Song of Solomon, Song of Songs, Canticle of Canticles所罗门 歌

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A book in the Old Testament of the Bible, the Song of Solomon, also known as the Song of Songs or the Canticles, is a collection of lyric poetry celebrating human love.在圣经旧约雅歌,又称宋歌曲或canticle的,书是庆祝人类之爱的抒情诗的集合。The tradition of Solomonic authorship does not stand scrutiny.所罗门作者的传统不经不起推敲。The milieu of the poetry is heavily northern Israelite and the imagery rural, although it may have been among sophisticated urbanites.诗歌的环境严重北部的以色列人和图像农村,虽然它可能有复杂的都市之间。A reasonable hypothesis is that love lyrics from the period 950 - 750 BC were collected and supplemented in postexilic times and accepted among religious Jews as an allegory of the relationship of God and Israel.一个合理的假设是歌词期间950 - 公元前750年,收集和补充postexilic倍和不同宗教的犹太人作为上帝和以色列的关系的寓言接受。The early Christian church accepted this explanation, with the allegory becoming that of Christ and his church.早期基督教教堂接受了这一解释,与基督和他的教会,成为寓言。Other scholars interpret the song as a collection of hymns to true love, sanctified by union.其他学者的解释作为一个真正的爱的赞美诗集合,由工会圣洁的歌曲。The poetry describes nature and the male and female bodies with an ardent and unjaded eroticism.诗歌描述了殷切unjaded色情性质和男性和女性的身体。

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Bibliography 参考书目
G Carr and DJ Wiseman, Song of Solomon (1984); R Gordis, The Song of Songs and Lamentations: A Study, Modern Translation, and Commentary (1974); JB White, A Study of the Language of Love in the Song of Songs (1978).摹卡尔和DJ怀斯曼,所罗门之歌“(1984年),R Gordis,宋歌和哀歌:一项研究显示,现代翻译和评注(1974); JB白色,一个爱的语言,在宋歌的研究(1978年)。


Song of Solomon, Canticle of Canticles所罗门之歌canticle的canticles

Brief Outline简述

  1. The mutual admiration of the lovers (1:2-2:7)相互倾慕的恋人(1:2-2:7)
  2. Growth in love (2:8-3:5)生长在爱(2:8-3:5)
  3. The marriage (3:6-5:1)婚姻(3:6-5:1)
  4. Longing of the wife for her absent husband (5:2-6:9)向往的妻子,她缺席的丈夫(5:2-6:9)
  5. The beauty of the Shulammite bride (6:10-8:4)Shulammite新娘美容(6:10-8:4)
  6. The wonder of love (8:5-14)爱的奇迹(8:5-14)

Different scholars have interpreted this book as:不同的学者有解释这本书:

Jews generally believe that the bridegroom is God and the bride is the Jewish people.犹太人普遍认为,新郎是上帝,和新娘是犹太人民。Many Christians feel that the bridegroom is Christ and the bride is the Church.许多基督徒认为,新郎是基督和新娘是教会。


Solomon所罗门

Advanced Information先进的信息

Solomon, peaceful, (Heb. Shelomoh), David's second son by Bathsheba, ie, the first after their legal marriage (2 Sam. 12).所罗门,和平,(希伯来Shelomoh),由拔示巴大卫的第二个儿子,也就是说,他们的合法婚姻后的第一(三12)。He was probably born about BC 1035 (1 Chr. 22:5; 29:1).他可能是出生约公元前1035(1 CHR 22:5; 29:1)。He succeeded his father on the throne in early manhood, probably about sixteen or eighteen years of age.他成功的宝座上他的父亲在成年早期,大概十六,十八岁。Nathan, to whom his education was intrusted, called him Jedidiah, ie, "beloved of the Lord" (2 Sam. 12:24, 25).弥敦道,他的教育是intrusted,叫他Jedidiah,即,(2山姆。12时24分,25)“耶和华的至爱”。He was the first king of Israel "born in the purple."他是以色列的第一位国王“出生在紫色。”His father chose him as his successor, passing over the claims of his elder sons: "Assuredly Solomon my son shall reign after me."他的父亲选择他作为他的继任者,通过对他的大儿子索赔:“无疑我儿子所罗门统治后我。”His history is recorded in 1 Kings 1-11 and 2 Chr.他的历史是记录在1国王1-11和2 CHR。1-9.1-9。His elevation to the throne took place before his father's death, and was hastened on mainly by Nathan and Bathsheba, in consequence of the rebellion of Adonijah (1 Kings 1:5-40).他海拔王位之前,他的父亲去世了地方,赶紧上主要亚多尼雅(王上1:5-40)的叛乱的后果,由弥敦道和拔示巴。 During his long reign of forty years the Hebrew monarchy gained its highest splendour.在他四十多年的长期统治希伯来君主制获得了最高的辉煌。

This period has well been called the "Augustan age" of the Jewish annals.这一时期被称为“奥古斯都时代”犹太史册。The first half of his reign was, however, by far the brighter and more prosperous; the latter half was clouded by the idolatries into which he fell, mainly from his heathen intermarriages (1 Kings 11:1-8; 14:21, 31).上半年,他的统治,然而,迄今为止,更明亮和更繁荣的的14时21分,31;后者的一半是由idolatries到他下跌,主要是从他的异教徒通婚(1国王队11:1-8,而蒙上阴影)。 Before his death David gave parting instructions to his son (1 Kings 2:1-9; 1 Chr. 22:7-16; 28).在他去世之前大卫临别指示他的儿子(1国王2:1-9; 22:7-16 1 CHR; 28)。As soon as he had settled himself in his kingdom, and arranged the affairs of his extensive empire, he entered into an alliance with Egypt by the marriage of the daughter of Pharaoh (1 Kings 3:1), of whom, however, nothing further is recorded.只要他已经解决了自己在他的王国,并安排了他广泛的帝国的事务,他进入联盟与埃及法老女儿的婚姻(1国王3:1),其中,然而,没有任何进一步被记录下来。 He surrounded himself with all the luxuries and the external grandeur of an Eastern monarch, and his government prospered.他周围所有的奢侈品和外部宏伟的东方君主自己,他的政府繁荣。He entered into an alliance with Hiram, king of Tyre, who in many ways greatly assisted him in his numerous undertakings.他进入联盟与西贡,国王的轮胎,在许多方面极大的帮助,他在他的许多事业。

For some years before his death David was engaged in the active work of collecting materials (1 Chr. 29:6-9; 2 Chr. 2:3-7) for building a temple in Jerusalem as a permanent abode for the ark of the covenant.对于一些年他去世前,大卫是从事收集材料的积极工作(1 CHR 29:6-9; 2 CHR 2:3-7)建设作为永久居留权的方舟在耶路撒冷的圣殿公约。He was not permitted to build the house of God (1 Chr. 22:8); that honour was reserved to his son Solomon.他没有获准兴建的神(1 CHR 22时08分。)的房子,这一荣誉是保留给他的儿子所罗门。(See TEMPLE.) After the completion of the temple, Solomon engaged in the erection of many other buildings of importance in Jerusalem and in other parts of his kingdom. (见寺庙。),寺庙建成后,所罗门群岛从事竖立许多其他建筑物在耶路撒冷和他的王国的其他部分的重要性。For the long space of thirteen years he was engaged in the erection of a royal palace on Ophel (1 Kings 7:1-12).对于长期的空间十三年中,他从事架设王宫Ophel(1国王7:1-12)。It was 100 cubits long, 50 broad, and 30 high.它长100肘,50广泛,高30。Its lofty roof was supported by forty-five cedar pillars, so that the hall was like a forest of cedar wood, and hence probably it received the name of "The House of the Forest of Lebanon."支持其崇高的屋顶是由四十五个雪松支柱,使大厅就像一个森林雪松木,并因此可能收到的名称是“森林黎巴嫩内务。” In front of this "house" was another building, which was called the Porch of Pillars, and in front of this again was the "Hall of Judgment," or Throneroom (1 Kings 7:7; 10:18-20; 2 Chr. 9:17-19), "the King's Gate," where he administered justice and gave audience to his people.在这个“家”的前面是另一幢大楼,被称为柱的门廊,在这方面又是“审判厅”,或Throneroom(1国王7时07分; 10:18-20; 2 CHR 9:1​​7-19),“国王之门”,“在那里他管理的正义和给观众给他的人民。

This palace was a building of great magnificence and beauty.这座宫殿是一个伟大的辉煌和美丽的建筑。 A portion of it was set apart as the residence of the queen consort, the daughter of Pharaoh.它的一部分,除了王后,法老的女儿居住。From the palace there was a private staircase of red and scented sandal wood which led up to the temple.从皇宫里有一个红色和香味檀木导致寺庙的私人楼梯。Solomon also constructed great works for the purpose of securing a plentiful supply of water for the city (Eccl. 2:4-6).所罗门还建造了伟大工程,为确保水供应充足的城市(传道书2:4-6)的目的。He then built Millo (LXX., "Acra") for the defence of the city, completing a line of ramparts around it (1 Kings 9:15, 24; 11:27).然后,他建为城市的防御米罗(LXX.,“ACRA”),完成(1国王9:15,24; 11:27)线周围的城墙。 He erected also many other fortifications for the defence of his kingdom at various points where it was exposed to the assault of enemies (1 Kings 9:15-19; 2 Chr. 8:2-6).他竖立在不同的点防御,他的王国,也是许多其他防御工事,它被暴露在敌人的攻击(1国王9:15-19; 2 CHR 8:2-6)。Among his great undertakings must also be mentioned the building of Tadmor (qv) in the wilderness as a commercial depot, as well as a military outpost.在他的伟大的事业,也必须提到建设Tadmor(QV)在旷野作为一个商业车厂,以及作为一个军事哨所。During his reign Palestine enjoyed great commercial prosperity.在他的统治巴勒斯坦享有巨大的商业繁荣。

Extensive traffic was carried on by land with Tyre and Egypt and Arabia, and by sea with Spain and India and the coasts of Africa, by which Solomon accumulated vast stores of wealth and of the produce of all nations (1 Kings 9:26-28; 10:11, 12; 2 Chr. 8:17, 18; 9:21).土地和轮胎,埃及和沙特阿拉伯,西班牙和印度的海上和非洲海岸,进行广泛的交通所罗门积累大量的财富和所有国家的农产品(列王记上9:26-28商店〔10时11分,12; 2 CHR八时十七分,18; 9点21分)。This was the "golden age" of Israel.这是以色列的“黄金时代”。The royal magnificence and splendour of Solomon's court were unrivalled.皇室的辉煌和所罗门的法院的辉煌是无与伦比的。He had seven hundred wives and three hundred concubines, an evidence at once of his pride, his wealth, and his sensuality.他有七百余妻子和三百年纳妾,他的自尊心一旦证据,他的财富,和他的淫荡。The maintenance of his household involved immense expenditure.他的家庭参与维持巨大的开支。The provision required for one day was "thirty measures of fine flour, and threescore measures of meal, ten fat oxen, and twenty oxen out of the pastures, and an hundred sheep, beside harts, and roebucks, and fallow-deer, and fatted fowl" (1 Kings 4:22, 23).一天所需的拨款,是“30措施细面,和六十措施餐,10个脂肪的牛,和第二十牛的牧场,一百只羊,旁边HARTS,roebucks,休耕鹿,和脱脂鸡“(1国王4:22,23)。 Solomon's reign was not only a period of great material prosperity, but was equally remarkable for its intellectual activity.所罗门的统治不仅是一个巨大的物质繁荣的时期,但同样是其智力活动的显着。He was the leader of his people also in this uprising amongst them of new intellectual life.他是他的人民的领袖,在这其中包括新的智力生活的起义。

"He spake three thousand proverbs: and his songs were a thousand and five. And he spake of trees, from the cedar tree that is in Lebanon even unto the hyssop that springeth out of the wall: he spake also of beasts, and of fowl, and of creeping things, and of fishes" (1 Kings 4: 32, 33). “他说话的3万谚语:和他的歌曲是一千五他spake在黎巴嫩所不欲,牛膝草​​,甚至springeth出墙的雪松树,树木:他spake也兽,禽和蠕动的东西,和大家鱼“(1国王4:32,33)。 His fame was spread abroad through all lands, and men came from far and near "to hear the wisdom of Solomon."通过所有土地,他的名声传到了国外,男性由远及近,“听到所罗门的智慧。”Among others thus attracted to Jerusalem was "the queen of the south" (Matt. 12:42), the queen of Sheba, a country in Arabia Felix.从而吸引到耶路撒冷的人是“南方女王”(马太福音12:42),示巴女王,一个在阿拉伯菲利克斯国家。"Deep, indeed, must have been her yearning, and great his fame, which induced a secluded Arabian queen to break through the immemorial custom of her dreamy land, and to put forth the energy required for braving the burdens and perils of so long a journey across a wilderness. “深,事实上,必须有被她的向往,和伟大他的名声,从而诱发一个僻静的阿拉伯女王突破她的梦幻般的土地自古以来的习俗,并提出冒着负担和危险所需的能量这么久整个荒野的旅程。

Yet this she undertook, and carried it out with safety." (1 Kings 10:1-13; 2 Chr. 9: 1-12.) She was filled with amazement by all she saw and heard: "there was no more spirit in her." After an interchange of presents she returned to her native land. But that golden age of Jewish history passed away. The bright day of Solomon's glory ended in clouds and darkness. His decline and fall from his high estate is a sad record. Chief among the causes of his decline were his polygamy and his great wealth. "As he grew older he spent more of his time among his favourites.然而,这她承诺,并进行与安全“(1国王10:1-13; 2 CHR 9。1-12)她是充满惊奇,她看到和听到:”没有更多的精神她。互换礼​​物后“,她回到她的原生土地,但犹太人的历史的黄金时代通过走,在所罗门的荣耀光明的一天结束在云层和黑暗,他的下降,并从他高房地产秋季一个可悲的记录行政他下降的原因之一。他的一夫多妻制和他的巨大财富。“随着年龄的增长他度过了他的最爱他的时间。 The idle king living among these idle women, for 1,000 women, with all their idle and mischievous attendants, filled the palaces and pleasure-houses which he had built (1 Kings 11:3), learned first to tolerate and then to imitate their heathenish ways.闲置国王生活在这些闲置的妇女,1000名妇女,他们所有的闲置和恶作剧的服务员,充满宫殿和他所建立的乐趣房子(1国王11:3),学会了先容忍,然后模仿他们的异教方法。 He did not, indeed, cease to believe in the God of Israel with his mind.,的确,他没有停止在以色列的神相信,他的头脑。He did not cease to offer the usual sacrifices in the temple at the great feasts.他没有因此而停止提供通常在寺庙伟大的节日牺牲。

But his heart was not right with God; his worship became merely formal; his soul, left empty by the dying out of true religious fervour, sought to be filled with any religious excitement which offered itself.但他的心是不是神的右边,他的崇拜成为只是形式,他的灵魂,离开了奄奄一息的真正的宗教狂热,寻求与任何宗教提供本身的兴奋来填补空。 Now for the first time a worship was publicly set up amongst the people of the Lord which was not simply irregular or forbidden, like that of Gideon (Judg. 8:27), or the Danites (Judg. 18: 30, 31), but was downright idolatrous." (1 Kings 11:7; 2 Kings 23:13.) This brought upon him the divine displeasure. His enemies prevailed against him (1 Kings 11:14-22, 23-25, 26-40), and one judgment after another fell upon the land. And now the end of all came, and he died, after a reign of forty years, and was buried in the city of David, and "with him was buried in the city of David, and "with him was buried the short-lived glory and unity of Israel."现在一个崇拜首次被公开设立这不是简单的不规则或禁止像基甸(Judg. 8:27),或Danites(Judg. 18:30,31),主的人当中,却是彻头彻尾的偶像崇拜“(1国王11时07分; 2国王23:13),这他带来了神圣的不满他的敌人对他占了上风(1国王11:14-22,23-25​​,26-40)。 ,和一个判断接连下跌后的土地,而现在所有的那端传来,在位四十多年后,他死了,被埋葬在大卫城,和“与他同葬在大卫城,“与他被埋葬了短暂的辉煌和以色列的团结。” "He leaves behind him but one weak and worthless son, to dismember his kingdom and disgrace his name." “他留下他,但一个薄弱和毫无价值的儿子,肢解他的英国和耻辱他的名字。”"The kingdom of Solomon," says Rawlinson, "is one of the most striking facts in the Biblical history. “所罗门王国”,罗林森说,“在圣经历史上最引人注目的事实之一。

A petty nation, which for hundreds of years has with difficulty maintained a separate existence in the midst of warlike tribes, each of which has in turn exercised dominion over it and oppressed it, is suddenly raised by the genius of a soldier-monarch to glory and greatness.一个小民族,数百年保持在好战的部落中的一个独立存在的困难,每个反过来行使统治和被压迫它,是一个天才的士兵君主的荣耀突然提出和伟大。 An empire is established which extends from the Euphrates to the borders of Egypt, a distance of 450 miles; and this empire, rapidly constructed, enters almost immediately on a period of peace which lasts for half a century.建立一个帝国是从幼发拉底河延伸至埃及,距离450英里的边界,并迅速构建,进入这个帝国,几乎立即在和平时期,持续了半个世纪。 Wealth, grandeur, architectural magnificence, artistic excellence, commercial enterprise, a position of dignity among the great nations of the earth, are enjoyed during this space, at the end of which there is a sudden collapse.享有财富,庄严,壮丽的建筑,艺术追求,商业企业,各地球的伟大的民族尊严的立场,在这个空间中,在年底,其中有一个突然崩溃。 The ruling nation is split in twain, the subject-races fall off, the pre-eminence lately gained being wholly lost, the scene of struggle, strife, oppression, recovery, in-glorious submission, and desperate effort, re-commences.", Historical Illustrations.统治民族分裂TWAIN,主题种族脱落,前隆起最近获得完全失去了,现场的斗争,冲突,压迫,恢复,在光荣提交,和绝望的努力,重新开始。“历史插图。


Song of Solomon雅歌

Advanced Information先进的信息

Song of Solomon, called also, after the Vulgate, the "Canticles."后,武加大,所罗门之歌“,也称为”canticle的。“It is the "song of songs" (1:1), as being the finest and most precious of its kind; the noblest song, "das Hohelied," as Luther calls it.这是“雅歌”(1:1),被同类产品中最优秀和最珍贵,最崇高的歌曲,“资本Hohelied,”路德调用。The Solomonic authorship of this book has been called in question, but evidences, both internal and external, fairly establish the traditional view that it is the product of Solomon's pen.这本书被称为所罗门作者的问题,但相当证据,内部和外部,建立传统观点认为,这是所罗门的笔下产品。It is an allegorical poem setting forth the mutual love of Christ and the Church, under the emblem of the bridegroom and the bride.这是一个寓言诗,互爱,基督和教会的新郎和新娘的会徽下提出。(Compare Matt. 9:15; John 3:29; Eph. 5:23, 27, 29; Rev. 19:7-9; 21:2, 9; 22:17. Compare also Ps. 45; Isa. 54:4-6; 62:4, 5; Jer. 2:2; 3:1, 20; Ezek. 16; Hos. 2:16, 19, 20.) (比较马特九时十五;约翰3点29分;弗5点23分,27,29;启示录19:7-9; 21时02分,9,22时十七分也比较诗45;。伊萨54。 :4 - 6; 62:4,5;耶2:2; 3:1,20;以西结书16。居屋二点16,19,20)

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Canticle of Canticles颂歌canticle的

Catholic Information天主教信息

(Greek Aisma asmaton, Latin Canticum canticorum.)(希腊Aisma asmaton,拉丁美洲Canticum canticorum。)

One of three books of Solomon, contained in the Hebrew, the Greek, and the Christian Canon of the Scriptures.所罗门的三本著作,在希伯来文中,希腊和基督教的“圣经”佳能之一。According to the general interpretation the name signifies "most excellent, best song".根据一般的解释这个名字意味着“最优秀的,最佳歌曲”。(Cf. the similar forms of expression in Exodus 26:33; Ezekiel 16:7; Daniel 8:25, used throughout the Bible to denote the highest and best of its kind.) Some commentators, because they have failed to grasp the homogeneousness of the book, regard it as a series or chain of songs. (参照类似的表达形式在出埃及记26:33;以西结16时07分,丹尼尔8点25分,整本圣经,用来表示同类产品的最高和最好的。)一些评论家,因为他们没有把握的homogeneousness书,把它作为一个系列或链的歌曲。

CONTENTS AND EXPOSITION目录和博览会

The book describes the love for each other of Solomon and the Sulamitess in lyrico-dramatic scenes and reciprocal songs.书中描述了对方所罗门和lyrico戏剧性的场面和互惠的歌曲Sulamitess的爱。One part of the composition (iii, 6 to v, 1) is clearly a description of the wedding-day.显然是其中的组成部分(三,6 V,1)婚礼当天的描述。Here the two chief personages approach each other in stately processlon, and the day is expressly called the wedding-day.这里的两个行政人士的做法在庄严的processlon对方,一天是明确所谓的婚礼天。Moreover the bridal wreath and the bridal bed are referred to, and six times in this section of the song, although never before or after, the word spouse is used.此外被称为新娘花环和新娘床,和6倍,在本节的歌曲,虽然从未之前或之后,这个词的配偶是使用。All that has preceded is now seen to be preparatory to the marriage, while in what follows the Sulamitess is the queen and her garden is the garden of the king (v, 1-vi, 7 sq.), although such expressions as "friend", "beloved", and "dove", are common.前面的是现在看到筹备婚姻,而在下面的Sulamitess是女王和她的花园是国王的花园(1 - VI,V,7平方米),虽​​然“朋友这样的表达式“,”宠儿“,”鸽子“,是常见的。Along with the assurances of love for each other, there is a continually progressive action that represents the development of the warm friendship and affection of the pair, then the bridal union and the married life of the royal couple.随着对彼此的爱的保证,是一个不断进步的行动表示对温暖的友谊和感情,然后婚纱联盟和王室夫妇婚后生活的发展。The bride, however, is exhibited as a simple shepherdess, consequently, when the king takes her, she has to undergo a training for the position of queen; in the course of this training occur various trials and sorrows (3:1; 5:5 sqq.; 6:11 -- Hebrews 12)新娘,然而,作为一个简单的牧羊女展示,因此,当国王需要她,她已接受了培训皇后的位置,在本次培训的过程中发生的各种试验和悲伤(3:1; 5: 5 SQQ; 6点11分 - 希伯来书12)。

Various meanings have been attributed to the contents of the song.被归因于歌曲的内容有不同的含义。 Before the sixteenth century tradition gave an allegorical or symbolical meaning to the love of Solomon for the Sulamitess.前16世纪的传统给了所罗门爱Sulamitess一个寓言或象征性的的意义。The view held by the Jewish Synagogue was expressed by Akiba and Aben Ezra; that held by the Church, by Origen, Gregory of Nyssa, Augustine, and Jerome.犹太教堂举行有人秋叶和阿本以斯拉,由教会举行,由奥利,格雷戈里的果树,奥古斯丁,和杰罗姆。An opinion opposed to these found only isolated expression.反对这些意见,发现只有零星的表达。Akiba (first century after Christ) speaks severely of those who would strike the book from the Sacred Canon, while St. Philastrius (fourth century) refers to others who regarded it not as the work of the Holy Ghost but as the Composition of a purely sensuous poet.秋叶(基督之后的第一个世纪)讲那些罢工的神圣佳能书严重,而圣Philastrius(第四世纪),是指的其他人视为不作为圣灵的工作,但作为一个纯粹的组成感性的诗人。 Theodore of Mopsuestia aroused such indignation by declaring the Canticle of Canticles to be a love-song of Solomon's, and his contemptuous treatment of it gave great offense (Mansi, Coll. Conc., IX, 244 sqq; Migne, PG, LXVI, 699 sqq.).的摩普绥提亚西奥多引起声明颂歌canticle的一个所罗门的爱的歌曲,这样的愤慨,和他的轻蔑的治疗给了很大的罪行(曼西,科尔浓,IX,244 SQQ。米涅,PG,LXVI,699 SQQ。)At the Œcumenical Council of Constantinople (553), Theodore's view was rejected as heretic and his own pupil Theoret, brought forward against him unanimous testimony of the Fathers (Migne, PG, LXXXI, 62). Œcumenical会君士坦丁堡(553),西奥多的观点遭到了拒绝邪教和他自己的瞳孔Theoret,提出了一致的证词对他的父亲(米涅,PG捌拾,62)。 Theodore's opinion was not revived until the sixteenth century, when the Calvinist Sebastien Castalion (Castalio), and also Johannes Clericus, made use of it.西奥多的意见是没有恢复,直到十六世纪,加尔文塞巴斯蒂安Castalion(Castalio),也约翰内斯Clericus,使用它时。 The Anabaptists became partisans of this view; later adherents of the same opinion were Michaelis, Teller, Herder, and Eichhorn.再洗礼派教徒成为这一观点的党羽;米氏,出纳,赫德和艾希霍恩相同的看法后来的追随者。A middle position is taken by the "typical" exposition of the book.一个中间的位置,采取“典型”一书的论述。For the first and immediate sense the typical interpretation holds firmly to the historical and secular meaning, which has always been regarded by the Church as heretical; this interpretation gives, however, to the "Song of Love", a second and higher sense.对于第一和直接的意义上典型的解释坚持历史的和世俗的意义,一直被视为异端的教会;然而,这种解释给出的“情歌”,第二和更高意义。 As, namely, the figure of Solomon was a type of Christ, so is the actual love of Solomon for a shepherdess or for the daughter of Pharaoh, intended as a symbol of the love of Christ for His Church.,即所罗门的数字是基督的类型,所以是一个牧羊女或法老的女儿,作为一个象征基督爱教会的爱所罗门的实际。Honorius of Autun and Luis of Leon (Aloysius Legionensis) did not actually teach this view, although their method of expression might be misleading (cf. Cornelius a Lapide, Prol. in Canticum, c. i).挪的欧坦和路易斯 - 莱昂(Aloysius Legionensis)没有实际教这个观点,虽然他们的表达方式可能会产生误导(参见科尼利厄斯Lapide,海峡Canticum C.我)。 In earlier times reference was often made to a first and literal meaning of the words of a text, which meaning, however, was not the real sense of the context as intended by the author, but was held to be only its external covering or "husk".往往在更早的时候,参考的文本的话,它的意义和字面意思,但是,并没有真正意义上的作者有意的情况下,但只将其外部覆盖或“稻壳“。 Entirely dissimilar to this method is the typical exposition of modern times, which accepts an actual double meaning of the text, the two senses being connected and intended by the author.这种方法是完全不同的典型论述了近代,它接受一个实际的文本的双重含义,这两个感官连接,并打算由作者。Bossuet and Calmet may, perhaps, be regarded as holding this view; it is unmistakably held by the Protestant commentators Delitzsch and Zockler as also by Kingsbury (in The Speaker's Commentary) and Kossowicz.波舒哀和卡尔梅特可能,也许,被视为持这种观点,这是明白无误地举行新教评论员Delitzsch和Zockler金斯伯里(议长的评注)和Kossowicz。 A few others hold to this view, but the number does not include Lowth (cf. De sacra poesi Hebr. prael., 31).其他几个人持有这种观点的,但数量不包括Lowth(31)参德萨克拉poesi黑布尔。prael。。Grotius makes it evident, not so much in words as in the method of exposition, that he is opposed to a higher interpretation.格劳秀斯是显而易见的,没有那么多的论述方法的话,他是反对到一个更高的解释。At the present day most non-Catholics are strongly opposed to such an exposition; on the other hand most Catholics accept the allegorical interpretation of the book.在现今的大多数非天主教徒的强烈反对这样的论述;另一方面大多数天主教徒接受书寓言的解释。

Exposition of the Allegory博览会的寓言

The reasons for this interpretation are to be found not only in tradition and the decision of the Church, but also in the song itself.这种解释的理由是,不仅在传统和教会的决定,而且在歌曲本身。As long as the effort is made to follow the thread of an ordinary love-song, so long will it be impossible to give a coherent exposition, and many despair of ever obtaining a successful interpretation.只要努力,按照一个普通的爱情歌的线程,因此将它不可能作出了一致的论述,并不断取得成功的解释许多绝望。 In the commentary of the present writer, "Comment. in Eccl. et Canticum Canticorum" (Paris, 1890), a number of examples are given of the typical and of the purely secular interpretations, and besides these, in treating of each of the larger divisions, the varying methods of exposition are carefully investigated.在本作家的评注,“评论。传道书。Canticum Canticorum”(巴黎,1890年),一个例子是典型的,纯粹世俗的解释给定的,除了这些,在每个治疗较大的部门,论述不同的方法,认真的调查。 The proper connection of scenes and parts can only be found in the realm of the ideal, in allegory.在寓言中的理想境界,只能找到适当的场景和部分连接。In no other way can the dignity and sanctity befitting the Scriptures be preserved and the striking title, "Song of Songs", receive a satisfactory explanation.在没有其他办法可以符合“圣经”被保留,并醒目的标题,“雅歌”,得到一个满意的交代的尊严和神圣。The allegory, however, can be shown as possible and obvious by means of numerous passages in the Old and the New Testament, in which the relation of God to the Synagogue and of Christ to the Church or to the adoring soul is represented under the symbol of marriage or betrothal (Jeremiah 2:2; Psalm 44 - Hebrew 45; Hosea 19 sqq., Ezekiel 16:8 sqq., Matthew 25:1 sqq; 2 Corinthians 11:2; Ephesians 5:23 sqq.; Revelation 19:7 sq., etc.).然而,寓言,可以尽可能和明显的显示,在旧的许多段落手段和新约中,神的犹太教堂和基督的教会或崇拜的灵魂的关系是根据符号代表结婚或订婚(耶利米书2:2;诗篇44 - 45希伯来语;何西阿19 SQQ,以西结书16时08分SQQ,马修25:1 SQQ; 2哥林多前书11时02分;以弗所书5点23 SQQ;启示录19。。: 7平,等)。A similar manner of speaking occurs frequently in Christian literature, nor does it appear forced or artificial.一个类似的方式讲,经常出现在基督教文学作品,也没有出现强迫或人工。The testimony of Theodoret to the teaching of the Early Church is very important.证词Theodoret早期教会的教学是非常重要的。He names Eusebius in Palestine, Origen in Egypt, Cyprian in Carthage, and "the Elders who stood close to the Apostles", consequently, Basil, the two Gregorys [of Nyssa and Nazianzen -- Ed.], Diodorus, and Chrysostom, "and all in agreement with one another".他的名字尤西比乌斯在巴勒斯坦,奥利在埃及,塞浦路斯在迦太基,和“长者站在靠近使徒”,因此,罗勒,[果树和Nazianzen - ED]两个Gregorys,狄奥多罗斯,金口,“所有在一个又一个“协议。To these may be added Ambrose (Migne, PL, XIII, 1855, 1911), Philastrius (Migne, PL, XII, 1267), Jerome (Migne, PL XXII, 547, 395; XXIII, 263), and Augustine (Migne, PL, XXXIV, 372, 925; XLI, 556).对于这些可能会增加刘汉铨(米涅,特等,第13条,1855年,1911年),Philastrius(米涅,特等,第十二,1267),杰罗姆(米涅,特等22,547,395;二十三,263),和奥古斯丁(米涅, PL,三十四,372,925; XLI,556)。It follows from this, that the typical interpretation, also, contradicts tradition, even if it does not come within the decree pronounced against Theodore of Mopsuestia.因此,从这个典型的解释,也违背传统,即使它不会对西奥多的摩普绥提亚明显的法令内。This method of exposition has, moreover, very few adherents, because the typical can only be applied to separate individuals or things, and cannot be used for the interpretation of a connected text which contains only one genuine and proper meaning.此外,这种方法论述,极少数的信徒,因为典型的只适用于单独的个人或事物,而不能用于一个连接的文本,其中包含只有一个真正的和应有之义解释。 The foundation of the typical interpretation is destroyed at once when the historical explanation is held to be indefensible.典型的解释的基础被破坏一次,当被认定为历史解释是站不住脚的。

In the allegorical interpretation of the song, it makes no essential difference whether the bride is taken as a symbol of the Synagogue, that is, of the congregation of the Old Covenant or of the Church of God of the New Covenant.在歌曲的寓言的解释,它使新娘是否是作为一个象征的犹太教堂,即是旧约或新约的上帝教会的众没有本质的区别。In truth, the song turns aside from both; by the spouse should be understood human nature as elected (electa elevata, sc. natura humana) and received by God.事实上,这首歌曲一边轮流从两个;的配偶应当理解人性当选(SC NATURA Humana公司。electa elevata)和神所收到的。This is embodied, above all, in the great Church of God upon earth, which God takes to Himself with the love of a bridegroom, makes the crowning point of all His external works, and adorns with the bridal ornament of supernatural grace. ,高于一切,这是体现在神的伟大的教会在地上,神需要自己与新郎的爱,使他所有的外部工程的加冕点,并以超自然的恩典的新娘饰品装饰。In the song the bride is not reproached with sins and guilt but, on the contrary, her good qualities and beauty receive high praise; consequently, the chosen community of God appears here under that form which is according to the Apostle, without spot or blemish (Ephesians 5:27).在歌曲的新娘罪和内疚,但不责备,相反,她良好的素质和美容收到的高度赞誉,因此,上帝选择的社会下,这是根据使徒的形式出现在这里,没有现货或污点(以弗所书5:27)。 It is plain that the Canticle of Canticles finds its most evident application to the most holy Humanity of Jesus Christ, which is united in the most intimate bond of love with the Godhead, and is absolutely spotless and essentially sanctified; after this to the most holy Mother of God as the most beautiful flower of the Church of God.这是纯canticle的canticles,发现其最明显的应用到人类最神圣的耶稣基督,这是美国最亲密的爱与神性的债券的,绝对是一尘不染,基本上是圣洁的,在此之后,以最圣洁的最美丽的花神的教会作为上帝的母亲。 (In regard to a twofold sense of this kind of in the Scriptures, cf. "Zeitschrift fur katholische Theologie", 1903, p. 381.) The soul that has been purified by grace is also in a more remote yet real sense a worthly bride of Lord. (考虑到了这种在圣经中,比照的双重意义。“(杂志)皮草katholische神学”,1903年,第381页)。宽限期已被纯化的灵魂,是一个较偏远,但真正意义上的一个worthly新娘勋爵。 The actual meaning of Canticles is not, however, to be limited to any one of these applications, but is to be appropriated to the elected "bride of God in her relation of devotion to God". canticle的是没有实际意义,但是,这些应用程序中的任何一个是有限的,但要拨“上帝的新娘在她的奉献给上帝的关系”的当选。

As a matter of fact, the spiritual interpretation of the song has proved a rich source for mystical theology and asceticism.事实上,这首歌曲的精神诠释已经证明了一个神秘神学和禁欲主义的丰富来源。It is only necessary to call to mind the best of the old commentaries and interpretations of the book.它是只需要调用头脑最好的老书的评论和诠释。There are still in existence fifteen homilies by St. Gregory of Nyssa on the first six chapters (Migne, PG, XLI, 755 sqq.).有15颂歌在第一六个章节圣格雷戈里的nyssa(米涅,PG,四十一,755 SQQ。)仍然存在。The commentary of Theodoret (Migne, PG, LXXXI, 27 sqq.) is rich in suggestion.Theodoret(米涅,PG,捌拾,27 SQQ。)的评注是在建议丰富。In the eleventh century Psellus compiled a "Catena" from the writings of Nilus, Gregory of Nyssa, and Maximus (Auctar. bibl. Patr., II, 681 sqq.).在11世纪Psellus汇编“卡泰纳”Nilus,格雷戈里的nyssa,并鲆(Auctar. bibl。Patr,二,681 SQQ。)的著作。Among the Latins Ambrose made such frequent use of the Canticle of Canticles that a whole commentary may be developed from the many applications, rich in piety, that he made of it (Migne, PL, XV, 1851 sqq.).在拉丁刘汉铨canticle的canticles频繁使用,可以从许多应用中,在虔诚的丰富,他(米涅,特等,十五,1851年SQQ)。开发一个整体的评论。 Three commentaries are to be found in the works of Gregory the Great (Migne, P L., LXXIX, 471 sqq., 905; CLXXX, 441 sqq.).三评论高利大(米涅,P属,LXXIX,471 SQQ,905。; CLXXX,441 SQQ)的作品中发现。Apponius wrote a very comprehensive commentary which, even as late as 1843, was republished at Rome. Apponius写了一个非常全面的的评论,即使是迟至1843年再版,在罗马。The Venerable Bede prepared the matter for a number of smaller commentaries.尊者贝德准备一些较小的评论此事。The elaborate exposition by Honorius of Autun of the book in its historical, allegorical, tropological, and anagogical meanings deserves special mention.挪的欧坦书中详细阐述其含义的历史,寓言,tropological,和anagogical博览会特别值得一提。 The eighty-six homilies left by St. Bernard are universally known.八十六圣伯纳留下的颂歌,是举世皆知的。Gilbert of Hoyland added to this number forty-eight more.Hoyland吉尔伯特说这个数字四十八个。The greatest of the saints enkindled their love for God on the tender expressions of affection of Christ and His bride, the Church, in the Canticle of Canticles.最伟大的圣人enkindled的基督和他的新娘,教会的感情招标表达他们对上帝的爱,canticle的canticles。 Even in Old Testament times it must have greatly consoled the Hebrews to read of the eternal covenant of love between God and His faithful people.即使在旧约时代,它必须有很大的安慰希伯来人读神和他忠实的的人民之间的爱情永恒的盟约。

Within certain limits the application to the relation between God and the individual soul adorned with supernatural grace is self-evident and an aid to virtuous living.在一定范围内的应用程序之间的上帝和个人的灵魂与超自然的恩典装饰的关系是不言而喻的良性生活的援助。The bride is first raised by the bridegroom to a relation of complete affection, afterwards betrothed or married (iii 6-v, 1), and, finally, after a successful activity (vii, 12 sq.; viii, 11 sq.); is received into the heavenly dwellings.新郎新娘是首次提出完整的亲情关系,订婚或结婚之后(三6 V,1),最后一个成功的活动后,(七,12平方米;第八,11平方米);到天上的住宅。A life of contemplation and activity bound up with painful trials is the way there.生活痛苦的试验与约束的观照和活动的方式存在。In the Breviary and Missal the Church has repeatedly applied the song to the Mother of God (see B. Schafer in Komment., p. 255 sqq.).在教会的祈祷书和Missal曾多次应用于上帝之母(B.在Komment谢弗,第255页SQQ。)歌曲。In truth the bride adorned with the beauty of spotless purity and deep affection is a figure most appropriate to the Mother of God.一尘不染的纯洁和深情的美丽新娘点缀在真理是天主之母的最合适的一个数字。This is the reason why St. Ambrose in his book "De virginibus", so repeatedly and especially quotes Canticles.这是圣刘汉铨,为什么在他的著作“德virginibus”,如此反复,特别是报价canticle的原因。 Finally, the application of the song to the history of the life of Christ and of the Church offers pious thought rich material for contemplation.最后,这首歌曲的应用程序的基督和教会生活的历史提供了丰富的物质虔诚的思想的沉思。In doing thus the natural course of the song can, in some measure, be followed.在歌曲的自然过程,从而可以在一定程度上,应遵循的。 At His entrance into life, and especially at the time of His public activity as a teachers the Saviour sought the Church, His bride and she came lovingly towards Him.他到生活的入口,尤其是在他的公开活动时,作为一个教师,救主寻求教会,他的新娘,她来到朝他含情脉脉。He united Himself with her at the Cross (iii, 11), the Church itself makes use of this thought in a number of offices.他团结与她在自己的十字架(三11),教会本身就是使用这一思想,在办事处的数目。The affectionate conversations with the bride (to ch. v, 1) take place after the Resurrection.新娘深情的对话(CH。V,1)后复活的地方。What follows may be referred to the later history of the Church.接下来可能会转介到后来的教会历史。A distinction should be made in such methods of interpretation, however, between what may be accepted as certain or probable in the context and what pious contemplation has, more or less arbitrarily, added.应区分在解释这种方法,然而,可能被接受为一定或可能范围内,并虔诚的沉思,或多或少任意添加之间。 For this reason, it is important to ascertain more exactly than was done in earlier times the genuine and true sense of the text.出于这个原因,重要的是,以确定更准确地比在更早的时候真正的和真正意义上的文本。

LITERARY FORM OF THE SONG文学形式的歌曲

Both of the traditional poetic accentuation and language used to express the thoughts show the book to be a genuine poem.都显示了传统的诗意的加重和语言,用来表达思想的书是一个真正的诗。 The attempt has been made in various ways to prove the existence of a definite metre in the Hebrew text.已尝试以各种方式来证明,在希伯来文明确米的存在。The opinion of the present writer is that a six-syllable trochaic metre may be applied to the original Hebrerw version (De re metrica Hebraeorum, Freiburg, Baden, 1880).本作家的看法是,六音节的扬抑米,可应用于原Hebrerw版本(德重metrica Hebraeorum,弗赖堡,巴登,1880年)。e and true sense of the text. E和真正意义上的文字。The essentially lyrical character of the song is unmistakable.基本上是抒情的歌曲字符是明白无误的的。 But as various voices and scenes appear, neither should the dramatic character of the poem fail of recognition; it is, however, evident that the development of an external action is not so much the intention as the unfolding of the lyrical expression of feeling under varying circumstances.但是,出现各种声音和场景,也不应诗的戏剧性性格的承认失败,它是,但是,显然,外部动作的发展是没有这么多的意图作为抒情的感觉表达在不同的开展情况。 The cantata form of composition is suggested by the presence of a chorus of the "daughters of Jerusalem" though the text does not indicate clearly how the words are divided among the various characters.清唱剧的形式组成,建议由合唱“耶路撒冷的女儿”的存在,虽然文本没有明确表明如何划分的各种人物之间的话。 This accounts for the theory put forward at times that there are different personages who, as bride and bridegroom, or as lovers, talk with, or of, cach other.此帐户的理论提出时代有不同的人士,新娘和新郎,或爱好者,交谈,或,cach其他。Stickel in his commentary assigns three different persons to the role of the bridegroom, and two to that of the bride.在他的评论Stickel分配三个不同的人,新郎的角色和两个新娘。But such arbitrary treatment is the result of the attempt to make the Canticle of Canticles into a drama suitable for the stage.但这种任意对待的尝试的结果,使之成为适合舞台话剧canticle的canticles。

Unity of the Canticle团结的颂歌

The commentator just mentioned and other exegetes start from the natural conviction that the poem, simply called the Song of Songs and handed down to posterity as a book, must be regarded as a homogeneous whole.刚才提到的评论员和其他注释者从自然信念的诗句,干脆就叫宋歌和传世后人作为一个书开始,必须被视为一个同质的整体。 It is evident that the three clearly distinguished roles of bridegroom, bride, and chorus maintain their plainly defined characters from beginning to end; in the same way certain other designations, as "beloved", "friend", etc., and certain refrains keep recurring.明确区分这三个角色的新郎,新娘,和合唱保持他们清楚地定义的字符从开始到结束,这是显而易见的,在某些其他名称相同的方式,如“亲爱的”,“朋友”,等等,一定避免保持经常性的。 Moreover, several parts apparently repeat one another, and a peculiar phraseology is found throughout the book.此外,几个部分,显然是重复他人,和一个奇特的用语是贯穿全书的发现。The attempt has, however, been made to resolve the poem into separate songs (some twenty in all); thus has been tried by Herder, Eichhorn, Goethe, Reuss, Stade, Budde, and Siegfried.然而,尝试解决诗成单独的歌曲(有些在所有20),因此一直试图通过赫德,艾希霍恩,歌德,罗伊斯,体育场,布德和齐格弗里德。 But It has been found exceedingly difficult to separate these songs from one another, and to give to each lyric a meaning dlstinctly its own.但它已经发现彼此分开的这些歌曲,并给每一个抒情dlstinctly其自己的含义极为困难。Goethe believed this impossible, and it is necessary to resort to a working over of the songs by the person who collected them.歌德认为这是不可能的,有必要诉诸收集他们的人一个工作的歌曲。But in this everything would depend on a vague personal impression.但在这一切都将取决于个人一个模糊的印象。It is true that a mutual dependence of all the parts cannot be maintained in the secular (historical) interpretation.的确是一个相互依存的所有部分不能维持在世俗的解释(历史)。For, even in the historical hypothesis, the attempt to obtain a flawless drama is successful only when arbitrary additions are made which permit the transition from one scene to another, but these interpolations have no foundation in the text itself. ,即使在历史假设,试图获得一个完美的戏剧是成功的仅当任意增加允许从一个场景过渡到另一种,但这些插值有没有在文字本身的基础。Tradition also knows nothing of genuine dramatic poetry among the Hebrews, nor is the Semitic race more than slightly acquainted with this form of poetry.传统也知道真正的希伯来人之间的戏剧性诗歌无关,也不是犹太人的种族超过略微熟悉这种形式的诗歌。Driven by necessity, Kämpf and others even invent double roles, so that at times other personages appear along with Solomon and the Sulamitess; yet it cannot be said that any one of these hypotheses has produced a probable interpretation of the entire song.必然的驱使下,奋斗和其他甚至发明双重角色,所以,有时出现其他人士与所罗门和Sulamitess,但不能说,这些假设的任何一个可能的解释产生了整首歌曲。

DIFFICULTIES OF INTERPRETATION解释的困难

Allegorical寓言

All the hypotheses of the above-mentioned kind owe their origin to the prevalent dislike of allegory and symbolism.所有上述的一种假设,欠他们的起源的寓言和象征主义的普遍反感。It is well known how extremely distasteful poetic allegory is to our age.这是众所周知的,如何极为反感诗意寓言是我们这个时代的。Nevertheless allegory has been employed at times by the greatest poets of all ages.然而寓言已受聘在各年龄段的最伟大的诗人。 Its use was widespread in the Middle Ages, and it was always a preliminary condition in the interpretation of the Scriptures by the Fathers.其使用广泛,在中世纪,它总是在由父亲圣经的解释的初步条件。There are many passages in the Old and New Testaments which it is simply impossible to understand without allegory.有许多段落在旧约和新约,这简直是无法理解,没有寓言。It is true that the allegorical method of Interpretation has been greatly misused.寓言的解释方法得到了极大的滥用,这是事实。 Yet the Canticle of Canticles can be proved to be a flawlessly consecutive poem by the employment of rules for poetical allegory and its interpretation which are fixed and according to the canons of art.然而canticle的canticles可以被证明是一个完美连续的诗的诗意寓言和它的解释是固定的,根据艺术的大炮规则就业。 The proof of the correctness of the interpretation lies in such a combination of all the parts of the song into a homogeneous whole.解释的正确性的证明就是在这样一个组合成均匀的整体歌曲的所有部分。The dramatic form, as far as it can be plainly seen in the traditional text, is not destroyed by this method of elucidation; indeed a number (four to seven) of more or less independent scenes must be recognized.这种方法澄清的戏剧形式,尽可能地可以清晰看出,在传统的文本不被破坏;确实必须承认一个或多或少的独立场景(4至7)。 In separating these scenes from one another the Jewish or Syrian bridal customs may be taken into consideration, as has been done, especially by Budde and Siegfried, if the result is the simplifying of the explanation and not the distortion of the scenes, or other acts of caprice.在分开彼此的犹太人或叙利亚新娘海关可能会考虑这些场景,已经完成,尤其是布德和齐格弗里德,如果结果是简化的解释,而不是歪曲的场景,或其他行为任性。 An attempt has been made in the commentary (p. 388 sqq.) of the present writer to give in detail the determinative rules for a sound allegorical interpretation.在本作家评论“(第388页SQQ)。尝试已取得详细的决定性规则健全的寓言解释。

Historical历史

According to Wetzstein, whom Budde and others follow, the book should be regarded as a collection of short songs such as are still used by the bedouins of Syria in the "threshing-board".据Wetzstein,布德和其他跟进,书应被视为一个歌曲集,如仍然由叙利亚在“脱粒板”的贝都因人使用。 The features of similarity are the appearance of the bridal pair for seven days as king and queen the immoderate praise of the two, and the dance of the queen, during which she swings a sword to the accompaniment of a song by the chorus.相似的特点是外观为7天为国王和王后的两个无节制的赞美新娘对的,和女王的舞蹈,在这期间,她摆动剑伴奏合唱的歌曲。 Bruston and Rothstein have, however, expressed doubts as to this theory.Bruston和罗斯坦但是,有人怀疑这一理论。In Solomon's song the bride, in reality, does not appear as a queen and does not swing a sword; the other traces of similarity are of so general a character that they probably belong to the wedding festivities of many nations.在所罗门之歌的新娘,在现实中,没有出现一个女王和不摆动剑,其他的相似的痕迹,所以一般的字符,它们可能属于许多国家的婚礼庆典。 But the worst is that the essential songs avowedly do not stand in the proper order.但最糟糕的是,公然必不可少的歌曲没有站在正确的顺序。Consequently it is presupposed that the order.因此,它的先决条件,该命令。Consequently it is presupposed that the order of succession is accidental.因此,继承顺序是偶然的,是先决条件。This opens wide once more the door to caprice.这再一次敞开任性门。Thus, as what is said does not fit this theory it is claimed that a collector, or later redactor who misunderstood various matters, must have made small additions with which it is impossible now to do anything.因此,说什么是不适合这个理论是声称,一位收藏家,或稍后redactor谁误解的各种事项,必须有与它是不可能的,现在做任何事情的小补充。 Others, as Rothstein in Hastings, Dictionary of the Bible, presuppose that the collector, or rather the redactor, or even the author, had a dramatic end in view, as life and motion and action are, taken all together, unmistakable.其他人,“圣经”的词典,在黑斯廷斯,罗斯坦先决条件,即集电极,或相当的redactor,甚至作者,有一个戏剧性结束,生活和运动和行动,采取一切在一起,明白无误的。

It is accepted (at least for the present form of the poem) that the book presents a pastoral poem that the book presents a pastoral poem in dramatis or, at least, melodramatic form.这是接受(至少在目前的形式的诗),书中提出了一个田园诗,书,呈现在剧中人的田园诗,或者至少,夸张的形式。The poem, according to this theory, shows how a beautiful shepherdess keeps her betrothal vow to her lover of the same rank in fife notwithstanding the allurements and acts of violence of a king.的诗句,根据这一理论,如何保持一个美丽的牧羊女她订婚的誓言,她的情人,尽管国王的暴力行为而诱惑和同一职级在法夫。 But this shepherd has to be interpolated into the text and not much can be said for the imaginary faith kept with the distant lover, as the Sulamitess, in the middle section of the Song of Solomon, gives herself willingly to the king, and no reason is apparent in the text why her boundless praise should not be intended for the present king and not for an absent lover.但这个牧羊人插值到文本并不多,可以说与遥远的恋人保持虚的信仰,作为Sulamitess在所罗门之歌的中间部分,让自己心甘情愿地王,没有理由为什么她无限的赞美,不应该为目前的国王和缺席的情人不打算在文本是显而易见的。 Stickel overcomes the great difficulties which still remain in a very arbitrary manner. Stickel克服很大​​的困难,仍然保持在一个很随意的的方式。He allows a second pair of lovers to come suddenly forward, these know nothing of the chief personages and are employed by the poet merely as an interlude.他允许第二对一对恋人突然提出来,这些行政人士知道什么,诗人只是一个插曲。Stickel gives this pair three short passages, namely: i, 7 sq.; i, 15-ii, 4; iv, 7-v, 1. Stickel给这对三个短的段落,即:一,7平,我,15 - II,4,7 - V,IV,1。Moreover in these hypotheses appears the difficulty which is ever connected with the historical interpretation, that is, the lowering of the song which is so highly prized by the Church.而且似乎这是以往任何时候都与历史解释连接的困难,那就是,降低高度,这是教会珍贵的歌曲,在这些假设。The historical interpretation transforms it into ordinary love-scenes, in various moments of which, moreover, a fiery, sensuous love breaks forth.历史解释转换成普通的爱情场景,在不同的时刻,其中,此外,一个火热的,感性的的爱打破来回。For the same expressions which, when referred allegoricallly to Christ and the Church, announce the strength of the love of God, are under ordinary conditions the utterances of a repellent passion.对于同样的表情,当提到allegoricallly基督和教会,宣布上帝的爱的力量,在通常条件下,一个驱蚊的激情的话语。

AGE AND AUTHOR OF THE CANTICLE年龄的颂歌“一书的作者

Tradition, in harmony with the superscription, attributes the song to Solomon.传统,在和谐的上标,属性的歌曲所罗门。Even in modern times quite a number of exegetes have held this opinion: among Protestants, for example, Hengstenberg, Delitzsch, Zöckler, and Keil.即使在近代,相当多的注释者的数量已经举行意见:新教徒之间,例如,韩斯坦堡,Delitzsch,Zöckler和Keil。 De Wette says: "The entire series of pictures and relationships and the freshness of the life connect these songs with the age of Solomon."德Wette说:“整个系列的图片和关系和生活的新鲜度连接与所罗门时代的这些歌曲。” The song evidences the love of Solomon for nature (it contains twenty-one names of plants and fifteen of animals), for beauty and art, and for regal splendour; bound up with this latter is an ideal simplicity suitable to the type of character of the royal poet.所罗门(它包含二十名的植物和动物15)美和艺术的热爱大自然,和富豪的辉煌歌曲证据;与后者是一个理想的简单,适合性格类型皇家诗人。 There is also evident a strain of the most tender feeling and a love of peace which are well in keeping with the reputation of Solomon.也有明显的应变最嫩的感觉和对和平的热爱与所罗门的声誉。The somewhat unusual language in connection with the skilful and brilliant style point to a well-practised writer.有点不寻常的干练和辉煌的风格指向一个良好的实践作家的语言。If some Aramaic or foreign expressions are to be found in the song, in relation to Solomon, such cannot cause surprise.如果要在歌曲中找到一些阿拉姆或外国表达式,所罗门,如不能引起惊喜。It is remarkable that in Proverbs the fuller form of the relative is always used, while in Canticles the shorter form is employed, the one used earlier in the song of Debbora.值得注意的是,箴言相对更全面的形式始终使用,而在canticle的采用较短的形式,Debbora歌曲在早期使用的一个。 But in the same way Jeremias used the ordinary form in his prophecies, while in the Lamentations he repeatedly employed the shorter.但在他的预言中使用相同的方式赫雷米亚斯普通的形式,而悲叹,他多次受雇于较短。The point is raised that Tirzah (vi, 4 - Heb.) is mentioned along with Jerusalem as the capital of the Kingdom of the Ten Tribes.提出的一点是得撒(六,4 - HEB)提到以耶路撒冷为十个部落王国的首都。The comparison, though, is made only as to beauty, and Tirzah had, above all, a reputation for loveliness.不过,相比较而言,是只能作为美容,得撒,高于一切,为可爱的声誉。Many other commentators, as Bottcher, Ewald, Hitzig, and Kämpf, put the composition of the book in the time directly after Solomon.其他许多评论家Bottcher,埃瓦尔德,希齐格,和奋斗,在所罗门时间后直接把书的组成。They assert that the action of the poem takes place in the northern part of Palestine, that the author is especially well acquainted with this section of the country, and writes in the form of the language used there.他们主张诗的行动发生在巴勒斯坦北部的部分地方,特别是与熟悉该国的这一部分,作者,和写有使用的语言形式。It is further said that Tirzah could only be compared with Jerusalem at the time when if was the capital of the Kingdom of the Ten Tribes that is after the age of Solomon but before the time when Samaria was the capital of the Northern Kingdom.它进一步说,得撒只能与耶路撒冷的时间比较时,如果是后所罗门的年龄,但在此之前的时候撒马利亚是北方王国的首都十大部落王国的首都。 All these reasons however, have more subjective than objective value.所有这些原因,然而,有更多的主观比客观价值。No more convincing, finally, are the reasons that cause others to place the book in post-Exilic times; among such exegetes may be mentioned: Stade, Kautzsch, Cornill, Grätz, Budde, and Siegfried.更有说服力的,最后,造成他人放在书后exilic倍;这样的注释者之间可能会提到的原因:体育场,Kautzsch,Cornill,格拉茨,布德和齐格弗里德。 They support their theory by reference to many peculiarities of language and believe they even find traces of Greek influence in the song; but for all this there is a lack of clear proof.他们支持他们的理论参考许多特殊性的语言,相信他们甚至找到痕迹希腊的影响在歌曲;但所有这一切,是一个缺乏明确的证据。

Condition of the Hebrew Text希伯来文的条件

Gratz, Bickell, Budde, and Cheyne believe that they have been able to prove the existence of various mistakes and changes in the text.格拉茨,Bickell,布德,进益认为,他们已经能够证明存在的各种错误和文字的变化。The passages referred to are: vi, 12; vii, 1; iii, 6-11; for alterations of the text see chapters vi and vii.通道所指的是:12;六,七,1人;三,6-11;见第六和第七章的文本改变。

Publication information Written by G. Gietmann.G. Gietmann编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Joseph P. Thomas.转录由约瑟夫托马斯。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume III.天主教百科全书,第三卷。Published 1908.发布1908。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, November 1, 1908. Nihil Obstat,1908年11月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约


Song of Songs宋歌

Jewish Perspective Information犹太透视信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章标题:

Interpretation: Solomon as Bridegroom.释义:所罗门群岛作为新郎。

Rustic Wedding.仿古婚礼。

Date.日期。

One of the Five Megillot.其中五Megillot。The Hebrew title, , is commonly understood to mean "the most excellent of songs, composed by Solomon" (not "one of the songs composed by Solomon"); the title, however, is later than the poem, in which the relative pronoun is always希伯来文的标题,通常理解为“最优秀的歌曲,由所罗门组成的”(不是“所罗门组成的歌曲之一”);的标题,然而,后来比诗,关系代词总是 , never . ,从来没有。The ancient versions follow the Hebrew; from the rendering in the Latin Vulgate, "Canticum Canticorum," comes the title "Canticles."古老的版本遵循希伯来文;呈现在拉丁语武加大“Canticum Canticorum,”来标题为“canticle的。”

Interpretation: Solomon as Bridegroom.释义:所罗门群岛作为新郎。

The oldest known interpretation of the Song (induced by the demand for an ethical and religious element in its content) is allegorical: the Midrash and the Targum represent it as depicting the relations between God and Israel.宋已知最古老的解释(其内容的道德和宗教元素的需求诱导)是寓言:米德拉士和Targum代表描绘上帝和以色列之间的关系。 The allegorical conception of it passed over into the Christian Church, and has been elaborated by a long line of writers from Origen down to the present time, the deeper meaning being assumed to be the relation between God or Jesus and the Church or the individual soul.它寓言的概念传递到基督教堂,并一直由一个作家从奥利下降到现在的时间长阐述,被假定为上帝或耶稣和教会或个人的灵魂之间的关系的深层含义。 The literal interpretation of the poem as simply a eulogy of married love had its representatives in early times (Theodore of Mopsuestia, and, to some extent, Abraham ibn Ezra), and, in the renaissance of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, was maintained by Grotius, Clericus, and others; but it is only in the last hundred years that this interpretation has practically ousted the allegorical.早期的诗作为一个简单的结婚爱的悼词的字面解释其代表(西奥多的摩普绥提亚,并在一定程度上,亚伯拉罕伊本以斯拉),在十六,十七世纪文艺复兴时期,是维持格劳秀斯,Clericus,和其他的,但它只是在近百年的是,这种解释实际上已经推翻了寓言。 The Song is now taken, almost universally, to be the celebration of a marriage, there being, in fact, no hint of allegory in the text.歌曲是现在,几乎普遍,要婚姻的庆祝活动,有正,事实上,没有在文字提示的寓言。 Obviously there are two principal personages, a bridegroom and a bride; but opinions differ as to who the bridegroom is.显然有两个主要的人物,新郎和新娘,但新郎是谁的意见不同。If the title be accepted as genuine, it is a natural conclusion that the poem describes the nuptials of Solomon and a princess (the daughter of Pharaoh) or a country maiden (so Delitzsch and others).如果标题是真正接受,这是一个自然的结论,诗中描述所罗门公主(法老的女儿),或一个国家的少女(所以Delitzsch和其他)的婚礼。 But, apart from the question of date, this construction is proved impossible by the fact that the bridegroom is distinguished from Solomon in viii.但是,除了从日期的问题,这方面的建设是证明不可能由新郎是从第八所罗门杰出的事实。11, 12, and probably, by revision, in vi.11,12,和可能,通过修订在vi中,。8, 9.8,9。To meet this difficulty it is assumed (by Ewald, Driver, and many others) that the bridegroom or fiancé is a young shepherd, and that Solomon is his would-be rival; that the king has carried off a beautiful rustic maiden (vi. 10-12) and has brought her to his palace in Jerusalem (i. 4), where he endeavors to win her affections; but that she, resisting the allurements of the court, remains true to her country lover, and is finally united to him (viii. 5-14).为了满足这一假设埃瓦尔德,驱动程序,和许多其他的新郎或未婚夫是一个年轻的牧羊人的困难,和所罗门是他想成为对手;王进行了质朴的美丽少女(VI. 10月12日),并给她带来了他的宫殿在耶路撒冷(一4),在他的努力赢得她的感情,但她抗拒法院而诱惑,仍然忠实于她的国家情人,并最终团结起来,他(viii. 5-14)。This theory, however, rests on unwarranted interpretations of particular passages.然而,这一理论由特别通道不必要的诠释。The alleged rivalry between a king and a shepherd appears nowhere in the text: there is only one lover, as there is only one maiden; Solomon is introduced as an actor in only one place (iii. 6-11), and here he is represented as the shepherd bridegroom himself.据称之间的国王和一个牧羊人的竞争似乎无处文本:只有一个情人,只有之一处女;所罗门是作为一个演员介绍,只在一个地方(III. 6-11),和他在这里代表作为牧人新郎本人。Both the views described above (and the various modifications of them) regard the poem as a drama: it is divided by expositors into acts and scenes.上文所述的意见(和他们的各种修改)当作一出戏的诗:它是由分入行为和场景的解释者。It is, in fact, dramatically conceived (like the Job poem, for instance), since it consists not of narratives, but of lyric utterances put into the mouths of certain characters; but it is not a drama.,其实,它极大地设想(如作业诗,例如),因为它不包括叙事,但到某些字符的嘴把抒情的话语,但它不是一出戏。Not only is there no definite indication of time or place, all being vaguely rhapsodical; but there is no movement, no culmination or catastrophe.不仅是有没有时间或地点的明确指示,所有隐约rhapsodical,但没有任何动静,没有高潮或灾难。 The marriage is already consummated in i.已经既遂婚姻是在一6 (and so in ii. 6, iv. 16-v. 1, vii. 9 [AV 8]); and the story is no farther advanced in viii.6(等6 II IV 16 - V,VII 9 [AV 8]。。);和故事是远在第八先进。

Rustic Wedding.仿古婚礼。

Still another view regards the book as picturing the popular festivities held in Palestine in connection with the wedding-week.还有另一种看法认为书中描绘在巴勒斯坦举行婚礼周流行的庆祝活动。 Of such festivities there are hints in the Old Testament (Judges xiv. 10-12; Jer. xvi. 9; Ps. xix. 6 [5]; comp. Matt. xxv. 1 et seq.); and Wetzstein (in his article "Die Syrische Dreschtafel," in Bastian's "Zeitschrift für Ethnologie," 1873, pp. 270 et seq., and in the appendix to Delitzsch's commentary on the Song) has given the details of the modern Syrian marriage celebration, in which he finds parallels to those of the poem.这样的庆祝活动中有提示在旧约(法官十四10-12;耶十六9;。诗篇第十九6 [5];比赛马特XXV 1及以下。。。); Wetzstein(在他的文章“模具Syrische Dreschtafel,”巴斯蒂安的“(杂志)献给Ethnologie,”1873,第270等SEQ。Delitzsch的对宋的评注)的附录中已给定的现代叙利亚结婚庆典的细节,在其中他发现诗中的相似之处。 In the week succeeding the marriage the villagers assemble; the thrashing-board is set up as a throne, on which the newly married pair take their seats as "king" and "queen"; there are songs in praise of the physical charms of the pair, and dances, in which bridegroom and bride take part; especially noteworthy is the "sword-dance," performed by the bride with a naked sword in one hand (see vii. 1 [RV vi. 13]).在本周成功的婚姻村民组装;抖动板的宝座,对新婚采取“王”和“女王”作为自己的座位上;有赞美的身体魅力的歌曲对,舞蹈,新郎和新娘参加;尤其值得注意的是“剑舞”,表现在一方面白刃(见VII 1 [RV六13。)与新娘。In accordance with this view the "king" of the poem, sometimes called "Solomon" (an imaginative designation of a person of ideal beauty), is the bridegroom; the "daughters of Jerusalem" are the village maidens in attendance on the bride; the royal procession of iii.按照这个观点,“国王”的诗句,有时也被称为“所罗门”(一个人的理想美的富有想象力的名称)是新郎,“耶路撒冷的女儿”是在出席新娘村里的姑娘;第三皇家游行。 6-11 is that of the bridegroom (comp. Ps. xix. 6 [5]); the dialogues, descriptions of bodily charms, and other pieces are folk-songs; according to Budde, the name "Shulamite," given to the bride once (vii. 1 [vi. 13]), is equivalent to "Shunemmite," and isan imaginative reminiscence of the fair Abishag (I Kings i. 3).6-11是新郎(comp. PS第十九6 [5]。)的对话,说明身体的魅力,和其他部分是民间歌曲;根据布德,命名为“Shulamite,”给予新娘一旦(vii. 1 [六,13]),相当于“Shunemmite,”和公平亚比煞(王一三)ISAN想象力缅怀。Some explanation such as this is required by the character of the book.一些像这样的解释是需要书的字符。It is a collection of pieces in praise of the physical delights of wedded love.这是一个收集件赞扬物理美食拘泥于爱情。The freeness of expression (especially in vii. 2-10 [1-9]), offensive to modern taste, is in accord with ancient custom (comp. Ezek. xvi., xxiii.; Prov. v. 16-20): it may be due in part also to the license of popular festivities.表达的游离度,进攻现代品位,符合古老风俗(comp.以西结书十六,二十三;箴五16-20。。)(尤其是在第七2-10 [1-9]):它可能是部分原因是由于还流行庆祝活动的许可证。It is not necessary, however, to suppose that the author has merely reproduced the songs of the rustic celebrations of his time; rather, a poet of high ability here sings of married love, following the lines of the festive customs, but giving free play to his imagination: such charm of style as the book shows is not to be looked for in rustic songs.这是没有必要的,但是,假设,作者只是转载他的时间质朴的庆祝活动中的歌曲,而是一个高能力的诗人在这里结婚爱唱,下面的节日习俗的线条,但给人的自由发挥他的想象:这样的魅力风格质朴的歌曲是不能看着书显示。 The unity of the poem is one of emotion-all the situations reflect the same circumstances and the same sentiments.这首诗的团结,是反映了相同的情况下,相同的情绪情感的所有情况。

Date.日期。

The date of the Song is indicated by its literary form: the idyl is foreign to the Hebrew genius, and points to the time when the Jews imitated Greek models (Theocritus and Bion).歌曲的日期是表示它的文学形式:牧歌是外国希伯来文的天才,而且点的时间,当犹太人模仿希腊模型(Theocritus比昂)。 The word (= "palanquin" [iii. 9]) appears to be the Greek φορεῖον; (iv. 13) was not introduced earlier than the later Persian period (for other late words see Driver, "Introduction").字(=“轿”[三])似乎是希腊φορεῖον;(iv. 13)没有推出比后来的波斯时期(其他后期的话,请参阅驱动程序,“简介”)。The date of the book can hardly be determined precisely: it was probably composed in the period 200-100 BC; but some of the material may be older.书的日期难以确定准确的说:它可能是由公元前200-100期间,但一些材料可能是老年人。

The discussions at the Synod of Jabneh (Jamnia) show that toward the end of the first Christian century the canonical authority of the Song was disputed in certain quarters (see Bible Canon, § 11).在主教的Jabneh讨论(詹姆尼)显示,走向基督教世纪的第一个结束乐曲的规范权力在某些方面的争议(见圣经佳能,§ 11)。 Probably the ground of opposition was its non-religious character: it does not contain the Divine Name (except "Yah" in viii. 6, Hebr., as an expression of intensity); its love is sensuous; and its only ethical element is the devotion of one man to one woman in marriage.可能的反对理由是它的非宗教性质的:它不包含神的名字(6除“盐田”在第八,黑布尔表达强度。);爱情是感性的,其唯一的道德元素是一个女人在婚姻中一个人的奉献。 It is quoted neither by Philo nor in the New Testament.它既不斐洛也不在新约中引用。But it appears to have gained popularity; and the probability is that at an early day it was interpreted allegorically by the sages, and that it was on the basis of such an interpretation that its canonicity was finally established.但它似乎已经得到普及;的概率是,在早期的日子,这是解释比喻的先贤,并是其正规终于成立这样一个解释的基础上。 On its ritual use at Passover see Megillot, The Five.在逾越节的仪式使用Megillot,五。

Emil G. Hirsch, Crawford Howell Toy埃米尔G.赫希,克劳福德豪威尔玩具

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.1901至1906年之间出版的犹太百科全书。

Bibliography: On the history of the interpretation: S. Salfeld, Das Hohelied Salomo's bei den Jüdischen Erklärern des Mittelalters, 1879; W. Riegel, Die Auslegung des Hohenliedes in der Jüdischen Gemeinde und der Griechischen Kirche, 1898; E. Reuss, La Bible (gives a conspectus of various schemes); CD Ginsburg, Song of Songs, 1857; Cheyne, in Encyc.参考书目:在历史的解释:第Salfeld,DAS Hohelied Salomo的北书房Jüdischen Erklärern DES Mittelalters,1879年; W.里格尔,模具Auslegung DES Hohenliedes在DER Jüdischen Gemeinde和DER Griechischen Kirche,1898年; E.罗伊斯,香格里拉圣经(给出了各种计划概论); CD金斯伯格,宋歌,1857;进益,在百科全书。Bibl.Bibl。sv Canticles.SV canticle的。The traditional interpretation (Solomon as bridegroom) is given in Delitzsch's commentary, 1875; and the fuller dramatic interpretation (the shepherd lover) in: Ewald, Dichter, 1867; WR Smith, Canticles, in Encyc.传统的解释(所罗门群岛作为新郎)Delitzsch的评注,1875年和戏剧性的更全面的解释(牧羊人情人):埃瓦尔德,迪希特,1867年,西铁史密斯,canticle的百科全书。 Brit.英国人。9th ed.; Rothstein, Das Hohe Lied, 1893; idem, Song of Songs, in Hastings' Dict.第9版。罗斯坦,DAS Hohe撒了谎,1893年同上,宋歌,在黑斯廷斯,快译通。Bible; Driver, Introduction (which gives a full outline of the schemes of Delitzsch and Ewald); Wetzstein, in Budde, The Song of Solomon, in The New World, 1894, vol.圣经;驱动程序,引言(这给Delitzsch和Ewald计划纲要); Wetzstein,“所罗门之歌”的布德,在新的世界,1894年,第一卷。iii.; idem, Commentary, in KHC; Siegfried, Commentary, in Nowack's Handkommentar; and Cheyne, lc On the relation between the Song and Theocritus: WM Fullerton, in Unitarian Review (Boston), July, 1886; DS Margoliouth, Lines of Defense of the Biblical Revelation, London, 1900.第三;同上,评论,在KHC;齐格弗里德,评论,Nowack的Handkommentar和进益,在宋和Theocritus之间关系的立法会:。WM富勒顿神论审查(波士顿),七月,1886;局副局长马戈柳思,对线国防部圣经的启示,伦敦,1900年。 On the meter: Budde's commentary; and on the Hebrew text: this and the commentaries of Graetz and Siegfried.EGHT在米:布德的评论;和希伯来文:这和格雷茨和Siegfried.EGHT评论



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