Torah, Pentateuch, Taurah托拉

General Information一般资料

Torah (a Hebrew word meaning "instruction"), in its broadest sense, refers to the entire body of Jewish teaching incorporated in the Old Testament and the Talmud and in later rabbinical commentaries.托拉(一个希伯来字,意思是“指令”),从广义上讲,是指在旧约和犹太法典,并在以后的拉比评论中的犹太教学的整个身体。 In early biblical times, the term meant the oral instruction of the priests on ritual, legal, or moral questions.早在圣经时代,这个词意味着礼仪,法律或道德问题上的祭司的口头指令。Gradually the name was applied to written collections of the priestly decisions, most specifically to the written Mosaic law contained in the first five books of the Bible - Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy - also called the Pentateuch. The Torah, in the latter sense, is preserved on scrolls kept in the ark of every synagogue; reading of the Torah is central to the synagogue service.渐渐的名称是祭司的决定,最具体的书面镶嵌法,在第一个五年书籍的圣经中的书面的集合-创世记,出埃及记,利未记,民数记和申命记-也被称为该pentateuch诵读经文,在就后者而言,是保留在每一个犹太教堂的约柜在不停滚动;阅读“托拉”是犹太教堂服务的核心。

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Bibliography 参考书目
D Lieberman, The Eternal Torah, parts 1 (1979) and 2 (1983); M Noth, A History of Pentateuchal Traditions (1972); JA Sanders, Torah and Canon (1972). ð利伯曼,永恒的诵读经文,第1部分(1979年)和2(1983),M北部,一些Pentateuchal传统的历史(1972年); JA桑德斯,诵读经文和佳能(1972)。


Torah托拉

General Information一般资料

The Torah (Hebrew, "law" or "doctrine"), in Judaism, is the Pentateuch, especially when in the form of a parchment scroll for reading in the synagogue.托拉(希伯来文,“法”或“主义”),在犹太教,是摩西五,尤其是当在一读,在犹太教堂的羊皮纸滚动的形式。 The Torah is the cornerstone of Jewish religion and law.托拉“是犹太宗教和法律的基石。The scrolls are considered most holy and are beloved by the pious; every synagogue maintains several scrolls, each of which may be protected by a covering of rich fabric and decorated with silver ornaments.卷轴被认为是最神圣和虔诚的爱戴;每一个犹太教堂保持几个卷轴,每个可能受覆盖了丰富的面料,并饰以银饰品。 A special holiday in honor of the Torah, known as Simhath Torah (Hebrew, "rejoicing in the Law"), is celebrated in the synagogue by singing, and marching and dancing with the scrolls.一个纪念“托拉”特殊的节日,称为Simhath托拉(希伯来文,“在”大喜“),是在唱的犹太教堂,庆祝和游行,跳舞卷轴。

The term Torah also is used to refer to the entire corpus of the Scriptures of the Jews together with the commentaries on them.长期托拉也被用来指整个语料库圣经的犹太人对他们的评论。 The commentaries, which arose through the centuries out of learned discussion, are called oral Torah to distinguish them from the Pentateuch itself, the written Torah.这些评论,出现百年来学到讨论,被称为口头托拉来区分他们的pentateuch本身,书面托拉。


Pentateuch摩西五

General Information一般资料

The Pentateuch is the five-fold volume, consisting of the first five books of the Old Testament.摩西五五倍卷,旧约中的第一个五年书籍组成。This word does not occur in Scripture, nor is it certainly known when the roll was thus divided into five portions Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy.这个词没有出现在圣经,也不是它肯定知道,当辊,从而将分为五个部分创世记,出埃及记,利未记,民数记,申命记。 Probably that was done by the LXX.也许是这样做的lxx。translators.翻译。Some modern critics speak of a Hexateuch, introducing the Book of Joshua as one of the group.一些现代的批评发言Hexateuch,约书亚书为一体的集团。But this book is of an entirely different character from the other books, and has a different author.但是,这本书是一个完全不同的性格,从其他书籍,并有不同的作者。It stands by itself as the first of a series of historical books beginning with the entrance of the Israelites into Canaan.它本身的一系列历史书籍的以色列人进入迦南的入口开始的第一站。(See Joshua.)(见约书亚。)

The books composing the Pentateuch are properly but one book, the "Law of Moses," the "Book of the Law of Moses," the "Book of Moses," or, as the Jews designate it, the "Torah" or "Law."书撰写的摩西五是正常,但一书中,“摩西”,“的”摩西的律法书“,”摩西的书“,或作为犹太人指定它,”圣经“或”法“。 That in its present form it "proceeds from a single author is proved by its plan and aim, according to which its whole contents refer to the covenant concluded between Jehovah and his people, by the instrumentality of Moses, in such a way that everything before his time is perceived to be preparatory to this fact, and all the rest to be the development of it. Nevertheless, this unity has not been stamped upon it as a matter of necessity by the latest redactor: it has been there from the beginning, and is visible in the first plan and in the whole execution of the work.", Keil, Einl.以其目前的形式,“从一个单一的作者的收益是证明了计划和目标,根据其全部内容是指耶和华和他的人民之间缔结的公约,以这样的方式,工具摩西,之前的所有字句被视为他的时间筹备这一事实,其余全部是它的发展,然而,这种统一还没有被加盖的必要性问题后,它的最新的修订者:它已经从一开始就存在,是在第一个计划,在整个执行工作中可见 “,KEIL,Einl。id AT ID的AT

A certain school of critics have set themselves to reconstruct the books of the Old Testament.某学校的批评,为自己重建的旧约书。By a process of "scientific study" they have discovered that the socalled historical books of the Old Testament are not history at all, but a miscellaneous collection of stories, the inventions of many different writers, patched together by a variety of editors!由“科学研究”的过程中,他们已经发现,所谓的旧约历史书不是历史所有,但杂项收集的故事,发明许多不同的作家,修补各种各样的编辑在一起! As regards the Pentateuch, they are not ashamed to attribute fraud, and even conspiracy, to its authors, who sought to find acceptance to their work which was composed partly in the age of Josiah, and partly in that of Ezra and Nehemiah, by giving it out to be the work of Moses!至于该pentateuch,他们不以为耻属性欺诈,甚至阴谋,它的作者,试图找到他们的工作是在约西亚岁部分组成的验收,以及部分在以斯拉和尼希米给予,出来工作的摩西!

This is not the place to enter into the details of this controversy.这是不进入这一争论的细节。 We may say frankly, however, that we have no faith in this "higher criticism."但是,坦率地说,我们可以说,我们没有这个信念,“更高的批评。”It degrades the books of the Old Testament below the level of fallible human writings, and the arguments on which its speculations are built are altogether untenable. The evidences in favour of the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch are conclusive. We may thus state some of them briefly:,它会降低犯错误的人类著作的水平以下的旧约的书籍,和关于它的猜测都是建立的论点是完全站不住脚的,赞成作者的马赛克的摩西五证据是确凿的。因此,我们可以其中一些国家简要说明:

As regards the Passover, eg, we find it frequently spoken of or alluded to in the historical books following the Pentateuch, showing that the "Law of Moses" was then certainly known.至于逾越节,例如,我们发现它经常提及或暗示的历史书籍的pentateuch,表明“摩西的律法”的话,肯定知道。 It was celebrated in the time of Joshua (Josh. 5: 10, cf. 4:19), Hezekiah (2 Chr. 30), Josiah (2 Kings 23; 2 Chr. 35), and Zerubbabel (Ezra 6:19-22), and is referred to in such passages as 2 Kings 23:22; 2 Chr.这是著名的约书亚(约书亚记5:10,CF 4点19分),希西家(2 CHR 30),约西亚(2国王23; 2 CHR 35),和所罗巴伯(以斯拉6点19分 - 22),是指在这种通道为2国王队23时22分; 2 CHR。35:18; 1 Kings 9:25 ("three times in a year"); 2 Chr.35:18; 1国王9时25分(“在一年的3倍”); 2 CHR。8:13.8:13。Similarly we might show frequent references to the Feast of Tabernacles and other Jewish institutions, although we do not admit that any valid argument can be drawn from the silence of Scripture in such a case.同样,我们可能会显示经常提到的住棚节和其他犹太机构的盛宴,尽管我们不承认在这种情况下,可以从圣经的沉默中得出任何有效的参数。

An examination of the following texts, 1 Kings 2:9; 2 Kings 14:6; 2 Chr. 2国王14:6;检查下列文本,1国王2:9 2 CHR。23:18; 25:4; 34:14; Ezra 3:2; 7:6; Dan.23时18分,25:4,34:14;以斯拉3时02分,7时06分;丹。9:11, 13, will also plainly show that the "Law of Moses" was known during all these centuries. 13日9时11分,也将清楚地表明,“摩西法”是在所有这些世纪。Granting that in the time of Moses there existed certain oral traditions or written records and documents which he was divinely led to make use of in his history, and that his writing was revised by inspired successors, this will fully account for certain peculiarities of expression which critics have called "anachronisms" and "contradictions," but in no way militates against the doctrine that Moses was the original author of the whole of the Pentateuch.授予,在摩西的时间存在着一定的口头传统或书面记录和文件,他是神导致在他的历史,他的写作的灵感来自接班人修订,这将充分帐户表达的一些特点评论家们称为“过时”和“矛盾”,却丝毫没有反对的学说认为,摩西是整个摩西五原作者militates。 It is not necessary for us to affirm that the whole is an original composition; but we affirm that the evidences clearly demonstrate that Moses was the author of those books which have come down to us bearing his name.我们申明,整个是一个原始的组成,这是没有必要,但我们​​肯定的证据清楚地表明,摩西是那些已回落到我们他的名字命名的书籍的作者。 The Pentateuch is certainly the basis and necessary preliminary of the whole of the Old Testament history and literature.摩西五是初步的整个旧约历史和文学的基础和必要的。(See Deuteronomy.) (见申命记)。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Torah托拉

Jewish Viewpoint Information犹太观信息

Name applied to the five books of Moses, Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.名称适用于摩西五书,创世记,出埃及记,利未记,民数记和申命记。The contents of the Torah as a whole are discussed, from the point of view of modern Biblical criticism, under Pentateuch, where a table gives the various sources; while its importance as a center of crystallization for the Hebrew canon is treated under Bible Canon.托拉作为一个整体的内容进行了讨论,从现代圣经批评的角度,根据摩西五点,其中一个表给出了不同来源的,而其作为中心的结晶,为希伯来语佳能的重要性是根据圣经佳能治疗。 The present article, therefore, is limited to the history of the Pentateuch in post-Biblical Judaism.因此,本条款是有限的历史后圣经犹太教的摩西五。The Torah receives its title from its contents, the name itself connoting "doctrine."托拉收到从它的内容,本身隐含的名称,它的标题是“学说”。The Hellenistic Jews, however, translated it by νόμος = "law" (eg, LXX., prologue to Ecclus. [Sirach], Philo, Josephus, and the New Testament), whence came the term "law-book"; this gave rise to the erroneous impression that the Jewish religion is purely nomistic, so that it is still frequently designated as the religion of law.希腊化的犹太人,然而,翻译由νόμος=“法律”,从哪里来“法书”一词(例如,LXX,Ecclus序幕[西拉奇]斐洛,约瑟夫,和新约。),这给犹太宗教是纯粹nomistic的,所以它仍然是经常指定为法律的宗教引起的错误印象。 In reality, however, the Torah contains teachings as well as laws, even the latter being given in ethical form and contained in historical narratives of an ethical character.然而,在现实中,诵读经文包含的教诲,以及法律,甚至后者正考虑在道德形成和历史叙事的道德品格中。

Name.名称。

In the books of the Bible the following names of the Pentateuch occur: in II Chron.在“圣经”的书籍的pentateuch下列名称出现:在二专栏。xvii.十七。9, Neh.9,尼。ix.IX。3, and, with the added epithet , II Chron.3,并与称号,二专栏。xxxiv.三十四。14; while alone, without , is found in II Kings x.14;而单独的,没有发现在二世国王X.31, I Chron.31日,我专栏。 xxii.二十二。11, and II Chron. 11日,第二专栏。xii. XII。1, xxxi. 1,XXXI。3, 4, and xxxv.3,4,和三十五。26.26。Sometimes , or a word of similar meaning, is added, as , Josh.有时,或类似含义的词,是补充,因为,乔希。xxiv.二十四。26, Neh.26日,尼。viii.VIII。18 (without , ib. x. 29). 18(不含IB。X. 29)。Another designation is , Josh.另一个指定,乔什。viii.VIII。31, xxiii.31日,二十三。6; II Kings xiv. 6;二世国王第十四。6; Neh. 6;尼。viii. VIII。1; or , I Kings ii.1,我国王II。3; II Kings xxiii. 3;二世国王XXIII。25; Mal. 25;发作。iii. III。22 (AV iv. 4), with the addition of ; Ezra iii.22(AV IV 4),与另外以斯拉三。2 (with the addition of ), vii. 2(增加),第七章。6; , II Chron.6,第二专栏。xxv.二十五。4 (preceded by ), xxxv. 4(前面),三十五。12. 12。The oldest name doubtless is (Deut. i. 5; xxxi. 9, 11, 24; xxxii. 46; Neh. viii. 2), sometimes shortened to (Deut. i. 5; xxxi. 9, 11, 24; xxxii. 46; Neh. viii. 2), or to (Neh. viii. 5), or to (Deut. xxxiii. 4).无疑是最古老的名称(申命记一5; XXXI 9,11,24;三十二46;。NEH VIII 2),有时缩短至(申命记一5; XXXI 9,11,24; XXXII 46;尼VIII),或(尼第八5),或(申命记三十三4)。。。The last two names occur with great frequency in Jewish tradition, where the Torah becomes a living creature.最后两个名字出现在犹太传统中,托拉成为生物的伟大的频率。The expression "the five books," which is the origin of the term "Pentateuch," occurs only in Jewish tradition, which has also been the source for "Genesis," etc., as the names of the books of the Pentateuch (see Blau, "Zur Einleitung in die Heilige Schrift," pp. 40-43).“五书”,这是一词的由来“五经”(见只有在犹太传统中,这也被“创世纪”等源的摩西五书的名字,布劳,“楚导论在模具Heilige Schrift,”页40-43)。

Quinary Division of the Torah.五元托拉司。

According to all critics, regardless of the schools to which they belong, the Torah forms a single work, which is represented, even at the present day, by the synagogal Scroll of the Law; nor does history know of any other Torah scroll.根据所有的批评,不管他们所属的学校,托拉形成一个单一的工作,这是代表,即使在目前的一天,由synagogal滚动法“;也没有历史知道的任何其他Torah纸卷。 The fivefold division of the Pentateuch was due to purely external causes, and not to a diversity of content; for in volume the Torah forms more than a fourth of all the books of the Bible, and contains, in round numbers, 300,000 letters of the 1,100,000 in the entire Bible.摩西五五倍分工是由于纯粹的外部原因,而不是一个内容的多样性;托拉形式货量超过四分之一的所有书籍的圣经,并包含在第二轮的数字,30字母110万在整本圣经。 A work of such compass far exceeded the normal size of an individual scroll among the Jews; and the Torah accordingly became a Pentateuch, thus being analogous to the Homeric poems, which originally formed a single epic, but which were later split into twenty-four parts each.如指南针的工作远远超出正常大小的个人之间的犹太人滚动;托拉因此成为摩西五,因此类似的荷马史诗,最初形成一个单一的史诗,但后来被分裂成二十四每个部分。

Division into Sections.段司。

Like them, moreover, the Pentateuch was divided according to the sense and with an admirable knowledge of the subject (Blau, "Althebräisches Buchwesen," pp. 47-49), while subdivisions were also made into the so-called open and closed "parashiyyot," whose exact interrelation is not yet clear.此外,摩西五是和他们一样,划分的意义和令人钦佩的主题知识(布劳,Buchwesen Althebräisches“,”页47-49),而下属也进入所谓的开放和关闭“ parashiyyot“,其确切的相互关系目前尚不清楚。 There are in all 669 sections, 290 open and 379 closed.在所有669款,开放290和379封闭。Another class of parashiyyot divides the weekly lessons, now called "sidrot," into seven parts.另一个parashiyyot类划分,现在所谓的每周一次的教训“sidrot分为七个部分,”。The Torah also falls, on the basis of the lessons for the Sabbath, into 54 sidrot according to the annual cycle, and into 155 according to the triennial cycle.托拉也下跌,在安息日教训的基础上,根据年度周期为54 sidrot,并根据三年周期到155。The former division, which is now used almost universally, is the Babylonian; and the latter, which has recently been introduced into some Reform congregations, is the Palestinian.前部,这是现在几乎普遍使用,是巴比伦;后者,最近已出台一些改革教会,是巴勒斯坦人。The latter class of sidrot, however, has no external marks of division in the scrolls of the synagogue; while the divisions in the former, like the parashiyyot, are indicated by blank spaces of varying length (see Sidra).然而,后一类的sidrot,在犹太教堂的滚动分工没有外部标志,而前者的分歧,喜欢parashiyyot,是由不同长度的空格表示(见锡德拉)。 This probably implies a greater antiquity for the sections which are thus designated, although the divisions into 5,845 verses, which seem to be still older, have no outward marks.这可能意味着一个更大的古代因此指定的部分,虽然到5845诗句,似乎仍然较旧的部门,有没有外在标志。The system of chapters was introduced into the editions of the Hebrew Bible, and hence into the Torah, from the Vulgate.的章节系统引入的希伯来文圣经版本,进而融入到诵读经文,从武加大。This mode of division is not known to the Masorah, though it was incorporated in the final Masoretic notes, for individual books of the Pentateuch.这种分工模式是不知道的Masorah,虽然它是在最后的马所拉的音符,个别书籍的摩西五,注册成立。It is given in modern editions of the Hebrew Bible simply on the basis of the stereotyped editions of the English Bible Society, which followed earlier examples.它是简单的定型版本的英文圣经公会,跟着前面的例子的基础上的希伯来文圣经的现代版本。

Jewish Tradition and the Torah.犹太传统和托拉。

The external form of the Torah is discussed in such articles as Manuscripts, Scroll of the Law, and Mantle of the Law; but so numerous are the assertions of tradition concerning its contents and its value that the repetition of even a very small part of them would far exceed the limits of this article. “托拉”的外在形式是讨论手稿,滚动法,和法披肩等物品,但如此众多的传统断言,关于它的内容和它的价值,甚至一个非常小的一部分的重复将远远超出本文的范围。 Every page of the Talmud and Midrash is filled with citations from the Pentateuch and with the most fulsome praise of it, united with super-human love and divine respect therefor.塔木德和米德拉士每一页是充满引文从pentateuch和与它最令人生厌的好评,超人类的爱和神圣的尊重为此美国。 In the five volumes of Bacher's work on the Haggadah, the Torah and its study form a special rubric in theaccount of each "sofer," or scholar of the Law.巴切尔哈加达工作五卷,托拉及其研究的形式在每个theaccount特别专栏“sofer”或“的学者。In all probability there never was another people, except possibly the Brahmans, that surrounded its holy writings with such respect, transmitted them through the centuries with such self-sacrifice, and preserved them with so little change for more than 2,000 years.在所有的概率有没有另一个人,除了可能是婆罗门,周围有这种尊重其神圣的著作,百年来传输这种自我牺牲,并保留超过2000年的变化如此之少。 The very letters of the Torah were believed to have come from God Himself (BB 15a), and were counted carefully, the word "soferim" denoting, according to the Talmud (Ḳid. 30a), "the counters of the letters."托拉非常字母被认为有从神自己(BB 15A),并仔细计算,单词“soferim”denoting,根据犹太法典(Ḳid.30A),“字母的柜台。”A special class of scholars devoted all their lives to the careful preservation of the text ("Masorah"), the only analogy in the literature of the world being found in India, where the Vedas were accurately preserved by similar means.一类特殊的学者投入了他们的生活,小心保存文本(“Masorah”),在世界文学中唯一的比喻被发现在印度,那里的吠陀准确保存类似手段。

Preexistence of the Torah.前世的“托拉”。

The Torah is older than the world, for it existed either 947 generations (Zeb. 116a, and parallels) or 2,000 years (Gen. R. viii., and parallels; Weber, "Jüdische Theologie," p. 15) before the Creation.托拉是超过世界的,它存在前创造的947世代(Zeb. 116A,和Parallels)或2000年(将军河八,和Parallels,韦伯的“Jüdische神学”,第15页)。 。The original Pentateuch, therefore, like everything celestial, consisted of fire, being written in black letters of flame upon a white ground of fire (Yer. Sheḳ. 49a, and parallels; Blau, "Althebräisches Buchwesen," p. 156).原来的五经,因此,像一切天体,包括火灾,在火焰的黑色字母写在一个白色的火地(Yer.石49A,和Parallels;布劳,“Althebräisches Buchwesen,”第156页)。God held counsel with it at the creation of the world, since it was wisdom itself (Tan., Bereshit, passim), and it was God's first revelation, in which He Himself took part.神创造了世界与它举行了律师,因为它本身的智慧(Tan.,Bereshit,各处),它是上帝的第一个启示,在他本人参加。 It was given in completeness for all time and for all mankind, so that no further revelation can be expected.这是在所有时间和全人类的完整性,所以可以预期,没有进一步的启示。It was given in the languages of all peoples; for the voice of the divine revelation was seventyfold (Weber, lc pp. 16-20; Blau, "Zur Einleitung in die Heilige Schrift," pp. 84-100).这是各国人民的语言,是神的启示的声音seventyfold(韦伯,立法会第16-20;布劳,“楚死Heilige Schrift导论”,第84-100页)。It shines forever, and was transcribed by the scribes of the seventy peoples (Bacher, "Ag. Tan." ii. 203, 416), while everything found in the Prophets and the Hagiographa was already contained in the Torah (Ta'an. 9a), so that, if the Israelites had not sinned, only the five books of Moses would have been given them (Ned. 22b).它永远闪耀,转录(巴切尔,“银。谈。”二,203,416)七十人民的文士,而一切都在先知和Hagiographa已经包含在诵读经文(Ta'an。 9A),因此,如果以色列人没有犯过罪,只有摩西五书已经给了他们(Ned. 22B)。As a matter of fact, the Prophets and the Hagiographa will be abrogated; but the Torah will remain forever (Yer. Meg. 70d).事实上,先知和Hagiographa将被废止,但“托拉”将永远(Yer.梅格70D)。Every letter of it is a living creature.它的每一个字母是一种生物。When Solomon took many wives, Deuteronomy threw himself before God and complained that Solomon wished to remove from the Pentateuch the yod of the word (Deut. xvii. 17), with which the prohibition of polygamy was spoken; and God replied: "Solomon and a thousand like him shall perish, but not one letter of the Torah shall be destroyed" (Lev. R. xix.; Yer. Sanh. 20c; Cant. R. 5, 11; comp. Bacher, lc ii. 123, note 5).当所罗门采取了许多的妻子,申命记投掷自己在神面前,并抱怨说,所罗门希望从pentateuch删除,禁止一夫多妻制是口语的字(申命记十七17)。yod;上帝回答说:“所罗门王和像他这样的千灭亡,但没有一个托拉信应当予以销毁“(R.利未记十九;。也门里亚尔Sanh 20C;斜面第5条规则,11。比赛巴切尔,LC II 123,请注意。 5)。The single letters were hypostatized, and were active even at the creation of the world (Bacher, lci 347), an idea which is probably derived from Gnostic speculation.单个字母实体化,并创造了世界(347)巴切尔,LCI,从诺斯底猜测这可能是派生的想法,即使在积极。 The whole world is said to be only 1/3200 of the Torah ('Er. 21a).整个世界都被说成是只有1 / 3200“托拉”('呃。21A)。

Israel received this treasure only through suffering (Ber. 5a, and parallels), for the book and the sword came together from heaven, and Israel was obliged to choose between them (Sifre, Deut. 40, end; Bacher, lc ii. 402, note 5); and whosoever denies the heavenly origin of the Torah will lose the future life (Sanh. x. 1).以色列只有通过痛苦(Ber. 5A,和Parallels)收到了这块宝地,为书和剑一起从天上,而以色列有责任,它们之间的选择(Sifre,申40,结束;巴切尔,LC II 402。注5);凡否认“托拉”天上的原产地,就会失去未来的生活(sanh.十1)。This high esteem finds its expression in the rule that a copy of the Pentateuch is unlimited in value, and in the ordinance that the inhabitants of a city might oblige one another to procure scrolls of the Law (Tosef., BM iii. 24, xi. 23).这种崇高的敬意,发现其表达的pentateuch的副本是价值无限的规则,并在该条例中,一个城市的居民可能会迫使彼此​​采购滚动法(Tosef.,BM三24,第十一23段)。 The pious bequeathed a copy of the Torah to the synagogue (ib. B. Ḳ. ii. 3); and it was the duty of each one to make one for himself, while the honor paid the Bible greatly influenced the distribution of copies and led to the foundation of libraries (Blau, "Althebräisches Buchwesen," pp. 84-97).虔诚的遗赠“托拉”的副本的犹太教堂(同上B.ḲII 3。);这是每一个为自己的责任,而荣誉支付“圣经”极大地影响了复制品,导致图书馆的基础(布劳,“Althebräisches Buchwesen,”页84-97)。

Study of the Torah.“托拉”的研究。

The highest ideal of young and old and of small and great was the study of the Law, thus forming a basis for that indomitable eagerness of the Jewish people for education and that unquenchable thirst for knowledge which still characterize them.年轻人和老年人和最高理想,以大带小法的研究,从而形成了一个基础,教育和知识仍然刻画他们无法抑止的饥渴犹太人民不屈不挠的渴望。 "As the child must satisfy its hunger day by day, so must the grown man busy himself with the Torah each hour" (Yer. Ber. ch. ix.). “随着孩子必须满足其饥饿一天一天,所以必须每个小时的成年男子忙自己与托拉”(Yer.的误码率。第九章)。The mishnah (Pe'ah i.) incorporated in the daily prayer declares that the study of the Law transcends all things, being greater than the rescue of human life, than the building of the Temple, and than the honor of father and mother (Meg. 16b).该mishnah(Pe'ah一)在每天的祈祷中宣布,法的研究,超越了一切,大于拯救人类生命比寺的建设,,并比父亲和母亲的荣誉(梅格。16B)。 It is of more value than the offering of daily sacrifice ('Er. 63b); a single day devoted to the Torah outweighs 1,000 sacrifices (Shab. 30a; comp. Men. 100a); while the fable of the Fish and the Fox, in which the latter seeks to entice the former to dry land, declares Israel can live only in the Law as fish can live only in the ocean.这是比每天牺牲(“二63B。)提供更多的价值;致力于托拉单日超过1,000牺牲(Shab. 30A;比赛男子100A);而鱼的寓言和福克斯,其中后者旨在吸引前者旱地,宣布以色列可以住在“只可作为鱼只生活在海洋中。Whoever separates himself from the Torah dies forthwith ('Ab. Zarah 3b); for fire consumes him, and he falls into hell (BB 79a); while God weeps over one who might have occupied himself with it but neglected to do so (Ḥag. 5b).谁分开托拉随即死亡(“AB Zarah 3B。)本人;消防消耗了他,他属于入地狱(BB 79A),而上帝哭泣谁可能已经占据了它自己却忽略了这样做(HAG 5B)。The study must be unselfish: "One should study the Torah with self-denial, even at the sacrifice of one's life; and in the very hour before death one should devote himself to this duty" (Soṭah 21b; Ber. 63b; Shab. 83b).这项研究必须是无私的:“人们应该学习”托拉“与自我否定,甚至牺牲一个人的生命;并在很小时死亡前投入自己这一职责”(Soṭah21B;误码率63B;沙巴。 83B)。"Whoever uses the crown of the Torah shall be destroyed" (Ned. 62a).“谁使用应当予以销毁冠托拉”(Ned. 62A)。All, even the lepers and the unclean, were required to study the Law (Ber. 22a), while it was the duty of every one to read the entire weekly lesson twice (Ber. 8a); and the oldest benediction was the one spoken over the Torah (ib. 11b).所有,甚至麻风病人和不洁的,需要研究“(Ber. 22A),而这是每一个阅读整个每周两次课(Ber. 8A)的责任;和最古老的祝福是一个口语在托拉“(同上11B)。Prophylactic power also is ascribed to it: it gives protection against suffering (ib. 5a), against sickness ('Er. 54b), and against oppression in the Messianic time (Sanh. 98b); so that it may be said that "the Torah protects all the world" (Sanh. 99b; comp. Ber. 31a).预防性电源也归因于它:它给保护对痛苦(同上5A),(二54B),和反抗压迫的对疾病的救世主时间(Sanh. 98B);因此,可以说,“托拉保护世界上所有的“(Sanh. 99B。比赛误码率31A)。The following sayings may be cited as particularly instructive in this respect: "A Gentile who studies the Torah is as great as the high priest" (B. Ḳ. 38a).下列熟语可引,特别是在这方面的启发:“谁研究的律法的外邦人是一样伟大的大祭司”(B.Ḳ38A。)。"The practise of all the laws of the Pentateuch is worth less than the study of the scriptures of it" (Yer. Pe'ah i.), a conclusive refutation of the current view of the Nomism of the Jewish faith.“实践的所有法律的五是价值低于研究它的经文”(Yer. Pe'ah一),当前视图的犹太信仰Nomism确凿的驳斥。 After these citations it becomes readily intelligible that, according to the Talmudic view, "God Himself sits and studies the Torah" ('Ab. Zarah 3b).这些引用之后,就变得容易理解,根据塔木德的观点,“上帝亲自坐镇,并研究的圣经”('抗体。Zarah 3B)。

Criticism of the Torah Among Jews.在犹太人的律法书的批评。

The spirit of criticism naturally developed from this devotion to the Pentateuch, in spite of faith and reverence.批评的精神,自然形成的从这个奉献的pentateuch,尽管信仰和崇敬。The very existence of the doctrine that the Law was of heavenly origin, and that whosoeverdenied this dogma had no share in the life to come (Sanh. x.), shows that there was a school which assumed a critical attitude toward the Torah.的学说的存在,该法是天上的原产地,以及whosoeverdenied这个教条,没有分享生活中来(sanh.十),表明有一所学校承担了对“托拉”的批判态度。 There is much evidence in proof of this; but here only the history of criticism within the orthodox synagogue will be discussed.有很多证据证明了这一点,但这里只将讨论在正统犹太教堂批评的历史。It was a moot point whether the Law was given all at once or in smaller rolls at different times (Giṭ. 60a); and the further question was discussed, whether Moses or Joshua wrote the last eight verses of the Pentateuch (BB 14b-15a).这是一个有争议的问题,法律是否给予一次全部或在不同时期的小卷(Giṭ.60A);和进一步讨论的问题是,是否摩西或约书亚写道过去八年诗的pentateuch(BB 14B - 15A )。It was definitely affirmed, on the other hand (ib.), that Moses composed the sections concerning Balaam (Num. xxii.-xxiv.), thus closing all discussions on that score.这是绝对的肯定,另一方面(同上),即摩西关于巴兰​​(民数记xxii. - XXIV)。组成部分,从而结束该得分的所有讨论。Many tacit doubts are scattered through the Talmud and Midrash, in addition to those which Einstein has collected.许多隐性的疑虑,通过塔木德和米德拉士分散,除了爱因斯坦已收集。In the post-Talmudic period, in like manner, there was no lack of critics, some of them recognized as such again only in recent times, although Abraham ibn Ezra, who was joined by Spinoza, has long been recognized as belonging to this class.后塔木德期间,在喜欢的方式,没有批评的缺乏,他们中的一些如仅在最近的时期再次确认,尽管亚伯拉罕伊本以斯拉,谁是加入斯宾诺莎,长期以来一直被公认属于这一类。

Composition.组成。

The composition of the Torah should be discussed on the basis of the old Semitic concepts, which planned a work of literature practically rather than systematically. “托拉”的组成应该讨论的老犹太人的概念,该计划的文学工作的实际,而不是系统的基础上。Repetitions, therefore, should not be eliminated, since things which are good and noble may and should be brought to remembrance many times.重复,因此,不应该被淘汰,因为事情是好的,高尚的,应提请纪念多次。From the point of view of effective emphasis, moreover, a change of context may develop a new and independent application of a given doctrine, especially if it be repeated in other words.此外,从有效的强调点,一个变化的背景下可能发展一个新的,独立的应用程序给定的学说,尤其是如果它换句话说反复。Thus tradition (The Thirty-two Rules of Eliezer b. Jose ha-Gelili) took "the repeated doctrine" as its rule of interpretation, and left large numbers of repetitions (parallel passages) in its collections of oral teachings.因此,传统(埃利泽B.圣何塞HA - Gelili三十二个规则)“反复学说”作为其解释规则,并留下大量的重复(平行通道),在其收藏的口头教导。The framework of the Pentateuch is historical narrative bound together by the thread of chronology.框架的pentateuch是历史叙事年表线程连在一起。There is no rigid adherence to the latter principle, however; and the Talmud itself accordingly postulates the rule: "There is no earlier and no later in the Torah" (Pes. 6b et passim).有没有硬性坚持后者的原则,然而,和犹太法典本身因此假设规则:“不早不晚,在诵读经文”(Pes. 6B等各处)。 From a Masoretic point of view, the Mosaic code contains the history of a period of about 2,300 years.从马所拉的观点来看,花叶代码包含了约2300年期间的历史。As has already been noted in regard to the names of the individual books, the Talmud and the Masorah divided the Torah into smaller units according to its contents, so that Genesis includes the story of Creation and of the Patriarchs, Exodus the account of the departure from Egypt, the revelation, and so on.正如已经在个别书籍的名称所指出的,犹太法典的Masorah分为更小的单位“托拉”,根据其内容,因此,创世记出埃及记“的创作和故事的始祖出发帐户来自埃及,启示,等等。

Style.风格。

The style of the Pentateuch, in keeping with its content, differs widely from the diction of the Prophets and the Psalms.风格的摩西五,在符合其内容广泛,从不同的先知和诗篇文辞。It is less lofty, although it is not lacking in dramatic force, and it is concrete rather than abstract.这是崇高的,虽然它不是缺乏戏剧性的力量,它是具体而不是抽象的。Most of the laws are formulated in the second person as a direct address, the Decalogue being the best example.大多数的法律,制定第二人作为直接地址,十诫是最好的例子。In certain cases, however, the nature of the subject requires the third person; but the Torah reverts as quickly as possible to the second as being the more effective form of address (comp., for example, Deut. xix. 11-21).然而,在某些情况下,学科的性质要求第三人,但托拉尽快恢复的地址更有效的形式(comp.,例如,申十九11-21。)第二。 In the Pentateuch, temporal depiction is the usual method.在五,时间的描述是通常的方法。The process of creation, rather than the universe as a whole, is described; and the account brings the world visibly into being in six main parts.创作过程,而不是宇宙作为一个整体,描述和帐户带来了世界上明显被分为六个主要部分的。In the creation of man, of plants, and of paradise God is seen at work, and the same process of coming into being may be traced in the ark of Noah and similar descriptions.植物,和天堂的上帝创造的男子,被认为是在工作中,同一进程中应运而生的,可追溯到诺亚方舟和类似的描述。 A remarkable example of word-painting is the account of the consecration of Aaron and his sons to the high-priesthood (Lev. viii.).文字画的一个显着的例子是亚伦和他儿子的奉献高的祭司(利未记八)。的帐户。Here the reader watches while Moses washes the candidates, dresses them, etc. ("Magyar-Zsidó Szemle," ix. 565 et seq.).而摩西洗候选人读者手表,连衣裙,等(“马扎尔人,Zsidó Szemle”九,565及以下。)。Naïve simplicity is a characteristic trait of Pentateuchal style, which understands also the art of silence.朴素简单,是一些Pentateuchal风格,这也明白沉默的艺术特征性状。Thus, as in all great products of world-literature, feminine beauty is not described in detail; for Sarah, Rachel, and other heroines are merely said to be beautiful, while the completion of the picture is left to the imagination of the reader.因此,在世界文学的所有伟大的产品,阴柔之美是没有详细描述;莎拉,雷切尔,和其他的女主人公,只是说要漂亮,而完成的图片是留给读者的想象。

Laws of the Torah.“托拉”的法律。

The contents of the Torah fall into two main parts: historical and legal. “托拉”的内容落入两个主要部分:历史和法律。The latter commences with Ex.后者与前开始。xii.; so that the Tannaim maintained that the Law actually began there, proceeding on the correct principle that the word "Torah" could be applied only to teachings which regulated the life of man, either leading him to perform certain acts (commands = ) or restraining him from them (prohibitions = ).第十二;使该tannaim认为,“实际上开始有,单词”圣经“可能只适用于规范人的生命的教导正确的原则出发,无论是领导履行他的某些行为(命令=)或制止他从他们(禁止)。 The Talmud enumerates a total of 613 rules, 248 being commands and 365 prohibitions (see Jew. Encyc. iv. 181, sv Commandments, The 613).犹太法典列举了共613规则,248被命令和禁令(见犹太人。百科全书。IV 181,SV戒律,613)365。In the post-Talmudic period many works were written on these 613 "miẓwot," some even by Maimonides.后塔木德期间,许多作品写上这些613“miẓwot,”有的甚至由迈蒙尼德。The legal parts of the Pentateuch include all the relations of human life, although these are discussed with greater detail in the Talmud (see Talmudic Laws).法律部分的pentateuch包括人类生活的所有关系,虽然这些都是在犹太法典(见塔木德法律)的详细讨论。The Torah recognizes no subdivisions of the commandments; for all alike are the ordinances of God, and a distinction may be drawn only according to modern ideas, as when Driver (in Hastings, "Dict. Bible," iii. 66) proposes a triple division, into juridical, ceremonial, and moral "torot."的律法诫命没有细分的认识;都是一样的,是神的条例,并区别可能只有根据现代理念,因为当驱动,提出了一种三重(在黑斯廷斯,“快译通圣经”,“三66。)司,到法人,礼仪和道德“torot。”

Penal Law.刑法。

Montefiore was correct when, in laying emphasis on the ethical aspect of the Biblical concept of God, he declared that even the law of the Bible was permeated with morality, propounding his view in the following words ("Hibbert Lectures," p. 64): "Most original and characteristic was the moral influence of Jahveh in the domain of law. Jahveh, to the Israelite, was emphatically the God of the right. . . . From the earliest times onward, Jahveh's sanctuary was the depository of law, and the priest was His spokesman."蒙蒂菲奥里时,强调伦理方面的“圣经”的上帝观,他宣称,即使是“圣经”的法律与道德渗透,propounding他认为,在以下的话(第64页的“希伯特讲座”,是正确的) :“大多数原和特点的,Jahveh道德的影响在法律领域Jahveh,以色列人,是强调神权从的最早时间起,Jahveh的庇护所是法律的保存,和。。。。。牧师是他的发言人。“ The most prominent characteristic of the Pentateuchal law, as compared with the laws of ancient peoples and of medieval Europe, is mildness, a feature which is still further developed in the Talmud.的Pentateuchal法律,与古老的民族和欧洲中世纪的法律相比,最突出的特点是温和,它仍然是在塔木德经进一步开发功能。 The Torah is justly regarded as the source of humane law.托拉是公正视为人道法源。Although such phrases occur as "that soul shall be cut off from his people" or "so shalt thou put the evil away from the midst of thee," it would be incorrect to take them literally, or to deduce from them certain theories of penal law, as Förster has recently done.虽然发生这样的短语“灵魂应削减他的人关”或“使必你把你中间远离邪恶,”这将是不正确的把他们从字面上,或从他们的某些理论推导出刑法法律,福斯特最近已经完成。 On the contrary, these expressions prove that the Mosaiclaw was not a legal code in the strict sense of the term, but an ethical work.相反,这些表达式证明Mosaiclaw是不是在严格意义上的法律的代码,而是一种道德的工作。 Although the Talmudists made it a penal code, instinctively reading that character into it, the penal law of the Torah is something theoretical which was never put into practise.虽然Talmudists刑法,本能地读入该字符,托拉刑法是一些理论,这是从来没有付诸实践。This view is supported by the fact that a commandment is stated sometimes without the threat of any penalty whatever for its violation, and sometimes with the assignment even of death as a punishment for its transgression.支持这一观点是由一条诫命有时其实是说没有任何侵犯其什么的,有时甚至死亡的惩罚其侵分配的刑罚的威胁。 In like manner, tradition frequently substitutes such a phrase as "he forfeited his life" for "transgression worthy of death."在这样的方式,传统经常替代这样一个短语“,他没收了他的生命”为“侵值得死亡。”

Civil Law.民法通则。

On the other hand, the civil law of the Torah, which is more developed and bears a practical character, probably accords more closely with ancient Jewish legal procedure.另一方面,民法的诵读经文,这是比较发达和负有实践品格,大概协定更紧密地与古犹太法律的程序。It reflects the conditions of an agricultural state, since most of the laws relate to farming and cognate matters.它反映了一个农业国家的条件,因为大多数的法律涉及到农业和同源事宜。There was no Hebrew word for "store," although "just measure" was mentioned.有没有希伯来字“的商店,”虽然提到“只是衡量”。 It must be borne in mind, however, that to satisfy the more advanced conditions of later times, the Talmudists both supplemented the Mosaic law and by means of analogy and similar expedients interpolated into the Torah much which it did not contain originally.然而,必须牢记,以满足稍后的时间更先进的条件,这两个Talmudists补充镶嵌法,比喻和类似的权宜手段到托拉得多,它没有包含原本插。

From the earliest times the Synagogue has proclaimed the divine origin of the Pentateuch, and has held that Moses wrote it down from dictation, while the religions based on Judaism have until very recently held the same view.犹太教堂从最早的时候已经宣布的pentateuch神圣的起源,并举行了摩西写道,从默写,直到最近,持相同观点,而基于对犹太教的宗教。 Biblical criticism, however, denies the Mosaic authorship and ascribes only a portion of varying extent to so ancient an origin.然而,否认圣经的批评,著作权的马赛克和归因只有部分不同程度上使古老的一个起源。A history of criticism in regard to this point is given by Winer ("BR" ii. 419 et seq.) and by Driver (in Hastings, "Dict. Bible," iii. 66), while Montefiore expresses himself as follows (lc): "The Torah-or teaching-of the priests, half judicial, half pædagogic, was a deep moral influence; and there was no element in the religion which was at once more genuinely Hebrew and more closely identified with the national God. There is good reason to believe that this priestly Torah is the one religious institution which can be correctly attributed to Moses. . . . Though Moses was not the author of the written law, he was unquestionably the founder of that oral teaching, or Torah, which preceded and became the basis of the codes of the Pentateuch."关于这一点批评的历史是由温纳(“BR”二419起。)和驱动程序(在黑斯廷斯,“快译通圣经”,“三66),而蒙蒂菲奥里表示自己如下(立法会):“托拉或教学的祭司,半司法,半pædagogic,是一个深刻的道德影响力;没有在宗教,这是一次真正的希伯来语和更紧密地与国家的神确定的元素是充分的理由相信,这祭司托拉是一个宗教机构,它可以正确地归因于摩西。。虽然摩西是不是作者的书面法律,他是毫无疑问的,口语教学的创始人,或诵读经文,这之前和成为代码的pentateuch基础。“ The legal parts of the Torah are found in Ex.“托拉”的法律部分在特惠。xx.-xxiii., xxv.-xxxi., xxxiv.-xxxv.; Lev.xx. - XXIII,xxv. XXXI,xxxiv. - XXXV;。列弗。i.-viii., xi.-xxv., xxvii.; Num.一,第八,xi. - 25,二十七;。NUM。v.-x., xviii., xix., xxvii.-xxx., these laws being repeated in Deut.v.-x.,十八,十九。xxvii. - XXX。,这些法律在deut重复。iv.IV。et seq.起。

Joseph Jacobs, Ludwig Blau约瑟夫雅各布斯,路德维希布劳
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.1901至1906年之间出版的犹太百科全书。

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Bacher, Ag.巴切尔,银。Tan.; idem, Ag.谈;。同上,银。 Pal.帕尔。Amor.奥马尔。Index, sv Tora and Studium der Lehre; Baumgartner, Les Etudes Isagogiques chez les Juifs, Geneva, 1886; Blau, Zur Einleitung in die Heilige Schrift, Strasburg, 1894; idem, Studien zum Althebräischen Buchwesen und zur Biblischen Litteraturgeschichte, Strasburg, 1902; Büchler, The Triennial Reading of the Law and Prophets, in JQR vi.指数,SV Tora和Studium DER Lehre;鲍姆加特纳,Les练习曲Isagogiques的桑切斯LES Juifs,日内瓦,1886;布劳,楚死Heilige Schrift,斯特拉斯堡,1894年导论;同上,(研究)ZUM Althebräischen Buchwesen和楚Biblischen Litteraturgeschichte,斯特拉斯堡,1902年; Büchler,JQR六,法律和先知的三年期读。1-73; Eisenstadt, Ueber Bibelkritik in der Talmudischen Litteratur, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1894; Förster, Das Mosaische Strafrecht in Seiner Geschichtlichen Entwickelung, Leipsic, 1900; Hamburger, RBT supplementary vol.1-73;艾森斯塔德DER Talmudischen Litteratur,法兰克福上的主,1894年,Ueber Bibelkritik;福斯特,DAS Mosaische刑法围网渔船Geschichtlichen Entwickelung,Leipsic,1900年;汉堡,仙踪林补充卷。 iii.III。60-75; Hastings, Dict. 60-75;黑斯廷斯,快译通。Bible, iii.圣经,第三。64-73; Jew.64-73;犹太人。 Encyc.百科全书。vii.七。633-638; Michaelis-Saalschütz, Mosaisches Recht, Berlin, 1842-46; Herzog-Hauck, Real-Encyc.633-638;米氏- Saalschütz,Mosaisches Recht,柏林,1842年至1846年,赫尔佐格 - 豪克,实时百科全书。xiii.十三。486-502; Weber, Jüdische Theologie, pp. 14-34, and Index, Leipsic, 1897; Winer, BR 3d ed., i. 486-502;韦伯,Jüdische神学,第14-34页,和索引,Leipsic,1897年;温纳,BR岛3D版。415-422.415-422。

For the criticism of the Torah compare the text-books of the history of Judaism and of Old Testament theology.对于批评的律法犹太教旧约神学的历史和比较的教科书。See also Pentateuch.另见摩西五。


Torah托拉

Catholic Information天主教信息

I. USE OF WORDi.使用的Word

Torah, (cf. Hiph. of ), signifies first "direction, instruction", as, for instance, the instruction of parents (Proverbs 1:8), or of the wise (Proverbs 3:1).托拉“(参Hiph。),标志着第一个方向”,指示“因为,举例来说,父母的指令”(箴言1:8),或明智的(箴3:1)。 It is used chiefly in reference to the Divine instruction, especially through the revelation to Moses, the "Law", and to the teaching of the Prophets concerning the will of God.它主要用于在神圣的指令,特别是通过对摩西的启示,“法”,关于神的旨意的先知教学。In the sense of law "Torah" refers only to the Divine laws.在法律意义上的“圣经”,是指只有神圣的法律。"Torah" is applied to the books containing the teaching of the Mosaic revelation and the Law, that is, the Pentateuch.“圣经”是适用于含有马赛克的教学启示的书籍和法律,也就是说,该pentateuch。In Jewish theology Torah signifies, first, the totality of Jewish doctrine, whether taken as a basis for religious knowledge and conduct, or as a basis for study.托拉标志着犹太神学,第一,全部犹太学说,无论是作为一个宗教知识和行为,基础,或作为研究的基础上采取的。The body of Biblical writings, especially the Pentateuch, being the source of religious teaching and law, the term "Torah" is applied also to the entire Scriptures (cf. Blau, "Zur Einleitung in die hl. Schrift", Budapest, 1894, 16 sq.), or to passages from the Prophets and the Hagiographa, for instance, "Ab. zara", 17a, in reference to Prov., v, 8, and "Sanh."身体圣经的著作,特别是摩西五是宗教教职和法律的源泉,,术语“圣经”是也适用于整个圣经(参见布劳,“楚导论”死HL。Schrift,布达佩斯,1894年, 16平方米),或从先知和Hagiographa,例如,“AB。ZARA”,17A,参考省,V,8,和经文“Sanh。”91b, in connexion with Ps. 91B,用PS联接。lxxxiv, 5. lxxxiv,5。The expression, however, generlly signifies the Pentateuch.的表达,然而,generlly标志着该pentateuch。In passages like ("the Scriptures [Torah] consist of three parts, Torah, Prophets, and Hagiographa" [Midrash Tanchuma to Ex., xix, 1]) "Torah" is used in two senses–one general, meaning the whole Scriptures, the other special, signifying the Pentateuch.喜欢的段落(“圣经托拉]由三部分组成,诵读经文,先知,和Hagiographa”米德拉士Tanchuma前,十九,1])“圣经”是用在两个感官一般,这意味着整个圣经其他特殊,标志着该pentateuch。 Elsewhere (Siphre to 32, 13-135b 24) the Torah is plainly distinguished from the non-Pentateuchal books by the comparison of miqra () and Torah.(Siphre 32个,13 - 135B月24日)“托拉”显然是区别于miqra比较()和托拉的非Pentateuchal书籍。Besides the "written" Torah, , the Judaism which holds to tradition speaks of an "oral" Torah, , the commentaries and the ordinances which put into effect the laws contained in the Pentateuch.除了“写”托拉“,拥有传统的犹太教讲一个”口述“托拉”,评论和付诸实施的条例,在五所包含的法律。This oral Torah, it is claimed, was revealed to Moses and has been preserved in Israel by tradition (see TALMUD.)这项口头诵读经文,它宣称,显露了摩西,由传统一直保存在以色列(犹太法典。)

II.二。TORAH IN THE RESTRICTED SENSE OF PENTATEUCH托拉“中的摩西五狭义

The Torah relates the preparatory measures for and the establishment of the Old-Testament theocracy, and contains the institutions and laws in which this theocracy found its visible expression.托拉有关的筹备措施和建立的旧全书的政教合一的,并包含在这种政教合一的发现可见表达的制度和法律。The old Testament itself calls the entire work after its main contents (ha)tora or sefer (), ha-tora, that is, "the book of the Torah", as in II Esd.旧约本身要求其主要内容后的整个工作(HA),HA - TORA TORA或之书()“的”托拉“的书”在II ESD。viii, 2; to emphasize its Divine origin it is called torath Yahwe, sefer torath Yahwe (Ezra 7:10; 1 Chronicles 16:40; Nehemiah 8:8), and sefer torath Yahwe Elohim (II Esd. ix, 3); while sefer torath Moshe (Nehemiah 8:1), sefer Moshe (Ezra 6:18; Nehemiah 13:1; 2 Chronicles 25:4; 35:12) indicate its author.八,2,强调其神圣的起源,它被称为torath Yahwe torath Yahwe之书(以斯拉记7:10; 1历代志上16:40;尼希米8时08分),和之书torath Yahwe耶洛因(II ESD九,3。);而之书torath卡察夫(尼希米记8:1),摩西之书(以斯拉6时18分;尼希米13时01分;历代志下25:4; 35:12),表明它的作者。The Talmud and later Jewish writings call the Pentateuch sefer (ha) tora; the name is always used if the whole work were written as a scroll (megilla) for use in the Divine service.塔木德“和后来的犹太著作五经之书(公顷)TORA;如果整个工作作为滚动使用在神圣的服务(megilla)的书面始终使用的名称。 If the work is written in five scrolls or in book form it is called hamisha humeshe (ha)tora (), "the five- fifths of the law".如果工作是在五个卷轴,或以书的形式编写的,它被称为hamisha humeshe TORA()(公顷),“法律五五分之四”。This division into five parts is old, and in the time of Nehemias served as a model for the division of the Psalter into five books.这种分为五个部分的划分是旧的,和内赫米亚斯时间作为划分成五本书的psalter的模型。The Jews generally named the individual books after the first word: (1) bereshith, ; (2) shemath or we-elle shemoth, or ; (3) wayyiqra, ; (4) bemidbar or wayyedabber, , ; (5) debarim or -elle ha-debarim, (cf. as early a writer as Origen on Ps. 1: Bresith, O-ualesmoth, O-uikra, -Elle 'addebarim).犹太人一般命名后的第一个字:(1)bereshith,个别书籍;(2)(4)shemath或我们 - ELLE shemoth,或(3)wayyiqra; bemidbar或wayyedabber,(5)debarim或ELLE HA - debarim(参1:早在PS奥利作家。Bresith,O型ualesmoth,O型uikra - ELLE“addebarim)。There are also names indicating the main contents of the books given to Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy: torah kohanim, , "law of the priests", for instance in "Meg.", iii, 6; homesh ha-piqqudim, , "the fifth of the numberings", as in "Yoma", vii, 1, mishne tora (), ie, Deuteronomy, as in Masorah to Deut., xvii, 18.也有名称,说明利未记书籍,数字,和申命记的主要内容:托拉kohanim,“祭司的法律”,例如在“梅格”,三,六; homesh公顷piqqudim,“第五numberings“,”山脉“,七,1,mishne TORA(),即申命记,Masorah申,第十七条,18。On the other hand sefer yeçira, , "book of the Creation", in Sanh., 62b, and neziqin, , "injuries", Masorah to Genesis 24:8, are not to be applied, as is often done, to Genesis and Exodus; they refer only to the account of the Creation and to Exodus 21:22. ,“一书的创作”,在Sanh,62B,并neziqin,“伤害”,Masorah创世记24:8,另一方面之书yeçira,不适用,经常做,创世纪出埃及记“,它们是指只对帐户的创建和出埃及记21时22分。

Another method of division is that by which the paragraphs, or parashiyyoth (, sing. ), are indicated in the scrolls of the Torah used in the synagogues.划分的另一种方法是其中的段落,或parashiyyoth(唱),在“托拉”在犹太教堂使用滚动显示。In the older Midrashim these divisions are called parashiyyoth pethuhoth, , "open parashiyyoth"; or parashiyyoth sethumoth, , "closed parashiyyoth".在年纪较大的米大示,这些部门被称为parashiyyoth pethuhoth,“开放parashiyyoth”;或parashiyyoth sethumoth parashiyyoth,“封闭”。 In the former, the portion of the line following the last word is left blank; in the latter the termination of the paragraph is indicated by leaving only part of the line blank.在前者中,该行的部分,以下硬道理,是留空的,后者终止该段表示只留行空白的一部分。Such paragraphs are called "small parashiyyoth" and they are generally indicated in the printed editions of the Bible by or .这些段被称为“小parashiyyoth”,或由他们一般都在“圣经”的印刷版中表示。The Pentateuch has altogether 290 open and 379 closed parashiyyoth.摩西五共290开放和379封闭parashiyyoth。In quoting they are generally called after main contents (as Baba bathra 14a: that is, Numbers 22:2-24:25), but sometimes after the first words (as Ta'anith iv, 3, the first six parashiyyoth of Genesis).引述他们通常被称为后的主要内容(如巴巴bathra第14A:即数字22:2-24:25),但有时后的第一句话(Ta'anith四,3,上半年创世记parashiyyoth) 。The parashiyyoth are regarded as the arrangement of the divisions of the Pentateuch according to contents; but the basis of the distinction between open and closed parashiyyoth is not known with certainty.的parashiyyoth被视为根据内容,摩西五部门的安排,但不确定性之间的开放式和封闭式parashiyyoth的区别的基础上。 Another division of the Torah is connected with the reading of lessons read in the synagogue on the Sabbath, a practice referred to in Acts, xv, 21, -ek geneôn -archaíon as being ancient (cf. also Josephus, "Contra Apion.", II, xvii). “托拉”的另一个部门是连接在安息日犹太教堂读的经验教训的阅读实践,行为,XV,21 - EK作为古代(参见约瑟夫geneôn archaíon,提到一个“魂斗罗阿皮翁”。二,第十七条)。It was customary in Palestine to have a three years' cycle of these lessons (Meg., 29b); some writers say there was also a cycle of three years and a half.这是在巴勒斯坦的习惯,这些经验教训已经有三年的周期(Meg.,29B);一些作家说也有一个周期三年半。The Pentateuch, therefore, was divided into 154-175 sections or sedarim (, sing. ).摩西五,因此,被分为154-175部分或sedarim(唱)。These sedarim though not indicated in our Bibles, are important for understanding the structure of the old Midrashim (cf. Büchler, "The Reading of the Law and Prophets in a Triennial Cycle" in "Jew. Quart. Rev.", V, 420 sqq., VI, 1 sqq., VIII, 528 sq.). sedarim这些虽然不是在我们的圣经,是重要的,了解旧米大示(参见Büchler,“在一个三年周期的读法和先知”在“犹太人。夸脱。启示录”,第五,420结构SQQ。六,1 SQQ,第八条,528平方米)。In the course of time an annual cycle, which first acquired authority among the Babylonian Jews, and is now accepted by nearly all Jewish communities, was adopted.在时间的过程中,以年为周期,巴比伦的犹太人之间的首次收购的权威,是现在几乎所有的犹太社区接受,获得通过。Maimonides (Hilhoth Tephilla, XIII, 1) calls it the prevailing custom of his era (twelfth century), but says that some read the Pentateuch in three years, which, according to Benjamin of Tudela, was the practice about 1170 among scattered communities in Egypt (cf. Jew. Quart. Rev., V, 420).迈蒙尼德(Hilhoth Tephilla,十三,1)呼叫他的时代风尚(12世纪),但是他说,有些读三年摩西五,根据本杰明的图德拉,约1170实践之间的分散的社区埃及(参见犹太人夸脱。牧师,V 420)。In this one-year cycle the Pentateuch is divided into fifty-four Sabbath lessons generally called large parashiyyoth.在这一年的周期的pentateuch分为五十个安息日的教训,一般称为“大parashiyyoth。 A Jewish intercalary year consisting of thirteen lunar months contains fifty-three sabbaths, and the final section is always read on the day of the "joy of the Law" (), that is, the ninth day after the feast of booths (twenty-third day of Tishri).一年13个朔望月组成,包含一个犹太闰五十三个安息日,一天中的最后一节总是读“法”的喜悦“(),也就是说,展位的盛宴后的第九天(第二十第三天提斯利)。 In ordinary years, when there are forty-seven sabbaths, two parashiyyoth are joined on each of seven sabbaths in order to complete the number.在平常年,当有四十七个安息日,两个parashiyyoth加入了七个安息日,以完成的数量。In Genesis there are twelve sabbath parashiyyoth, in Exodus eleven, in Leviticus and Numbers ten each, and in Deuteronomy eleven.在创世记十二安息日parashiyyoth,在出埃及记11个,利未记和数字十位,并在申命记11个。They are named from and quoted by the first words.他们被命名和引用的第一句话。In the printed editions of the Bible they are indicated, as they are also the opening words the open or closed parashiyyoth, by or , with exception of the twelfth lesson, at the beginning of which (Genesis 47:28) only the breadth of a letter should remain blank.在“圣经”的印刷版中,他们都表示,他们的开场白打开或关闭parashiyyoth,或异常第十二课,其中初,(创世记47:28)只有广度信中应保持空白。 Concerning the distribution of the fifty-four parashiyyoth for the year, cf.关于今年的五十四个parashiyyoth分布,比照。Loeb, "Rev. des études juives", VI, 250 sqq.; Derenbourg, ibid., VII, 146 sqq.; Schmid, "Überverschiedene Einteilungen der hl. Schrift" (Graz, 1892), 4 sqq.勒布,“牧师DES练习曲juives”,第六章,250 SQQ;德朗堡,同上,第七章,146 SQQ;。施密德,“HL Schrift Überverschiedene Einteilungen DER”(格拉茨,1892年),4 SQQ。

The Old Synagogue and the Talmud firmly maintain the Mosaic authorship of the Torah, but doubts are entertained regarding a number of passages.旧犹太教堂和犹太法典坚决维护托拉花叶著作权,但怀疑是受理对一些段落。In "Baba bathra" 15e only the last eight verses of Deuteronomy, which speak of the death and burial of Moses, are assigned to another author.在“巴巴bathra”15E只有最后8经文申命记,摩西的死亡和埋葬发言,被分配给另一位作者。On the other hand Simeon (loc. cit.) teaches, referring to Deut., xxxi, 26, that these verses were also written by Moses under Divine direction (cf. also Josephus, "Antiq Jud.", IV, viii, 48).(如上)。教另一方面西麦,指申,三十一,26岁,这些经文也书面摩西下神圣的方向(参见约瑟夫,“Antiq犹”,四,八,48 )。During the Middle Ages doubts were exprerssed as to the possibility of Moses writing certain sentences; for instance, by Rabbi Yishaq (to Genesis 36:11) who was opposed by Aben Ezra, and as well by Aben Ezra himself (to Genesis 12:6; Exodus 25:4; Deuteronomy 1:1; 31:22).在中世纪的疑虑,某些句子写摩西的可能性exprerssed例如,由拉比Yishaq(创世记36:11)反对阿本以斯拉,以及阿本以斯拉自己(创世记12:6出埃及记25:4;申命记1:1; 31:22)。Taken altogether, even in the succeeding period the belief in the Mosaic authorship remained undisputed, at least by the orthodox Jews.两者加起来,花叶作者的信念,即使在随后的一段时期仍然是无可争议的,至少在正统犹太教徒。They hold, moreover, the Divine origin of the entire Torah, and the eighth of the thirteen articles of faith formulated by Maimonides and incorporated into the prayer-book reads: "I believe with full faith that the entire Torah as it is in our hands is the one which was given to our teacher Moses, to whom be peace."此外,他们认为,整个托拉“神圣的起源,和第八迈蒙尼德和制定纳入祈祷书的信仰13条写道:”我充分的信心相信,整个诵读经文,因为它在我们手中这是给我们的老师摩西,谁是和平的。“ (See PENTATEUCH .) (见摩西五)。

Publication information Written by F. Schühlein.楼Schühlein编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by WGKofron.转录WGKofron。In memory of Fr.在神父的记忆。 John Hilkert, Akron, Ohio -- Fidelis servus et prudens, quem constituit Dominus super familiam suam.约翰Hilkert,美国俄亥俄州阿克伦城 - 菲德利斯servus等prudens,quem constituit Dominus超级familiam suam。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.天主教百科全书,第十四卷。Published 1912.发布1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年7月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约


Torah托拉

Jewish Perspective Information犹太透视信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章标题:

Name.名称。

Quinary Division of the Torah.五元托拉司。

Division into Sections.段司。

Jewish Tradition and the Torah.犹太传统和托拉。

Preexistence of the Torah.前世的“托拉”。

Study of the Torah.“托拉”的研究。

Criticism of the Torah Among Jews.在犹太人的律法书的批评。

Composition.组成。

Style.风格。

Laws of the Torah.“托拉”的法律。

Penal Law.刑法。

Civil Law.民法通则。

Name applied to the five books of Moses, Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.名称适用于摩西五书,创世记,出埃及记,利未记,民数记和申命记。The contents of the Torah as a whole are discussed, from the point of view of modern Biblical criticism, under Pentateuch, where a table gives the various sources; while its importance as a center of crystallization for the Hebrew canon is treated under Bible Canon.托拉作为一个整体的内容进行了讨论,从现代圣经批评的角度,根据摩西五点,其中一个表给出了不同来源的,而其作为中心的结晶,为希伯来语佳能的重要性是根据圣经佳能治疗。 The present article, therefore, is limited to the history of the Pentateuch in post-Biblical Judaism.因此,本条款是有限的历史后圣经犹太教的摩西五。The Torah receives its title from its contents, the name itself connoting "doctrine."托拉收到从它的内容,本身隐含的名称,它的标题是“学说”。The Hellenistic Jews, however, translated it by νόμος = "law" (eg, LXX., prologue to Ecclus. [Sirach], Philo, Josephus, and the New Testament), whence came the term "law-book"; this gave rise to the erroneous impression that the Jewish religion is purely nomistic, so that it is still frequently designated as the religion of law.希腊化的犹太人,然而,翻译由νόμος=“法律”,从哪里来“法书”一词(例如,LXX,Ecclus序幕[西拉奇]斐洛,约瑟夫,和新约。),这给引起错误的印象,犹太宗教是纯粹nomistic的,所以它仍然是经常指定为宗教法律。 In reality, however, the Torah contains teachings as well as laws, even the latter being given in ethical form and contained in historical narratives of an ethical character.然而,在现实中,诵读经文包含的教诲,以及法律,甚至后者正考虑在道德形成和历史叙事的道德品格中。

Name.名称。

In the books of the Bible the following names of the Pentateuch occur: in II Chron.在“圣经”的书籍的pentateuch下列名称出现:在二专栏。xvii.十七。9, Neh.9,尼。ix.IX。3, and, with the added epithet , II Chron.3,并与称号,二专栏。xxxiv.三十四。14; while alone, without , is found in II Kings x.14;而单独的,没有发现在二世国王X.31, I Chron.31日,我专栏。 xxii.二十二。11, and II Chron. 11日,第二专栏。xii. XII。1, xxxi. 1,XXXI。3, 4, and xxxv.3,4,和三十五。26.26。Sometimes , or a word of similar meaning, is added, as , Josh.有时,或类似含义的词,是补充,因为,乔希。xxiv.二十四。26, Neh.26日,尼。viii.VIII。18 (without , ib. x. 29). 18(不含IB。X. 29)。Another designation is , Josh.另一个指定,乔什。viii.VIII。31, xxiii.31日,二十三。6; II Kings xiv. 6;二世国王第十四。6; Neh. 6;尼。viii. VIII。1; or , I Kings ii.1,我国王II。3; II Kings xxiii. 3;二世国王XXIII。25; Mal. 25;发作。iii. III。22 (AV iv. 4), with the addition of ; Ezra iii.22(AV IV 4),与另外以斯拉三。2 (with the addition of ), vii. 2(增加),第七章。6; , II Chron.6,第二专栏。xxv.二十五。4 (preceded by ), xxxv. 4(前面),三十五。12. 12。The oldest name doubtless is (Deut. i. 5; xxxi. 9, 11, 24; xxxii. 46; Neh. viii. 2), sometimes shortened to (Deut. i. 5; xxxi. 9, 11, 24; xxxii. 46; Neh. viii. 2), or to (Neh. viii. 5), or to (Deut. xxxiii. 4).无疑是最古老的名称(申命记一5; XXXI 9,11,24;三十二46;。NEH VIII 2),有时缩短至(申命记一5; XXXI 9,11,24; XXXII 46;尼VIII),或(尼第八5),或(申命记三十三4)。。。The last two names occur with great frequency in Jewish tradition, where the Torah becomes a living creature.最后两个名字出现在犹太传统中,托拉成为生物的伟大的频率。The expression "the five books," which is the origin of the term "Pentateuch," occurs only in Jewish tradition, which has also been the source for "Genesis," etc., as the names of the books of the Pentateuch (see Blau, "Zur Einleitung in die Heilige Schrift," pp. 40-43).“五书”,这是一词的由来“五经”(见只有在犹太传统中,这也被“创世纪”等源的摩西五书的名字,布劳,“楚导论在模具Heilige Schrift,”页40-43)。

Quinary Division of the Torah.五元托拉司。

According to all critics, regardless of the schools to which they belong, the Torah forms a single work, which is represented, even at the present day, by the synagogal Scroll of the Law; nor does history know of any other Torah scroll.根据所有的批评,不管他们所属的学校,托拉形成一个单一的工作,这是代表,即使在目前的一天,由synagogal滚动法“;也没有历史知道的任何其他Torah纸卷。 The fivefold division of the Pentateuch was due to purely external causes, and not to a diversity of content; for in volume the Torah forms more than a fourth of all the books of the Bible, and contains, in round numbers, 300,000 letters of the 1,100,000 in the entire Bible.摩西五五倍分工是由于纯粹的外部原因,而不是一个内容的多样性;托拉形式货量超过四分之一的所有书籍的圣经,并包含在第二轮的数字,30字母110万在整本圣经。 A work of such compass far exceeded the normal size of an individual scroll among the Jews; and the Torah accordingly became a Pentateuch, thus being analogous to the Homeric poems, which originally formed a single epic, but which were later split into twenty-four parts each.如指南针的工作远远超出正常大小的个人之间的犹太人滚动;托拉因此成为摩西五,因此类似的荷马史诗,最初形成一个单一的史诗,但后来被分裂成二十四每个部分。

Division into Sections.段司。

Like them, moreover, the Pentateuch was divided according to the sense and with an admirable knowledge of the subject (Blau, "Althebräisches Buchwesen," pp. 47-49), while subdivisions were also made into the so-called open and closed "parashiyyot," whose exact interrelation is not yet clear.此外,摩西五是和他们一样,划分的意义和令人钦佩的主题知识(布劳,Buchwesen Althebräisches“,”页47-49),而下属也进入所谓的开放和关闭“ parashiyyot“,其确切的相互关系目前尚不清楚。 There are in all 669 sections, 290 open and 379 closed.在所有669款,开放290和379封闭。Another class of parashiyyot divides the weekly lessons, now called "sidrot," into seven parts.另一个类parashiyyot分为每周一次的教训,现在被称为“sidrot分为七个部分,”。The Torah also falls, on the basis of the lessons for the Sabbath, into 54 sidrot according to the annual cycle, and into 155 according to the triennial cycle.托拉也下跌,在安息日教训的基础上,根据年度周期为54 sidrot,并根据三年周期到155。The former division, which is now used almost universally, is the Babylonian; and the latter, which has recently been introduced into some Reform congregations, is the Palestinian.前部,这是现在几乎普遍使用,是巴比伦;后者,最近已出台一些改革教会,是巴勒斯坦人。The latter class of sidrot, however, has no external marks of division in the scrolls of the synagogue; while the divisions in the former, like the parashiyyot, are indicated by blank spaces of varying length (see Sidra).然而,后一类的sidrot,在犹太教堂的滚动分工没有外部标志,而前者的分歧,喜欢parashiyyot,是由不同长度的空格表示(见锡德拉)。 This probably implies a greater antiquity for the sections which are thus designated, although the divisions into 5,845 verses, which seem to be still older, have no outward marks.这可能意味着一个更大的古代因此指定的部分,虽然到5845诗句,似乎仍然较旧的部门,有没有外在标志。The system of chapters was introduced into the editions of the Hebrew Bible, and hence into the Torah, from the Vulgate.的章节系统引入的希伯来文圣经版本,进而融入到诵读经文,从武加大。This mode of division is not known to the Masorah, though it was incorporated in the final Masoretic notes, for individual books of the Pentateuch.这种分工模式是不知道的Masorah,虽然它是在最后的马所拉的音符,个别书籍的摩西五,注册成立。It is given in modern editions of the Hebrew Bible simply on the basis of the stereotyped editions of the English Bible Society, which followed earlier examples.它是简单的定型版本的英文圣经公会,跟着前面的例子的基础上的希伯来文圣经的现代版本。

Jewish Tradition and the Torah.犹太传统和托拉。

The external form of the Torah is discussed in such articles as Manuscripts, Scroll of the Law, and Mantle of the Law; but so numerous are the assertions of tradition concerning its contents and its value that the repetition of even a very small part of them would far exceed the limits of this article. “托拉”的外在形式是讨论手稿,滚动法,和法披肩等物品,但如此众多的传统断言,关于它的内容和它的价值,即使是其中很小的一部分的重复将远远超出本文的范围。 Every page of the Talmud and Midrash is filled with citations from the Pentateuch and with the most fulsome praise of it, united with super-human love and divine respect therefor.塔木德和米德拉士每一页是充满引文从pentateuch和与它最令人生厌的好评,超人类的爱和神圣的尊重为此美国。 In the five volumes of Bacher's work on the Haggadah, the Torah and its study form a special rubric in theaccount of each "sofer," or scholar of the Law.巴切尔哈加达工作五卷,托拉及其研究的形式在每个theaccount特别专栏“sofer”或“的学者。In all probability there never was another people, except possibly the Brahmans, that surrounded its holy writings with such respect, transmitted them through the centuries with such self-sacrifice, and preserved them with so little change for more than 2,000 years.在所有的概率有没有另一个人,除了可能是婆罗门,周围有这种尊重其神圣的著作,百年来传输这种自我牺牲,并保留超过2000年的变化如此之少。 The very letters of the Torah were believed to have come from God Himself (BB 15a), and were counted carefully, the word "soferim" denoting, according to the Talmud (Ḳid. 30a), "the counters of the letters."托拉非常字母被认为有从神自己(BB 15A),并仔细计算,单词“soferim”denoting,根据犹太法典(Ḳid.30A),“字母的柜台。”A special class of scholars devoted all their lives to the careful preservation of the text ("Masorah"), the only analogy in the literature of the world being found in India, where the Vedas were accurately preserved by similar means.一类特殊的学者投入了他们的生活,小心保存文本(“Masorah”),在世界文学中唯一的比喻被发现在印度,那里的吠陀准确保存类似手段。

Preexistence of the Torah.前世的“托拉”。

The Torah is older than the world, for it existed either 947 generations (Zeb. 116a, and parallels) or 2,000 years (Gen. R. viii., and parallels; Weber, "Jüdische Theologie," p. 15) before the Creation.托拉是超过世界的,它存在前创造的947世代(Zeb. 116A,和Parallels)或2000年(将军河八,和Parallels,韦伯的“Jüdische神学”,第15页)。 。The original Pentateuch, therefore, like everything celestial, consisted of fire, being written in black letters of flame upon a white ground of fire (Yer. Sheḳ. 49a, and parallels; Blau, "Althebräisches Buchwesen," p. 156).原来的五经,因此,像一切天体,包括火灾,在火焰的黑色字母写在一个白色的火地(Yer.石49A,和Parallels;布劳,“Althebräisches Buchwesen,”第156页)。God held counsel with it at the creation of the world, since it was wisdom itself (Tan., Bereshit, passim), and it was God's first revelation, in which He Himself took part.神创造了世界与它举行了律师,因为它本身的智慧(Tan.,Bereshit,各处),它是上帝的第一个启示,在他本人参加。 It was given in completeness for all time and for all mankind, so that no further revelation can be expected.这是在所有时间和全人类的完整性,所以可以预期,没有进一步的启示。It was given in the languages of all peoples; for the voice of the divine revelation was seventyfold (Weber, lc pp. 16-20; Blau, "Zur Einleitung in die Heilige Schrift," pp. 84-100).这是各国人民的语言,是神的启示的声音seventyfold(韦伯,立法会第16-20;布劳,“楚死Heilige Schrift导论”,第84-100页)。It shines forever, and was transcribed by the scribes of the seventy peoples (Bacher, "Ag. Tan." ii. 203, 416), while everything found in the Prophets and the Hagiographa was already contained in the Torah (Ta'an. 9a), so that, if the Israelites had not sinned, only the five books of Moses would have been given them (Ned. 22b).它永远闪耀,转录(巴切尔,“银。谈。”二,203,416)七十人民的文士,而一切都在先知和Hagiographa已经包含在诵读经文(Ta'an。 9A),因此,如果以色列人没有犯过罪,只有摩西五书已经给了他们(Ned. 22B)。As a matter of fact, the Prophets and the Hagiographa will be abrogated; but the Torah will remain forever (Yer. Meg. 70d).事实上,先知和Hagiographa将被废止,但“托拉”将永远(Yer.梅格70D)。Every letter of it is a living creature.它的每一个字母是一种生物。When Solomon took many wives, Deuteronomy threw himself before God and complained that Solomon wished to remove from the Pentateuch the yod of the word (Deut. xvii. 17), with which the prohibition of polygamy was spoken; and God replied: "Solomon and a thousand like him shall perish, but not one letter of the Torah shall be destroyed" (Lev. R. xix.; Yer. Sanh. 20c; Cant. R. 5, 11; comp. Bacher, lc ii. 123, note 5).当所罗门采取了许多的妻子,申命记投掷自己在神面前,并抱怨说,所罗门希望从pentateuch删除,禁止一夫多妻制是口语的字(申命记十七17)。yod;上帝回答说:“所罗门王和像他这样的千灭亡,但没有一个托拉信应当予以销毁“(R.利未记十九;。也门里亚尔Sanh 20C;斜面第5条规则,11。比赛巴切尔,LC II 123,请注意。 5)。The single letters were hypostatized, and were active even at the creation of the world (Bacher, lci 347), an idea which is probably derived from Gnostic speculation.单个字母实体化,并创造了世界(347)巴切尔,LCI,从诺斯底猜测这可能是派生的想法,即使在积极。 The whole world is said to be only 1/3200 of the Torah ('Er. 21a).整个世界都被说成是只有1 / 3200“托拉”('呃。21A)。

Israel received this treasure only through suffering (Ber. 5a, and parallels), for the book and the sword came together from heaven, and Israel was obliged to choose between them (Sifre, Deut. 40, end; Bacher, lc ii. 402, note 5); and whosoever denies the heavenly origin of the Torah will lose the future life (Sanh. x. 1).以色列只有通过痛苦(Ber. 5A,和Parallels)收到了这块宝地,为书和剑一起从天上,而以色列有责任,它们之间的选择(Sifre,申40,结束;巴切尔,LC II 402。注5);凡否认“托拉”天上的原产地,就会失去未来的生活(sanh.十1)。This high esteem finds its expression in the rule that a copy of the Pentateuch is unlimited in value, and in the ordinance that the inhabitants of a city might oblige one another to procure scrolls of the Law (Tosef., BM iii. 24, xi. 23).这种崇高的敬意,发现其表达的pentateuch的副本是价值无限的规则,并在该条例中,一个城市的居民可能会迫使彼此​​采购滚动法(Tosef.,BM三24,第十一23段)。 The pious bequeathed a copy of the Torah to the synagogue (ib. B. Ḳ. ii. 3); and it was the duty of each one to make one for himself, while the honor paid the Bible greatly influenced the distribution of copies and led to the foundation of libraries (Blau, "Althebräisches Buchwesen," pp. 84-97).虔诚的遗赠“托拉”的副本的犹太教堂(同上B.ḲII 3。);这是每一个为自己的责任,而荣誉支付“圣经”极大地影响了复制品,导致图书馆的基础(布劳,“Althebräisches Buchwesen,”页84-97)。

Study of the Torah.“托拉”的研究。

The highest ideal of young and old and of small and great was the study of the Law, thus forming a basis for that indomitable eagerness of the Jewish people for education and that unquenchable thirst for knowledge which still characterize them.年轻人和老年人和最高理想,以大带小法的研究,从而形成了一个基础,教育和知识仍然刻画他们无法抑止的饥渴犹太人民不屈不挠的渴望。 "As the child must satisfy its hunger day by day, so must the grown man busy himself with the Torah each hour" (Yer. Ber. ch. ix.). “随着孩子必须满足其饥饿一天一天,所以必须每个小时的成年男子忙自己与托拉”(Yer.的误码率。第九章)。The mishnah (Pe'ah i.) incorporated in the daily prayer declares that the study of the Law transcends all things, being greater than the rescue of human life, than the building of the Temple, and than the honor of father and mother (Meg. 16b).该mishnah(Pe'ah一)在每天的祈祷中宣布,法的研究,超越了一切,大于拯救人类生命比寺的建设,,并比父亲和母亲的荣誉(梅格。16B)。 It is of more value than the offering of daily sacrifice ('Er. 63b); a single day devoted to the Torah outweighs 1,000 sacrifices (Shab. 30a; comp. Men. 100a); while the fable of the Fish and the Fox, in which the latter seeks to entice the former to dry land, declares Israel can live only in the Law as fish can live only in the ocean.这是比每天牺牲(“二63B。)提供更多的价值;致力于托拉单日超过1,000牺牲(Shab. 30A;比赛男子100A);而鱼的寓言和福克斯,其中后者旨在吸引前者旱地,宣布以色列可以住在“只可作为鱼只生活在海洋中。Whoever separates himself from the Torah dies forthwith ('Ab. Zarah 3b); for fire consumes him, and he falls into hell (BB 79a); while God weeps over one who might have occupied himself with it but neglected to do so (Ḥag. 5b).谁分开托拉随即死亡(“AB Zarah 3B。)本人;消防消耗了他,他属于入地狱(BB 79A),而上帝哭泣谁可能已经占据了它自己却忽略了这样做(HAG 5B)。The study must be unselfish: "One should study the Torah with self-denial, even at the sacrifice of one's life; and in the very hour before death one should devote himself to this duty" (Soṭah 21b; Ber. 63b; Shab. 83b).这项研究必须是无私的:“人们应该学习”托拉“与自我否定,甚至牺牲一个人的生命;并在很小时死亡前投入自己这一职责”(Soṭah21B;误码率63B;沙巴。 83B)。"Whoever uses the crown of the Torah shall be destroyed" (Ned. 62a).“谁使用应当予以销毁冠托拉”(Ned. 62A)。All, even the lepers and the unclean, were required to study the Law (Ber. 22a), while it was the duty of every one to read the entire weekly lesson twice (Ber. 8a); and the oldest benediction was the one spoken over the Torah (ib. 11b).所有,甚至麻风病人和不洁的,需要研究“(Ber. 22A),而这是每一个阅读整个每周两次课(Ber. 8A)的责任;和最古老的祝福是一个口语在托拉“(同上11B)。Prophylactic power also is ascribed to it: it gives protection against suffering (ib. 5a), against sickness ('Er. 54b), and against oppression in the Messianic time (Sanh. 98b); so that it may be said that "the Torah protects all the world" (Sanh. 99b; comp. Ber. 31a).预防性电源也归因于它:它给保护对痛苦(同上5A),(二54B),和反抗压迫的对疾病的救世主时间(Sanh. 98B);因此,可以说,“托拉保护世界上所有的“(Sanh. 99B。比赛误码率31A)。The following sayings may be cited as particularly instructive in this respect: "A Gentile who studies the Torah is as great as the high priest" (B. Ḳ. 38a).下列熟语可引,特别是在这方面的启发:“谁研究的律法的外邦人是一样伟大的大祭司”(B.Ḳ38A。)。"The practise of all the laws of the Pentateuch is worth less than the study of the scriptures of it" (Yer. Pe'ah i.), a conclusive refutation of the current view of the Nomism of the Jewish faith.“实践的所有法律的五是价值低于研究它的经文”(Yer. Pe'ah一),当前视图的犹太信仰Nomism确凿的驳斥。 After these citations it becomes readily intelligible that, according to the Talmudic view, "God Himself sits and studies the Torah" ('Ab. Zarah 3b).这些引用之后,就变得容易理解,根据塔木德的观点,“上帝亲自坐镇,并研究的圣经”('抗体。Zarah 3B)。

Criticism of the Torah Among Jews.在犹太人的律法书的批评。

The spirit of criticism naturally developed from this devotion to the Pentateuch, in spite of faith and reverence.批评的精神,自然形成的从这个奉献的pentateuch,尽管信仰和崇敬。The very existence of the doctrine that the Law was of heavenly origin, and that whosoeverdenied this dogma had no share in the life to come (Sanh. x.), shows that there was a school which assumed a critical attitude toward the Torah.的学说的存在,该法是天上的原产地,以及whosoeverdenied这个教条,没有分享生活中来(sanh.十),表明有一所学校承担了对“托拉”的批判态度。 There is much evidence in proof of this; but here only the history of criticism within the orthodox synagogue will be discussed.有很多证据证明了这一点,但这里只将讨论在正统犹太教堂批评的历史。It was a moot point whether the Law was given all at once or in smaller rolls at different times (Giṭ. 60a); and the further question was discussed, whether Moses or Joshua wrote the last eight verses of the Pentateuch (BB 14b-15a).这是一个有争议的问题,法律是否给予一次全部或在不同时期的小卷(Giṭ.60A);和进一步讨论的问题是,是否摩西或约书亚写道过去八年诗的pentateuch(BB 14B - 15A )。It was definitely affirmed, on the other hand (ib.), that Moses composed the sections concerning Balaam (Num. xxii.-xxiv.), thus closing all discussions on that score.这是绝对的肯定,另一方面(同上),即摩西关于巴兰​​(民数记xxii. - XXIV)。组成部分,从而结束该得分的所有讨论。Many tacit doubts are scattered through the Talmud and Midrash, in addition to those which Einstein has collected.许多隐性的疑虑,通过塔木德和米德拉士分散,除了爱因斯坦已收集。In the post-Talmudic period, in like manner, there was no lack of critics, some of them recognized as such again only in recent times, although Abraham ibn Ezra, who was joined by Spinoza, has long been recognized as belonging to this class.后塔木德期间,在喜欢的方式,没有批评的缺乏,他们中的一些如仅在最近的时期再次确认,尽管亚伯拉罕伊本以斯拉,谁是加入斯宾诺莎,长期以来一直被公认属于这一类。

Composition.组成。

The composition of the Torah should be discussed on the basis of the old Semitic concepts, which planned a work of literature practically rather than systematically. “托拉”的组成应该讨论的老犹太人的概念,该计划的文学工作的实际,而不是系统的基础上。Repetitions, therefore, should not be eliminated, since things which are good and noble may and should be brought to remembrance many times.重复,因此,不应该被淘汰,因为事情是好的,高尚的,应提请纪念多次。From the point of view of effective emphasis, moreover, a change of context may develop a new and independent application of a given doctrine, especially if it be repeated in other words.此外,从有效的强调点,一个变化的背景下可能发展一个新的,独立的应用程序给定的学说,尤其是如果它换句话说反复。Thus tradition (The Thirty-two Rules of Eliezer b. Jose ha-Gelili) took "the repeated doctrine" as its rule of interpretation, and left large numbers of repetitions (parallel passages) in its collections of oral teachings.因此,传统(埃利泽B.圣何塞HA - Gelili三十二个规则)“反复学说”作为其解释规则,并留下大量的重复(平行通道),在其收藏的口头教导。The framework of the Pentateuch is historical narrative bound together by the thread of chronology.框架的pentateuch是历史叙事年表线程连在一起。There is no rigid adherence to the latter principle, however; and the Talmud itself accordingly postulates the rule: "There is no earlier and no later in the Torah" (Pes. 6b et passim).有没有硬性坚持后者的原则,然而,和犹太法典本身因此假设规则:“不早不晚,在诵读经文”(Pes. 6B等各处)。 From a Masoretic point of view, the Mosaic code contains the history of a period of about 2,300 years.从马所拉的观点来看,花叶代码包含了约2300年期间的历史。As has already been noted in regard to the names of the individual books, the Talmud and the Masorah divided the Torah into smaller units according to its contents, so that Genesis includes the story of Creation and of the Patriarchs, Exodus the account of the departure from Egypt, the revelation, and so on.正如已经在个别书籍的名称所指出的,犹太法典的Masorah分为更小的单位“托拉”,根据其内容,因此,创世记出埃及记“的创作和故事的始祖出发帐户来自埃及,启示,等等。

Style.风格。

The style of the Pentateuch, in keeping with its content, differs widely from the diction of the Prophets and the Psalms.风格的摩西五,在符合其内容广泛,从不同的先知和诗篇文辞。It is less lofty, although it is not lacking in dramatic force, and it is concrete rather than abstract.这是崇高的,虽然它不是缺乏戏剧性的力量,它是具体而不是抽象的。Most of the laws are formulated in the second person as a direct address, the Decalogue being the best example.大多数的法律,制定第二人作为直接地址,十诫是最好的例子。In certain cases, however, the nature of the subject requires the third person; but the Torah reverts as quickly as possible to the second as being the more effective form of address (comp., for example, Deut. xix. 11-21).然而,在某些情况下,学科的性质要求第三人,但托拉尽快恢复的地址更有效的形式(comp.,例如,申十九11-21。)第二。 In the Pentateuch, temporal depiction is the usual method.在五,时间的描述是通常的方法。The process of creation, rather than the universe as a whole, is described; and the account brings the world visibly into being in six main parts.创作过程,而不是宇宙作为一个整体,描述和帐户带来了世界上明显被分为六个主要部分的。In the creation of man, of plants, and of paradise God is seen at work, and the same process of coming into being may be traced in the ark of Noah and similar descriptions.植物,和天堂的上帝创造的男子,被认为是在工作中,同一进程中应运而生的,可追溯到诺亚方舟和类似的描述。 A remarkable example of word-painting is the account of the consecration of Aaron and his sons to the high-priesthood (Lev. viii.).文字画的一个显着的例子是亚伦和他儿子的奉献高的祭司(利未记八)。的帐户。Here the reader watches while Moses washes the candidates, dresses them, etc. ("Magyar-Zsidó Szemle," ix. 565 et seq.).而摩西洗候选人读者手表,连衣裙,等(“马扎尔人,Zsidó Szemle”九,565及以下。)。Naïve simplicity is a characteristic trait of Pentateuchal style, which understands also the art of silence.朴素简单,是一些Pentateuchal风格,这也明白沉默的艺术特征性状。Thus, as in all great products of world-literature, feminine beauty is not described in detail; for Sarah, Rachel, and other heroines are merely said to be beautiful, while the completion of the picture is left to the imagination of the reader.因此,在世界文学的所有伟大的产品,阴柔之美是没有详细描述;莎拉,雷切尔,和其他的女主人公,只是说要漂亮,而完成的图片是留给读者的想象。

Laws of the Torah.“托拉”的法律。

The contents of the Torah fall into two main parts: historical and legal. “托拉”的内容落入两个主要部分:历史和法律。The latter commences with Ex.后者与前开始。xii.; so that the Tannaim maintained that the Law actually began there, proceeding on the correct principle that the word "Torah" could be applied only to teachings which regulated the life of man, either leading him to perform certain acts (commands = ) or restraining him from them (prohibitions = ).第十二;使该tannaim认为,“实际上开始有,单词”圣经“可能只适用于规范人的生命的教导正确的原则出发,无论是领导履行他的某些行为(命令=)或制止他从他们(禁止)。 The Talmud enumerates a total of 613 rules, 248 being commands and 365 prohibitions (see Jew. Encyc. iv. 181, sv Commandments, The 613).犹太法典列举了共613规则,248被命令和禁令(见犹太人。百科全书。IV 181,SV戒律,613)365。In the post-Talmudic period many works were written on these 613 "miẓwot," some even by Maimonides.后塔木德期间,许多作品写上这些613“miẓwot,”有的甚至由迈蒙尼德。The legal parts of the Pentateuch include all the relations of human life, although these are discussed with greater detail in the Talmud (see Talmudic Laws).法律部分的pentateuch包括人类生活的所有关系,虽然这些都是在犹太法典(见塔木德法律)的详细讨论。The Torah recognizes no subdivisions of the commandments; for all alike are the ordinances of God, and a distinction may be drawn only according to modern ideas, as when Driver (in Hastings, "Dict. Bible," iii. 66) proposes a triple division, into juridical, ceremonial, and moral "torot."的律法诫命没有细分的认识;都是一样的,是神的条例,并区别可能只有根据现代理念,因为当驱动,提出了一种三重(在黑斯廷斯,“快译通圣经”,“三66。)司,到法人,礼仪和道德“torot。”

Penal Law.刑法。

Montefiore was correct when, in laying emphasis on the ethical aspect of the Biblical concept of God, he declared that even the law of the Bible was permeated with morality, propounding his view in the following words ("Hibbert Lectures," p. 64): "Most original and characteristic was the moral influence of Jahveh in the domain of law. Jahveh, to the Israelite, was emphatically the God of the right. . . . From the earliest times onward, Jahveh's sanctuary was the depository of law, and the priest was His spokesman."蒙蒂菲奥里时,强调伦理方面的“圣经”的上帝观,他宣称,即使是“圣经”的法律与道德渗透,propounding他认为,在以下的话(第64页的“希伯特讲座”,是正确的) :“大多数原和特点的,Jahveh道德的影响在法律领域Jahveh,以色列人,是强调神权从的最早时间起,Jahveh的庇护所是法律的保存,和。。。。。牧师是他的发言人。“ The most prominent characteristic of the Pentateuchal law, as compared with the laws of ancient peoples and of medieval Europe, is mildness, a feature which is still further developed in the Talmud.的Pentateuchal法律,与古老的民族和欧洲中世纪的法律相比,最突出的特点是温和,它仍然是在塔木德经进一步开发功能。 The Torah is justly regarded as the source of humane law.托拉是公正视为人道法源。Although such phrases occur as "that soul shall be cut off from his people" or "so shalt thou put the evil away from the midst of thee," it would be incorrect to take them literally, or to deduce from them certain theories of penal law, as Förster has recently done.虽然发生这样的短语“灵魂应削减他的人关”或“使必你把你中间远离邪恶,”这将是不正确的把他们从字面上,或从他们的某些理论推导出刑法法律,福斯特最近已经完成。 On the contrary, these expressions prove that the Mosaiclaw was not a legal code in the strict sense of the term, but an ethical work.相反,这些表达式证明Mosaiclaw是不是在严格意义上的法律的代码,而是一种道德的工作。 Although the Talmudists made it a penal code, instinctively reading that character into it, the penal law of the Torah is something theoretical which was never put into practise.虽然Talmudists刑法,本能地读入该字符,托拉刑法是一些理论,这是从来没有付诸实践。This view is supported by the fact that a commandment is stated sometimes without the threat of any penalty whatever for its violation, and sometimes with the assignment even of death as a punishment for its transgression.支持这一观点是由一条诫命有时其实是说没有任何侵犯其什么的,有时甚至死亡的惩罚其侵分配的刑罚的威胁。 In like manner, tradition frequently substitutes such a phrase as "he forfeited his life" for "transgression worthy of death."在这样的方式,传统经常替代这样一个短语“,他没收了他的生命”为“侵值得死亡。”

Civil Law.民法通则。

On the other hand, the civil law of the Torah, which is more developed and bears a practical character, probably accords more closely with ancient Jewish legal procedure.另一方面,民法的诵读经文,这是比较发达和负有实践品格,大概协定更紧密地与古犹太法律的程序。It reflects the conditions of an agricultural state, since most of the laws relate to farming and cognate matters.它反映了一个农业国家的条件,因为大多数的法律涉及到农业和同源事宜。There was no Hebrew word for "store," although "just measure" was mentioned.有没有希伯来字“的商店,”虽然提到“只是衡量”。 It must be borne in mind, however, that to satisfy the more advanced conditions of later times, the Talmudists both supplemented the Mosaic law and by means of analogy and similar expedients interpolated into the Torah much which it did not contain originally.然而,必须牢记,以满足稍后的时间更先进的条件,这两个Talmudists补充镶嵌法,比喻和类似的权宜手段到托拉得多,它没有包含原本插。

From the earliest times the Synagogue has proclaimed the divine origin of the Pentateuch, and has held that Moses wrote it down from dictation, while the religions based on Judaism have until very recently held the same view.犹太教堂从最早的时候已经宣布的pentateuch神圣的起源,并举行了摩西写道,从默写,直到最近,持相同观点,而基于对犹太教的宗教。 Biblical criticism, however, denies the Mosaic authorship and ascribes only a portion of varying extent to so ancient an origin.然而,否认圣经的批评,著作权的马赛克和归因只有部分不同程度上使古老的一个起源。A history of criticism in regard to this point is given by Winer ("BR" ii. 419 et seq.) and by Driver (in Hastings, "Dict. Bible," iii. 66), while Montefiore expresses himself as follows (lc):关于这一点批评的历史是由温纳(“BR”二419起。)和驱动程序(在黑斯廷斯,“快译通圣经”,“三66),而蒙蒂菲奥里表示自己如下(立法会):

"The Torah-or teaching-of the priests, half judicial, half pædagogic, was a deep moral influence; and there was no element in the religion which was at once more genuinely Hebrew and more closely identified with the national God. There is good reason to believe that this priestly Torah is the one religious institution which can be correctly attributed to Moses. . . . Though Moses was not the author of the written law, he was unquestionably the founder of that oral teaching, or Torah, which preceded and became the basis of the codes of the Pentateuch." “托拉或教学的祭司,半司法的一半pædagogic,是一种深刻的道德影响力;和有没有这是一次真正的希伯来语和更紧密地与国家的神确定的宗教元素有良好的有理由相信,这祭司托拉是一个宗教机构,它可以正确地归因于摩西。。虽然摩西是没有成文法律的作者,他毫无疑问,口语教学的创始人,或诵读经文,这之前和成为基础的pentateuch代码。“

The legal parts of the Torah are found in Ex.“托拉”的法律部分在特惠。xx.-xxiii., xxv.-xxxi., xxxiv.-xxxv.; Lev.xx. - XXIII,xxv. XXXI,xxxiv. - XXXV;。列弗。i.-viii., xi.-xxv., xxvii.; Num.一,第八,xi. - 25,二十七;。NUM。v.-x., xviii., xix., xxvii.-xxx., these laws being repeated in Deut.v.-x.,十八,十九。xxvii. - XXX。,这些法律在deut重复。iv.IV。et seq.起。

Joseph Jacobs, Ludwig Blau约瑟夫雅各布斯,路德维希布劳

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.1901至1906年之间出版的犹太百科全书。

Bibliography:参考书目:

Bacher, Ag.巴切尔,银。Tan.; idem, Ag.谈;。同上,银。 Pal.帕尔。Amor.奥马尔。Index, sv Tora and Studium der Lehre; Baumgartner, Les Etudes Isagogiques chez les Juifs, Geneva, 1886; Blau, Zur Einleitung in die Heilige Schrift, Strasburg, 1894; idem, Studien zum Althebräischen Buchwesen und zur Biblischen Litteraturgeschichte, Strasburg, 1902; Büchler, The Triennial Reading of the Law and Prophets, in JQR vi.指数,SV Tora和Studium DER Lehre;鲍姆加特纳,Les练习曲Isagogiques的桑切斯LES Juifs,日内瓦,1886;布劳,楚死Heilige Schrift,斯特拉斯堡,1894年导论;同上,(研究)ZUM Althebräischen Buchwesen和楚Biblischen Litteraturgeschichte,斯特拉斯堡,1902年; Büchler,JQR六,法律和先知的三年期读。1-73; Eisenstadt, Ueber Bibelkritik in der Talmudischen Litteratur, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1894; Förster, Das Mosaische Strafrecht in Seiner Geschichtlichen Entwickelung, Leipsic, 1900; Hamburger, RBT supplementary vol.1-73;艾森斯塔德DER Talmudischen Litteratur,法兰克福上的主,1894年,Ueber Bibelkritik;福斯特,DAS Mosaische刑法围网渔船Geschichtlichen Entwickelung,Leipsic,1900年;汉堡,仙踪林补充卷。 iii.III。60-75; Hastings, Dict. 60-75;黑斯廷斯,快译通。Bible, iii.圣经,第三。64-73; Jew.64-73;犹太人。 Encyc.百科全书。vii.七。633-638; Michaelis-Saalschütz, Mosaisches Recht, Berlin, 1842-46; Herzog-Hauck, Real-Encyc.633-638;米氏- Saalschütz,Mosaisches Recht,柏林,1842年至1846年,赫尔佐格 - 豪克,实时百科全书。xiii.十三。486-502; Weber, Jüdische Theologie, pp. 14-34, and Index, Leipsic, 1897; Winer, BR 3d ed., i. 486-502;韦伯,Jüdische神学,第14-34页,和索引,Leipsic,1897年;温纳,BR岛3D版。415-422.415-422。

For the criticism of the Torah compare the text-books of the history of Judaism and of Old Testament theology.对于批评的律法犹太教旧约神学的历史和比较的教科书。See also Pentateuch.JLB见也Pentateuch.JLB



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