Temptation诱惑

General Information一般资料

Temptation has two separate meanings.诱惑两个独立的含义。One is as any attempt to entice one into evil.其一是任何企图诱使邪恶之一。The other represents a testing which aims at spiritual good (Gen. 3:5; 22:1,2).其他代表了测试,其目的是在精神好(创3:5; 22:1,2)。

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Temptation诱惑

Advanced Information先进的信息

Temptation is the act of tempting or the state of being tempted.诱惑是诱人的行为或者被诱惑的状态。 In the OT the specific verb indicating the act of tempting is the Piel form nissa.在OT诱人的行为的具体指示动词是彼尔形式nissa。In I Sam.在我心。17:39 the word is used of proving or testing armor.17点39分这个词是用来证明或测试装甲。In Gen. 22:1 nissa characterizes God's command to Abraham to offer Isaac as a burnt offering in the land of Moriah.22时01分,在将军nissa特点上帝的命令亚伯拉罕提供以撒为燔祭莫赖厄土地。A similar use of the term in application to God's testing of men is found in Exod.一个长期的应用上帝的男子测试类似用途是发现在exod。16:4; 20:20; Deut.16:4; 20:20;申。8:2, 16; 13:3; II Chr.8:2,16; 13时03分,第二CHR。32:31; Ps.32:31; PS。 26:2; etc. Related to this sense of the term is that which is given to it when it is applied to the terrible and wonderful acts of God against Egypt (Deut. 4:34). 26:2;等关系到这个意义上的术语,这是考虑到它时,它被应用到神的可怕和美好的行为对埃及(申命记4:34)。

The same technical term is applied to those acts of men which challenge God to demonstrate his veracity and justice.相同的技术术语是适用于这些挑战上帝证明他的准确性和公正的男子的行为。

The term nissa is rarely, if ever, applied in the OT to Satan's act of enticing men to sin.长期nissa很少,如果有的话,在撒旦的罪的引诱男人的行为OT应用。Nevertheless, the essence of temptation in this sense is clearly revealed in the account of the fall and in the record of Satan's role in the affliction of Job (Gen. 3:1-13; Job 1:1-2:10).然而,在这个意义上的诱惑的本质是清楚地表明,在秋天的帐户,并在撒旦的记录作业的痛苦(创3:1-13;约伯记1:1-2:10)的作用。 Eve tells God, "The serpent beguiled me (hissiani), and I did eat" (Gen. 3:13; cf. exapatao in II Cor. 11:3; I Tim. 2:14).除夕告诉神,“那蛇引诱我(hissiani),我就吃了”(创3:13;比照二,肺心病exapatao在11时03分;我添2时14)。 Deception plays an important part in satanic temptation.欺骗起着重要组成部分撒旦的诱惑。Satan avoids making a frontal attack immediately on God's probationary command and its threatened penalities.撒旦避免立即正面攻击,对上帝的试用命令,并威胁处以重罚。Instead, he sows the seeds of doubt, unbelief, and rebellion.相反,他的母猪怀疑,不信,和叛乱的种子。The temptation of Eve is typical.夏娃的诱惑,是典型的。She is made to feel that God has unwisely and unfairly withheld a legitimate objective good from man.她觉得是神,不明智和不公平隐瞒一个合法的目标,从人。In Job's trials the strategy is different, but the end sought is the same, the rejection of God's will and way as just and good.在约伯的试验中的策略是不同的,但要求最终是相同的,公正和良好的神的意志和方式拒绝。

The NT reflects the translation of nissa with ekpeirazo, etc., in the LXX (Matt. 4:7; I Cor. 10:9; Heb. 3:8-9).新台币反映ekpeirazo等nissa翻译的lxx,(马太福音4时07分,我肺心病10时09分;希伯来书3:8-9)。 In these passages the sinful tempting of God is referred to by way of the OT.在这些通道,被称为神罪孽深重诱人的OT方式。 However, the same sense is employed by Peter in connection with the sin of Ananias and Sapphira (Acts 5:9) and the prescriptions to be given to Gentile Christians (Acts 15:10).然而,同样的意义上是受雇于彼得与亚拿尼亚和撒非喇的罪(徒5:9)和外邦基督徒(徒15:10)的处方。

The additional use of peirazo and related forms is complex.peirazo和相关表格的使用是复杂的。 The words may refer to exterior circumstances which try the believer's faith and are designed to strengthen that faith (James 1:2; I Pet. 1:6).的话可能是指外观的情况下,尝试信徒的信仰和旨在加强信仰(雅各书1:2;彼前1:6)。Although these circumstances are held to be under the absolute control of God, the explicit causal ascription of them to God is not prominent.虽然这种情况下举行的神的绝对控制下,明确其中的因果归属上帝并不突出。Perhaps some reasoning by analogy is permissible here.或许有些允许通过类比推理是在这里。Paul, eg, recognizes that his "thorn in the flesh" is under God's sovereign control (II Cor. 12:8-9).保罗,例如,承认他的“眼中钉,肉中刺”在神的主权控制(二肺心病。12:8-9)。But the "thorn" is "a messenger of Satan" (vs. 7).但“刺头”是“撒旦的使者”(7节)。The same phenomenon may be viewed from two aspects.同样的现象可能是从两个方面来看待。The peirasmon is a trial of one's faith controlled and, even in some sense, sent by God. peirasmon是审判的信仰和控制,甚至在某种意义上说,上帝派来。But God is not the author of the prompting to sin that such trial seems to bring with it.但神是不提示罪,这样的审判似乎带给人们的作者。The believer may rejoice in trial because he detects God's good purpose in it (James 1:2-4, 12).信徒欢欣鼓舞的审判,因为他发现神的良好目的(雅各书1:2-4,12)。But the subjective use of trying situations, the internal incitement to sin in connection with trials and testings, is not and cannot be the work of God Enticement to sin and to impatient rebellion is the work of Satan (I Pet. 5:8-9; Rev. 2:9; cf. I Thess. 3:5).但主观努力的情况下使用,内部煽动罪的试验和测试,是没有,也不可能是神的引诱罪和不耐烦叛乱的工作是撒旦的工作(我的宠物。5:8-9启示录2:9;比照帖前3:5)。 In this he is immensely aided by the deceptive power of epithymia, lust, in the old nature (James 1:14-15).在此,他是极大的资助epithymia,好色,在旧性质的欺骗性功率(​​雅各书1:14-15)。While Satan's role in temptation is usually assumed rather than stated, in I Cor.虽然撒旦的诱惑作用,而不是说在我肺心病,通常假定。7:5 Paul explicitly warns Christians to observe his charge with respect to marital relationships, "that Satan tempt you not because of your incontiency" (cf. Matt. 4:1; Mark 1:13; Luke 4:2). 7时05分保罗明确警告说,基督徒婚姻关系,以观察他负责,“撒旦诱惑你不是因为你的incontiency”(参太4:1;马克1时13分,路加福音4时02分)。

Jesus teaches the disciples to pray, "And bring us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one" (Matt. 6:13), and the Bible is replete with warnings to be watchful because of the ever-present danger of falling into temptation (Luke 22:40; Gal. 6:1; I Pet. 5:8-9).耶稣教导门徒祷告,“我们不要把诱惑,但我们提供从邪恶的”(太6:13),和“圣经”是充满了与警告要警惕,因为永远存在的危险下降进入诱惑(路加福音22时四十零;加尔6:1;彼前5:8-9)。 But the Bible assures the believer that God will make a way of escape from temptation (I Cor. 10:13), and that "the Lord knoweth how to deliver the godly out of temptation "但“圣经”,保证信徒,上帝会使一种逃避的方式,从诱惑(我肺心病。十时十三),“主knoweth如何提供敬虔出的诱惑 ”(II Pet. 2:9a).(二宠物。2:9 Å)。

Jesus was repeatedly "tempted" by the Jewish leaders (Mark 8:11; etc.).耶稣曾多次“诱惑”由犹太领袖(马克8时11;等)。But these temptations were designed either to force Jesus to prove his messiahship in terms of the preconceptions of his enemies or to compel him to show himself incapable of being a true rabbi (Luke 10:25) or to cause him to make self-incriminating statements (Mark 12:15; cf. Luke 23:2).但这些诱惑设计,迫使耶稣来证明他的弥赛亚在他的敌人的偏见,或迫使他表现出自己不能成为一个真正的拉比(路加福音10:25),或导致他自证其罪的陈述(马克12点15分;。比照卢克23时02分)。

Very likely Jesus was subject to temptation throughout his ministry (cf. Luke 4:13; 22:28).在他的部(参见路加福音4:13; 22时28分),很可能耶稣受诱惑。But the great temptation is the crucial temptation in redemptive history (Matt. 4:1, and parallels).但巨大的诱惑是在救赎历史的关键的诱惑(太4:1,和Parallels)。This temptation confronts one with the question, How could the sinless Son of God be really tempted?面临的问题之一,这种诱惑的神无罪的儿子怎么会是真的动心?Granted that appeal could be made to legitimate desires in his human nature, what force could temptation have on a divine person who cannot be tempted?诚然,上诉可以合法的欲望在他的人性,是什么力量可以诱惑有一个神圣的人能不动心?Efforts to solve the problem run the risk either of impairing the "without sin" of Heb.解决问题的努力运行的损害“没有罪”的希伯来风险。4:15 or of making the temptation unreal.4:15或虚幻的诱惑。Our understanding of the matter is beclouded by the fact that our awareness of being tempted immediately involves us in at least a momentary inclination to yield to the temptation.我们对此事的理解是beclouded我们立即被诱惑的意识,涉及至少在一个瞬间倾斜我们贪图的事实。This was not true of Jesus, and yet the temptation was real, so that he is able to "succor them that are tempted" (Heb. 2:18).这不是真正的耶稣,但诱惑是真实的,让他能够“救助他们的诱惑”(希伯来书2:18)。

The necessity of the temptation in view of Adam's fall is evident.亚当的秋天的诱惑的必要性是显而易见的。Jesus triumphed over Satan with his immediate and obedient use of the word of God.耶稣战胜了撒旦与上帝的话,他立即和服从使用。He thereby proved that he was qualified to be the "last Adam."他由此证明了他是合格的“末后的亚当。”"To this end was the Son of God manifested, that he might destroy the works of the devil" (I John 3:8b). “为此是神儿子的表现,他可能会摧毁魔鬼的作品”(约翰一书3:8 b)项。

CG Kromminga企业管治Kromminga
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
L. Berkhof, Systematic Theology, 219-26; H. Seesemann, TDNT, VI, 23ff.; W. Schneider, et al., NIDNTT, III, 798ff.; RC Trench, Synonyms of the NT; P. Dobble, "Temptations," ExpT 72:91ff.; E. Best, The Temptation and the Passion; WJ Foxell, The Temptation of Jesus; C. Ullmmann, The Sinlessness of Jesus. L.伯克霍夫,系统神学,219-26; H. Seesemann,TDNT,六,23ff;西施耐德等,NIDNTT,三,798ff;。RC海沟,新台币的同义词; P. Dobble,“诱惑“,EXPT 72:91 FF; E.最好,诱惑和激情; WJ Foxell,耶稣的诱惑; C. Ullmmann,耶稣无罪。


Temptation诱惑

Advanced Information先进的信息

Temptation.诱惑。
(1.) Trial; a being put to the test.(1)审判;考验。Thus God "tempted [Gen. 22:1; RV, 'did prove'] Abraham;" and afflictions are said to tempt, ie, to try, men (James 1:2, 12; comp. Deut. 8:2), putting their faith and patience to the test.因此上帝“的诱惑[创22时01分; RV”,没有证明']亚伯拉罕;“和痛苦的诱惑,即尝试,男性(12詹姆斯1:2;比赛申命记8时02) ,把他们的信心和耐心的考验。(2.) Ordinarily, however, the word means solicitation to that which is evil, and hence Satan is called "the tempter" (Matt. 4:3). (2)通常情况下,然而,这个词是指招标,这是邪恶的,因此,撒旦被称为“试探”(太4:3)。

Our Lord was in this way tempted in the wilderness.我们的主在旷野试探这样。That temptation was not internal, but by a real, active, subtle being.这种诱惑是不是内部,而是一个真正的,积极的,正在潜​​移默化的。 It was not self-sought.这不是自我寻求。It was submitted to as an act of obedience on his part.这是作为对他的行为服从提交。"Christ was led, driven. An unseen personal force bore him a certain violence is implied in the words" (Matt. 4:1-11).“基督是主导,带动一个看不见的个人力量,为他生了一定的暴力行为是在暗示的话”(太4:1-11)。The scene of the temptation of our Lord is generally supposed to have been the mountain of Quarantania (qv), "a high and precipitous wall of rock, 1,200 or 1,500 feet above the plain west of Jordan, near Jericho."现场的诱惑,我们的主,一般是假定已经Quarantania(QV)山,“高的岩石和陡峭的墙壁,1200或1500英尺以上杰里科附近,约旦平原西部。”

Temptation is common to all (Dan. 12: 10; Zech. 13:9; Ps. 66:10; Luke 22:31, 40; Heb. 11:17; James 1:12; 1 Pet. 1:7; 4:12).诱惑是共同所有(但以理书12:10;撒加利亚13时09分; PS 66:10;路加福音22点31,40,希伯​​来书11点17分,詹姆斯1时12分,1宠物1时07分; 4。 :12)。We read of the temptation of Joseph (Gen. 39), of David (2 Sam. 24; 1 Chr. 21), of Hezekiah (2 Chr. 32:31), of Daniel (Dan. 6), etc. So long as we are in this world we are exposed to temptations, and need ever to be on our watch against them.大卫(24萨姆2。。1 CHR 21),我们读到的诱惑约瑟(创39),希西家(2 CHR 32:31),但以理(但以理书6)等,只要作为我们在这个世界上,我们面临的诱惑,需要不断对他们对我们的手表。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Temptation of Christ诱惑基督

Catholic Information天主教信息

In the Catholic translation of the Bible, the word "temptation" is used in various senses, the principal of which are the following:在“圣经”的天主教翻译“诱惑”,这个词是在各种感官的使用,其主要有以下几种:

the act of testing or trying (Deuteronomy 4:34; Tobit 2:12; Luke 22:28; etc.);测试或试图采取行动(Tobit回归2:12;路加福音22时28分;申命记4:34等);

enticement to evil (Matthew 26:41; 1 Corinthians 10:13; etc.); the state of being tempted (Matthew 6:13; Luke 4:13; etc.); that which tempts or entices to evil (James 1:12; 2 Peter 2:9; etc.); the name of a place (Exodus 17:7; Deuteronomy 6:16; etc.)诱惑邪恶(马太福音26:41;哥林多前书10:13;等);被诱惑的状态(马太福音6时13;路加福音4:13;等);,诱使或怂恿邪恶(詹姆斯1: 12; 2彼得前书2:9;等);一个地方的名称(出埃及记17时07分;申命记6时16分;等)

Taken in an unfavourable sense as denoting enticement to evil, temptation cannot be referred directly to God or to Christ, so that when we read in Gen., xxii, 1, for instance, "God tempted Abraham", and in John, vi, 6, "Hoc autem dicebat tentans eum", literally: "This He [Jesus] said tempting him [Philip]", the expressions must be taken in the sense of testing, trying.为表示邪恶的诱惑,诱惑无法被称为直接向上帝或基督在不利的意识,使举例来说,当我们在将军,22,1,读“上帝的诱惑亚伯拉罕”,并在约翰,VI, 6,“特设autem dicebat蚊EUM”,从字面上:“他[耶稣说:诱人的他[菲]”,表达式必须采取在测试的意义,试图。According to St. James (i, 12 sqq.), the natural source of man's temptations is concupiscence, or that proneness to evil which is the result of the fall of Adam, and which remains in human nature after baptismal regeneration, and even though the soul is in the state of sanctifying grace (cf. Romans 8:1).根据圣雅各福群会(I,12 SQQ),天然来源的人的诱惑是色欲,或邪恶的倾向性,这是亚当的堕落的结果,并仍然在人性的洗礼再生后,即使的灵魂,是国家sanctifying恩典(参罗马书8:1)。 Concupiscence becomes sinful only when freely yielded to; when resisted with God's help it is an occasion of merit.色欲成为罪恶的,只有当自由取得,与上帝的帮助下抵抗时,它是一种优异的场合。Together with inward concupiscence, and outward creatures, which may be the occasion of sin (I John ii, 15 sqq.), the chief cause of temptation is Satan, "the tempter" (Matthew 4:3), bent on man's eternal ruin (Ephesians 6:10 sqq.).加上外来色欲,及离港的动物,这可能是罪之际(​​我约翰二世,15 SQQ),行政事业的诱惑是撒旦,“诱惑”(马太福音4:3),一心想人的永恒的废墟“(弗6:10 SQQ)。In the Lord's Prayer, the clause "Lead us not into temptation" is an humble and trusting petition for God's help to enable us to overcome temptation when His Fatherly Providence allows us to experience the allurements of evil.在主祷文中,该条款“带领的诱惑我们不要”是谦逊和信任的请愿书,以使我们能够克服的诱惑时,他的父爱普罗维登斯让我们体验到了邪恶的诱惑却为神的帮助。 Prayer and watchfulness are the chief weapons against temptation (Mark 14:38; etc.).祈祷和警觉,抗拒诱惑(马可福音14:38;等)的首席武器。God does not allow man to be tempted beyond his strength (1 Corinthians 10:13).上帝不允许人超出了他的实力(1哥林多前书10:13)的诱惑。

Like Adam, Christ (the second Adam) endured temptation only from without, inasmuch as His human nature was free from all concupiscence; but unlike Adam, He withstood the assaults of the Tempter on all points, thereby affording His mystical members a perfect model of resistance to their spiritual enemy, and a permanent source of victorious help (Hebrews 4:15-16).只从没有像亚当,基督(第二个亚当)忍受的诱惑,因为他的人性是一切色欲,但不像亚当,他经受的诱惑上的所有点的攻击,从而affording他的神秘的成员提供了一个完美的模型抵抗他们的敌人的精神,和永久的胜利帮助源(希伯来书4:15-16)。 In our first three Gospels (Matthew 4:1-11; Mark 1:12-13; Luke 4:1-13), the narrative of Christ's temptation is placed in immediate connexion with His baptism on the one hand, and with the beginning of His public ministry on the other.在我们的前三个福音(马太福音4:1-11;马克1:12-13,路加福音4:1-13),基督的诱惑叙事是与他的洗礼,一方面立即联接,并开始他对其他的公共事务部。 The reason of this is clear.这个原因是显而易见的。The Synoptists naturally regard the baptism of Christ as the external designation of Jesus from above for His Messianic work to be pursued under the guidance of the Holy Spirit bestowed upon Him on this occasion; and they no less naturally regard Christ's sojourn in the desert where He was tempted, as His own immediate preparation for that great work under the guidance of the same Holy Spirit.在耶稣从上面的外部指定为他的救世主的工作,他赋予这次的神圣精神的指导下追求的Synoptists自然把基督的洗礼;和他们没有少,自然把沙漠中的基督的逗留的地方,他动心了,他自己的伟大的工作,同一圣灵的指导下立即准备。 As our first three Gospels agree concerning the time to which they assign the temptation of Christ, so they are at one in ascribing the same general place to its occurrence, viz.由于我们前三个福音同意关于基督的诱惑,他们分配到的时间,让他们在其发生,即把相同的一般地方之一。"the desert", whereby they no doubt mean the Wilderness of Judea, where Jesus would indeed be, as St. Mark says: "with beasts".“沙漠”,使他们毫无疑问意味着犹太的荒野,耶稣那里确实是,作为圣马可说:“野兽”。From St. Mark (i, 13) -- with whom compare St. Luke iv, 2 -- we learn that Jesus Christ was tempted during the forty days which He spent in the desert (cf. St. Augustine, "Harmony of the Evangelists", II, xvi), so that the three onsets given in detail by St. Matthew and St. Luke are apparently the three final assaults of Satan against Christ.从圣马可(I,13) - 与谁圣卢克四,2 - 我们学习,耶稣基督是四十天期间,他在沙漠中度过(参见圣奥古斯丁,“和谐诱惑福音“,二,十六),使三个详细的圣马太和圣卢克onsets显然是反对基督最后三个撒但的攻击。 The first of these assaults is directly connected in both St. Matthew and St. Luke with the prolonged fast of Jesus in the wilderness.这些攻击是直接连接在圣马太和圣卢克与耶稣在旷野的长期快速。The Tempter suggested to Jesus that He should use His miraculous power to relieve His hunger, by changing into bread the loaf-like flints of the desert.建议试探耶稣,他应该使用他的神奇的力量,以减轻他的饥饿,改变成面包的沙漠面包状的燧石。The two other assaults are given in a different order, St. Matthew adhering probably to the order of time, and St. Luke to that of place.其他两个攻击都在以不同的顺序,圣马太秉承可能以时间顺序,并圣卢克的地方。The spot pointed out by tradition as the summit from which Satan offered to Jesus dominion over all earthly kingdoms is the "Quarantania", a limestone peak on the road from Jerusalem to Jericho.当场指出由传统首脑会议从撒旦提供一切尘世王国的耶稣的权柄是“Quarantania”,从耶路撒冷下耶利哥道路上的石灰岩峰。 As regards the Temple's pinnacle from which the Tempter bade Jesus cast Himself down, it was not the top of the House of Yahweh, but probably the roof of Solomon's portico from which, at a later date, St. James was actually hurled to the pavement below (Eusebius, "Hist. eccl.", IV, xiii).至于圣殿的顶峰从试探八德耶稣投下自己下来,它不是耶和华议院顶部,但可能所罗门的门廊的屋顶从在以后的日子圣雅各福群是实际上扔在人行道上以下(优西比乌,“组织胺。传道书”,四,十三)。

According to St. Luke (4:13), after having subjected Christ to all kinds of temptations -- the Messianic import of which is undoubted -- Satan withdrew, awaiting a favourable opportunity like that which followed Christ's prolonged fast in the desert.据圣卢克(4:13),基督所有种诱惑 - 弥赛亚的进口,这是勿庸置疑的 - 撒旦退出,等待有利时机,像跟随基督在沙漠中长时间快速。The later conflict thus alluded to is no other than that of Christ's Passion (cf. Luke 22:53; John 14:30).后来的冲突,从而暗示是没有其他比基督受难(参见路加福音22时53分,约翰14:30)。The ministry of angels to Jesus, in connection with His temptation, is mentioned in Mark, i, 13.部的天使耶稣,在他的诱惑,提到马克,我,13。Satan's exact manner of appearance to Jesus is not stated by the Evangelists.撒旦的外观耶稣的确切方式是不说的福音。Despite the difficulties urged, chiefly by non-Catholic scholars, against the historical character of the three temptations of Jesus, as recorded by St. Matthew and St. Luke, it is plain that these sacred writers intended to describe an actual and visible approach of Satan, to chronicle an actual shifting of places, etc., and that the traditional view, which maintains the objective nature of Christ's temptations, is the only one meeting all the requirements of the Gospel narrative.尽管有困难,主要是由非天主教学者呼吁对耶稣的圣马太和圣卢克记录的诱惑,历史人物,它是纯用来描述实际的和可见的方式,这些神圣的作家撒旦,以编年史的实际转移场所等,和传统的观点,保持客观性质的基督的诱惑,是唯一一个满足所有要求的福音叙事。

Publication information Written by Francis E. Gigot.弗朗西斯大肠杆菌Gigot编写的出版物信息。 Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.转录由道格拉斯J.波特。Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.专用于耶稣圣心天主教百科全书,卷第十四。 Published 1912.发布1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年7月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

(Catholic Authors are marked with an asterisk).(天主教作者标有星号)。Life of Christ: *CIGOI (Klagenfurt, 1896-1905); *DIDON (tr. New York, 1891); EDERSHEIM (New York, 1884); FARRAR (London, 1874); *FORNARI (Rome, 1901); *FOUARD (tr. New York, 1891); GEIKIE (New York, 1886); *GRIMM (Ratisbon, 1876); HOLTZMANN (tr. London, 1904); KEIM (tr. London, 1876-83) *LE CAMUS (tr. New York, 1906-08); NEANDER (tr. London, 1871); PRESSENSÉ (Paris, 1884); ROBINS0N (London, 1898); *SCHEGG (Freiburg, 1875); *SEPPAND *HANEBERG (Ratisbon, 1898-1902); WEISS (tr. Edinburgh, 1883-4).基督的生活:* CIGOI(克拉根福,1896年至1905年); * DIDON(编辑部纽约,1891年);爱德生(纽约,1884年);法拉(伦敦,1874年); * FORNARI(罗马,1901年); * FOUARD (编辑部纽约,1891年);盖基(纽约,1886年); * GRIMM(拉蒂斯邦,1876年); HOLTZMANN(编辑部伦敦,1904年); KEIM(编辑部伦敦,1876年至1883年)* LE的卡慕(编辑部纽约,一九○六年至1908年);尼安德(编辑部伦敦,1871年); PRESSENSÉ(巴黎,1884年); ROBINS0N(伦敦,1898年); * SCHEGG(弗赖堡,1875年); * SEPPAND * HANEBERG(拉蒂斯邦,1898年至19​​02年) WEISS(编辑部爱丁堡,1883-4)。For Commentaries see bibliographies under MATTHEW, GOSPEL OF ST.; MARK, GOSPEL OF ST.; LUKE, GOSPEL OF ST.对于评下,圣福音马克,圣福音。卢克,福音圣马太书目。For the literary analysis of the Synoptical accounts of Christ's temptation, see New York Review, Oct.-Nov., 1905.对于基督的诱惑提要帐户的文学分析,看到纽约评论“,10月至11月,1905年。



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