Tertullian德尔图良 中文 - Zhong Wen

General Information一般资料

Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, b.昆图斯Septimius佛罗伦Tertullianus,B.Carthage, c.155, d.迦太基,c.155,D.after 220, was one of the greatest Western theologians and writers of Christian antiquity. 220后,最大的西方古代基督教神学家和作家之一。Through his writings a witness to the doctrine and discipline of the early church in belief and worship is preserved.通过他的著作,在早期教会的信仰和崇拜的理论和纪律的见证被保存下来。

An advocate in the law courts in Rome, Tertullian converted (c.193) to Christianity. ,良转换(c.193)基督教在罗马法院的倡导者。About 207 he broke with the church and joined the Montanists (see Montanism) in Africa.关于207,他打破了教会和在非洲的加入Montanists(见孟他努)。Soon after, however, he broke with them and formed his own party, known as the Tertullianists.然而,不久之后,他与他们断绝关系,并形成了他自己的党,作为Tertullianists。

An extremist by nature, he had gone through a period of licentiousness during his early years, but later he advocated a severe asceticism and discipline that his followers found hard to emulate.性质的极端分子,他曾经历一段时间的淫在早年,但后来他主张严厉的禁欲主义和纪律他的追随者发现很难仿效。

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Tertullian was a man of fiery temperament, great talent, and unrelenting purpose.德尔图良是一个火热的气质,伟大的天才和不懈的目的的人。He wrote with brilliant rhetoric and biting satire.他写下辉煌的言辞和辛辣的讽刺。His passion for truth led him into polemics with his enemies: in turn pagans, Jews, heretics, and Catholics.他对真理的热爱,他与他的敌人论战:反过来异教徒,犹太人,异教徒,和天主教徒。His admiration for Christian heroism under persecution seems to have been the strongest factor in his conversion.下迫害基督教的英雄气概表示钦佩,似乎已经在他的转换最强的因素。

Tertullian's writings, notably Apologeticum, De praescriptione haereticorum, and De carne Christi, had a lasting effect on Christian thought, especially through those who, like Cyprian of Carthage, always regarded him as a "master."德尔图良的著作,特别是Apologeticum,德praescriptione haereticorum,德和卡尔内基督,特别是通过那些谁,如塞浦路斯的迦太基,始终把他作为一个基督教思想的持久影响,“主人。”He also greatly influenced the development of Western thought and the creation of Christian ecclesiastical Latin.他还极大地影响了西方思想的发展和创造的基督教教会拉丁。

Agnes Cunningham艾格尼丝坎宁安

Bibliography 参考书目
Barnes, TD, Tertullian: A Historical and Literary Study (1971); Sider, RD, Ancient Rhetoric and the Art of Tertullian (1971).巴恩斯,运输署,良:一个历史和文学的研究(1971年);考虑,RD,古代修辞学和特土良(1971年)的艺术。


General Information一般资料

Tertullian (160?-220?) was the first important Christian ecclesiastical writer in Latin, whose work is remarkable for its blunt sarcasm, epigrammatic phrasing, aggressive partisan spirit, and skillful - though sometimes specious - reasoning.德尔图良(160 -220)在拉丁美洲的第一个重要的基督教教会的作家,他们的工作是其生硬的嘲讽,epigrammatic的措辞,激进的党派精神和熟练的显着 - 尽管有时似是而非 - 的推理。Tertullian was born Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus in Carthage, the son of a Roman centurion.德尔图良生于昆图斯Septimius在迦太基佛罗伦Tertullianus,一个罗马百夫长的儿子。He trained for a career in law and practiced his profession in Rome.他在法系职业训练,并在罗马实践了他的职业。Sometime between 190 and 195, while still in Rome, he became a convert to the Christian faith, and it is evident that he visited Greece and possibly Asia Minor. 190和195之间的某个时候,同时仍然在罗马,他成为皈依基督教的信仰,这是显而易见的,他访问了希腊和小亚细亚。In 197 he returned to Carthage, where he married and became a presbyter of the church.在197他返回迦太基,在那里他结了婚,并成为一个教堂的牧师。About 207 he aligned himself with Montanism, a sect that encouraged prophesying and espoused a rigorous form of asceticism.大约207他表示自己与孟他努,一个教派,鼓励的预言和拥护严格的禁欲主义形式。The Montanists, increasingly in conflict with church authorities, were finally declared heretical.在教会当局的冲突越来越Montanists,终于宣布邪教。

A zealous champion of Christianity, Tertullian wrote many theological treatises, of which 31 have survived.一个基督教的热心冠军,良写了许多神学论文,其中有31个幸存下来。In his various works he strove either to defend Christianity, to refute heresy, or to argue some practical point of morality or church discipline.在他的各种著作中,他努力以捍卫基督教,驳斥异端,或争辩一些道德或教会纪律的实际情况来看。His views on ethics and discipline, rigorously ascetic from the first, became progressively more harsh in his later works.他的观点,道德和纪律,严格禁欲主义者,从第一逐渐在他的后期作品的苛刻。After espousing Montanist doctrines, he was a severe critic of orthodox Christians, whom he accused of moral laxity.拥护Montanist学说后,东正教徒,他的道德松弛指责他是一个严厉的批评。

Tertullian profoundly influenced the later church fathers, especially Saint Cyprian - and through them, all Christian theologians of the West.德尔图良的深刻影响了后来教会的父亲,尤其是圣塞浦路斯 - 并通过他们,所有的西方基督教神学家。Many of his works are accepted as orthodox by the Roman Catholic church and are included in the recognized body of patristic literature.他的许多作品都是由罗马天主教会和接受正统教父文献中公认的机构。

Tertullian's writings demonstrate a profound knowledge of Greek and Latin literature, both pagan and Christian.德尔图良的著作中表现出希腊和拉丁文学,异教徒和基督教的渊博的知识。He was the first writer in Latin to formulate Christian theological concepts, such as the nature of the Trinity.他是在拉美的第一位作家制定基督教神学概念,如三位一体的性质,。Having no models to follow, he developed a terminology derived from many sources, chiefly Greek and the legal vocabulary of Rome.他没有遵循的模型,开发从许多来源,主要是希腊和罗马的法律词汇派生的术语。His legal turn of mind imprinted on this newly minted theological language of the West a juridical character that has never been erased.他的心境的法律又印上这个新崛起的西方法人的性格,从来没有被抹去的神学语言。

The most famous work by Tertullian is Apologeticus (197?), an impassioned defense of Christians against pagan charges of immorality, economic worthlessness, and political subversion.最著名的作品是由戴尔都良Apologeticus(197?),基督徒对异教徒不道德的,无价值的经济和政治颠覆收费慷慨激昂的辩护。 Of his doctrinal treatises refuting heresy, the most important is De Praescriptione Hereticorum (On the Claims of Heretics), in which he argued that the church alone has the authority to declare what is and is not orthodox Christianity.他的理论的论述,驳斥异端,最重要的是德Praescriptione Hereticorum(在外道的索赔),其中他认为,单靠教会机关申报是什么,是不是正统基督教。In other writings he strongly disapproved of second marriages, exhorted Christians not to attend public shows, and favored simplicity of dress and strict fasts.在其他著作中,他强烈反对的第二次婚姻,劝勉基督徒不要出席公开表演,并青睐简约礼服和严格的斋戒。Like all Montanists, Tertullian held that Christians should welcome persecution, not flee from it.所有Montanists一样,良举行,基督徒应该欢迎的迫害,而不是逃避它。Christian historians value many of his writings, especially De Baptismo (On Baptism) and De Oratione (On Prayer), for the light they throw on contemporary religious practices.他的著作,特别是德Baptismo(在洗礼)和德Oratione(在祈祷)为轻,他们扔在当代的宗教习俗,许多基督教史学价值。

Tertullian (ca. 155-220)德尔图良(约155-220)

Advanced Information先进的信息

Tertullian was an early Latin father of the church.德尔图良是一个早期的拉丁美洲教会的父亲。He was born Quintus Septimus Florens Tertullianus at Carthage in modern Tunisia.他出生在现代突尼斯迦太基昆图斯塞普蒂默斯佛罗伦Tertullianus。The son of pagan parents, he was sent to Rome to study law.异教父母的儿子,他被送到罗马学习法律。There he was converted to Christianity and rejected his licentious mode of life.在那里,他皈依了基督教,并拒绝了他放荡的生活模式。 Returning to Carthage, he gave himself passionately to the propagation and defense of the gospel.返回迦太基,他给自己充满激情的福音的传播和防御。Ultimately disenchanted with the laxity of the Roman Church, he broke away and espoused the rigorous asceticism and enthusiasm of Montanism.最终与罗马教会的松弛醒悟,他打破了并且信奉严格的禁欲主义和孟他努的热情。

A man of vast erudition, he employed the classical rhetorical arts and freely cited Greek and Latin authors, although he disclaimed a reliance on Greek philosphy.广大博学的人,他采用古典修辞艺术和自由引用希腊和拉丁作家,虽然他否认了希腊philosphy的依赖。Increasingly he wrote in the Latin vernacular and became the first great Latin church father.越来越多,他写道:在拉丁美洲白话,并成为第一个伟大的拉丁美洲教会的父亲。He set the concepts of Scripture in new language, and much of his terminology became normative in the theological discussions of the Western church.他在新的语言圣经的概念,和他的许多术语成为西方教会的神学讨论的规范。He was peculiarly apt at pithy sayings, the most famous of which is, "The blood of Christians is the seed of the church."他独有的APT精辟的说法,最有名的,这是“基督徒的血是教会的种子。”It was Tertullian who coined the term "Trinity".这是特土良,谁创造了“三位一体”一词。His postulation that the God-head was "one substance consisting in three persons" helped spare the West much of the bitter Christological controversy that raged in the Eastern church.他postulation,神头“一个三人组成的”物质帮助备用苦基督争议肆虐东部教会西多。

His view of original sin was also to influence Western theology profoundly.他的原罪,也深刻影响西方神学。Probably because of his early Stoic training, Tertullian held that the soul was actually material and that both body and soul were procreated simultaneously by an individual's parents.大概是因为他早期斯多葛培训,良认为,灵魂实际上是物质和身体和灵魂,同时由个人的父母生育。The inclination to sin was thus transmitted from Adam to successive generations of progeny.从亚当罪的倾向,因此传输连续几代后代。

There are thirty-odd extant treatises by Tertullian.有三十多个现存论文由戴尔都良。His Apology, addressed to Roman magistrates, defends Christians against slanderous charges and demands for them the same due process of law afforded to other citizens of the empire.他的道歉,给罗马的裁判,维护对诽谤指控的基督徒,他们同样给予其他公民的帝国的法律的正当程序的要求。Other works deal with pratical aspects of Christian living, vindications of Montanism, the failings of early Catholicism, and polemic arguments against the heathen and heretics.其他工程处理pratical基督徒生活的各个方面,孟他努vindications,早期天主教的失败,对异教徒和异端的争论争论。 These latter writings contained powerful and innovative expressions of Christian dogma that came to be regarded as definitive for orthodoxy.后面的这些著作中包含了基督教教条的强大和创新来为正统最终的表达式。 His Against Praxeas was famed in particular for its affirmation that Jesus Christ had two natures joined in one person.他反对Praxeas尤其是著名的耶稣基督有两个性质,一个人加入其肯定。

RC Kroeger and CC KroegerRC克勒格尔和CC克勒格尔
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
TD Barnes, Tertullian: A Historical and Literary Study; GL Bray, Holiness and the Will of God: Perspectives on the Theology of Tertullian; J. Morgan, The Importance of Tertullian in the Development of Christian Dogma; RA Norris, Jr., God and World in Early Christian Though; RE Roberts, The Theology of Tertullian; C. de L. Shoritt, The Influence of Philosophy on the Mind of Tertullian; J. Quasten, Patrology, II, 246-319; BB Warfield, Studies in Tertullian and Augustine; ANF,III,IV.运输署巴恩斯,良:一个历史和文学的研究; GL布雷,圣洁和神的旨意:德尔图良的神学的观点; J.摩根,德尔图良的基督教教义发展的重要性; RA诺里斯小神在早期基督教虽然可再生能源,德尔图良的神学罗伯茨角L. Shoritt德尔图良的头脑,哲学的影响;研究Quasten,Patrology,二,246-319; BB沃菲尔德,在德尔图良的研究和世界奥古斯丁;心钠素,三,四。


Catholic Information天主教信息


Ecclesiastical writer in the second and third centuries, b.在第二和第三世纪的教会作家,B.probably about 160 at Carthage, being the son of a centurion in the proconsular service.大概有160迦太基,在地方总督服务的一个百夫长的儿子。He was evidently by profession an advocate in the law-courts, and he shows a close acquaintance with the procedure and terms of Roman law, though it is doubtful whether he is to be identified with a jurist Tertullian who is cited in the Pandects.他显然是由专业的法律,法院的倡导者,他显示了一个熟人的程序和罗马法,虽然这是令人怀疑他是否确定是谁在Pandects援引法学家良。 He knew Greek as well as Latin, and wrote works in Greek which have not come down to us.他知道希腊以及拉丁语,并写在希腊没有来给我们的作品。A pagan until middle life, he had shared the pagan prejudices against Christianity, and had indulged like others in shameful pleasures.一个异教徒,直到中年,他反对基督教共享的异教徒的偏见,并沉迷可耻的乐趣其他国家一样。 His conversion was not later than the year 197, and may have been earlier.他的转换是不晚,比上年197,并可能已被较早。He embraced the Faith with all the ardour of his impetuous nature.他拥抱他浮躁的性质与所有热情的信念。He became a priest, no doubt of the Church of Carthage.他成为一名牧师,毫无疑问的迦太基教会。Monceaux, followed by d'Ales, considers that his earlier writings were composed while he was yet a layman, and if this be so, then his ordination was about 200. Monceaux,其次是德强麦,认为他的早期作品组成,而他是一个门外汉,如果这是这样,那么他的协调约200。His extant writings range in date from the apologetics of 197 to the attack on a bishop who is probably Pope Callistus (after 218).他现存的著作,在日期范围从197名护攻击者可能是教皇卡利斯图斯(218)后的主教。It was after the year 206 that he joined the Montanist sect, and he seems to have definitively separated from the Church about 211 (Harnack) or 213 (Monceaux).这是今年206后,他加入了Montanist节,他似乎已经明确地从约211(哈纳克)或213(Monceaux)教会分离。 After writing more virulently against the Church than even against heathen and persecutors, he separated from the Montanists and founded a sect of his own.写完后对教会更恶毒,甚至比对异教徒和迫害,他脱离Montanists创办了他自己的教派。The remnant of the Tertullianists was reconciled to the Church by St. Augustine.残余的Tertullianists不甘心教会的圣奥古斯丁。A number of the works of Tertullian are on special points of belief or discipline.德尔图良的作品数量上的信仰或纪律处分的特殊点。 According to St. Jerome he lived to extreme old age.据圣杰罗姆他极端的老年生活。

The year 197 saw the publication of a short address by Tertullian, "To the Martyrs", and of his great apologetic works, the "Ad nationes" and the "Apologeticus". 197年出版的短地址由戴尔都良,“烈士”,和他的伟大的歉意作品,“广告nationes”和“Apologeticus”。The former has been considered a finished sketch for the latter; but it is more true to say that the second work has a different purpose, though a great deal of the same matter occurs in both, the same arguments being displayed in the same manner, with the same examples and even the same phrases.前者已为后者完成草图,但它更真实地说,第二个工作都有不同的目的,虽然对同一事项的大量出现在两个相同的参数显示在相同的方式,同样的例子,甚至相同的短语。 The appeal to the nations suffers from its transmission in a single codex, in which omissions of a word or several words or whole lines are to be deplored.呼吁各国遭受从它在一个单一的法典,其中的一个单词或几个单词或整行的遗漏令人痛惜的传输。Tertullian's style is difficult enough without such super added causes of obscurity.德尔图良的风格是很难,如果没有这样的超级添加默默无闻的原因。But the text of the "Ad nationes" must have been always rougher than that of the "Apologeticus", which is a more careful as well as a more perfect work, and contains more matter because of its better arrangement; for it is just the same length as the two books "Ad nationes". ,但必须有“广告nationes”的文字一直比“Apologeticus”,这是一个更加小心,以及一个更完美的的工作粗糙,并包含更多的是因为它的更好的安排问题,它仅仅是“广告nationes”两书的长度相同。

The "Ad nationes" has for its entire object the refutation of calumnies against Christians. “广告nationes”,为整个对象驳斥了对基督徒的诽谤。In the first place they are proved to repose on unreasoning hatred only; the procedure of trial is illogical; the offence is nothing but the name of Christian, which ought rather to be a title of honour; no proof is forthcoming of any crimes, only rumour; the first persecutor was Nero, the worst of emperors.首先,他们证明静卧上只有理智的仇恨;审判程序是不合逻辑的;的罪行只不过是基督教的名称,而应该是一个荣誉称号;没有证据证明是即将举行的任何罪行,只有谣言;第一迫害尼禄,最坏的皇帝。 Secondly, the individual charges are met; Tertullian challenges the reader to believe in anything so contrary to nature as the accusations of infanticide and incest.其次,个别收费得到满足;德尔图良挑战读者相信任何违背自然的女​​婴和乱伦的指控。Christians are not the causes of earthquakes and floods and famine, for these happened long before Christianity.基督徒没有地震,洪水和饥荒的原因,这些发生之前,基督教长。The pagans despise their own gods, banish them, forbid their worship, mock them on the stage; the poets tell horrid stories of them; they were in reality only men, and bad men.异教徒瞧不起自己的神,放逐他们,禁止他们的崇拜,模拟他们在舞台上,诗人告诉他们的可怕的故事,他们在现实中,只有男人和坏男人。 You say we worship an ass's head, he goes on, but you worship all kinds of animals; your gods are images made on a cross framework, so you worship crosses.你说我们崇拜一个驴头,他去,但你崇拜各种动物,你的神,是跨框架的图像,让你崇拜的十字架。You say we worship the sun; so do you.你说我们崇拜太阳,所以你。A certain Jew hawked about a caricature of a creature half ass, half goat, as our god; but you actually adore half-animals.某犹太人兜售一个生物的一半屁股,半羊的一幅漫画,作为我们的上帝,但你实际上崇拜半动物。As for infanticide, you expose your own children and kill the unborn.至于杀婴,你暴露了自己的孩子,并杀死腹中。Your promiscuous lust causes you to be in danger of the incest of which you accuse us.你的淫乱欲望,使你在你指责我们的乱伦的危险。We do not swear by the genius of Caesar, but we are loyal, for we pray for him, whereas you revolt.我们不发誓凯撒的天才,但我们是忠诚的,因为我们为他祈祷,而你的反抗。Caesar does not want to be a god; he prefers to be alive.凯撒并不想成为一个神,他宁愿活着。You say it is through obstinacy that we despise death; but of old such contempt of death was esteemed heroic virtue.你说它固执,我们鄙视死亡,但老如此蔑视死亡是受人尊敬的英雄美德。Many among you brave death for gain or wagers; but we, because we believe in judgment.许多在你勇敢的收益或投注死亡,但我们,因为我们相信在判断。Finally, do us justice; examine our case, and change your minds.最后,我们做正义;审视我们的情况下,改变你的头脑。The second book consists entirely in an attack on the gods of the pagans; they are marshalled in classes after Varro.第二本书完全由神的异教徒的攻击,他们在整理后沃罗类。It was not, urges the apologist, owing to these multitudinous gods that the empire grew.这不是,敦促辩护士,由于这些众多的神,帝国的增长。

Out of this fierce appeal and indictment was developed the grander "Apologeticus", addressed to the rulers of the empire and the administrators of justice.在这场激烈的上诉和起诉制定了宏伟的“Apologeticus”,给帝国的统治者和司法的管理员。The former work attacked popular prejudices; the new one is an imitation of the Greek Apologies, and was intended as an attempt to secure an amelioration in the treatment of Christians by alteration of the law or its administration.前者的工作攻击流行的偏见;新是一个仿希腊道歉,并打算作为一种尝试,以确保治疗的基督徒通过修改法律或行政改良。 Tertullian cannot restrain his invective; yet he wishes to be conciliating, and it breaks out in spite of his argument, instead of being its essence as before.德尔图良不能限制他的谩骂,但他希望可以调解,它打破了,尽管他的说法,而不是像以前那样它的本质。He begins again by an appeal to reason.他又开始理由提出上诉。There are no witnesses, he urges, to prove our crimes; Trajan ordered Pliny not to seek us out, but yet to punish us if we were known; - what a paralogism!有没有证人,他敦促,证明我们的罪行;图拉真下令普林尼不寻求我们出去,但尚未惩罚我们,如果我们知道 - 什么谬论!The actual procedure is yet more strange.实际的过程,但更奇怪的。Instead of being tortured until was confess, we are tortured until we deny.而不是被折磨,直到被承认,我们的折磨,直到我们拒绝。 So far the "Ad Nationes" is merely developed and strengthened.到目前为止,“广告Nationes”,仅仅是发展和加强。Then, after a condensed summary of the second book as to the heathen gods, Tertullian begins in chapter xvii an exposition of the belief of Christians in one God, the Creator, invisible, infinite, to whom the soul of man, which by nature is inclined to Christianity, bears witness.然后,在一个异教徒的神的第二本书概括,良开始在第十七章论述基督徒的信仰一个神,造物主,无形的,无限的,人的灵魂,本质上这是倾向于基督教见证。 The floods and the fires have been His messengers.洪水和火灾已被他的使者。We have a testimony, he adds, from our sacred books, which are older than all your gods.他补充说,我们已经见证我们神圣的书籍,这是你的神以上。Fulfilled prophecy is the proof that they are divine.实现的预言是证明他们是神圣的。It is then explained that Christ is God, the Word of God born of a virgin; His two comings, His miracles, passion, resurrection, and forty days with the disciples, are recounted.然后解释基督是神,神的话语处女出生,他的两个缺憾,他的奇迹,激情,复活,并与弟子40天,是回忆。The disciples spread His doctrine throughout the world; Nero sowed it with blood at Rome.门徒在世界各地传播他的学说;尼禄播下在罗马的血液。When tortured the Christian cries, "We worship God through Christ".当折磨基督教的呼喊,“我们崇拜上帝通过基督”。The demons confess Him and they stir men up against us.承认的恶魔,他和他们挑起男人对我们。Next, loyalty to Ceasar is discussed at greater length than before.下一步,忠诚凯撒讨论了比以前更大的长度。When the populace rises, how easily the Christians could take vengeance: "We are but of yesterday, yet we fill your cities, islands, forts, towns, councils, even camps, tribes, decuries, the palace, the senate, the forum; we have left you the temples alone".当民众升高时,是多么容易基督徒可能采取报复:“我们,但昨天,但我们填补你的城市,岛屿,炮台,镇,市政局,甚至营地,部落,decuries,宫殿,参议院,论坛;我们已经离开你仅寺庙“。 We might migrate, and leave you in shame and in desolation.我们可能会迁移,而留下的耻辱和苍凉。We ought at least to be tolerated; for what are we?我们至少应该被容忍;什么我们?- a body compacted by community of religion, of discipline, and of hope.- 身体压实宗教社会,纪律和希望。We meet together to pray, even for the emperors and authorities, to hear readings from the holy books and exhortations.我们一起祈祷,即使是皇帝和当局,听到从圣书和规劝的读数。We judge and separate those who fall into crime.我们的判断和独立的那些犯罪下降。We have elders of proved virtue to preside.我们已经证明凭借长老主持。Our common fund is replenished by voluntary donations each month, and is expended not on gluttony but on the poor and suffering.我们的共同基金是由自愿捐款补充每月花费不暴食,但对穷人和苦难。This charity is quoted against us as a disgrace; see, it is said, how they love one another.这个慈善机构是报价对我们的耻辱;看到,这是说,他们是如何彼此相爱。We call ourselves brethren; you also are our brethren by nature, but bad brethren.我们呼吁自己的弟兄们,你也是我们弟兄的性质,但坏的弟兄。We are accused of every calamity.我们被指控的每一个灾难。Yet we live with you; we avoid no profession, but those of assassins, sorcerers, and such like.然而,我们和你住在一起,避免没有职业,但这些刺客,巫师之类的。You spare the philosophers, though their conduct is less admirable than ours.您备用的哲学家,虽然他们的行为是令人钦佩的比我们少。They confess that our teaching is older than theirs, for nothing is older than truth.他们承认,我们的教学是年龄比他们的,是年纪比真理无关。The resurrection at which you jeer has many parallels in nature.复活在你嘲笑的性质有许多相似之处。You think us fools; and we rejoice to suffer for this.您认为我们的阿斗,我们欣喜地遭受此。We conquer by our death.我们征服我们的死亡。Inquire into the cause of our constancy.调查我们坚贞的事业。We believe this martyrdom to be the remission of all offences, and that he who is condemned before your tribunal is absolved before God.我们相信此殉难,以缓解所有罪行,他谴责前法庭是在上帝面前开脱。

These points are all urged with infinite wit and pungency.这些点都要求具有无穷的智慧和刺激性。The faults are obvious.缺点是显而易见的。The effect on the pagans may have been rather to irritate than to convince.而异教徒的影响可能已被激怒而不是说服。The very brevity results in obscurity.在朦胧的非常简洁的结果。But every lover of eloquence, and there were many in those days, will have relished with the pleasure of an epicure the feast of ingenious pleading and recondite learning.但口才的每一个情人,并有许多在那些日子里,将有回味与美食家巧妙的恳求和深奥的学习盛宴的乐趣。The rapier thrusts are so swift, we can hardly realize their deadliness before they are renewed in showers, with sometimes a blow as of a bludgeon to vary the effect.剑杆织机的重点是如此迅速,我们也很难实现自己的致命才重新在阵雨,有时一击,作为一个打棍子,以不同的效果。The style is compressed like that of Tacitus, but the metrical closes are observed with care, against the rule of Tacitus; and that wonderful maker of phrases is outdone by his Christian successor in gemlike sentences which will be quoted while the world lasts.压缩的风格是喜欢的塔西,但对塔西规则,格律关闭的观察与护理;和美妙的制造商,短语是由基督教的继任者,而持续性的世界,这将是引述他在gemlike服刑不甘示弱。 Who does not know the anima naturaliter Christiana (soul by nature Christian); the Vide, inquiunt, ut invicem se diligant (see they exclaim, how they love one another), and the Semen est sanguis Christianorum (The blood of Christians is seed)?谁不知道的灵魂naturaliter克里斯蒂娜(性质基督徒的灵魂);韦迪,inquiunt,UT invicem SE diligant(见他们惊呼,他们是如何彼此相爱),和精液EST血Christianorum(基督徒的血是种子) ?It was probably about the same time that Tertullian developed his thesis of the "Testimony of the Soul" to the existence of one God, in his little book with this title.这可能是大约在同一时间,德尔图良的一个神的存在“灵魂的见证”在他这个称号的小书,发展了他的论文。With his usual eloquence he enlarges on the idea that common speech bids us use expressions such as "God grant", or "If God will", "God bless", "God sees", "May God repay".用他一贯的口才,他扩大的想法,我们共同的讲话出价使用表达式,如“神授”,或“如果上帝会”,“上帝保佑”,“神看见”,“愿上帝偿还”。 The soul testifies also to devils, to just vengeance, and to its own immortality.的灵魂也证明魔鬼,只是复仇,和自己的不朽。 Two or three years later (about 200) Tertullian assaulted heresy in a treatise even more brilliant, which, unlike the "Apologeticus", is not for his own day only but for all time.两三年后(约200),德尔图良的袭击更加辉煌的一篇论文,不同的是,“Apologeticus”,是不是他自己每天只,但所有的时间异端。 It is called "Liber de praescriptione haereticorum".这就是所谓的“LIBER praescriptione haereticorum”。Prescription now means the right obtained to something by long usage.处方现在意味着获得长期使用的东西的权利。In Roman law the signification was wider; it meant the cutting short of a question by the refusal to hear the adversary's arguments, on the ground of an anterior point which must cut away the ground under his feet.在罗马法中的意义是广泛的,这意味着前点在他脚下的地面必须切去的地面上切割问题,拒绝听取对手的论点。So Tertullian deals with heresies: it is of no use to listen to their arguments or refute them, for we have a number of antecendent proofs that they cannot deserve a hearing.与异端邪说所以良优惠:它没有用,听取他们的论据或驳斥他们,因为我们有一个antecendent证明,他们可以不应该有一个听证会的人数。 Heresies, he begins, must not astonish us, for they were prophesied.异端邪说,他开始,必须我们震惊,因为他们预言。Heretics urge the text, "Seek and ye shall find", but this was not said to Christians; we have a rule of faith to be accepted without question.异端敦促文字,“求你们会发现”,但是这并不是说基督徒,我们有一个信仰的规则,毫无疑问地接受。"Let curiosity give place to faith and vain glory make way for salvation", so Tertullian parodies a line of Cicero's.“让好奇心给地方的信仰和虚荣,使救赎之路”,所以良一行西塞罗的蠢事。The heretics argue out of Scripture; but, first, we are forbidden to consort with a heretic after one rebuke has been delivered, and secondly, disputation results only in blasphemy on the one side and indignation on the other, while the listener goes away more puzzled than he came.异端认为圣经的,但是,第一,我们是被禁止驸一个邪教组织已交付后,训斥,其次,争论的结果,只有在一方和其他的愤慨亵渎,而听者消失比他来到不解。 The real question is, "To whom does the Faith belong? Whose are the Scriptures? By whom, through whom, when and to whom has been handed down the discipline by which we are Christians? The answer is plain: Christ sent His apostles, who founded churches in each city, from which the others have borrowed the tradition of the Faith and the seed of doctrine and daily borrow in order to become churches; so that they also are Apostolic in that they are the offspring of the Apostolic churches. All are that one Church which the Apostles founded, so long as peace and intercommunion are observed [dum est illis communicatio pacis et appellatio fraternitatis et contesseratio hospitalitatis]. Therefore the testimony to the truth is this: We communicate with the apostolic Churches".真正的问题是,“谁不信仰属于是”圣经“的人,通过他们,向谁一直流传下来的纪律,我们是基督徒答案是显而易见的:??基督派遣他的门徒,成立于每个城市的教堂,从别人借来的传统信仰和教义的种子和日常借阅,以成为教会,使他们也有使徒,在他们的使徒教会的后代所有。是一个教会的使徒成立的,只要和平和intercommunion观察[达姆EST illis通信工具PACIS等appellatio fraternitatis等contesseratio hospitalitatis]因此,真理的见证:我们的沟通与使徒教会“。The heretics will reply that the Apostles did not know all the truth.异端答复,使徒不知道所有的真相。Could anything be unknown to Peter, who was called the rock on which the Church was to be built?请问什么是未知的彼得,谁被称为岩石上教堂是建呢?or to John, who lay on the Lord's breast?或约翰,谁主的乳房奠定的?But they will say, the churches have erred.但他们会说,教会有错误的。Some indeed went wrong, and were corrected by the Apostle; though for others he had nothing but praise.有些确实是出了错,并分别由使徒纠正;虽然他人,他只不过好评。"But let us admit that all have erred:- is it credible that all these great churches should have strayed into the same faith"?“但是,让我们承认犯了错误: - 是可信的,所有这些伟大的教会应该有同样的信念误入”?Admitting this absurdity, then all the baptisms, spiritual gifts, miracles, martyrdoms, were in vain until Marcion and Valentinus appeared at last!承认这一荒谬的,那么所有的洗礼,心灵的礼物,奇迹,martyrdoms,都是徒劳的,直到马吉安和Valentinus最后出现! Truth will be younger than error; for both these heresiarchs are of yesterday, and were still Catholics at Rome in the episcopate of Eleutherius (this name is a slip or a false reading).真理将会比错误年轻化;这两个heresiarchs昨天,仍然在罗马天主教徒在Eleutherius(这个名字是一溜或虚假的读数)的主教。 Anyhow the heresies are at best novelties, and have no continuity with the teaching of Christ.不管怎样的歪理邪说是最佳新奇,有没有连续性与基督的教学。Perhaps some heretics may claim Apostolic antiquity: we reply: Let them publish the origins of their churches and unroll the catalogue of their bishops till now from the Apostles or from some bishop appointed by the Apostles, as the Smyrnaeans count from Polycarp and John, and the Romans from Clement and Peter; let heretics invent something to match this.也许有些异端要求使徒古代:我们的回答:让他们发表他们的教会的起源展开,直至现在从使徒或从一些主教任命由使徒波利卡普和约翰Smyrnaeans计数,他们的主教目录,并罗马人从克莱门特和彼得,让异教徒发明的东西相匹配。 Why, their errors were denounced by the Apostles long ago.为什么,他们的错误,谴责不久前由使徒。Finally (36), he names some Apostolic churches, pointing above all to Rome, whose witness is nearest at hand, - happy Church, in which the Apostles poured out their whole teaching with their blood, where Peter suffered a death like his Master's, where Paul was crowned with an end like the Baptist's, where John was plunged into fiery oil without hurt!最后(36),他的名字有些使徒教堂,指向罗马,其证人是在手就近,高于一切 - 幸福的教会,其中使徒浇了他们的血液,其中彼得遭受像他的师父的死亡他们的整个教学,保罗加冕像施洗的约翰陷入火热油而不伤害!The Roman Rule of Faith is summarized, no doubt from the old Roman Creed, the same as our present Apostles' Creed but for a few small additions in the latter; much the same summary was given in chapter xiii, and is found also in "De virginibus velandis" (chapter I).总结信仰的罗马人统治,是从古老的罗马信条,我们目前使徒信经相同,但毫无疑问,在一些小的补充,后者大致相同的摘要已在第十三章,还发现在“ virginibus velandis“(第一章)。Tertullian evidently avoids giving the exact words, which would be taught only to catechumens shortly before baptism.德尔图良显然避免给予确切的话,这将是只教到前不久洗礼的慕道。The whole luminous argument is founded on the first chapters of St. Irenæus's third book, but its forceful exposition is not more Tertullian's own than its exhaustive and compelling logic.整个发光论点是建立在圣Irenæus的第三本书的第一章,但其有力的论述,是不是比其详尽和有说服力的逻辑德尔图良的自己。 Never did he show himself less violent and less obscure.他从来没有显示自己的暴力和晦涩。The appeal to the Apostolic churches was unanswerable in his day; the rest of his argument is still valid.使徒教会发出的呼吁是在他的天无法回答,他的论点的其余部分仍然有效。

A series of short works addressed to catechumens belong also to Tertullian's Catholic days, and fall between 200 and 206.给慕道的短篇作品也属于天主教德尔图良的天,介于200和206。"De spectaculis" explains and probably exaggerates the impossibility for a Christian to attend any heathen shows, even races or theatrical performances, without either wounding his faith by participation in idolatry or arousing his passions. “德spectaculis”的解释,并可能夸大了对于一个基督徒参加任何异教徒显示,即使是种族或文艺演出,没有任何伤人参与在偶像崇拜他的信仰或唤起他的激情是不可能的。 "De idololatria" is by some placed at a later date, but it is anyhow closely connected with the former work. “德idololatria”是由一些放置在以后的日子,却是无论如何前工作密切相连。It explains that the making of idols is forbidden, and similarly astrology, selling of incense, etc. A schoolmaster cannot elude contamination.这说明,决策的偶像是禁止的,同样的占星术,卖香,等一个校长不能躲避污染。 A Christian cannot be a soldier.一个基督徒不能成为一名军人。To the question, "How am I then to live?", Tertullian replies that faith fears not famine; for the Faith we must give up our life, how much more our living?的问题,我再住吗?“,良答复信仰担心没有饥荒;为信念,我们必须放弃我们的生活,我们的生活增加多少?"De baptismo" is an instruction on the necessity of baptism and on its effects; it is directed against a female teacher of error belonging to the sect of Gaius (perhaps the Anti-Montanist). “德baptismo”是一个洗礼的必要性,并在其影响的指令,它是对女性的错误,属于教师节的盖尤斯(也许是反Montanist)指示。We learn that baptism was conferred regularly by the bishop, but with his consent could be administered by priests, deacons, or even laymen.我们学习被授予洗礼定期由主教,但与他的同意,可以由管理司铎,执事,或即使外行人。 The proper times were Easter and Pentecost.适当的时间复活节和圣灵降临节。Preparation was made by fasting, vigils, and prayers.制备禁食,守夜和祈祷。Confirmation was conferred immediately after by unction and laying on of hands.确认后,立即被授予unction和手礼。"De paenitentia" will be mentioned later.“德paenitentia”后面会提到。"De oratione" contains aan exposition of the Lord's Prayer, totius evangelii breviarium. “德oratione”包含AAN博览会的主祷文,totius evangelii breviarium。"De cultu feminarum" is an instruction on modesty and plainness in dress; Tertullian enjoys detailing the extravagances of female toilet and ridiculing them.的“德cultu feminarum”是在着装上的谦虚和朴素的指令;德尔图良喜欢详细女厕的奢侈和嘲笑他们。Besides these didactic works to catechumens, Tertullian wrote at the same period two books, "Ad uxorem", in the former of which he begs his wife not to marry again after his death, as it is not proper for a Christian, while in the second book he enjoins upon her at least to marry a Christian if she does marry, for pagans must not be consorted with.除了这些说教工程慕道,良同一时期写的两本书,“广告uxorem”前,他乞求他的妻子不要再结婚,在他死后,,因为它不是一个基督徒的适当,而在第二本书,他责成她至少要嫁给一个基督徒,如果她不嫁给异教徒,不得consorted。 A little book on patience is touching, for the writer admits that it is an impudence in him to discourse on a virtue in which he is so conspicuously lacking.耐心的一本小书是感人,作家,承认它是一种美德,在他是那么显眼缺乏话语在他的无耻。A book against the Jews contains some curious chronology, used to prove the fulfilment of Daniel's prophecy of the seventy weeks.一对犹太人的书包含一些奇怪的年表,用来证明履行丹尼尔的预言第七周。The latter half of the book is nearly identical with part of the third book against Marcion.书的后半部分几乎是相同的第三本书对马吉安的一部分。It would seem that Tertullian used over again what he had written in the earliest form of that work, which dates from this time.这似乎,戴尔都良再次使用他在这项工作中,从这个时候开始的最早形式的书面的。"Adversus Hermogenem" is against a certain Hermogenes, a painter (of idols?) who taught that God created the world out of pre-existing matter.“Adversus Hermogenem”是针对某一Hermogenes,谁教上帝创造了预先存在的物质世界,一个画家(偶像?)。Tertullian reduces his view ad absurdum, and establishes the creation out of nothing both from Scripture and reason.德尔图良降低他认为广告的荒谬,并建立创造出无论从圣经及原因没有。

The next period of Tertullian's literary activity shows distinct evidence of Montanist opinions, but he has not yet openly broken with the Church, which had not as yet condemned the new prophecy.德尔图良的文学活动,今后一个时期,不同的证据显示Montanist意见,但他尚未公开与教会,没有还谴责了新的预言打破。 Montanus and the prophetesses Priscilla and Maximilla had been long dead when Tertullian was converted to belief in their inspiration.蒙塔努斯和prophetesses梁美芬和Maximilla已经早就死了,被转换时,德尔图良的信仰他们的灵感。 He held the words of Montanus to be really those of the Paraclete, and he characteristically exaggerated their import.他认为蒙塔努斯的话,要真正的圣灵,和他的特点夸大其进口。We find him henceforth lapsing into rigorism, and condemning absolutely second marriage and forgiveness of certain sins, and insisting on new fasts. ,我们发现他从此陷入到rigorism,并谴责绝对的第二次婚姻和某些罪的赦免,并坚持新的斋戒。His teaching had always been excessive in its severity; now he positively revels in harshness.他的教学一直被过度其严重性;现在他积极生硬陶醉。Harnack and d'Alès look upon "De Virginibus velandis" as the first work of this time, though it has been placed later by Monceaux and others on account of its irritated tone.哈纳克和D'的啤酒的眼光来看待“德Virginibus velandis”作为这段时间的第一工作,虽然它被放置Monceaux和其他后来其恼火基调。We learn that Carthage was divided by a dispute whether virgins should be veiled; Tertullian and the pro-Montanist party stood for the affirmative.我们了解到,迦太基是一个争议是否应被遮掩处女分为;德尔图良和亲Montanist党站在肯定。The book had been preceded by a Greek writing on the same subject.这本书之前由希腊文写就同一主题。Tertullian declares that the Rule of Faith is unchangeable, but discipline is progressive.德尔图良宣称信仰的规则是不可改变的,但纪律是渐进的。He quotes a dream in favour of the veil.他引用了一个梦想赞成的面纱。The date may be about 206.日期可能会被约206人。Shortly afterwards Tertullian published his largest extant work, five books against Marcion.不久之后,德尔图良发表了他最大的现存工作,5人反对马吉安的书。A first draft had been written much earlier; a second recension had been published, when yet unfinished, without the writer's consent; the first book of the final edition was finished in the fifteenth year of Severus, 207.被写入了第一个草案,要早得多;已公布的第二次校订,尚未未完成时未经作家同意的情况下,最终版本的第一本书是在西弗勒斯,207 15年完成。The last book may be a few years later.可能是几年后的最后一本书。This controversy is most important for our knowledge of Marcion's doctrine.这场争论最重要的是我们马吉安的理论知识。The refutation of it out of his own New Testament, which consisted of St. Luke's Gospel and St. Paul's Epistles, enables us to reconstitute much of the heretic's Scripture text.驳斥它自己的新约,其中包括圣路加的福音和圣保禄书信,让我们重新邪教的圣经文本的。The result may be seen in Zahn's, "Geschichte des NT Kanons", II, 455-524.其结果可能是在赞恩,“历史DES新台币Kanons”,二,455-524。A work against the Valentinians followed.随后对Valentinians工作。It is mainly based on the first book of St. Irenæus.这主要是基于第一本书圣Irenæus。In 209 the little book "De pallio" appeared.在209出现的小书“德pallio”。Tertullian had excited remark by adopting the Greek pallium, the recognized dress of philosophers, and he defends his conduct in a witty pamphlet.德尔图良的兴奋已经通过大脑皮层的希腊,哲学家的认可礼服此言一出,他维护他的行为在一个诙谐的小册子。A long book, "De anima", gives Tertullian's psychology.一个长的书,“德灵魂”,使德尔图良的心理。He well describes the unity of the soul; he teaches that it is spiritual, but immateriality in the fullest sense he admits for nothing that exists, - even God is corpus.他很好地说明了统一的灵魂,他教的,它是精神的,但他承认没有存在的最大意义上的非物质, - 即使是上帝语料库。 Two works are against the docetism of the Gnostics, "De carne Christi" and "De resurrectione carnis".两部作品都是反对的诺斯替教docetism,“德卡尔内斯蒂”和“德resurrectione carnis”。 Here he emphasizes the reality of Christ's Body and His virgin-birth, and teaches a corporal resurrection.在这里,他强调基督的身体和他的处女生育的现实,教一名下士复活。But he seems to deny the virginity of Mary, the Mother of Christ, in partu, though he affirms it ante partum.但他似乎否认童贞玛利亚,基督的母亲,在partu,但他肯定事先产后。He addressed to a convert who was a widower an exhortation to avoid second marriage, which is equivalent to fornication.他给一个转换是一个鳏夫,告诫,以避免第二次婚姻,这是相当于私通。This work, "De exhortatione castitatis", implies that the writer is not yet separated from the Church.这项工作,“德exhortatione castitatis”,意味着作家尚未从教会分离。The same excessive rigour appears in the "De corona", in which Tertullian defends a soldier who had refused to wear a chaplet on his head when he received the donative granted to the army on the accession of Caracalla and Geta in 211.同样的过度严谨,出现在“德电晕”,其中戴尔都良守一个人拒绝了花环戴在他头上,当他收到的赠与,卡拉卡拉和圪塔211加入授予军队士兵。 The man had been degraded and imprisoned.该名男子已退化和监禁。Many Christians thought his action extravagant, and refused to regard him as a martyr.许多基督徒认为他的行动奢侈,并拒绝把他为烈士。Tertullian not only declares that to wear the crown would have been idolatry, but argues that no Christian can be a soldier without compromising his faith.德尔图良不仅宣布,戴冠本来偶像崇拜,但认为没有基督徒可以不影响他的信仰的前提下,一个士兵。Next in order is the "Scorpiace", or antidote to the bite of the Scorpion, directed against the teaching of the Valentinians that God cannot approve of martyrdom, since He does not want man's death; they even permitted the external act of idolatry.为了的未来是“Scorpiace”,或解毒剂的蝎子的叮咬,针对的的Valentinians教学,上帝不能批准殉道,因为他确实没有想人的死亡;他们甚至允许的偶像崇拜的外部行为。 Tertullian shows that God desires the courage of the martyrs and their victory over temptation; he proves from Scripture the duty of suffering death for the Faith and the great promises attached to this heroism.德尔图良的上帝渴望的烈士的勇气和他们对诱惑胜利,他从圣经证明的痛苦为信仰和连接到这个英雄主义的伟大承诺死亡的责任。 To the year 212 belongs the open letter "Ad scapulam", addressed to the proconsul of Africa who was renewing the persecution, which had ceased since 203.到公元212属于公开信“scapulam广告”,给非洲的方伯谁是更新的迫害,停止了自203。He is solemnly warned of the retribution which overtakes persecutors.他郑重告诫赶超迫害者的报应。The formal secession of Tertullian from the Church of Carthage seems to have taken place either in 211 or at the end of 212 at latest.德尔图良的迦太基教会正式分裂,似乎已经可以在211或最迟年底的212。The earlier date is fixed by Harnack on account of the close connection between the "De corona" of 211 with the "De fuga", which must, he thinks, have immediately followed the "De corona".较早的日期是固定的哈纳克帐户上的“德电晕”与“风雅”,211之间的紧密联系,他认为,必须立即按照“德电晕”。 It is certain that "De fuga in persecutione" was written after the secession. “风雅在persecutione”分裂后写的,这是肯定的。It condemns flight in time of persecution, for God's providence has intended the suffering.安理会谴责迫害的时间飞行,为上帝的普罗维登斯已打算的痛苦。This intolerable doctrine had not been held by Tertullian in his Catholic days.这种不可忍受的学说尚未德尔图良在他的天主教天举行。 He now terms the Catholics "Psychici", as opposed to the "spiritual" Montanists.他现在条款的天主教徒“Psychici”,而不是“精神”Montanists。The cause of his schism is not mentioned.他分裂的原因是没有提及。It is unlikely that he left the Church by his own act.这是不可能由他自己的行为,他离开教会。Rather it would seem that when the Montanist prophecies were finally disapproved at Rome, the Church of Carthage excommunicated at least the more violent among their adherents.相反,它似乎Montanist预言终于不赞成在罗马,迦太基教会逐出教会至少他们的追随者之间的暴力。After "De fuga" come "De monogamia" (in which the wickedness of second marriage is yet more severely censured) and "De jejunio", a defence of the Montanist fasts.在“风雅”,“德monogamia”(邪恶的第二次婚姻又是更严厉的谴责)和“jejunio德”,国防Montanist斋戒来。 A dogmatic work, "Adversus Prazean", is of great importance.教条的工作“,Adversus Prazean”是非常重要的。Praxeas had prevented, according to Tertullian, the recognition of the Montanist prophecy by the pope; Tertullian attacks him as a Monarchian, and develops his own doctrine of the Holy Trinity (see MONARCHIANS and PRAXEAS). Praxeas阻止,根据良,承认教皇的Montanist预言;德尔图良作为一个Monarchian攻击他,开发他自己的三位一体教义(见MONARCHIANS和PRAXEAS)。 The last remaining work of the passionate schismatic is apparently "De pudicitia", if it is a protest, as is generally held, aagainst a Decree of Pope Callistus, in which the pardon of adulterers and fornicators, after due penance done, was published at the intercession of the martyrs.最后剩下的工作热情的分裂显然是“德pudicitia”,如果是抗议,因为一般认为,aagainst了教皇卡利斯图斯的法令,其中奸淫和淫乱赦免后,由于做的忏悔,发表在烈士说情。 Monceaux, however, still supports the view which was once commoner than it now is, that the Decree in question was issued by a bishop of Carthage.然而,Monceaux仍然支持这一观点,它曾经是布衣,比它现在是,问题的法令是由迦太基主教发出。In any case Tertullian's attribution of it to a would-be episcopus episcoporum and pontifex maximus merely attests its peremptory character.德尔图良在任何情况下的归属到它想成为episcopus episcoporum和教皇的Maximus只是证明其强制性质。The identification of this Decree with the far wider relaxation of discipline with which Hippolytus reproaches Callistus is uncertain.确定这个更广泛的纪律松弛与希波吕托斯责备卡利斯图斯是不确定的法令。

The argument of Tertullian must be considered in some detail, since his witness to the ancient system of penance is of first-rate importance.德尔图良的论点必须考虑的一些细节,因为他的见证,古制的忏悔是一流的重要性。As a Catholic, he addressed "De paenitentia" to catechumens as an exhortation to repentance previous to baptism.作为一个天主教徒,他处理“德paenitentia”慕道作为告诫悔改以前的洗礼。Besides that sacrament he mentions, with an expression of unwillingness, a "last hope", a second plank of salvation, after which there is no other.此外,圣餐,他提到,表达不愿意,“最后的希望”,第二板的救恩,后有没有其他的。This is the severe remedy of exomologesis, confession, involving a long penance in sackcloth and ashes for the remission of post-baptismal sin.这是exomologesis,认罪严重的补救措施,涉及在麻布和缓解后的洗礼罪骨灰的长期苦修。In the "De pudicitia" the Montanist now declared that there is no forgiveness for the gravest sins, precisely those for which exomologesis is necessary.现在在“德pudicitia”Montanist中宣布,有没有最严重的罪过的宽恕,正是这些,这exomologesis是必要的。 It is said by some modern critics, such as Funk and Turmel among Catholics, that Tertullian did not really change his view on this point the writing of the two treatises.它是说,一些现代的批评,如Funk和Turmel之间的天主教徒,德尔图良没有真正改变他在这一点上的两个论文的写作的看法。 It is pointed out that in "De paenitentia" there is no mention of the restoration of the penitent to communion; he is to do penance, but with no hope of pardon in this life; no sacrament is administered, and the satisfaction is lifelong.它指出,在“德paenitentia”有没有提到恢复共融的忏悔,他是做补赎,但没有赦免在此生活的希望;没有圣礼的管理,和满意的是终身的。 This view is impossible.这种观点是不可能的。Tertullian declares in "De pud."德尔图良的声明“。PUD”That he has changed his mind and expects to be taunted for his inconsistency.他改变了主意,预计要奚落他不一致。 He implies that he used to hold such a relaxation, as the one he is attacking, to be lawful.他暗示说,他持有这样一张一弛,作为一个,他是进攻的,是合法的。At any rate in the "De paen."在任何率在“德PAEN。”he parallels baptism with exomologesis, and supposes that the latter has the same effect as the former, obviously the forgiveness of sin in this life.他平行与exomologesis洗礼,并设,后者为前者,显然这辈子的罪赦免的效果相同。Communion is never mentioned, since catechumens are addressed; but if exomologesis did not eventually restore all Christian privileges, there could be no reason for fearing that the mention of it should act as an encouragement to sin, for a lifelong penance would hardly be a reassuring prospect.共融从来没有提过,因为慕道解决;但是,如果exomologesis没有最终恢复所有基督教的特权,也有可能是没有理由担心,它值得一提的作为罪鼓励终身苦修,将很难吃了一颗定心丸前景。 No length is mentioned, evidently because the duration depended on the nature of the sin and the judgment of the bishop; had death been the term, this would have been emphatically expressed.提到没有长度,显然是因为持续时间取决于性质罪和主教的判决;已经死亡一词,这将一直强调表示。Finally.最后。And this is conclusive, it could not be insisted on that no second penance was ever allowed, if all penance was lifelong.这是决定性的,不能坚持,没有第二苦修曾允许,如果所有的忏悔是终身的。

For the full understanding of Tertullian's doctrine we must know his division of sin into three classes.对于德尔图良的学说的充分认识,我们必须知道他罪恶的分工,分为三个等级。There are first the terrible crimes of idolatry, blasphemy, homicide, adultery, fornication, false witness, fraud (Adv. Marc., IV, ix; in "De Pud." he substitutes apostasy for false witness and adds unnatural vice).第一,有偶像崇拜的可怕罪行,亵渎,凶杀,奸淫,苟合,作假见证,诈骗(Adv.马克,第四,第九;“。普德”,在他的替代品假见证叛教,并增加了非自然副)。 As a Montanist he calls these irremissible.作为一个Montanist他呼吁这些irremissible。Between these and mere venial sins there are modica or media (De Pud., I), less grave but yet serious sins, which he enumerates in "De Pud.", xix: "Sins of daily committal, to which we are all subject; to whom indeed does it not occur to be angry without cause and after the sun has set, or to give a blow, or easily to curse, or to swear rashly, or break a contract, or lie through shame or necessity? How much we are tempted in business, in duties, in trade, in food, in sight, in hearing! So that, if there were no forgiveness for such things, none could be saved. Therefore there will be forgiveness for these sins by the prayer of Christ to the Father" (De Pud., xix).之间仅仅venial罪孽有莫迪卡或媒体(PUD ,我),那么严重,但还没有严重的罪过,这是他在列举了十九“普德。”:“每天拘押的罪孽,我们所有主题;?人的确不会发生是无的放矢和太阳后的愤怒,或给予打击,或轻松地诅咒,或轻率地宣誓,或违约,或通过羞耻或必要性的谎言我们在商业诱惑,职责,在贸易,食品,在视线内,在听证会!所以,这样的事情,如果没有宽恕,没有可以保存。因此会有这些罪的宽恕祈祷基督之父“(德普德,XIX)。

Another list (De pud., vii) represents the sins which may constitute a lost sheep, as distinguished from one that is dead: "The faithful is lost if he attend the chariot races, or gladiatorial combats, or the unclean theatre, or athletic shows, or playing, or feasts on some secular solemnity, or if he has exercised an art which in any way serves idolatry, or has lapsed without consideration into some denial or blasphemy".另一个列表(。PUD,七)代表可能构成一个迷失的羊,因为从一个已经死了杰出的罪过:“忠实的是失去了,如果他参加的战车比赛,或格斗作战,或不洁的戏剧,或运动显示,或打,或对一些世俗的严肃性的节日,或者如果他行使以任何方式提供偶像崇拜的一种艺术,或没有考虑到某些拒绝或亵渎“失效。 For these sins there is forgiveness, though the sinner has strayed from the flock.对于这些罪被宽恕的罪人,虽然从误入羊群。 How is forgiveness obtained?宽恕是如何取得的呢?We learn this only incidentally from the words: "That kind of penitence which is subsequent to faith, which can either obtain forgiveness from the bishop for lesser sins, or from God only for those which are irremissible" (ib.,xviii).我们学习只是不经意的话:“这样的忏悔这是信仰后,可以得到宽恕主教较轻的罪,或只对那些被irremissible神”(同上,XVIII)。 Thus Tertullian admits the power of the bishop for all but "irremissible" sins.因此,特土良承认的主教,但“irremissible”罪孽的权力。The absolution which he still acknowledges for frequent sins was obviously not limited to a single occasion, but must have been frequently repeated.他仍然承认频繁罪的赦免,显然不仅限于一个单一的场合,但必须是经常反复。It is not even referred to in "De paen", which deals only with baptism and public penance for the gravest sins.它甚至不是提到的“德PAEN”,只涉及最严重的罪过的洗礼和公开忏悔。Again, in "De pud.", Tertullian repudiates his own earlier teaching that the keys were left by Christ through Peter to His Church (Scorpiace, x); he now declares (De pud., xxi) that the gift was to Peter personally, and cannot be claimed by the Church of the Psychici.同样,在“德PUD”,良否定自己的早期教学的键通过彼得离开基督,他的教会(Scorpiace X),现在他的声明(PUD,XXI)的礼物是彼得亲自,并不能声称Psychici的教会。The spiritual have the right to forgive, but the Paraclete said: "The Church has the power to forgive sins but I will not do so, lest they sin afresh."精神有权原谅,但圣灵说:“教会有赦罪的权柄,但我不会这样做的,以免他们的罪重新”

The system of the Church of Carthage in Tertullian's time was therefore manifestly this: Those who committed grievous sins confessed them to the bishop, and he absolved them after due penance enjoined and performed, unless the case was in his judgment so grave that public penance was obligatory.在迦太基德尔图良的时候教会的制度是因此显然这个:那些犯有严重的罪供认不讳他们的主教,和他开脱责成和执行,由于苦修后他们,除非情况下在他的判断是如此严重,公开忏悔强制性的。 This public penance was only allowed once; it was for protracted periods, even sometimes until the hour of death, but at the end of it forgiveness and restoration were promised.这种公开忏悔只允许一次,这是旷日持久的时期,有时甚至直到死亡的时刻,但在它的宽恕和恢复承诺。The term was frequently shortened at the prayer of martyrs.这个词经常被缩短在烈士祈祷。Of the lost works of Tertullian the most important was the defence of the Montanist manner of prophesying, "De ecstasi", in six books, with a seventh book against Apollonius.德尔图良的最重要的失去工作Montanist地预言,“德ecstasi”六书,国防,对阿波罗纽斯第七册。 To the peculiarities of Tertullian's views which have already been explained must be added some further remarks.德尔图良的意见已经解释的特殊性,必须添加一些进一步的言论。He did not care for philosophy: the philosophers are the "patriarchs of the heretics".他不关心哲学:哲学家的“始祖”的异端。His notion that all things, pure spirits and even God, must be bodies, is accounted for by his ignorance of philosophical terminology.他的概念,所有的东西,纯粹的精神,甚至神,必须在机构,占他的哲学术语的无知。 Yet of the human soul he actually says that it was seen in a vision as tender, light, and of the colour of air!然而,人类灵魂的他居然说,这是在招标,光,空气的颜色的视野!All our souls were contained in Adam, and are transmitted to us with the taint of original sin upon them, - an ingenious if gross form of traducianism.亚当,我们的灵魂中载有污点后,他们的原罪,传输给我们的 - 如果traducianism总值形式巧妙。His Trinitarian teaching is inconsistent, being an amalgamation of the Roman doctrine with that of St. Justin Martyr.他的三位一体的教学是不一致的,被合并圣贾斯汀烈士罗马学说。Tertullian has the true formula for the Holy Trinity, tres Personae, una Substantia.德尔图良的三位一体,特雷斯对人,UNA Substantia真正的公式。The Father, Son, and Holy Ghost are numerically distinct, and each is God; they are of one substance, one state, and one power.圣父,圣子,圣灵是截然不同的数字,每一个上帝,他们是一个物质,一个国家和一个电源。So far the doctrine is accurately Nicene.到目前为止,该学说是准确尼西亚的。But by the side of this appears the Greek view which was one day to develop into Arianism: that the unity is to be sought not in the Essence but in the origin of the Persons.但侧面,这似乎希腊认为这是一天发展到阿里乌斯教,团结是要在本质,而是寻求的人的起源。He says that from all eternity there was reason (ratio) in God, and in reason the Word (Sermo), not distinct from God, but in vulva cordis.他说,从所有永恒上帝的原因(比率),原因Sermo字(),不是从神不同,但在外阴Cordis公司。For the purpose of creation the Word received a perfect birth as Son.对于创造的目的,收词一个作为儿子的完美诞生。There was a time when there was no Son and no sin, when God was neither Father nor Judge.曾经有一段时间,当时有没有儿子,没有罪,当上帝既不是父亲也不是法官。In his Christology Tertullian has had no Greek influence, and is purely Roman.德尔图良在他的基督有没有希腊的影响,纯粹是罗马。 Like most Latin Fathers he speaks not of two Natures but of two Substances in one Person, united without confusion, and distinct in their operations.大多数拉丁美洲父亲一样,他说,在一个人身上,美国不会出现混乱,并在其业务不同的两个性质,但两种物质。 Thus he condemns by anticipation the Nestorian, Monophysite, and Monothelite heresies.因此,他预期景教,基督一性,和Monothelite异端邪说的谴责。But he seems to teach that Mary, the Mother of Christ, had other children.但他似乎教导,基督的母亲,玛丽有其他孩子。Yet he makes her the second Eve, who by her obedience effaced the disobedience of the first Eve.然而,他使她的第二个除夕夜,抹去她服从不服从的第一个除夕。Tertullian's doctrine of the Holy Eucharist has been much discussed, especially the words: "Acceptum panem et distributum discipulis corpus suum illum fecit, hoc est corpus meum dicendo, id est, figura corporis mei".德尔图良的学说的圣体圣事已经很多讨论,特别是的话:“Acceptum panem等distributum discipulis语料库suum ILLUM fecit,特别EST语料库meum dicendo,ID EST,figura股癣味”。A consideration of the context shows only one interpretation to be possible.考虑上下文显示只有一种解释是可能的。Tertullian is proving that Our Lord Himself explained bread in Jer., xi, 19 (mittamus lignum in panem ejus) to refer to His Body, when He said, "This is My Body", that is, that bread was the symbol of His Body.德尔图良是证明我们的主自己解释面包哲,第十一,19(mittamus panem ejus木材)指他的身体,当他说,“这是我的身体”,也就是说,面包是他的象征机构。Nothing can be elicited either for or against the Real Presence; for Tertullian does not explain whether the bread is the symbol of the Body present or absent.没有任何东西可以引出支持或反对的真实存在,德尔图良没有解释是否面包是身体的存在或不存在的符号。The context suggests the former meaning.上下文表明前者的意义。Another passage is: Panem, quo ipsum corpus suum repraesentat.另一段是:Panem,现状ipsum语料库suum repraesentat。 This might mean "Bread which stands for His Body", or "Presents, makes present".这可能意味着“面包代表他的身体”,或“礼物,使目前的”。D'Ales has calculated that the sense of presentation to the imagination occurs seven times in Tertullian, and the similar moral sense (presentation by picture, etc.) occurs twelve times, whereas the sense of physical presentation occurs thirty-three times.德强麦计算,演示感的想象发生的7倍良,和类似的道德意识(演示图片等)发生的十二倍,而实物演示感发生三十三次。In the treatise in question against Marcion the physical sense alone is found, and fourteen times.在反马吉安问题的论文物理意义的发现,和14次。A more direct assertion of the Real Presence is Corpus ejus in pane censetur (De orat., vi).一个更直接的说法是真实存在的窗格censetur语料库ejus(德orat,VI)。As to the grace given, he has some beautiful expressions, such as: "Itaque petendo panem quotidianum, perpetuitatem postulamus in Christo et individuitatem a corpore ejus" (In petitioning for daily bread, we ask for perpetuity in Christ, and indivisibility from His body. - Ibid.).给予宽限期,他有一些美丽的表情,如:“Itaque petendo panem quotidianum,perpetuitatem postulamus在克里斯托等individuitatem一个corpore ejus”(在每天的面包,以求,我们要求在基督永久和不可分割从他的身体 - 同上)。A famous passage on the Sacraments of Baptism, Unction, Confirmation, Orders and Eucharist runs: "Caro abluitur ut anima maculetur; caro ungitur ut anima consecretur; caro signatur ut et anima muniatur; caro manus impositione adumbratur ut et anima spiritu illuminetur; caro corpore et sanguine Christi vescitur ut et anima de Deo saginetur" (The flesh is washed, in order that the soul may be cleansed; the flesh is anointed, that the soul may be consecrated; the flesh is signed [with the cross], that the soul, too, may be fortified; the flesh is shadowed with the imposition of hands, that the soul also may be illuminated by the Spirit; the flesh feeds on the body and blood of Christ, that the soul likewise may have its fill of God - "Deres. Carnis.", viii).运行的洗礼,油膏,确认,订单和圣体圣事的一个著名的话:“卡罗abluitur UT灵魂maculetur;卡洛ungitur UT灵魂consecretur,卡洛signatur UT斯达康等灵魂muniatur;卡洛马努斯impositione adumbratur UT斯达康等灵魂spiritu illuminetur;卡洛corpore等乐观斯蒂vescitur UT斯达康等灵魂的迪奥saginetur“(肉洗净,为了灵魂可能被清洗,肉是受膏者,可能是奉献的灵魂;肉体签署[交叉],灵魂,也可设防;肉体是阴影与施加的手,灵魂也可能是精神照亮肉对身体和基督的血为食,即灵魂同样可能有其神填补 - “Deres Carnis。”VIII)。He testifies to the practice of daily communion, and the preserving of the Holy Eucharist by private persons for this purpose.他每天共融的做法证明,并保存的圣体圣事的私人为此。What will a heathen husband think of that which is taken by his Christian wife before all other food?如何将一个异教徒的丈夫认为,这是由他的基督教的妻子之前采取的所有其他食品呢?"If he knows that it is Bread, will he not believe that it is simply what it is called?" “,如果他知道,这是面包,他会不会认为它只是它叫什么?”This implies not merely the Real Presence, but transubstantiation.这意味着不仅是现实的存在,但陷于变体。The station days were Wednesday and Friday; on what other days besides Holy Mass was offered we do not know.站天是星期三和星期五;什么其他的日子,除了圣弥撒提供我们不知道。Some thought that Holy Communion would break their fast on station days; Tertullian explains: "When you have received and reserved the Body of the Lord, you will have assisted at the Sacrifice and have accomplished the duty of fasting as well" (De oratione, xix).有些人认为,圣餐将打破其快速站天;德尔图良解释道:“当您收到并保留主的身体,你会协助牺牲和取得的成就以及空腹的责任”(德oratione十九)。 Tertullian's list of customs observed by Apostolic tradition though not in Scripture (De cor., iii) is famous: the baptismal renunciations and feeding with milk and honey, fasting Communion, offerings for the dead (Masses) on their anniversaries, no fasting or kneeling on the Lord's Day and between Easter and Pentecost, anxiety as to the falling to the ground of any crumb or drop of the Holy Eucharist, the Sign of the Cross made continually during the day.德尔图良的海关使徒的传统在圣经中虽然没有观察到清单(德心病,III)是著名的:喂食牛奶和蜂蜜,空腹圣餐洗礼的放弃和,的死(群众)提供他们的纪念日,没有空腹或跪上主日,复活节和圣灵降临节,下降到地面的任何碎屑或下降的圣体圣事的焦虑之间,划十字,不断地在白天进行。

Tertullian's canon of the Old Testament included the deuterocanonical books, since he quotes most of them.德尔图良的佳能旧约次经书,因为他引述其中大部分。He also cites the Book of Enoch as inspired, and thinks those who rejected it were wrong.他还引用了以诺书的启发,并认为这些人拒绝这是错误的。He seems also to recognize IV Esdras, and the Sibyl, though he admits that there are many sibylline forgeries.他似乎也认识到四埃斯德拉斯,女巫,虽然他承认,有很多女巫伪造。In the New Testament he knows the Four Gospels, Acts, Epistles of St. Paul, I Peter (Ad Ponticos), I John, Jude, Apocalypse.他知道在新约四福音,使徒圣保罗,彼得(AD Ponticos),约翰一书,裘德,启示书信。He does not know James and II Peter, but we cannot tell that he did not know II, III John.他不知道詹姆斯和彼得,但我们不能说,他不知道二,三,约翰。He attributes Hebrews to St. Barnabas.他属性希伯来圣巴纳巴斯。He rejects the "Pastor" of Hermas and says that many councils of the Psychici had also rejected it.他拒绝“牧师”的黑马,并说,许多Psychici委员会还拒绝了。Tertullian was learned, but careless in his historical statements.德尔图良的教训,但不小心在他的历史报表。He quotes Varro and a medical writer, Soranus of Ephesus, and was evidently well read in pagan literature.他引用了瓦罗和医疗作家,以弗所Soranus,显然是在异教文学阅读。He cites Irenaeus, Justin, Miltiades, and Proclus.他列举了爱任纽,贾斯汀,Miltiades和普罗克洛。He probably knew parts of Clement of Alexandria's writings.他可能知道部分克莱门特的亚历山德里亚的著作。He is the first of Latin theological writers.他是第一的拉丁神学作家。To some extent, how great we cannot tell, he must have invented a theological idiom and have coined new expressions.从某种程度上说,我们不能告诉多么伟大,他必须有发明了一种神学的成语,并创造了新的表现形式。He is the first witness to the existence of a Latin Bible, though he seems frequently to have translated from the Greek Bible as he wrote.他是第一个证人的一个拉丁文圣经的存在,虽然他似乎经常有来自希腊文圣经翻译,他写道。Zahn has denied that he possessed any Latin translation, but this opinion is commonly rejected, and St. Perpetua certainly had one at Carthage in 203.赞恩已经否认他拥有任何拉丁文译本,但这个意见是常用的拒绝,并圣Perpetua肯定了在迦太基在203。

Publication information Written by John Chapman.出版信息书面约翰查普曼。Transcribed by Lucy Tobin.转录露西托宾。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.天主教百科全书,第十四卷。Published 1912.发布1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年7月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

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