇庇护九世于1878年去世,和五个教皇来到了梵蒂冈第二次会议之前,教皇约翰二十三世宣布。

Pope John announcedhis intention of summoning the Oecumenical Council in January, 1959, within three months of his election to the Chair of Peter; he signed the Apostolic Constitution, Humane Salutis, on Christmas Day in 1961.教皇约翰宣布他打算传召中,1959年1月Oecumenical会在3个月,他当选为主席彼得内,他使徒宪法,人性化Salutis,签署了关于在1961年圣诞节。 Meanwhile, ten commissions had been formed to prepare draft decrees to be debated in the Council.同时,有10个委员会已经成立,准备在安理会辩论的法令草案。At first, seventy decrees were proposed, but gradually their number was reduced to seventeen.起初,七十法令的建议,但其数量逐渐减少到十七。

Pope John wished the Council "to increase the fervour and energy of Catholics, to serve the needs of Christian people."教皇约翰希望理事会“,以增加天主教徒的热情和能量,为基督教的人的需要。”To achieve this purpose, bishops and priests must grow in holiness; the laity must be given effective instruction in Christian faith and morals; adequate provision must be made for the education of children; Christian social activity must increase; and all Christians must have missionary hearts.为了达到这一目的,必须发展壮大,主教和司铎在圣洁;俗人必须给予有效的指导,在基督教信仰和道德;提供足够的,必须对儿童的教育;基督教社会活动必须增加;所有的基督徒必须有传教士的心灵。 In Italian, he was bale to express his desire in one word -- Aggiornamento -- the Church must be brought up to date, must adapt itself to meet the challenged conditions of modern times.在意大利,他被罢了,在一个词来表达他的愿望 - Aggiornamento - 教会必须把最新的,必须适应,以满足近代挑战的条件。More than words, Italians appreciate expressive gestures; so also Pope John, when asked to reveal his intentions, simply moved to a window and threw it open, to let in a draught of fresh air.话多,意大利赞赏手势,所以也教皇约翰,要求披露了他的意图时,只需移动到一个窗口,并把它打开,让新鲜空气草案。

Eighteen months before the Council assembled, the Pope himself showed how very fresh and new the air was to be.安理会18个月前​​组装,教皇本人表明,空气多么新鲜和新。He established a special Secretariat "for promoting Christian Unity" and authorized this Secretariat to take part in the prepatory work of the Council so that schemes, drafted for debate, would take into account the truly Oecumencial spirit -- that is, the desire to understand the beliefs and practices of other Christian bodies, and the need to work for the union of all in Christ.他确立了“一个特别秘书处为促进基督徒合一”,并授权该秘书处会筹备工作的一部分,使辩论起草的计划,将考虑到真正Oecumencial的精神 - 那就是,渴望了解其他基督教团体的信仰和做法,并为所有在基督里的工会工作需要。

Preparation for the Council准备理事会

Long before the Council began, the bishops of the Catholic world were asked to submit their proposals for subjects to be raised in the Council sessions.早在安理会开始,天主教世界主教被要求提交他们的建议,将在理事会会议中提出的问题的。More than two thousand lists of proposals were received together with detailed opinions from sixty theological faculties and universities.两千建议名单,收到了详细的意见,从60神学学院和大学。All of this material was studied and summarized, and suggestions made by the Congregations of the Roman Curia were also examined.所有这种材料进行了研究和总结,还审议和提出的建议罗马教廷的毕业典礼。

In June 1960, Pope John established ten commissions, entrusting to each commission the task of studying particular questions.教皇约翰在1960年6月,成立了10个委员会,每个委员会的委托任务,研究问题,特别是。In this way the Theological Commission examined problems of scripture, tradition, faith and morals; other commissions considered bishops and the control of dioceses, religious orders, the Liturgy of the Church, seminaries and ecclesiastical studies, the missions, the Eastern Churches and the lay apostolate.在这样的神学委员会审议的圣经,传统,信仰和道德的问题,其他委员会的审议和控制教区的主教,宗教命令,礼仪的教会,神学院和教会研究,任务,东方教会和业外人士使徒。 A central commission worked to coordinate the labours of individual commissions, assisted the Pope to decide the subjects for debate in the Council, and suggested rules of procedure.中央委员会工作,以协调个人的佣金的劳动,协助教皇决定在立法会辩论的主题,并建议议事规则。

The Council Opens理事会开幕

The Second Vatican Council opened on October 11th, 1962.梵蒂冈第二次会议,1962年10月11日开幕。More than two thousand five hundred Fathers were present at the opening Mass -- the greatest gathering at any Council in the history of the Church.两千五百强父亲出席开幕弥撒 - 随时会在教会的历史最大的一次聚会。After the Mass, Pope John addressed the Fathers, showing them the way in which the Council must move, and the spirit which must animate it.弥撒之后,教皇约翰解决的父亲,他们展示的方式,安理会必须移动,精神必须动画。The way was to be a renewal, the spirit was to be that of men who place all their trust in God.的方式是一个重建,精神的人的地方,他们在神的信任。In the past, Pope John said, the Church felt it necessary to use severity and condemnation.在过去,教皇约翰说,教会认为有必要使用的严重性和谴责。What is required now is mercy and understanding and, above all, an outpouring of the riches which the Church has received from Christ.什么是必需的,现在是怜悯和理解,首先,教会已收到来自基督的财富源源不断。The task of the Council must be to find ways by which the Church can present itself to the world of today, and can reach into the minds and hearts of men.理事会的任务,必须想方设法教会当今世界,可以达到的头脑和男人的心。 The Council must not become a school where theologians can perfect their formulation of Catholic truth.安理会决不能成为学校的神学家可以完善自己的天主教真理的制定。

Inspired by the words of Pope John, the Fathers began their work.教皇约翰的话鼓舞下,父亲开始了他们的工作。Viewed from outside, in the manner in which a reporter might comment on Parliamentary debates, the impression was of two groups -- the "progressives" and the "reactionaries," radically and bitterly opposed to one another.从外面看,在记者的方式,可能在议会辩论中发表评论的印象两组 - “进步”和“反动派”,从根本上和强烈反对到另一个。Those bishops whose only concern, it seemed, was to safeguard the Church's teaching were labelled reactionaries; those, on the other hand, who showed concern for pastoral needs were called progressives.另一方面,其唯一的关注,它似乎是为了维护教会的教学反动派标记;那些那些主教,谁发现牧区需要关注,被称为进步。 In reality, however, a Council is not a parliament.然而,在现实中,会是不是一个议会。The bishops are united in the Faith and in their love of Christ.主教是美国的信仰和他们对基督的爱。In the second Vatican Council, all have tried to find, in the riches of the Church's teaching, those truths which must be stressed and emphasized in the modern world, and to decide how these truths may best be set forth for the good of all -- of those who are unbelievers as well as those who believe in Christ.在第二次梵蒂冈会议,所有已经尝试来发现,在教会的教学,那些它必须被强调和在现代世界中强调真理的财富,并决定这些真理如何设置好所有提出 - - 那些不信者,以及那些相信基督。

Cardinal Montini (who was soon to succeed Pope John in the chair of Peter) wrote to his people in Milan on November 18th, 1962, to explain the two "tendencies" of the bishop.枢机Montini(很快成功教皇约翰 - 彼得的椅子),1962年11月18日写信给他在米兰的人,来解释这两个“倾向”的主教。The Council, he said, was an assembly of many with complex religious problems.他说,安理会是许多复杂的宗教问题的大会。The unity of the Church, and its universality; the old and the new; what is fixed and what develops; the inner value of a truth, and the way in which it is to be expressed; the search for what is essential and care for particular details; principles and their practical application -- religious problems can be considered from so many different aspects.旧的和新的;什么是固定的,什么发展;一个真理的内在价值,并以何种方式是要表达什么是必不可少的搜索和照顾教会,团结和普遍性可以考虑从这么多不同方面的具体细节;原则和实际应用 - 宗教问题。Discussion of these problems will often be animated and lively -- yet all the bishops are united by that very love which they have for the truth.对这些问题的讨论往往是动画和生动的 - 但所有的主教团结,非常热爱他们为真理。

Another observer shows how the two "tendencies" were like two voices.另一名观察员,显示了两个“倾向”的两种声音一样。One voice was uttered by those bishops who wanted, above all else, to preserve the Faith whole and entire; the other voice spoke for the bishops who had the same concern for preserving the Faith committed by Christ, but who also felt the great pastoral need to express that faith in a language which the modern world could understand and appreciate.一个声音说出那些谁想要的主教,高于一切,为了保持信仰的整体,整个其他的声音有同样的关注,为维护基督所犯下的信仰的主教们的发言,但谁也感受到了巨大的牧区需要在现代世界能够理解和欣赏的语言来表达信仰。 This observer (Jean Guitton) found in the two voices a poetic image of the Cross of Christ.这个观察员(让Guitton)发现在两种声音一个基督的十字架的诗意形象。The upright pillar of the Cross, fixed into the ground, tells the Christian of the unity, integrity and unchanging truth of the Faith; the cross-bar, on which Christ stretched out his arms, tells the Christian that the Faith is open to all men, that it is universal.十字架的直立支柱,固定到地面,告诉的统一,完整的和不变的真理的信仰基督教的横杆,基督伸出双臂,讲述了基督教的信仰是向所有人开放男性,这是普遍的。 Just as the Cross unites its two parts, so also the two "voices" or tendencies are united in the Christian faith.正如十字架团结两部分,也使两个“声音”或倾向是美国在基督教的信仰。

From the beginning, the Second Vatican Council has shown that the great majority of the bishops are concerned with the pastoral needs of the Church.从一开始,第二次梵蒂冈会议已经表明,绝大多数的主教与教会的牧灵需要关注。They have shown that concern in many different ways -- in the enthusiasm with which they have welcomed Oecumenical dialogue with non- catholic Christians and with Orthodox Churches; in the interest with which they have followed the historic visits of Pope John Paul VI to the Holy Land and to India; and above all in the overwhelming approval which they gave to the "Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy," in the second session of the Council (December 1962).在许多不同的方法,他们表现出的关注 - 在他们Oecumenical对话的热情欢迎与非天主教徒与东正教教堂,在利益与它们都遵循教廷教皇约翰保罗六世的历史性访问土地和印度;上述理事会第二次会议(1962年12月)的“神圣的礼仪”宪法“,”他们给所有在铺天盖地的批准。

The Council and the Liturgy理事会和礼仪

The changes in the Liturgy of the Church show how the work of the Council affects every Catholic.在教会礼仪的变化表明,安理会的工作如何影响到每一个天主教徒。In earlier ages of Christendom changes were made in Canon Law and in the Christian Life itself.在基督教变化的年龄早在佳能“,在基督教生活本身。But these changes usually took place so slowly and gradually that each man in his own brief life-time hardly noticed them; if he did take heed of change, he did not find the change disturbing.但是,这些变化通常发生如此缓慢,并逐步在自己短暂的生命时,每个人几乎没有注意到他们,如果他没有留意的变化,他没有发现变化令人不安。 But in modern times -- above all in the middle of the twentieth Century -- the whole tempo and movement of secular history has increased in every sphere of life, and with the greatest rapidity.但在近代 - 尤其是在二十世纪中叶 - 整个节奏和世俗的历史运动增加了生活的每一个领域,并与最大速度。The Church is new as well as old.教会是新的,以及老。If it is to remain up to date and in touch with the urgent needs of modern life, then the Church, too, must undergo change.如果是为了保持日期和与现代生活的迫切需要联系,那么教会,也必须进行改变。Clearly, changes and adaptations must be accomplished with great prudence.显然,改变和适应,必须完成的非常谨慎。Clearly, too, great courage is needed, if the ancient and unchanging truths and ways of life and worship are to take on new forms.显然,也需要很大的勇气是,如果古老的和不变的的真理和生命和崇拜的方式是采取新的形式。

Inevitably, many Catholics have found the liturgical changes disturbing.不可避免的是,许多天主教徒发现礼仪的变化令人不安。Older Catholics, in particular, have over the years grown deeply attached to the words and actions of the Latin Mass; they have learned to love it, in its Latin form, and it has become for them a permanent and unchanging reality in a rapidly changing world.旧的天主教徒,特别是有过的年增长拉丁弥撒的言论和行动深深依恋,他们已经学会了爱,它的拉丁文形式,它已成为他们在瞬息万变的一个永久的和不变的现实世界。 Latin was the common tongue -- the lingua franca -- of the Western world, used by clerics, statesmen and scholars.拉丁美洲是共同的舌头 - 用得上 - 西方世界,由神职人员,政治家和学者使用。Since the Mass is the common prayer of the whole Church, many feel that Latin should still be retained.因为质量是整个教会的共同祈祷,许多人认为,拉美仍然应该保留。This view was expressed in the first great Decree to issue from the Council -- the "Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy."这一观点表示在第一个伟大的法令问题理事会 - “神圣的礼仪宪法”The Decree states "the use of the Latin language is to be preserved in the Latin rites."该法令规定:“拉丁语言的使用是要保存在拉丁礼仪。”

The change from Latin to English, in parts of the Mass, has been singled out because it appears to many to be the most striking result of the Council's work.来自拉丁美洲英语的变化,在地下的部分,已经挑出来,因为它似乎不少是对安理会工作的的最显着的结果。But the Council has authorized the use of the vernacular, or mother-tongue, not only for parts of the Mass but also for the administration of every sacrament and sacramental.但是,安理会已授权白话,或母语的使用,不仅为地下部分,同时也为每一个圣事和圣事的管理。It has directed national councils of bishops to establish liturgical commissions whose task is to produce suitable translations of liturgical texts, and to promote knowledge and love of the sacred liturgy.它已指示国家议会的主教建立,其任务是生产合适的翻译,礼仪文本,并促进知识和爱的神圣礼仪的礼仪委员会。

While local commissions are engaged upon this work, the Central Liturgical Commission meets in Rome.虽然地方委员会是从事这项工作时,中央的礼仪委员会在罗马举行。Its primary function is the revision of the liturgical books.它的主要功能是礼仪书的修订。Its secondary function is to adapt the liturgy to the needs of modern times, and to enable all Catholics to take part actively in the official worship which the Church offers to God.它的辅助功能是适应的礼仪,到近代的需求,并让所有的天主教徒在官方教会为神的崇拜的积极参与。However rapid and unexpected these changes might appear, they are in fact intended to be gradual, step by step, until eventually the renewal of the liturgy has been completed.然而,快速,这些变化可能会出现意想不到的,他们其实是要循序渐进,一步一步,直到最终的礼仪的重建工作已经完成,。

The first major result of this work by the Central Commission was the promulgation, in September 1964, of an Instruction for putting into effect the "Constitution of the sacred Liturgy."这项工作由中央委员会的第一个重大成果是,在1964年9月颁布的指令,落实“宪法”的神圣礼仪。“This instruction drew attention to the fact that changes are taking place, not for the sake of change, but because the Liturgy is at the centre of Christian life and worship.该指令提请注意的事实,变化正在发生,而改变不,但因为礼仪是在基督徒的生活和崇拜的中心。It is through the active sharing in these sacred rites that the faithful, the People of God, "will drink deeply from the source of divine life. They will become the leaven of Christ, the salt of the earth. They will bear witness to that divine life; the will be instrumental in passing it on to others."它是通过在这些神圣的仪式的信徒,神的人,“会喝深受神圣的生命之源的积极共享,他们将成为基督的,地上的盐的酵,他们将见证,神圣的生命,将它传递给他人的工具“。

By modern standards, florid and elaborate ceremonies, dress and ornament are seldom esteemed.按照现代标准,花语和精心制作的仪式,服装和饰品都很少尊敬。During the course of centuries, many features or details had crept into the liturgy, and these features are now regarded as unsuited to the worship of God and out of keeping with the real nature and dignity of that worship.在百年的过程中,许多功能或细节已悄悄进入的礼仪,​​而这些功能目前已被视为不适应崇拜神,崇拜的真正性质和尊严。 For this reason the liturgical books are being revised and the rites simplified.出于这个原因,礼仪的书籍正在修订和简化的仪式。 The first book to appear, following the Council's decree, is known as the Ordo Missae.第一册出现,安理会的法令,被称为奥Missae。Issued in January 1961, this book sets forth the rite which is to be followed, in keeping with the changes introduced by the Council and by the Liturgical Commission.在1961年1月发行,这本书阐述了仪式,这是由理事会和由礼仪委员会提出的改革,应遵循。

The Altar祭坛

Where possible, the high altar is to be placed in such a way that Mass may be offered by the priest facing the people; the altar should stand away from the wall of the sanctuary, so that room is left to allow the priest to move around it.在可能的情况下,高坛是被放置在这样的质量可能面对群众的牧师提供的方式;坛应该站的庇护所的墙壁,使房间是左,让牧师走动它。 The Blessed Sacrament should be reserved in a strong tabernacle, placed at the centre of the high altar; but it maybe placed upon a side altar, if that side altar is dignified and easily seen.圣体应预留放置在高坛的中心,在强大的帐幕,但它也许放在一个侧面坛后,如果该方坛端庄很容易看到。Again, the tabernacle may be placed on the altar at which Mass is said facing the people; in this case the tabernacle should be small.再次,可放置帐幕质量是说,面对群众的祭坛上;在这种情况下帐幕要小。

The cross and candlesticks will be placed upon the altar in the customary way; in certain circumstances, however, the bishop may allow them to be placed alongside the altar.十字架和烛台将被放置在坛上,在习惯的方式,然而,在某些情况下,主教可能让他们可以放在旁边的祭坛。The sedilia, or seats for the celebrant and sacred ministers, should be easily seen by the faithful, and the celebrant's sedile should be so placed as to show that he is presiding over the Mass as the assembly of the People of God. sedilia,或为礼和神圣的部长席位,应该很容易看到的忠实,和证婚的sedile应放在以显示他是主持神人民大会的质量。There should be an ambo (lectern or reading-desk) -- clearly visible to the faithful; from which the readings from Scripture are to be made.应该有一个安博(讲台或阅读台) - 清晰可见的忠实;从圣经的读数作出。It should be observed that many of these changes can be effected only when new churches are planned; where possible, the sanctuary of an existing church should be adapted in accordance with the Instruction of the Central Commission.应当指出,这些变化很多,可只有当新的教会计划,在可能的情况下,应根据中央委员会的指示适应现有教堂的避难所。

The sacrifice of the Mass牺牲的大众

In the rite of the Mass, the following are the changes already announced:在弥撒仪式,以下是已经宣布的变化:

1. 1。The celebrant does not say privately those parts of the Proper of the Mass which are sung by the choir, recited by the people, or proclaimed by the deacon, sub-deacon or lector.该监礼人不说私下是由合唱团演唱的质量,背诵的人,或由执事,分执事或讲师宣布的正确部分。The celebrant may, however, join with the people in singing or reciting parts of the Ordinary of the Mass --as, for example, the Gloria and the Credo.然而,加入证婚可能在唱歌或背诵部分普通大众的人 - 例如,凯莱的信条。

2. 2。Psalm 42 is omitted from the prayers to be said at the foot of the altar at the beginning of Mass. Whenever another liturgical service immediately precedes the Mass, all these opening prayers are omitted.诗篇42是从祈祷省略在马萨诸塞州的开始,每当另一个礼仪服务之前地下祭坛的脚说,所有这些开放的祈祷被省略。

3. 3。The "secret" prayer before the preface is to be said or sung aloud.大声说或唱的“秘密”的序言前祈祷。

4. 4。The "Doxology" at the end of the Canon of the Mass (that is, the prayer "Through him, and with him . . . ") is to be said or sung in a loud voice. “Doxology”(那就是,通过他的祈祷“,和他一起。。”)在佳能的地下是说,一个响亮的声音唱。The signs of the Cross, formerly made during this prayer, are omitted, and the celebrant holds the host with the chalice, slightly raised above the corporal.十字架的标志,以前在此祈祷,都省略了,证婚持有圣杯的主机,略高于下士提出。The "Our Father" is said or sung in the vernacular by the people together with the priest. “我们的父亲”,是说或唱白话的人与牧师一起。The prayer which follows -- is called the Embolism (that is, an insertion or interpolation) and was originally added to the Mass as an extension of the last petition in the "Our Father:" a prayer to be freed from evil, and for our sins to be forgiven.祈祷如下 - 被称为等症(即插入或插补)和质量在过去的请愿书的延伸“我们的父亲原是添加到:”一个从邪恶中解脱出来的祈祷,和我们的罪被宽恕。This prayer is also to be said or sung aloud by the celebrant.这个祷告也是由证婚大声说或唱。

5. 5。The words spoken by the priest when giving Holy Communion have been shortened to "Corpus Christ" -- "The Body of Christ;" the person communicating says "Amen" before receiving Holy Communion; and the priest no longer makes the sign of the Cross with the host.圣餐已经缩短到“语料库基督”时,由神父所讲的话 - “基督的身体”的人沟通,说:“阿门”之前接受圣餐;和牧师不再使十字架的标志与主机。

6. 6。The Last Gospel is omitted, and the prayers formerly recited at the end of the Mass (the "Leonine" prayers) are no longer said.最后的福音被省略了,和以前的祈祷弥撒结束(“Leonine”祈祷)背诵不再说。

7. 7。Provision is made for the Epistle to be read by a lector of by one of the servers; the Gospel must be proclaimed by the celebrant or by a deacon.这笔经费要由讲师读的书信,其中一台服务器;必须由监礼人或执事宣布的福音。

8. 8。At all Masses attended by the faithful on Sundays and Holydays, the Gospel is to be followed by a homily, or explanation reading from the Scriptures.在上周日和Holydays忠实群众参加了所有,福音是由一个讲道,或从“圣经”的解释阅读。This homily may be based upon some other text of the Mass, taking account of the feast or mystery which is being celebrated.这讲道,可能是基于一些地下的其他文字时,考虑到正在庆祝节日或神秘。

9. 9。After the Creed, provision is made for what is called the "community prayer" sometimes called the "prayer of the faithful."后信条,规定什么是所谓的“社区的祈祷”,有时也被称为“祈祷的忠实。”In some countries this prayer is already customary; in most places, however, it has not yet been introduced.在一些国家,这种祈祷是已经习惯;然而,在大多数地方,它尚未被引入。In due course the form of this community prayer will be announced by the Central Liturgical Commission.这个社会祈祷的形式,将在适当的时候宣布了中央的礼仪委员会。

10. 10。In accordance with the changes outlined above, the Ordo Missae issued in January 1965 states that, as a general rule, the celebrant will say the opening prayers at the foot of the altar; when he has kissed the altar, he will go tot he sedile or seat and remain there until the prayer of the faithful has been said before the offertory leaving it for the ambo if he himself is to read the Epistle and Gospel but returning to it for the Creed.按照上文所述的变化,奥Missae发出1965年1月国家,作为一般规则,在监礼人会说在祭坛的脚下开幕祈祷,当他亲吻的祭坛,他将前往TOT他sedile在离开offertory安博,如果他自己读的书信和福音,但返回到它的信条之前,已经或座位,并保持,直到那里祈祷的忠实说。

11. 11。At a High Mass the subdeacon no longer wears the humeral veil; the paten is left upon the altar, and the subdeacon joins the deacon in assisting the celebrant.在较高质量的subdeacon不再穿肱骨面纱;金属制平碟是留在坛上,并subdeacon加入协助监礼执事。

12. 12。Suitable translations of parts of the Mass are to be prepared by regional or national councils of bishops.适合地下部分的翻译是由地区或国家的主教议会的准备。When these translations have been confirmed by the Holy See, they may be used when Mass is said in the vernacular.当这些译本已经由罗马教廷证实,他们可能会被用来当大众是说白话。The extent to which the vernacular is used varies greatly.白话是使用程度差别很大。Generally speaking, its use is permitted for the first part of the Mass -- the "Service of the Word" -- and for certain prayers in the second part -- the Eucharistic Sacrifice.一般来说,它的使用是允许的大众的第一部分 - “字服务” - 在第二部分中的某些祈祷 - 圣体圣事的牺牲。

Another important change concerns the Eucharistic Fast.另一个重要的变化,关注圣体的快速。Until recent years, this Fast was from midnight.直到最近几年,这个快速发展是从午夜。Then it was reduced to three hours.然后,它减少了三个小时。Finally it was altered to a fast of one hour from food and drink; this hour is to be reckoned from the time when Holy Communion is to be received, and not from the time Mass starts.最后被修改了食品和饮料,到快一小时,这个小时是从时间计算,圣餐时收到,并从时间量开始。Those who receive Communion in the Mass of the Easter Vigil, or at the Midnight mass of Christmas, may also receive Communion on the following morning (That is, Easter Sunday or Christmas Day).在复活节守夜弥撒收到共融,或在圣诞午夜弥撒,也可能会收到以下早晨共融(也就是说,复活节星期天或圣诞节)。

The Sacraments and Sacramentals圣礼和Sacramentals

Among the changes which have been introduced into the rites for the administration of sacraments, the following points should be noted.其中已引入到管理圣礼仪式中,应注意以下几点。

1. 1。The rites themselves are to be modified and adapted to the needs of modern times, so that the true meaning of sacramental signs may be readily grasped.仪式本身进行修改和适应现代的需要,使圣礼标志的真正含义,可随时掌握。

2. 2。The vernacular may be used (a) throughout the rites of Baptism, Confirmation, Penance, the Anointing of the Sick, and Matrimony; and in the distribution of Holy Communion; (b) in conferring Holy Orders, for the allocution, or opening address, for the "admonitions" to those receiving Orders, and for the ritual "interrogation" of a priest who is about to receive consecration as a bishop; (c) in funeral ceremonies, and in all blessings known as "sacramentals."白话可用于整个仪式的洗礼,确认,忏悔,有病的恩膏,和婚姻(一);在分发圣餐;(b)在赋予神圣的订单,为训示,或致开幕词,那些接受常规的“告诫”,“审问”的一个牧师约收到奉献作为主教仪式“。sacramentals”(c)在葬礼仪式,并在被称为所有祝福

3. 3。The ancient ritual for adults who are receiving instruction in the Catholic faith was called the "catechumenate."在信仰天主教的接收指令的成年人谁是古老的仪式被称为“慕道班”。This ritual is to be brought into use once more, and will extend through several distinct stages, with an interval of time between each stage.这个仪式是要再次投入使用,将通过几个不同的阶段,每个阶段之间的时间间隔,延长。 In missionary regions some features of local "initiation rites" may be introduced, provided that they can be adapted to Christian principles.在传教地区,当地的“入会仪式”中的某些功能可能会推出,前提是它们能适应基督教的原则。

4. 4。The rite of infant baptism is to be altered, to express the fact that an infant is receiving the sacrament, and to emphasize the duties of parents and godparents.婴儿的洗礼仪式是被改变,表达的事实,一个婴儿正在接受圣餐,并强调家长和教父母的职责。

5. 5。Confirmation should be administered within the Mass, following the Gospel and sermon.应确定内部质量管理,下面的福音和讲道。Those to be confirmed should renew the promises made at baptism.得到证实的,应该重新在洗礼中作出的承诺。

6. 6。The rite and formula for the Sacrament of Penance are to be altered, to give clearer expression to the nature and effects of this sacrament.忏悔圣事的仪式和公式被改变,这圣事的性质和影响,以提供更清晰的表达。

7. 7。Similar revisions are to be made in the Sacrament of the "Anointing of the Sick."类似的修订是在圣事“的病恩膏。”The Council has ruled that this phrase should be used in preference to the former name, "Extreme Unction."理事会已裁定,这句话应优先使用前的名称,“临终”。“The prayers and the number of the annointings will be altered, to correspond with the changing conditions of the sick person.祈祷和annointings数将被改变,以符合有病的人不断变化的条件。In countries where provision has not yet been made for a continuous rite for the Sacraments of he Sick (that is, when the illness is such that the sick person is to receive the Last Blessing and Holy Viaticum) instructions have now been given for the for the use of this continuous rite. (也就是说,当疾病,是这样的,有病的人是收到最后的祝福和神圣Viaticum)指令规定尚未为连续病假,他的圣礼仪式的国家现在已经被赋予的使用这种连续的成年礼。

8. 8。The Sacrament of Matrimony is to be celebrated within Mass, unless there is a good reason for the marriage to take place outside Mass. The Mass known as the "Nuptial Mass" (Missa pro Sponsis) must be said, or at least commemorated.内质量的婚姻圣事是要庆祝的,除非有一个良好的婚姻之所以采取马萨诸塞州以外的地方称为“婚前弥撒”(弥撒亲Sponsis)地下必须说,或至少纪念。 The homily, or address, may never be omitted, and the Nuptial Blessing is always to be given, even during those times when the solemnization of marriage has been excluded, and even if one or both of the parties has already been married.讲道,或地址,可能永远不会被忽略,而婚礼的祝福总是给予,甚至在举行婚礼时,已排除在外,即使一方或双方当事人已经结婚的时候,。

A new rite has been introduced for the celebration of Matrimony outside Mass. This rite consists of a short address, the reading of the Epistle and Gospel (taken from the Missa pro Sponsis), a homily, the celebration of the marriage, and the Nuptial Blessing.已经推出了一个新的仪式在马萨诸塞州以外的婚姻短地址,读的书信和福音(弥撒亲Sponsis),讲道,庆祝结婚仪式的庆祝活动,并在婚祝福。 A hymn or other chant may be sung, and the "prayer of the faithful" -- adapted to include prayers for the newly married couple -- may be said before the Nuptial Blessing is given.一首赞美诗或其他诵可唱,“祈祷的忠实” - 适应包括对新婚夫妇祈祷 - 婚礼的祝福之前,可以说。

These instructions concerning marriage have been made for Catholic weddings; that is, when both parties are Catholics.这些指示有关婚姻已作出天主教婚礼,也就是说,当双方都是天主教徒。

9. 9。In the past, the right to give many blessings had been reserved, in such a way that without special authority a priest could not give these blessings, With some exceptions these blessings may now be give by any priest.在过去,许多祝福的权利已被保留,以这样的方式,在没有特别授权的情况下,一个牧师不能给这些祝福,有一些例外,这些祝福现在可能给任何牧师。 The exceptions are: the blessing of Stations of the Cross; the blessing of a church bell of the foundation stone of a church; the blessing of a new church or public oratory, or of a new cemetery.唯一的例外是:跨站的祝福;一个教堂的奠基教堂的钟声祝福;一个新的教会或公众演讲的祝福,或一个新的墓地。Papal blessings are still reserved.罗马教皇的祝福仍然保留。

Further instances of the adaptation and simplification desired by the Council are the abbreviations in the elaborate ceremonial which, in the course of centuries, had been built around the Cardinalate.由理事会所期望的适应和简化的进一步实例都在精心的礼仪,在几百年的过程中,已经解决了对cardinalate内置的缩写。 While the number of cardinals has greatly increased, the ceremonies have been shortened.虽然主教的数量大大增加,仪式已经缩短。The Pope no longer places the large red hat on the head of a new cardinal; instead, the hat is delivered to his residence in Rome by a Vatican messenger.教皇不再是地方上的一个新的大是大非的头大红帽,而是这顶帽子是梵蒂冈信使他在罗马的住所。The ceremony, in which the Pope places the red biretta upon the cardinal's head, has now been incorporated within one comprehensive ceremony, which is still called a "public consistory," during which the Pope and the newly-created cardinals join together to concelebrate Mass. Some simplification of the ecclesiastical dress of cardinals, bishops and other prelates, as well as simplification of the ceremonies at which they pontificate, also indicates the manner in which the Church is anxious to adapt itself to present-day values.的仪式,其中教皇地方的大是大非的头后的红色biretta,有现在被纳入之一全面仪式,这是仍然称为一个“公共consistory,”内其间的教皇和对新创建的枢机主教加入一起到concelebrate质量有些教会的枢机主教,主教和其他主教礼服的简化,以及简化仪式,他们在教皇,还表示以何种方式,教会是急于使自己适应当今值。

The concelebration of Mass地下concelebration

a custom which has always been found in the Church -- signifies the unity of the priesthood.一个一直在教会中找到自定义 - 象征团结的神职人员。Until the Second Vatican Council, however, the custom had usually been restricted to the Mass for the ordination of a priest or the consecration of a bishop.然而,直到第二次梵蒂冈会议,定制通常被限制在地下的一名神父或主教祝圣的协调。The Council has extend the custom of concelebration to other occasions, such as the Mass on the evening of Maundy Thursday, and Masses celebrated at meetings of priests.安理会延长concelebration定制其他场合,如濯足节的晚上群众,和群众庆祝祭司的会议。Similarly, the Council has recognized that in certain cases, clerics, religious and lay people may receive Holy Communion under the species of wine as well as of bread.同样,安理会已经认识到,在某些情况下,神职人员,宗教和外行的人可能会收到根据葡萄酒的种类以及面包圣餐。Examples given in the Constitution on the Liturgy are: newly ordained clerics in the Mass of Ordination; newly professed religious, in the Mass of profession; and newly baptized adults in the Mass which maybe said following their baptism.在宪法上的礼仪的例子有:新祝圣的神职人员在大众的协调;新宗教宣称,在专业的质量;和新受洗成年人在地下,这可能表示,他们的洗礼。 The Apostolic See reserves the right to determine these cases, and to issue rules both for concelebration and for receiving Holy Communion under both kinds.使徒见保留权利,以确定这些案件,并发出concelebration和接受圣餐下两种规则。

The Divine Office神圣的办公室

The following are the main changes introduced by the Council in the signing or recitation of the Divine Office.以下是在签署或背诵神圣办公室提交立法会审议的主要变化。

1. 1。The sequence of the "hours" of the Office is to be restored to its traditional form, so that each hour is in fact related to the time of day at which it is said; in this way the recitation of the Office will better express its purpose, to sanctify the whole course of the day. “小时”的办公室的顺序是要恢复其传统的形式,使每一个小时,其实是在一天的时间,它是说,背诵的办公室,以这种方式将能更好地表达其目的,圣当天的整个过程中。

2. 2。The hour of Lauds represents the morning prayer of the Church; while Vespers is the hour of evening prayer.赞扬小时教会晨祷;而晚祷晚祷小时。These two hours are to become once again the principal hours of the day's Office.这两个小时是一天的办公室,再次成为主要的小时。Compline is to be revised so that it will become a suitable prayer for the end of the day. Compline加以修订,使其成为适合一天结束祈祷。

3. 3。The hour of Prime is suppressed.总理小时被抑制。When the office is recited in choir, the three "little hours" of Terce, Sext and None are to be said.当办公室背诵合唱团,三个“小时间”Terce,SEXT和无说。Those who are not obliged to recite the Office in choir may select any one of these three hours, according to the time of day.这些毋须背诵合唱团办公室,可以选择任何一个,这三个小时,按一天的时间。

4. 4。When recited in choir, the hour of Matins is to be regarded as the night prayer of the Church; but this hour is to be reconstructed with longer scriptural and other readings and fewer psalms, and adapted so that it may be recited at any time of the day.当合唱团背诵,晨祷小时是晚上教会祈祷;但这一小时是要重建不再圣经​​和其他的读数和较少的诗篇,和调整,以便它可以在任何时间背诵一天。

5. 5。The Latin language remains the official language of the Western Church; but in individual cases, where Latin is an obstacle, bishops and other superiors may authorize the recitation of the Office in the vernacular.拉丁语言仍然是西方教会的官方语言,但在个别情况下,拉美是一个障碍,主教和其他上级授权白话朗诵的办公室。 This is because the Divine Office is, first and foremost, a prayer offered to God.这是因为神圣的办公室,首先,向上帝祈祷。

The Council has recognized that, in some cases, the use of the Latin tongue can be a hindrance of devotion and can make it difficult for a person to pray the Office as it should be prayed.理事会已经认识到,在某些情况下,使用拉丁舌头可以献身的障碍,可以使它难以为一个人祈祷厅,因为它应该是祈祷。

The Liturgical Year礼仪年

1. 1。The Constitution recalls the unchanging practice of the Church of celebrating every Sunday the paschal mystery -- the mystery of the passion, death, resurrection and glorifying of Christ the Lord.“宪法”回顾 - 神秘的激情,死亡,复活和基督的荣耀主的教会每个星期日庆祝逾越奥迹不变的做法。Sunday is the original feast day, the center of the whole liturgical year.星期日是原来的节日,整个礼仪年中心。

2. 2。The liturgical year is to be revised, both to preserve the age-old customs and instructions of the holy seasons, and also to adapt those customs, where necessary, to the conditions of modern times.礼仪年进行修订,既要保留古老的习俗和神圣的季节指示,也能适应这些习俗,在必要的情况下,近代的条件。Detailed rules are provided for this revision; the rules are based upon the pastoral nature of the liturgy -- the need to keep before the minds of Christians the mysteries of salvation in Christ.此修订提供了详细的规定;规则时的礼仪牧区性质的基础 - 需要保持前的基督徒在基督救恩的奥秘心中。

3. 3。The Constitution declares that there is no objection to fixing the date of Easter -- provided other non-Catholic Christian communities reach agreement.宪法宣布,没有人反对固定的复活节日期 - ,其他非天主教的基督教社区达成协议。Similarly, a "perpetual calendar" is acceptable, if it is based upon a reckoning which retains a seven-day week with Sunday, and provided that it does not insert extra days which are considered to belong to no week.同样,“万年历”是可以接受的,如果是一个保留为期七天的周星期日的推算依据,并提供它不会插入额外的天,这被认为是属于没有一周。

Sacred Music圣乐

1.1。The Council drew attention to the age-old tradition of sacred music and singing, closely linked to the liturgy; and the Constitution declares that worship becomes more noble when it is carried out with solemn singing, especially when the celebrant, ministers and people take an active part.安理会提请注意神圣的音乐和唱歌,紧密相连的礼仪,历史悠久的传统和宪法宣称崇拜时,进行庄严的歌声变得更加高贵,特别是当证婚,部长和人民采取积极参与。

2. 2。Great attention is to be paid to the teaching and practice of sacred music, in harmony with training and instruction in the liturgy.是将支付给神圣的音乐教学和实践,在礼仪的培训和指导的和谐,高度重视。

3. 3。Gregorian chant is especially suited to the Roman liturgy, but other kinds of sacred music must not be excluded.诵唱是适合的罗马礼仪,但绝不能排除其他各种神圣的音乐。In mission lands where the people have their own characteristic musical traditions, these traditions also should be incorporated into Christian worship.使命的土地,那里的人们有自己特色的音乐传统,这些传统也应被纳入基督教崇拜。

4. 4。In the Latin Church, the pipe organ is recognized as the traditional musical instrument, but other instruments maybe used provided that they can be adapted for use in divine worship.在拉丁美洲教会,管风琴是公认的传统乐器,但可能使用的其他工具,他们可以使用神圣的崇拜适应。

Sacred Art宗教艺术

1.1。Things that are set apart for use in divine worship should have dignity and beauty, because they serve as symbols and signs of the supernatural world.除了为神圣的崇拜的事情应该有尊严和美丽,因为他们作为服务的符号和超自然的世界迹象。The highest achievement of the fine arts is sacred art, which is man's attempt to express the infinite beauty of God and to direct his mind to God.美术的最高成就,是神圣的艺术,这是人的尝试,以表达对上帝的无限风光和他心中上帝直接。

2. 2。The Church has always been the patron of the fine arts.教会一直美术的守护神。The Church reserves the right to decide whether an artist's work is in keeping with divine worship.教会有权决定是否是一个艺术家的作品,在神圣的崇拜。

3. 3。Artistic styles vary from one time and place to another.艺术风格的变化从一个时间和地点到另一个。Modern art is the expression of our times; provided that it is in keeping with divine worship, a work of modern art and may be used for sacred use.现代艺术是我们这个时代的表达,它是在保持与神的崇拜,现代艺术作品,可用于神圣使用。

4. 4。Bishops and others responsible for churches and holy places should remove from those places all objects which lack true artistic value, or which may be out of keeping with divine worship.负责教堂和圣地的主教和其他应该从所有这些地方,它缺乏真正的艺术价值,这可能是神圣的崇拜对象。 Similarly, they should see that the number of statues and pictures should be moderate, and that they should be placed in such a way that a true sense of proportion is observed.同样的,他们应该看到的雕像和图片数量要适中,和他们应该被放置在这样的方式,真正意义上的比例是观察。

5. 5。All things destined for use in divine worship should have simple dignity; lavish display doe snot accord with the worship of God.为神圣的崇拜中使用的所有的事情应该有简单的尊严;阔气显示能源部鼻涕符合神的崇拜。Each diocese should have its own Commission of Sacred Art; ecclesiastical laws, relating to the building of churches, are to be revised wherever necessary.各教区应该有自己神圣的艺术委员会;教会的法律,有关的教堂建筑,是在必要时加以修订。

The Constitution on the Church对教会“宪法“

The First Vatican Council, ending so abruptly in 1870, is known as the Pope's Council, for it defined the dogma of papal infallibility and stressed the supremacy of the Holy See.第一梵蒂冈委员会如此突然,结束于1870年,被称为教皇的理事会,为它定义教皇infallibility的教条,并强调了至高无上的神圣。 It is likely that the Second Vatican Council will go down in history as the Council which explained the organic structure of the Church.这是梵蒂冈第二次会议将被载入史册,作为理事会解释教会的有机结构。This explanation is centred upon the Constitution De Ecclesia -- dealing with the Church itself.这种解释是集中后,“宪法”德教会 - 教会本身的。The main points of this Constitution are outlined below.本宪法要点概述如下。

1. 1。Too often in the past, the sacramental nature of the Church has been lost to view.往往在过去,教会的圣事的性质已经失去了看法。Some theologians used to describe the Church in terms of a perfect, independent society, often in competition with other social systems.有些神学家,用来描述在一个完美的,独立的社会教会,往往在与其他社会制度的竞争。Others preferred to see it as a complexity of legal systems, issuing laws to control man's spiritual destiny.另一些人倾向于看到它作为一个法律制度的复杂性,发行的法律,控制人的精神命运。Others, again, looked at age-old institutions, its fine buildings and palaces, the splendour of its ornaments, vestments and ceremonies, and saw in all these things evidence of triumph and victory -- "ecclesiastical triumphalism."其他人,再次看着古老的机构,其精美建筑和宫殿,饰物,法衣和仪式的辉煌,并且看到胜利和胜利,在所有这些事情的证据 - “教会的必胜信念”

2. 2。The Constitution sees the Church, not as any of those things, but as "the sacrament of union with God, the sacrament of the unity of the whole of the human race." “宪法”看到教会,没有这些东西,但“联盟的圣与神,圣整个人类的团结。”A sacrament is a sign which brings about what it signifies.圣事是一个标志,它意味着什么带来。The Church is the sign of unity.教会是团结的标志。Through it, Christ, its founder, shows the power and presence of God, acting upon society, upon mankind, upon the world itself; and the action is the same as Christ's action on Cavalry -- bringing mercy and pardon to men.基督,它的创始人,通过它,神的力量和存在,​​呼吁社会采取行动,呼吁人类对世界本身,行动是基督的骑兵行动 - 把男人的怜悯和宽恕。

3. 3。The Church is the sign because it is the community of the People o God.教会的标志,因为它是人民神啊的社会。Divine redemption and the power of the Holy Ghost, act in and through God's people to save all mankind.神的救赎和圣灵的力量,采取行动,并通过上帝的子民,拯救全人类。The People of God are being sanctified; yet they remain weak and human, subject to temptation, liable to sin.上帝的子民正在圣洁,但他们仍然很薄弱和人力,受到诱惑,被判罪。This is not a Church of triumph, whose members can lord it over others, while remaining secure within its walls.这不是一个的胜利,其成员可以称王称霸比别人的教会,而其余的墙壁内的安全。It does not compete with other social systems and other cultures; it adapts itself to these systems, because it is an instrument which God uses to save mankind.它不与其他社会制度和其他文化竞争;适应这些系统,因为它是上帝拯救人类使用的仪器。It is a missionary Church -- the People of God are missionaries.它是一个传教的教会 - 神的人是传教士。They seek that union with God which is true holiness; they are the instruments through whom God unites and sanctifies mankind.他们寻求与上帝的联盟,这是真正的圣洁,他们经手神团结和成圣人类的文书。

4. 4。The Catholic Church professes that it is the one, holy catholic and apostolic Church of Christ; this it does not and could not deny.天主教自称,这是一个神圣的天主教和基督使徒教会,这不并不能否认。But in its Constitution the Church now solemnly acknowledges that the Holy Ghost is truly active in the churches and communities separated from itself.但在其宪法中的教堂,现在郑重承认圣灵是真正从自身分离教会和社区的积极的。To these other Christian Churches the Catholic Church is bound in many ways: through reverence for God's word in the Scriptures; through the fact of baptism; through other sacraments which they recognize.这些其他的基督教教堂,在许多方面的约束,天主教会是:通过敬畏神在“圣经”字,通过洗礼的事实,通过他们所承认的其他圣礼。

5. 5。The non-Christian may not be blamed for his ignorance of Christ and his Church; salvation is open to him also, if he seeks God sincerely and if he follows the commands of his conscience, for through this means the Holy Ghost acts upon all men; this divine action is not confined within the limited boundaries of the visible Church.非基督徒可能不会被指责为他的基督和他的教会的无知;救恩是向他敞开,如果他真诚,如果他按照自己的良心的命令,这意味着通过后,所有的人的圣灵行为寻求神这个神圣的行动并不局限于有形教会的有限范围内。

6. 6。The Constitution then turns to the structure of the hierarchy which Christ established in his Church.“宪法”,然后转向基督在他的教会建立的层次结构。It uses the word "college" in the sense of a unified, corporate body of men (just as cardinals are said to belong to a "sacred college").它使用“大学”一词在一个统一的法人团体,男子(正如枢机主教说是属于一个“神圣的大学”)意识。 Christ formed his Apostles "after the manner of a college," and over this college he placed Peter, whom he had chosen from their midst.基督形成“后,一所大学的方式,”他的门徒,在这个学院,他把彼得,他从他们中间选择。The mission which Christ entrusted to the Apostles must last until the end of the world; accordingly the Apostles chose others to succeed them.基督委托使徒必须持续,直到世界的尽头,因此使徒选择其他人接替他们的任务。 It is therefore by divine institution that bishops have succeeded the Apostles.它是神圣的机构,因此,主教们成功的使徒。 The college or body of bishops, however, has authority together with the Pope as its head.然而,学院或身体的主教,有权连同作为其头部的教皇。The Pope is the foundation of unity, of bishops as well as of the Faithful; so that supreme authority can be exercised by the college of bishops only in union with the Pope and with his consent.教皇是团结的基础主教,以及忠实;使至高无上的权威,可以行使,只有在​​联盟的主教团与教宗和他的同意。

7. 7。Bishops give to other individuals a share in the ministry.主教给其他个人在该部的份额。Priests and bishops are united in the priestly office.美国在祭司办公室神父和主教。At a lower level is the hierarchy are deacons.,在一个较低的水平的层次结构是执事。When regional conference of bishops deem it necessary--and when the Pope consents--bishops can confer the diaconate upon men of mature years, even if these men are married.当地区主教会议认为有必要 - 当教皇同意 - 主教可以赋予成熟的男人,即使这些人是已婚的diaconate。

In the third session of the Council, practical applications of the principle of collegiality were left over to await discussion in the draft scheme concerning bishops.在理事会第三届会议,合议原则的实际应用中遗留下来的等待有关主教的计划草案的讨论。These practical applications affect such problems as the division of dioceses and the powers to be used by episcopal conferences.这些实际应用的影响司教区主教会议的权力等问题。Another important problem, related to the principle that the bishops and the Pope together form a "college," is the establishment of a central advisory council of bishops.另一个重要的问题,有关的原则,主教和教皇共同形成了一个“大学”,是主教中央顾问委员会成立。The form which this advisory council takes is likely to resemble a "cabinet" in a civil state, in which the president or prime minister chooses a group of ministers and advisers.这个咨询委员会所需要的形式可能是类似于一个“内阁”在一个文明国家,总统或总理选择一组的部长和顾问。When Pope Paul VI, in February 1965, created many new cardinals and greatly increased the number in the "Sacred College" of cardinals, he spoke of the great importance of this senate of the Church.当教皇保罗六世在1965年2月,创造了许多新的枢机主教的枢机主教在“神圣的大学”的数量大大增加,他谈到了这个教会参议院重视。 Since each cardinal is consecrated bishop (if he is not already a bishop), and since the College of Cardinals includes representatives from every part of the world, it seems to many observers that the cardinals themselves will form the "central advisory council," in which the collegiate responsibility of the bishops will be expressed.由于每个枢机主教是神圣的主教(他是不是已经是主教),自枢机主教团包括来自世界的每一个部分代表,许多观察家看来,枢机主教本身将形成“中央咨询委员会”,在主教大学的责任将表示。

The Holy See has also continued the work of "reforming" the roman Curia, adapting its structure and activities to bring it into harmony with the needs of modern times and including among its officials a greater proportion of non-Italians.罗马教廷也继续在“改革”罗马教廷,适应它的结构和活动带入和谐与近代之间及其官员,其中包括一个非意大利的比例更大的需求的工作。 An important instance of this reform is in the Holy Office, which now includes bishops of dioceses in France and in the United States.这项改革的一个重要实例是在神圣的办公室,现在包括在法国和美国的教区主教。

The Decree On The Eastern Churches在东部教会的法令

At the close of the third session, the Vatican Council gave overwhelming approval to the Decree on the Eastern Churches.梵蒂冈理事会第三次会议结束时,东方教会法令批准了压倒性的。

1. 1。The Catholic Church reveres these Eastern Churches, which are "living witnesses to the tradition which has been handed down from the apostles through the Fathers."天主教会尊这些东方教会,这是“活着的证人通过父亲的使徒一直流传的传统。”The whole Church of Christ is made up of a number of particular Churches or rites; many of these Eastern Churches are joined in full communion with the Apostolic See.整个基督的教会是一个特别的教会或仪式;许多东方教会完全共融与使徒见。

2. 2。The traditions of each Church should be preserved intact, while adapting itself to the different necessities of time and place.每个教会的传统应该保存完好,而适应的时间和地点的不同生活必需品。 Each Church has the duty and the right to govern itself according to its traditional discipline.每个教会有责任和治理权本身根据其传统学科。In each Church the rights and privileges of patriarchs must be preserved and, where necessary, restored.在每一个教会始祖的权利和特权必须予以保留,并在必要的情况下,恢复。But all Churches are entrusted tot he supreme pastoral care of the Roman Pontiff as the successor of Saint Peter.但是,所有的教会是他委托TOT最高牧灵罗马教皇圣彼得的继承人。

3. 3。All Eastern Catholic Christians must follow the rite, as well as the discipline, of their respective Churches.所有东部天主教徒必须遵循的仪式,以及纪律,各自的教会。In many places, Catholics of different rites are intermingled.在许多地方,不同仪式的天主教徒混杂。in those places, priests should have faculties for hearing confession may absolve the faithful who belong to other rites.在这些地方,牧师应该有听证会供认可能免除属于其他仪式的忠实的院系。In certain circumstances Baptism and Confirmation may be administered to people of other rites, and marriages contracted between Christians of different rites may also be valid, when the marriage contract is made in the presence of a sacred minister.在某些情况下可管理的洗礼和确认其他仪式的人,和不同的仪式基督徒之间承包的婚姻也可能是有效的,当婚姻合同是在一个神圣部长的存在。 Similarly, the Council recognizes the validity of Holy Orders conferred in the Eastern Churches, and permits Catholics to receive Holy Communion and the Anointing of the Sick from priests of other rites, when the need arises and when no Catholic priest is available.同样,安理会认识到,在东方教会赋予的神圣订单的有效性,并允许天主教徒接受圣餐和恩膏的病从其他仪式的祭司,在有需要时,并没有天主教神父。 These permissions express the desire of the Catholic Church to promote union with the Eastern churches which are separated from Catholic unity.这些权限对天主教的东方教会,这是从天主教的统一分隔,以促进联盟的愿望。

The importance which the Holy See attaches to the Eastern Churches, and the great desire for reunion, were evident throughout the sessions of the Council.整个理事会会议的重要性,教廷重视的东方教会,和团聚的强烈愿望,是很明显的。Apart from the Greek Orthodox Church, all the separated Eastern Churches sent observers to the Council.除了希腊东正教,所有分离的东方教会派观察员出席理事会。Patriarchs of Eastern Catholic Churches were given a special place of honour, and some took a prominent part in Council debates.东方教会的大主教被赋予了特殊荣誉的地方,一些人就在安理会辩论的一个突出部分。The Consistory held in February 1965 for the creation of new cardinals, raised the number of cardinals of Eastern rites to six.创造新的枢机主教在1965年2月举行的Consistory,提出东部仪式的枢机主教人数增至六人。 The Eastern patriarchs ranks as cardinal bishops.东方元老队伍为枢机主教。

Unlike other cardinals, they are not allotted titular churches in Rome, nor are they given titular sees in the province of Rome; instead, they retain the title of their patriarchal sees.不像其他的枢机主教,他们是不分配的有名无实的教会在罗马,也不是他们挂名在罗马省认为,相反,他们保留自己的宗法看到标题。 This compromise has not been welcomed by every Eastern Catholic; for, in the hierarchy of the Church, a patriarch possesses the highest authority, to which the cardinalate can add nothing.这一妥协并没有受到欢迎,每东方天主教,教会的层次,族长拥有最高权力机构,对cardinalate可以添加什么。

Similarly, the decree on the Eastern Churches has been criticized on the grounds that, while it is ostensibly addressed to the Churches which are in full communion with the Holy See, in reality it is directed to the Orthodox Churches whose members consider that the Eastern catholic Churches are obstacles to reunion.同样,东方教会的法令被批评的理由,而它表面上是完全共融的教会与罗马教廷,在现实中它的东正教教堂,其成员认为,东方天主教教会是团聚的障碍。

The Decree On Ecuminism在Ecuminism法令

Over the centuries differences between Christians have led to profound divisions, but modern times have seen a great movement towards unity; and the decree begins by saying, "Christ the Lord founded one Church and one Church only. One of the principal concerns of this Council is the restoration of unity among all Christians."几个世纪以来,基督徒之间的差异导致了分歧,但近代看到一个伟大的运动走向统一;和法令说,“主基督成立一个教会和一个教会只有本会关注的主要问题之一开始。是恢复所有的基督徒之间的团结。“

1. 1。All who have been "justified by faith in baptism" are members of the Body of Christ; they all have the right to be called Christian; the children of the Catholic Church accept them as brothers.所有已被“洗礼的信仰有理”是基督的身体的成员,他们都被称为基督教右翼的天主教教会孩子们接受他们亲如兄弟。

2. 2。The Catholic Church believes that the separated Churches and communities "are efficient in some respects."天主教会认为,分离教会和社区“在某些方面的有效。”But the Holy Ghost makes use of these Churches; they are means of salvation to their members.但圣灵使这些教会,他们是拯救其成员的手段。

3. 3。Catholics are encouraged to join in Oecumenical activity, and to meet non-Catholic Christians in truth and love.鼓励天主教徒加入Oecumenical活动,并在真理和爱,以满足非天主教徒。The task of "Oecumenical dialogue" belongs to theologians, competent authorities representing different Churches.“Oecumenical对话”的任务属于神学家,代表不同的教会的主管机关。

4. 4。Catholics should not ignore their duty to other Christians --- they should make the first approach.天主教徒不应忽略他们的职责,其他基督徒---他们应该作出的第一种方法。Even so, the primary duty of the Church at the present time is to discover what must be done within the catholic Church itself; to renew itself, to put its own house in order.即便如此,教会目前的主要职责是发现内的天主教教会本身必须做什么;自我更新,为了把自己的房子。Catholics sincerely believe that theirs is the Church of Christ; everything necessary must be done that others also may clearly recognize it as Christ's Church.天主教会真诚地相信,他们是基督的教会必须做一切必要的,其他人也可清楚地认识到基督的教会。

5. 5。The ecumenical movement can make no progress without a real change of heart.合一运动可以使没有真正改变的心没有取得任何进展。Theologians and other competent Catholics should study the history, teaching and liturgy of separated Churches.神学家和其他主管天主教徒应该研究的历史,教学分离教会和礼仪。All Christians have a common purpose -- to confess Christ before men.所有的基督徒都有一个共同的的目的 - 在人前承认基督。Practical expression must be given to this, by relieving the distress which afflicts so many of the human race: famine, poverty, illiteracy, the unequal distribution of wealth, housing shortage.必须给予切实体现到这一点,减轻折磨着人类:这么多的饥荒,贫困,文盲,财富分配不均,住房短缺的困扰。

6. 6。In appropriate circumstances prayers for unity should be recited jointly with non-Catholic Christians.在适当的情况下,团结祈祷应吟诵共同与非天主教徒。Catholics are to be directed in this by their bishops, subject to the decisions of the Holy see.天主教徒在此指挥了他们的主教,教廷的决定。

7. 7。Between the catholic Church and Western non-Catholic Christian communities, important differences remain; these differences are most evident in the interpretation of truth revealed by God.之间的天主教和非天主教的西方的基督教社区,重要的分歧依然存在,这些差异是由神启示的真理的解释最明显的。But the bonds of unity are already strong; their strength must be put to use.但统一的债券已经强;自己的实力,必须投入使用。 The bonds are, chiefly, the fact that Christians believe in the divinity of Christ and the fact of reverence for God's word revealed in the Bible.债券,主要是基督徒相信基督的神性和敬畏神的话语在“圣经”所揭示的事实中的事实。

8. 8。In the cause of ecumenism, the Catholic must always remain true to the Faith that he has received.天主教的大公运动的原因,必须始终保持忠于信仰,他已收到。Impudent zeal in this matter is a hindrance to unity and not a help.放肆的热情,在这个问题上是团结,而不是一个帮助的障碍。 So also is any attempt to achieve a merely superficial unity.因此,也是实现只是一个肤浅的团结的任何企图。

Other Problems其他问题

By the close of the third session, in November of 1964, the Council had voted in favour of two Constitutions and three Decrees.通过第三次会议于1964年11月,结束时,安理会投了赞成的两部宪法和三个法令。The Constitutions were those dealing with the liturgy and with the Church; the Decrees were on Oecumenism, on the Eastern Churches, and on "Means of Communication" (dealing with modern mass media, such as the Press, cinema, radio and television; this Decree was generally regarded as excessively clerical, abstract and unworthy of its important subject).宪法是那些与教会的礼仪和处理;法令上Oecumenism,东方教会和“通信手段”(与现代大众传播媒介,如新闻,电影,广播和电视,交易;法令通常被视为过于文书,抽象的,愧对其重要课题)。

Of the schemata outstanding at the end of the third session, the principal ones were those dealing with priests and seminaries, religious, the missions, the "pastoral duties of bishops," Divine revelation, and "the Church and the Modern World."在第三届会议结束杰出的图式,主要是那些与牧师和神学院,宗教,任务,“牧区的主教职务,”神的启示,和处理“教会在现代世界。” Intensive and prolonged drafting, debating, amending, further debating followed by further amending, have marked the path of each of these topics.密集和长时间的起草,讨论,修改,进一步辩论,进一步修订,标志着每个主题的路径。They have also manifested the will of the Council that everything possible must be done to make this the Council of renewal in the Church.此外,他们还表现在安理会必须做一切可能使这一重建在教会理事会将。

Among the outstanding topics, those contained in Schema 13 command the greatest interest.其中优秀的主题,这些包含在Schema 13命令的最大利益。For this is the schema on the Church in the modern world.因为这是教会在现代世界的架构。The Council must show that in its debates it is not moving on the abstract plane; the Church is in this world, committed to it by a divine commission.安理会必须显示在其辩论,它不是抽象的平面上移动,教会是在这个世界上,一个神圣的委员会致力于的。Of all the topics discussed, probably none has been more widely awaited.所有讨论的议题,可能没有被更广泛的期待。No schema has passed through more stages, none has suffered greater amendment.任何架构已通过多个阶段通过的,没有遭受更大的修正案。This schema is entrusted to two commissions working together -- the Commission for Theology and the Commission for the Lay Apostolate.这种模式是委托两个委员会一起工作 - 神学和莱使徒委员会委员会。In February 1965 the revised text (that is, the text in its fourth form) was examined by the mixed commission, and a further meeting was to be held before the text was to be sent to the bishops.在1965年2月由混合委员会审议的修订案文(即,在其第四次文本),并再举行一次会议之前举行的文本被发送到主教。 In this text there are stated the questions and problems that the modern world puts to the Church, and the fields in which it seeks the Church's co-operation.在这个文本中有说明的问题和现代世界将教会的问题,和它旨在教会的合作领域。Then the text outlines the things on which the Church is competent to pronounce, while a brief analysis of history shows how mistakes have been made in the past when the Church became involved in political systems.然后文本轮廓教会主管发音的东西,而历史的简要分析显示错误已在过去,当堂成为参与政治制度。 Under the headings of anthropology, sociology and cosmology, the text then details the attitude of the Church to the modern world.在人类学,社会学和宇宙学的文本,然后详细说明教会的态度,对现代世界的标题。

The extreme complexity of these problems is shown by the fact that seven distinct sub-committees are at work.这些问题的极端复杂性表明,七个不同的小组委员会在工作的事实。These sub-committees deal with这些小组委员会处理
(a) the basis in theology; (一)在神学的基础;
(b) the general manner of presentation;(二)一般的演示的方式;
(c) the question of man's presence in society;(三)人的社会存在的问题;
(d) marriage;(四)结婚;
(e) social and economic questions;(五)社会和经济问题;
(f) peace and war -- including nuclear war and disarmament; and finally(F)的和平与战争 - 包括战争和核裁军;最后
(g) questions of modern culture. (七)现代文化的问题。

During the third session, many other important issues were raised.在第三届会议期间,许多其他重要问题提出。Among them were the declaration on religious liberty, and a further declaration concerning those who are not Christians (including a declaration on those who belong to the Jewish faith).其中有对宗教信仰自由的宣言,并进一步声明,关于那些不是基督徒(包括那些属于犹太信仰的声明)。

These declarations were returned for further revision, and action for approval was postponed until the fourth session.这些声明作进一步修改,并返回被推迟,直到第四次会议批准的行动。

The question of mixed marriages was also raised (that is, marriages contracted between Catholic and non-Catholic Christians).还提出了异族通婚的问题(即,天主教和非天主教基督教徒之间承包的婚姻)。 The Council Fathers decided to submit this question to the Pope for a ruling, and expressed the hope that this ruling would be given in advance of the promulgation of the reform in Canon Law.理事会的父亲决定提交教皇裁决这个问题,并表示希望这一裁决将在佳能“的改革颁布之前。While the general question of marriage is included in the schema on the Church in the modern world, Pope Paul VI has reserved to himself the decision as to whether any change should be made in the teaching of Pope Pius XI (which was repeated by his successor, Pope Pius XII) concerning means of birth control.虽然教会在现代世界的架构中包括一般的婚姻问题是,教皇保罗六世保留自己的决定是否有任何改变,应在教皇Pius XI教学(这是由他的继任者一再,教皇Pius XII)有关节育的手段。Pope Paul enlisted aid from distinguished theologians and doctors to assist him in forming his judgement on this question.教皇保罗邀请杰出的神学家和医生的援助,以协助他在这个问题上形成自己的判断。


The fourth and last session of the Council opened September 14th, 1965, and closed December 8th.理事会第四次和最后一次会议,1965年9月14日开幕,12月8日关闭。By far the most active of the sessions, it issued two constitutions迄今为止最活跃的环节,它发布了两个宪法
(divine revelation, modern problems of the Church),(神的启示,现代教会的问题),
six decrees六个法令
(duties of bishops, seminaries, life of religious, apostolate of the laity, priestly life, missions), (主教,修道院,宗教,使徒的俗人,司铎的生活,任务生活的职责),
and three declarations和三个声明
(the Church and non-Christian religions, Christian education, religious liberty). (教会和非基督教的宗教,基督教教育,宗教的自由)。

The Council witnessed a dramatic demonstration of ecumenism on December 7th, when Pope Paul and the Orthodox Patriarch Athenagoras I formally expressed their regret for the mutual excommunications pronounced by their predecessors. 12月7日,当保罗教皇和东正教会宗主教哥拉我正式表示遗憾他们的前辈明显的相互excommunications理事会见证一个戏剧性的大公合一示范。 Pope Leo IX and Patriarch Cerularius, in 1054.教皇利奥九世祖师Cerularius,在1054年。

The documentary work of the Council, the fruit of laborious committee study, many preliminary versions, and countless revisions, is represented by sixteen final drafts, as follows:代表16个定稿纪录片理事会,水果,费力委员会研究,很多初步的版本,和无数的修订工作,具体如下:

Four Constitutions四部宪法

"On the Sacred Liturgy" (Dec. 4, 1963),“在神圣的礼仪”(1963年12月4日),
"On the Church" (Nov. 21, 1964), “教会”(1964年11月21日),
"Divine Revelation" (Nov. 18th, 1965) and“神的启示”(1965年11月18日)
"the Church in the Modern World" (Dec. 7, 1965)“教会在现代世界”(1965年12月7日)

Nine Decrees九法令

"The Instruments of Social Communication" (Dec. 4, 1963),“社会沟通的仪器”(1963年12月4日),
"Ecumenism" (Nov. 21, 1964), “普世主义”(1964年11月21日)
"The Eastern Catholic Churches" (Nov. 21, 1964),“东方教会的”(1964年11月21日),
"The Pastoral Duty of Bishops," (Oct. 18, 1965),“牧区的主教职务”(1965年10月18日),
"On Priestly Formation" (Oct. 28, 1965),“祭司的形成”(1965年10月28日),
"On the Apostolate of the Laity" (Nov. 18, 1965),“使徒的俗人”(1965年11月18日),
"On the Ministry and the Priestly Life" (Dec. 7, 1965),“在教育部和祭司的生命”(1965年12月7日),
"On the Missionary Activity of the Church" (Dec. 7, 1965), and他说:“教会的传教活动”(1965年12月7日),

Three Declarations三个声明

"On the Relationship of the Church to non-Christian Religions" (Oct. 26, 1965),他说:“教会与非基督宗教”(1965年10月26日)的关系,
"On ChristianEducation" (Oct. 28, 1965) and“在ChristianEducation”(1965年10月28日)
"On Religious Freedom" (Dec. 7, 1965).“对宗教自由”(1965年12月7日)。

Also, see:此外,见:
Ecumenical Councils普世议会

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