14 Stations of the Cross, Via Dolorosa, Via Crucis14监测站的十字架

General Information一般资料

The stations of the cross are a series of 14 representations that depict the events surrounding Christ's crucifixion.跨站14陈述,描绘基督钉十字架的事件。Used primarily by Roman Catholics as visual aids for meditating on the passion, they are mounted at intervals on church walls or placed in outdoor shrines. The idea of the stations emerged during the Middle Ages, when they developed as a devotional substitute for actually following the Via Dolorosa, the route in Jerusalem that Christ followed to Calvary.默想激情的直观教具主要由罗马天主教徒,他们在教堂墙壁上的间隔安装或放置在户外圣地。电台的想法出现在中世纪,实际以下时,他们作为一个虔诚的替代品开发通过苦难之路,在耶路撒冷,基督跟随到各各他的路线。 The events depicted are:该事件的描述是:

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  1. the condemnation of Jesus by Pilate;耶稣在彼拉多谴责;
  2. Jesus' acceptance of the cross;接受耶稣的十字架;
  3. his first fall;他的首次下降;
  4. the encounter with his mother; (John 19:25-26) (约翰福音19:25-26)遇到与他的母亲;
  5. Simon of Cyrene helping Jesus; (Matt. 27:32, Mark 15:21, Luke 23:26)西蒙的昔兰尼帮助耶稣(马太福音27:32,马克15时21分,卢克23时26分)
  6. Veronica wiping Jesus' face;维罗尼卡抹耶稣的脸;
  7. his second fall;他的第二次下降;
  8. the encounter with the women of Jerusalem; (Luke 23:27-31) (路加福音23:27-31)与耶路撒冷的妇女的遭遇;
  9. his third fall;他的第三次下降;
  10. Jesus being stripped of his garments; (Luke 23:34, John 19:23) (路加福音23:34,约翰19时23分)耶稣被剥去他的衣服;
  11. the crucifixion;钉在十字架上;
  12. Jesus' death;耶稣的死;
  13. Jesus' removal from the cross; and从十字架上的耶稣“清除;
  14. the burial of Jesus.埋葬耶稣。


Stations of the Cross车站的十字架

General Information一般资料

The Stations of the Cross are a series of 14 crosses, usually accompanied by images, representing events in the Passion of Christ and its immediate aftermath.十字架的车站是一个系列,14个十字架通常由图像的陪同下,代表激情,在基督和其直接后果的事件。Each station, in addition to representing an event, signifies the actual station, or site, of the event in Jerusalem or on Calvary, or Golgotha, and the series as a whole is, in effect, a model of the Via Dolorosa, the route along which Christ was taken to Calvary.除了代表一个事件,标志着各站,站的实际,或网站,在耶路撒冷的事件或各各,或各各,和作为一个整体系列,实际上,通过苦难之路的典范,该航线沿基督被带到各各。 The stations may be placed along the walls of a church or a chapel, or outdoors, along the way to a place of pilgrimage, as a wayside shrine, or in a freestanding group.站,可沿墙壁教会或教堂,或在室外放置,沿一个朝圣的地方,作为手下败将靖国神社,或在一个独立的组。

The Stations of the Cross have considerable importance as a devotional exercise in the Roman Catholic church; the devout meditate and pray at each station successively. Seven of the events represented (the first, second, eighth, tenth, eleventh, twelfth, and fourteenth) are described in one or more of the Gospels, and the others are traditional.跨站作为一个虔诚的罗马天主教会行使有相当的重要性。虔诚的冥想和祈祷先后在每个车站的事件七代表 (第一,第二,第八,第十,第十一,第十二和第十四届) 描述在一个或更多的福音,和其他传统。

The 14 stations represent the following:14个车站,代表以下内容:

Also, see:此外,请参阅:
St. Veronica圣维罗尼卡


Way of the Cross, Stations of the Cross十字架的方式,跨站

Catholic Information天主教信息

(Also called Stations of the Cross, Via Crucis, and Via Dolorosa). (也称为跨站,通过Crucis,并通过苦难之路)。These names are used to signify either a series of pictures or tableaux representing certain scenes in the Passion of Christ, each corresponding to a particular incident, or the special form of devotion connected with such representations.这些名称是用来表示一个系列的图片或场面代表某些场景中,在基督的受难,每个对应一个特定的事件,或申述连接奉献的特殊形式。

Taken in the former sense, the Stations may be of stone, wood, or metal, sculptured or carved, or they may be merely paintings or engravings.在车站前感,可能是石材,木材或金属,雕刻或雕刻,或他们可能仅仅是绘画或雕刻。Some Stations are valuable works of art, as those, for instance, in Antwerp cathedral, which have been much copied elsewhere.有些车站是宝贵的艺术作品,例如,在安特卫普大教堂,这已经远远复制到其他地方。They are usually ranged at intervals around the walls of a church, though sometimes they are to be found in the open air, especially on roads leading to a church or shrine.它们通常是在一个教堂周围的墙壁间隔不等,虽然有时他们要在露天的,尤其是在通往到一个教堂或神殿的道路。In monasteries they are often placed in the cloisters. The erection and use of the Stations did not become at all general before the end of the seventeenth century, but they are now to be found in almost every church. Formerly their number varied considerably in different places but fourteen are now prescribed by authority.在寺院中,他们往往是放置在回廊的架设和使用车站没有成为在十七世纪结束前的所有一般,但他们现在发现几乎在每一个教会,以前他们的人数相差很大不同现在的地方,但14所规定的权力。

They are as follows:它们如下:

Christ condemned to death;基督谴责死刑;

the cross is laid upon him;十字架是奠定了他;

His first fall;他的首次下降;

He meets His Blessed Mother;他遇见他的圣母;

Simon of Cyrene is made to bear the cross;西蒙的昔兰尼是要承担的交叉;

Christ's face is wiped by Veronica;基督的脸上抹维罗尼卡

His second fall;他的第二次下降;

He meets the women of Jerusalem;他会见了耶路撒冷的妇女;

His third fall;他的第三次下降;

He is stripped of His garments;他是剥夺了他的衣服;

His crucifixion;他的在十字架上钉死;

His death on the cross;他死在十字架上;

His body is taken down from the cross; and他的身体从十字架上下来;

laid in the tomb.奠定了墓。

The object of the Stations is to help the faithful to make in spirit, as it were, a pilgrimage to the chief scenes of Christ's sufferings and death, and this has become one of the most popular of Catholic devotions.电台的目的是帮助信徒的精神,因为它是一个基督的苦难和死亡的主要场景朝圣,这已成为最流行的天主教​​灵修之一。 It is carried out by passing from Station to Station, with certain prayers at each and devout meditation on the various incidents in turn.它是由从站传递站,在每个虔诚的冥想反过来的各种事件具有一定的祈祷。It is very usual, when the devotion is performed publicly, to sing a stanza of the "Stabat Mater" while passing from one Station to the next.这是很平常,是公开进行的奉献时,唱的“圣母悼歌”节,而从一站传递到下一个。

Inasmuch as the Way of the Cross, made in this way, constitutes a miniature pilgrimage to the holy places at Jerusalem, the origin of the devotion may be traced to the Holy Land. The Via Dolorosa at Jerusalem (though not called by that name before the sixteenth century) was reverently marked out from the earliest times and has been the goal of pious pilgrims ever since the days of Constantine.由于交叉,在这样的方式,构成一个微型的朝圣在耶路撒冷的圣地,奉献的起源可追溯到圣地。威盛在耶路撒冷的苦难之路(虽然不是这个名字之前调用十六世纪)是虔诚地标示出从最早的时候,已自从君士坦丁天虔诚的朝圣者的目标。 Tradition asserts that the Blessed Virgin used to visit daily the scenes of Christ's Passion and St. Jerome speaks of the crowds of pilgrims from all countries who used to visit the holy places in his day. There is, however, no direct evidence as to the existence of any set form of the devotion at that early date, and it is noteworthy that St. Sylvia (c. 380) says nothing about it in her "Peregrinatio ad loca sancta", although she describes minutely every other religious exercise that she saw practised there. A desire to reproduce the holy places in other lands, in order to satisfy the devotion of those who were hindered from making the actual pilgrimage, seems to have manifested itself at quite an early date.传统断言圣母每天访问基督的激情和圣杰罗姆的场景,从所有国家在他的天的访问圣地的朝圣者的人群说话,然而,有没有直接的证据任何奉献,早日集的形式存在,它是值得注意的是,圣西尔维亚(公元前380)表示,它没有在她的“Peregrinatio广告的位置sancta”,虽然她介绍每分钟每一个其他的宗教活动 ,她看到实行有渴望重现其他土地的圣地,为了满足那些阻碍实际朝圣的奉献,似乎已经表现相当早日本身。At the monastery of San Stefano at Bologna a group of connected chapels were constructed as early as the fifth century, by St. Petronius, Bishop of Bologna, which were intended to represent the more important shrines of Jerusalem, and in consequence, this monastery became familiarly known as "Hierusalem". These may perhaps be regarded as the germ from which the Stations afterwards developed, though it is tolerably certain that nothing that we have before about the fifteenth century can strictly be called a Way of the Cross in the modern sense. Several travellers, it is true, who visited the Holy Land during the twelfth, thirteenth, and fourteenth centuries, mention a "Via Sacra", ie, a settled route along which pilgrims were conducted, but there is nothing in their accounts to identify this with the Via Crucis, as we understand it, including special stopping-places with indulgences attached, and such indulgenced Stations must, after all, be considered to be the true origin of the devotion as now practised.在修道院的圣斯特凡诺在博洛尼亚一组连接教堂建造了第五世纪初,由主教圣Petronius,博洛尼亚,这是旨在更重要的圣地耶路撒冷的代表,以及后果,这个修道院成为亲切地称为“Hierusalem” 这些也许被视为从该站之后开发的胚芽,虽然它是可以容忍一定的,没什么,我们有关于15世纪前可以严格被称为现代意义上的十字架的一种方式。 几个旅客,它是真实的,访问期间,第十二,第十三,十四世纪,提到了“内经萨克拉”,即一个落户的路线,沿着朝圣者进行的圣地,但有没有在他们的帐户,以确定与威盛Crucis,据我们了解,包括放纵附加特殊停车的地方,而这样的indulgenced监测站,毕竟,被认为是真正的原产地,现在实行的奉献。 It cannot be said with any certainty when such indulgences began to be granted, but most probably they may be due to the Franciscans, to whom in 1342 the guardianship of the holy places was entrusted.它不能有任何把握说时开始被授予这样的放纵,但最可能的是,他们可能是由于济,其中在1342圣地的监护权委托。 Ferraris mentions the following as Stations to which indulgences were attached: the place where Christ met His Blessed Mother, where He spoke to the women of Jerusalem, where He met Simon of Cyrene, where the soldiers cast lots for His garment, where He was nailed to the cross, Pilate's house, and the Holy Sepulchre.法拉利,放纵附加车站提到以下几点:基督的地方遇见了他的圣母,其中他谈到,他在那里会见西蒙古利奈,士兵蒙上他的衣服很多,在他被钉在耶路撒冷妇女在十字架上,彼拉多的房子,和圣墓。 Analogous to this it may be mentioned that in 1520 Leo X granted an indulgence of a hundred days to each of a set of scuptured Stations, representing the Seven Dolours of Our Lady, in the cemetery of the Franciscan Friary at Antwerp, the devotion connected with them being a very popular one.类似于它可能会提到,在1520年,利奥十授予百日放纵scuptured监测站,代表圣母七Dolours在安特卫普在方济会修道院墓地,,奉献与其中一个很受欢迎的。 The earliest use of the word Stations, as applied to the accustomed halting-places in the Via Sacra at Jerusalem, occurs in the narrative of an English pilgrim, William Wey, who visited the Holy Land in 1458 and again in 1462, and who describes the manner in which it was then usual to follow the footsteps of Christ in His sorrowful journey.字站最早使用,适用于习惯于通过萨克拉停止的地方,在耶路撒冷发生在英语的朝圣者,威廉卫,曾在1458圣地和1462再次说明,谁介绍它是那么平常跟随基督的脚步,在他的悲怆之旅的方式。 It seems that up to that time it had been the general practice to commence at Mount Calvary, and proceeding thence, in the opposite direction to Christ, to work back to Pilate's house.看来,到那个时候,已经开始在各各他山,并在那里出发的方向相反,基督,回彼拉多的房子一般的做法。By the early part of the sixteenth century, however, the more reasonable way of traversing the route, by beginning at Pilate's house and ending at Mount Calvary, had come to be regarded as more correct, and it became a special exercise of devotion complete in itself.然而,十六世纪初,在遍历开始在彼拉多的房子和山各各结束的路线,更合理的方式,来视为更正确,和它成为一个奉献完成的特殊运动本身。 During the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries several reproductions of the holy places were set up in different parts of Europe.在第十五和十六世纪的圣地几个复制品分别设立在欧洲的不同部分。The Blessed Alvarez (d. 1420), on his return from the Holy Land, built a series of little chapels at the Dominican friary of Cordova, in which, after the pattern of separate Stations, were painted the principal scenes of the Passion.有福的阿尔瓦雷斯(卒于1420年),他的回归从圣地,,科尔多瓦多米尼加修道院建于一个小教堂的系列,其中,单独站的格局后,被绘的激情主要场景。 About the same time the Blessed Eustochia, a poor Clare, constructed a similar set of Stations in her convent at Messina.大约在同一时间的人有福了Eustochia,一个可怜的克莱尔,她在墨西拿的修道院建造在一个类似的设置站。Others that may be enumerated were those at Görlitz, erected by G. Emmerich, about 1465, and at Nuremburg, by Ketzel, in 1468.可能列举的其他那些在格尔利茨,竖立1465左右,并在纽伦堡,由G.艾默里奇Ketzel 1468,。 Imiations of these were made at Louvain in 1505 by Peter Sterckx; at St. Getreu in Bamberg in 1507; at Fribourg and at Rhodes, about the same date, the two latter being in the commanderies of the Knights of Rhodes.这些Imiations于1505年在比利时鲁汶,彼得Sterckx;在1507年在圣Getreu在Bamberg;在弗里堡州和罗得岛,约在同一日期,后两个在罗德骑士commanderies。 Those at Nuremburg, which were carved by Adam Krafft, as well as some of the others, consisted of seven Stations, popularly known as "the Seven Falls", because in each of them Christ was represented either as actually prostrate or as sinking under the weight of His cross.那些在纽伦堡,刻亚当克拉夫,以及其他一些,包括普遍称为“七瀑布”之称的七站,因为在每一个基督是代表实际匍匐或下沉下他的十字架的重量。 A famous set of Stations was set up in 1515 by Romanet Bofin at Romans in Dauphine, in imitation of those at Fribourg, and a similar set was erected in 1491 at Varallo by the Franciscans there, whose guardian, Blessed Bernardino Caimi, had been custodian of the holy places.著名的电台是在1515年成立,模仿那些在弗里堡,Romanet在罗马书Bofin在第九和一个类似的设置是在瓦拉洛建在1491方济,其监护人,圣贝纳迪诺彩迷有福了,已经托管人圣地。 In several of these early examples an attempt was made, not merely to duplicate the most hallowed spots of the original Via Dolorosa at Jerusalem, but also to reproduce the exact intervals between them, measured in paces, so that devout people might cover precisely the same distances as they would have done had they made the pilgrimage to the Holy Land itself.试图在这些早期的几个例子是,不能仅仅重复原始最神圣的点通过在耶路撒冷的苦难之路,也重现它们之间的确切时间间隔测量,在百步,让虔诚的人,可能会涵盖完全相同,因为他们会做的距离,他们提出了朝圣的圣地本身。 Boffin and some of the others visited Jerusalem for the express purpose of obtaining the exact measurements, but unfortunately, though each claimed to be correct, there is an extraordinary divergence between some of them. Boffin和一些其他的访问耶路撒冷为获得精确测量的明确目的,但不幸的是,虽然每一个声称是正确的,有一个它们之间的一些非凡分歧。

With regard to the number of Stations it is not at all easy to determine how this came to be fixed at fourteen, for it seems to have varied considerably at different times and places.关于站数,它是不容易的,以确定如何在此之前是固定的14岁,似乎有很大变化在不同的时间和地点。And, naturally, with varying numbers the incidents of the Passion commemorated also varied greatly. ,当然,人数不等的激情事件纪念也差别很大。Wey's account, written in the middle of the fifteenth century, gives fourteen, but only five of these correspond with ours, and of the others, seven are only remotely connected with our Via Crucis:卫的帐户,写在十五世纪中叶,使14人,但只有这五个符合我们的,和其他7个是我们通过Crucis远程连接:

The house of Dives,富豪的房子,

the city gate through which Christ passed,基督通过城门口,通过它,

the probatic pool,probatic池,

the Ecce Homo arch,ECCE智人拱,

the Blessed Virgin's school, and圣母的学校,

the houses of Herod and Simon the Pharisee.希律和西蒙法利赛人的房屋。

When Romanet Boffin visited Jerusalem in 1515 for the purpose of obtaining correct details for his set of Stations at Romans, two friars there told him that there ought to be thirty-one in all, but in the manuals of devotion subsequently issued for the use of those visiting these Stations they are given variously as nineteen, twenty-five, and thirty-seven, so it seems that even in the same place the number was not determined very definitely.当Romanet Boffin在1515年访问了耶路撒冷获得正确的细节,他在罗马人的车站的目的,有两个修士告诉他,应该在所有30个,但随后在奉献的手册使用发行访问这些车站,他们有不同十九,二十五年,三十七个,如此看来,即使在同一地点的数目并不十分肯定地确定。 A book entitled "Jerusalem sicut Christi tempore floruit", written by one Adrichomius and published in 1584, gives twelve Stations which correspond exactly with the first twelve of ours, and this fact is thought by some to point conclusively to the origin of the particular selection afterwards authorized by the Church, especially as this book had a wide circulation and was translated into several European languages.题为“耶路撒冷sicut斯蒂临时floruit”,并于1584年出版的,写一个Adrichomius一书中给出了12个站,完全符合我们的第一个十二个月,这实际上是由一些认为决定性的特定选择的起源点后来由教会授权,尤其是因为这本书有一个广为流传,被翻译成几种欧洲语言。 Whether this is so or not we cannot say for certain.是否如此或不,我们不能肯定地说。At any rate, during the sixteenth century, a number of devotional manuals, giving prayers for use when making the Stations, were published in the Low Countries, and some of our fourteen appear in them for the first time.无论如何,在16世纪,一些虔诚的手册,给车站时,使用的祈祷,发表在低地国家,和一些我们的十四个出现在他们首次。But whilst this was being done in Europe for the benefit of those who could not visit the Holy Land and yet could reach Louvain, Nuremburg, Romans, or one of the other reproductions of the Via Dolorosa, it appears doubtful whether, even up to the end of the sixteenth century, there was any settled form of the devotion performed publicly in Jerusalem, for Zuallardo, who wrote a book on the subject, published in Rome in 1587, although he gives a full series of prayers, etc., for the shrines within the Holy Sepulchre, which were under the care of the Franciscans, provides none for the Stations themselves.但是,虽然这是在欧洲为那些无法访问的圣地,但可以达到鲁汶,纽伦堡,罗马人,或通过苦难之路的其他复制品的利益,它似乎是值得怀疑的,甚至高达十六世纪末,有任何Zuallardo,谁写了关于这一主题的书,在罗马发表于1587年,在耶路撒冷进行公开的奉献结算的形式,虽然他给出了一个祈祷,等全系列,神社内的圣墓,方济的照顾下,提供对电视台本身都没有。 He explains the reason thus: "it is not permitted to make any halt, nor to pay veneration to them with uncovered head, nor to make any other demonstration".他解释原因:“这是不允许进行任何制止,也不向他们支付崇拜发现头,也没有作出任何其他的示范”。 From this it would seem that after Jerusalem had passed under the Turkish domination the pious exercises of the Way of the Cross could be performed far more devoutly at Nuremburg or Louvain than in Jerusalem itself.由此看来,这似乎耶路撒冷土耳其统治下获得通过后交叉的方式,虔诚的演习可以在纽伦堡或鲁汶比在耶路撒冷本身更为虔诚。 It may therefore be conjectured, with extreme probability, that our present series of Stations, together with the accustomed series of prayers for them, comes to us, not from Jerusalem, but from some of the imitation Ways of the Cross in different parts of Europe, and that we owe the propagation of the devotion, as well as the number and selection of our Stations, much more to the pious ingenuity of certain sixteenth-century devotional writers than to the actual practice of pilgrims to the holy places.因此,可以推测,与极端的概率,我们目前的监测站系列,一系列为他们祈祷的习惯,给我们不从耶路撒冷,但在欧洲不同地区的一些十字架的模仿方式, ,而且我们欠的奉献精神的传播,以及我们站的数量和选择,远远超过圣地的朝圣者的实际做法,某些16世纪的灵修作家的虔诚创造力。With regard to the particular subjects which have been retained in our series of Stations, it may be noted that very few of the medieval accounts make any mention of either the second (Christ receiving the cross) or the tenth (Christ being stripped of His garments), whilst others which have since dropped out appear in almost all the early lists.关于已保留在我们的一系列站点的特定主题,它可能会指出,极少数中世纪的账目作任何提及第二(基督在十字架)第十届会议(基督被剥夺他的衣服),而其他以来下跌了出现在几乎所有的早期列出。 One of the most frequent of these is the Station formerly made at the remains of the Ecce Homo arch, ie the balcony from which these words were pronounced.其中最频繁的一个是以前在ECCE智人拱仍然站,即从这些话明显的阳台。Additions and omissions such as these seem to confirm the supposition that our Stations are derived from pious manuals of devotion rather than from Jerusalem itself.如添置和这些遗漏似乎证实了我们的站,从虔诚的奉献手册,而不是从耶路撒冷本身派生假设。The three falls of Christ (third, seventh, and ninth Stations) are apparently all that remain of the Seven Falls, as depicted by Krafft at Nuremburg and his imitators, in all of which Christ was represented as either falling or actually fallen.基督(第三,第七和第九站)三个下降,显然是所有留七瀑布,描绘由克拉夫在纽伦堡和他的模仿者,在所有的基督代表要么下降或实际下降。 In explanations of this it is supposed that the other four falls coincided with His meetings with His Mother, Simon of Cyrene, Veronica, and the women of Jerusalem, and that in these four the mention of the fall has dropped out whilst it survives in the other three which have nothing else to distinguish them.在此解释,它应该是其他四个下降正好与他与他的母亲,西蒙的昔兰尼,婆婆,和耶路撒冷的妇女会见,并在这四个提到秋天已经退出,而它在生存其他三个闲来无事来区分它们。 A few medieval writers take the meeting with Simon and the women of Jerusalem to have been simultaneous, but the majority represent them as separate events.几个中世纪的作家与西蒙会议和耶路撒冷的妇女已同步,但多数代表作为单独的事件。The Veronica incident does not occur in many of the earlier accounts, whilst almost all of those that do mention it place it as having happened just before reaching Mount Calvary, instead of earlier in the journey as in our present arrangement.维罗尼卡事件不会发生在许多早期的帐户,而几乎所有这些提到它的地方,刚​​刚才到达山各各发生,而不是在旅途中的早期,在我国目前的安排。 An interesting variation is found in the special set of eleven stations ordered in 1799 for use in the diocese of Vienne.发现一个有趣的变化是在1799年下令在维埃纳省的教区使用的11个站的特殊设置。It is as follows:它是如下:

the Agony in the Garden;在花园的痛苦;

the betrayal by Judas;犹大的背叛;

the scourging;鞭打;

the crowning with thorns;带刺的加冕;

Christ condemned to death;基督谴责死刑;

He meets Simon of Cyrene;他会见西蒙的昔兰尼;

the women of Jerusalem;耶路撒冷的妇女;

He tastes the gall;他的口味胆;

He is nailed to the cross;他被钉在十字架上;

His death on the cross; and他的死在十字架上;

His body is taken down from the cross.他的身体从十字架上下来。

It will be noticed that only five of these correspond exactly with our Stations.会注意到它,只有这五个完全符合我们的监测站。The others, though comprising the chief events of the Passion, are not strictly incidents of the Via Dolorosa itself.虽然其他人,包括行政活动的激情,没有严格的Via苦难之路本身的事件。

Another variation that occurs in different churches relates to the side of the church on which the Stations begin.另一个发生在不同的教会的变化,涉及到车站开始教会的一面。The Gospel side is perhaps the more usual.也许是更常见的福音。In reply to a question the Sacred Congregation of Indulgences, in 1837, said that, although nothing was ordered on this point, beginning on the Gospel side seemed to be the more appropriate.在回答一个问题神圣的会众的赎罪券,于1837年,,说的是,虽然没有下令在这一点上,福音开始似乎更合适。 In deciding the matter, however, the arrangement and form of a church may make it more convenient to go the other way.然而,在决定问题时,一个教会的安排和形式可能更方便去其他方式。The position of the figures in the tableaux, too, may sometimes determine the direction of the route, for it seems more in accordance with the spirit of the devotion that the procession, in passing from station to station, should follow Christ rather than meet Him.太,在场面的数字的位置,有时可能会确定路线的方向,因为它似乎更多的奉献精神,游行,站站传递时,应遵循基督,而不是满足他。

The erection of the Stations in churches did not become at all common until towards the end of the seventeenth century, and the popularity of the practice seems to have been chiefly due to the indulgences attached.竖立在教堂的车站没有成为所有常见的,直到十七世纪末的走向,和实践的普及,主要是由于附加的放纵似乎已经。The custom originated with the Franciscans, but its special connection with that order has now disappeared.济,但其特殊的连接,为了起源习俗现在已经消失。It has already been said that numerous indulgences were formerly attached to the holy places at Jerusalem.它已经说过无数放纵以前在耶路撒冷的圣地。Realizing that few persons, comparatively, were able to gain these by means of a personal pilgrimage to the Holy Land, Innocent XI, in 1686, granted to the Franciscans, in answer to their petition, the right to erect the Stations in all their churches, and declared that all the indulgences that had ever been given for devoutly visiting the actual scenes of Christ's Passion, could thenceforth be gained by Franciscans and all others affiliated to their order if they made the Way of the Cross in their own churches in the accustomed manner.认识几个人,相对来说,能够获得这些个人朝圣的圣地,无辜第十一,在1686年授予方济会,在回答他们的请愿书,右边竖立在他们的教堂电台,并宣布所有的,有过被虔诚的访问基督受难的实际场景给予的宽容,此后方济各会和他们的订单下属所有其他人获得,如果他们提出自己的教堂,以惯常的十字架之路方式。 Innocent XII confirmed the privilege in 1694 and Benedict XIII in 1726 extended it to all the faithful.无辜的第十二证实于1694年的特权和第十三本笃十六世在1726年扩展到所有的信徒。In 1731 Clement XII still further extended it by permitting the indulgenced Stations to all churches, provided that they were erected by a Franciscan father with the sanction of the ordinary.在1731克莱门特第十二还在进一步延长允许indulgenced站所有教堂,竖立方济的父亲,他们与普通的制裁。 At the same time he definitely fixed the number of Stations at fourteen.与此同时,他绝对固定在14个站数。Benedict XIV in 1742 exhorted all priests to enrich their churches with so great a treasure, and there are few churches now without the Stations.本笃十六世于1742年第十四告诫所有祭司如此巨大的宝藏,丰富他们的教会,并有少数教堂没有站。In 1857 the bishops of England received faculties from the Holy See to erect Stations themselves, with the indulgences attached, wherever there were no Franciscans available, and in 1862 this last restriction was removed and the bishops were empowered to erect the Stations themselves, either personally or by delegate, anywhere within their jurisdiction.英格兰的主教,在1857年收到来自教廷的院系见自己竖立站,与放纵连接,无论有没有方济,并在1862年这最后的限制被删除和主教有权自行架设电台,亲身或委托,其管辖范围内的任何地方。 These faculties are quinquennial.这些院系的五年期。There is some uncertainty as to what are the precise indulgences belonging to the stations.什么是属于车站的精确放纵有一些不确定性。It is agreed that all that have ever been granted to the faithful for visiting the holy places in person can now be gained by making the Via Crucis in any church where the Stations have been erected in due form, but the Instructions of the Sacred Congregation, approved by Clement XII in 1731, prohibit priests and others from specifying what or how many indulgences may be gained.我们同意,所有曾经被授予亲身前往圣地的忠实的,现在可以通过车站已竖立在适当的形式在任何教会Crucis获得,而是神圣的会众的指示,克莱门特第十二于1731年批准,禁止指定祭司和其他可能会获得什么或多少的宽容。 In 1773 Clement XIV attached the same indulgence, under certain conditions, to crucifixes duly blessed for the purpose, for the use of the sick, those at sea or in prison, and others lawfully hindered from making the Stations in a church.在1773克莱门特第十四附加相同的放纵,在一定条件下,妥为目的的祝福的十字架,使用的病,那些在海上或在监狱里,在教堂车站和他人的合法阻碍。 The conditions are that, whilst holding the crucifix in their hands, they must say the "Pater" and "Ave" fourteen times, then the "Pater", "Ave", and "Gloria" five times, and the same again once each for the pope's intentions.条件,同时掌握在他们手中的十字架,他们必须说的“佩特”和“大道”的14倍,然后“佩特”,“大道”,和“凯莱”的五倍,并在同一再一次每个教皇的意图。 If one person hold the crucifix, a number present may gain the indulgences provided the other conditions are fulfilled by all.如果一个人持有十字架,目前数量可能获得的放纵所有符合规定的其他条件。Such crucifixes cannot be sold, lent, or given away, without losing the indulgence.这种十字架不能出售,出借,或送人不失的放纵。The following are the principal regulations universally in force at the present time with regard to the Stations:以下是主体规例生效普遍,目前在站时间:

If a pastor or a superior of a convent, hospital, etc., wishes to have the Stations erected in their places he must ask permission of the bishop.如果一个牧师或优越的修道院,医院等,希望有车站竖立在他们的地方,他必须要问的主教的许可。If there are Franciscan Fathers in the same town or city, their superior must be asked to bless the Stations or delegate some priest either of his own monastery or a secular priest.如果在同一城市或城市的方济神父,必须要求其优越的祝福站或委托一些他自己的寺院或世俗教士牧师。If there are no Franciscan Fathers in that place the bishops who have obtained from the Holy See the extraordinary of Form C can delegate any priest to erect the Stations.如果有无方济神父在那个地方,从圣获得请参阅表C中的非凡境界的主教可以委托任何神父架设电台。This delegation of a certain priest for the blessing of the Stations must necessarily be done in writing.这一个车站的祝福祭司代表团必须以书面形式完成。The pastor of such a church, or the superior of such a hospital, convent, etc., should take care to sign the document the bishop or the superior of the monastery sends, so that he may thereby express his consent to have the Stations erected in their place, for the bishop's and the respective pastor's or superior's consent must be had before the Stations are blessed, otherwise the blessing is null and void;这样一所教堂的牧师,或上级这样的医院,修道院等,应照顾到签署主教或修道院的上级的文件发送,这样他就可以以此表达他同意竖立站在他们的地方,主教和各自的牧师或上级的同意必须是前站是有福了,否则的祝福是无效的;

Pictures or tableaux of the various Stations are not necessary.各站的图片或场面是没有必要的。 It is to the cross placed over them that the indulgence is attached.它是放置在他们的交叉连接放纵。These crosses must be of wood; no other material will do.这些十字架必须的木材,没有其他材料做的。If only painted on the wall the erection is null (Cong. Ind., 1837, 1838, 1845);如果只画在墙上的勃起是空(Cong.印第安纳州,1837年,1838年,1845年);

If, for restoring the church, for placing them in a more convenient position, or for any other reasonable cause, the crosses are moved, this may be done without the indulgence being lost (1845).如果恢复教堂,放置在一个更方便的的位置,或任何其他合理因由,十字架是感动,这可能是做没有丢失的放纵(1845)。 If any of the crosses, for some reason, have to be replaced, no fresh blessing is required, unless more than half of them are so replaced (1839).如果任何跨越,出于某种原因,必须更换,没有新鲜的祝福是必需的,除非其中超过一半是更换(1839年)。

There should if possible be a separate meditation on each of the fourteen incidents of the Via Crucis, not a general meditation on the Passion nor on other incidents not included in the Stations.如果可能的话应该有上的Via Crucis,而不是激情,也不一般不包括在车站的其他事件冥想14事件的每一个单独的冥想。No particular prayers are ordered;没有特别的祈祷有序;

The distance required between the Stations is not defined.站之间的距离没有被定义。Even when only the clergy move from one Station to another the faithful can still gain the indulgence without moving;即使只有神职人员从一个站点移动到另一个忠实仍然可以不动,获得的放纵;

It is necessary to make all the Stations uninterruptedly (SCI, 22 January, 1858).这是必要的,使所有的电视台不间断(1858年1月22日,工商局局长)。Hearing Mass or going to Confession or Communion between Stations is not considered an interruption.听证会的质量,或站之间的供认或共融不被视为中断。According to many the Stations may be made more than once on the same day, the indulgence may be gained each time; but this is by no means certain (SCI, 10 Sept., 1883).据许多车站可能不止一次地在同一天,放纵可能会获得每次;但是这不意味着一定的(1883年9月,脊髓损伤,10)。 Confession and Communion on the day of making the Stations are not necessary provided the person making them is in a state of grace;忏悔与共融提供一天的车站是没有必要的的人,使他们在一个国家的宽限期;

Ordinarily the Stations should be erected within a church or public oratory.按说监测站应竖立在教会或公众演讲。If the Via Crucis goes outside, eg, in a cemetery or cloister, it should if possible begin and end in the church.如果通过Crucis云外,如在一个墓地或回廊,如果可能的话应该开始和结束在教堂里。

In conclusion it may be safely asserted that there is no devotion more richly endowed with indulgences than the Way of the Cross, and none which enables us more literally to obey Christ's injunction to take up our cross and follow Him.总之它可以安全地断言,有更丰富的赋比十字架的方式,并没有使我们更从字面上服从基督的禁令,采取我们的十字架,并按照他的宽容没有奉献。 A perusal of the prayers usually given for this devotion in any manual will show what abundant spiritual graces, apart from the indulgences, may be obtained through a right use of them, and the fact that the Stations may be made either publicly or privately in any church renders the devotion specially suitable for all.细读此奉献通常在任何手动的祈祷会显示丰富的精神青睐,除了从放纵,可能会通过他们的使用权取得,和车站,可在任何公开或私下的事实教堂呈现特别适合所有的奉献。 One of the most popularly attended Ways of the Cross at the present day is that in the Colosseum at Rome, where every Friday the devotion of the Stations is conducted publicly by a Franciscan Father.出席在现今最普遍的十字架的途径之一是在罗马斗兽场,每星期五奉献的车站是由方济的父亲进行公开。

Publication information Written by G. Cyprian Alston.G.塞浦路斯阿尔斯通编写的出版物信息。 Transcribed by Marie Jutras.转录由Marie Jutras。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XV.天主教百科全书,卷十五。Published 1912.发布1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约


Editor's Note编者按

It is to be recommended to also read some other scholarly presentations in BELIEVE, specifically about Cross , Crucifixion , Semi-Sabbatarianism , Gethsemane , Words on the Cross .信奉,也看过一些其他的学术演讲特别提到十字架受难,Sabbatarianism,西马尼,字在十字架上,这是值得推荐的。

We specifically note that the articles above all indicate that the Stations of the Cross were all apparently developed during the Middle Ages, around 70 generations after Jesus lived.我们特别注意到,上面所有的文章表明,跨站所有显然约70代后,耶稣的生活,在中世纪。The scholars who wrote those various other articles note that some minor details seem to be slightly incorrect.谁写了这些不同的其他文章的学者注意到,一些小的细节,似乎稍不正确。

One that seems to be nearly universal among Christians is that Jesus carried an ENTIRE crucifix.一个,这似乎是基督教徒之间的几乎普遍是耶稣,进行一个完整的十字架。The scholars have determined, from many sources, that that was nearly certainly not the case.学者们决定,从许多来源,这几乎是肯定不会的情况下。(1) The Romans had performed tens of thousands of crucifixions over the previous 70 years, and they had come to realize that it was too inconvenient to them to have to wait for a hole to be dug, and then also a tall and heavy vertical post tilted up and lowered down into it, and then the hole filled back in. Many years earlier, they had discovered that it was far faster to LEAVE vertical posts in place AND HAVE THE ACCUSED CARRY THE CROSSBAR to the crucifixion site. (1)罗马人执行数以万计比前70年crucifixions,他们已认识到这是太不方便了,他们不得不等待一个被挖孔,然后一个高大而沉重的垂直岗位倾斜,降低到它,然后充满回去。许多年前的孔,他们发现这是留在原地垂直的职位,并已远远快被告人携带交叉开关钉在十字架上的网站。 (2) A complete Crucifix could not have fit through some narrow and low passageways along the Via Doloroso. (2)一个完整的十字架,不可能有适合通过沿通过Doloroso一些狭窄和低的通道。(3) The vertical post certainly weighed about as much as a modern railroad tie.(3)立柱肯定重约作为一个现代化的枕木。Try picking up a modern railroad tie to carry it, or even see if you can lift up just one end of it to be able to drag it!拿起一个现代化的枕木进行尝试,甚至看不到,如果你能抬起它只是一个最终能够将它拖到!Unless you are extremely muscular, you nearly certainly cannot.除非你是极为肌肉,你几乎可以肯定不能。

(4) Most of the crucifix uprights that have ever been found have had a horizontal notch in them, where the crossbar could quickly and easily be inserted or placed. (4)曾经被发现的十字架立柱大多有他们的水平拔尖,横梁可以快速,轻松地插入或放置。From the Roman soldiers point-of-view, this was obviously far more efficient, considering that they did thousands of crucifixions (but all the rest of them were on criminals, and only Ours was on a Pure Soul Who was absolutely Innocent.)从罗马士兵点的观点,这显然更为有效,考虑到他们没有数千crucifixions(但所有,其余的犯罪分子,只有我们一个纯洁的灵魂,谁是完全无辜的。)

There are assorted other reasons why scholars are now certain that Jesus only carried the crossbar of the Cross, but even that was extremely heavy and bulky, certainly weighing more than He did.有配套等原因,为什么学者肯定,耶稣只进行十字架的横梁,但即使是非常笨重,肯定称重超过他。It was a ferocious chore to carry the crossbar.它是一种凶猛的苦差事进行横梁。But the Stations paintings of Him carrying the entire Cross are so emotionally powerful that the full-cross idea has become universal, even though it is certainly not correct.但随身携带的整个横站的画,全交叉的想法已经成为普遍的情绪强大,即使它肯定是不正确的。



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