Council of Trent遄达 理事会

General Information一般资料

The Council of Trent, the 19th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic church, was held at Trent in northern Italy between 1545 and 1563.遄达1545和1563之间在安理会的遄达,19日的罗马天主教教会的大公会议,是在意大利北部举行。It marked a major turning point in the efforts of the Catholic church to respond to the challenge of the Protestant Reformation and formed a key part of the Counter-Reformation.在天主教教会的努力,它标志着一个重大转折宗教改革的挑战作出回应,并形成了反宗教改革的重要组成部分。 The need for such a council had long been perceived by certain church leaders, but initial attempts to organize it were opposed by Francis I of France, who feared it would strengthen Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, and by the popes themselves, who feared a revival of Conciliarism.曾长期被认为需要这样一个会,某些教会领袖,但初步尝试组织反对,他们担心这将加强神圣罗马帝国皇帝查理五世,法国的法兰西斯一世教皇自己,担心复苏Conciliarism。 The council eventually met during three separate periods (1545-47, 1551-52, 1562-63) under the leadership of three different popes (Paul III, Julius III, Pius IV).最终会期间举行了三个独立的时期(1545年至1547年,1551年至1552年,1562年至1563年)三种不同的教皇(教宗保禄三世,碧岳四),朱利叶斯三世的领导下。 All of its decrees were formally confirmed by Pope Pius IV in 1564.其法令,正式确认在1564年由教皇Pius IV。

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In the area of religious doctrine, the council refused any concessions to the Protestants and, in the process, crystallized and codified Catholic dogma far more than ever before. It directly opposed Protestantism by reaffirming the existence of seven sacraments, transubstantiation, purgatory, the necessity of the priesthood, and justification by works as well as by faith. Clerical celibacy and monasticism were maintained, and decrees were issued in favor of the efficacy of relics, indulgences, and the veneration of the Virgin Mary and the saints.在宗教教义方面,安理会拒绝作出任何让步的新教徒,并在这个过程中,结晶和编纂天主教教条远远比以往任何时候, 它直接反对新教重申存在七个圣礼,陷于变体,炼狱的必要性祭司,和工程,以及因信称义。文书独身和修道保持和法令,有利于文物,放纵,和崇拜的圣母玛利亚和圣人的疗效发出。 Tradition was declared coequal to Scripture as a source of spiritual knowledge, and the sole right of the Church to interpret the Bible was asserted . 传统是同等圣经宣布的精神知识的来源,和教会的唯一正确的解释圣经有人断言。

At the same time, the council took steps to reform many of the major abuses within the church that had partly incited the Reformation: decrees were issued requiring episcopal residence and a limitation on the plurality of benefices, and movements were instigated to reform certain monastic orders and to provide for the education of the clergy through the creation of a seminary in every diocese.与此同时,安理会采取步骤,以改革的许多重大侵犯了部分煽动宗教改革的教会内的法令发出要求主教府和限制多元化benefices,变动教唆改革的某些寺院订单并提供教育的神职人员通过建立在每一个教区修院。

Attendance at the council was often relatively meager, and it was dominated by Italian and Spanish prelates.出席安理会往往是相对微薄,它是由意大利和西班牙的主教为主。Several European monarchs kept their distance from the council's decrees, only partially enforcing them or, in the case of the French kings, never officially accepting them at all.几个欧洲君主保持它们之间的距离,从安理会的法令,只是部​​分地执行,或在法国国王的情况下,从未正式接受他们所有。The Council of Trent helped, however, to catalyze a movement within the Catholic clergy and laity for widespread religious renewal and reform, a movement that yielded substantial results in the 17th century.安理会的遄达帮助,但是,以促进在广泛的宗教革新和改革,运动,取得了实质性的成果,在17世纪的天主教神职人员和俗人一个动作。

T. Tackett T. Tackett

Bibliography 参考书目
Jedin, Hubert, A History of the Council of Trent, trans.Jedin,休伯特,一个安理会的遄达,反历史。 by Ernest Graf, 2 vols.由Ernest格拉夫,2卷。(1957-61); McNally, Robert E., Council of Trent, The Spiritual Exercises and the Catholic Reform (1970); O'Donohoe, JA, Tridentine Seminary Legislation (1957); Schroeder, HJ, Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent (1950).(1957-61);麦克纳利,罗伯特E,安理会的遄达,神操和天主教改革(1970年); O'Donohoe,JA,德律但丁学院法例(1957年);施罗德,黄建忠,大炮和法令理事会遄达(1950)。


Council of Trent (1545-1563)安理会的遄达(1545年至1563年)

Outline大纲

The canons and decrees of the sacred大炮和法令的神圣
and oecumenical Council of Trent,oecumenical会的遄达,
Ed.ED。and trans.和反式。J. Waterworth (London: Dolman, 1848)J. Waterworth(伦敦:蝙蝠,1848年)

Notes and J. Waterworth's PrefaceNotes和J. Waterworth“前言

The Complete Text完整的文本

By Session按会话

Bull of Indiction公牛的Indiction

The First Session第一届会议

The Second Session第二届会议

The Third Session第三次会议

The Fourth Session第四次会议

The Fifth Session第五次会议

The Sixth Session第六届会议

The Seventh Session第七届会议

The Eighth Session第八届会议

The Ninth Session第九届会议

The Tenth Session第十届会议

The Eleventh Session第十一届会议

The Twelfth Session第十二届会议

The Thirteenth Session第十三届会议

The Fourteenth Session第十四届会议

The Fifteenth Session第十五届会议

The Sixteenth Session第十六届会议

The Seventeenth Session第十七届会议

The Eighteenth Session第十八届会议

The Nineteenth Session第十九届会议

The Twentieth Session第二十届会议

The Twenty-First Session第二十一次会议

The Twenty-Second Session第二十二届会议

The Twenty-Third Session第二十三届会议

The Twenty-Fourth Session第二十四次会议

The Twenty-Fifth Session第二十五届会议


Council of Trent (1545-1563)安理会的遄达(1545年至1563年)

Advanced Information先进的信息

The Council of Trent was the official Roman Catholic response to the Lutheran Reformation.安理会的遄达是正式的罗马天主教回应路​​德的宗教改革。The Council of Trent did not begin until twentyfive years after Martin Luther's symbolic rejection of papal authority when he publicly burned Exsurge Domine (1520), the papal bull condemning his teachings.安理会的遄达没有开始,直到twentyfive年后马丁路德的罗马教皇权威的象征性排斥反应时,他当众焚毁Exsurge Domine(1520),罗马教皇的公牛谴责他的教诲。This fateful delay in the history of Christianity permitted the consolidation of Protestantism and ensured that, when the council did eventually meet to define doctrines, it would do so in conscious reaction to Protestant doctrines.这在基督教的历史命运延迟允许巩固新教和保证,当安理会没有最终满足定义的学说,它会在有意识的反应新教教义所以。 Though some Protestants attended the council, the majority of those attending were motivated by a desire to counter, rather than conciliate, the Protestants.虽然一些新教徒出席立法会,大多数参加者的动机是一个反击的欲望,而不是调解,新教徒。Hence, even Catholic historians who emphasize the continuity of Trent's doctrinal definitions with traditional Catholic theology concede that Trent did not restore the medieval equilibrium so much as evolve a new system synthesizing Catholic tradition and the altered historical situation.因此,甚至强调与传统的天主教神学特伦特的教义定义的连续性的天主教历史学家承认,特伦特没有恢复中世纪的平衡这么多发展一个新的系统合成天主教的传统和历史情况改变。 The new system was rigid and exclusive, but also rich and energetic, drawing on the spiritual and theological revival that characterized the Counter-Reformation.新系统的僵化性和排他性,而且还丰富和充满活力的,借鉴的精神和特点的反宗教改革的神学复兴。

Reasons for the repeated delays in convening the council were chiefly, but not solely, political.召开理事会一再拖延的原因主要是,但并非纯粹的政治。Even Pope Paul III (1534-49), who was elected on the understanding that he would call a council and who acknowledge that it was desperately needed, was forced into repeated postponments by a growing appreciation of the complexity of the issues at stake.即使教宗保禄三世(1534年至1549年),谁当选的理解,他会调用一个会承认,这是迫切需要的,被迫反复postponments了问题的复杂性增长的股份升值。 So complex and voluminous was its agenda that the council took eighteen years, spanning the reigns of five popes, to complete.如此复杂和浩繁的是,安理会注意到18年,横跨五个教皇的统治,完成其议程。Its sittings alone took over four years, and it produced a greater volume of legislation than the combined output of all the previous eighteen general councils recognized by the Roman Catholic Church.其开庭单独接管了四年,它比所有的罗马天主教会承认的前18个一般议会的组合输出生产体积更大的立法。

The Council's history has three periods:安理会的历史上有三个时期:

It was decided at the outset to deal with both disciplinary reforms (which Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, saw as the first priority) and the definition of dogma (the primary concern of Paul III).这是在一开始就决定的纪律改革(神圣罗马帝国皇帝查理五世,作为第一优先看到的)和教条的定义(主要关注的保罗三)处理。 A repentant episcopate acknowledged that the Lutheran revolt was occasioned by the "ambition, avarice and cupidity" of bishops.一个忏悔的主教承认路德的反抗“的野心,贪婪和贪婪”的主教所引致。The council accordingly condemned pluralism and absenteeism by bishops and priests.理事会谴责多元化和旷工的主教和司铎。Clergy were to "avoid even the smallest faults, which in them would be considerable."神职人员,以“避免即使是最小的故障,他们会很大。”Bishops were to establish seminaries for the training of clergy in every diocese.主教们在每一个教区神职人员的培训,建立修院。 In nothing was the Roman Catholic Church more indelibly scarred by its fear of Protestantism than in the council's decision to make the curriclum in the new seminaries scholastic rather than biblical.什么都不是罗马天主教会,新教的恐惧更不可磨灭伤痕累累,比在安理会的决定作出新的神学院,而不是圣经的学术curriclum。 On indulgences, the issue which ignited the Lutheran explosion, the council abolished indulgence sellers and decreed that the giving of alms was never to be the necessary condition for gaining an indulgence.放纵,点燃路德会爆炸的问题,安理会取消放纵卖方,并颁布法令,给予施舍,从来没有获得一个放纵的必要条件。

The article on justification was perceived as the most difficult of the doctrinal issues, partly because it had not been dealt with in previous councils.文章被看作是最困难的理论问题上的理由,部分是因为它没有被处理在以前的议会。Thirty-three canons condemned Protestant errors concerning justification.三十三大炮谴责新教错误有关的理由。Most were errors held by Protestant extremists, but the bishops certainly understood that they had condemned Luther's doctrine that Christ's righteousness is extrinsic to the justified person and only imputed to him.大多是由新教极端分子举行的错误,但主教们当然明白,他们谴责路德的学说认为,基督的公义是外在的合理的人,只归咎于他。 The Tridentine doctrine on justification was expressed in sixteen chapters.有人在16章的理由律但丁学说。 Chapters 1-9 stress man's incapacity to save himself but confirm the necessity for the cooperation of his free will, including his resolve to receive baptism and begin a new life.章1-9强调人的丧失工作能力拯救自己,但确认为他的自由意志合作的必要性,包括他决心接受洗礼,并开始新的生活。Justification results not only in the remission of sin but also in "sanctification and renewal of the whole man."理由结果不仅在缓解罪,而且在“圣洁,整个人的重建。”Chapters 10-13 affirm the increase of justifying grace through obedience to the commandments and deny that predestination to salvation can be known with certainty.章10-13申明增加的理由宽限期通过服从诫命,并否认救赎的宿命,可以确知。Chapters 14-16 declare that grace is forfeited by any grevious sin (not just faithlessness) and must be recovered through the sacrament of penance. 14-16章宣布,宽限期是没收任何grevious罪(不只是不忠),必须通过忏悔圣事收回。Salvation is given to the justified as a reward as well as a gift, since, on the basis of his union with Christ, he has meritoriously fulfilled God's law by good works performed in a state of grace.救恩是考虑到合理的奖励,以及作为礼物,因为他与基督联合的基础上,他已meritoriously履行上帝的法律由在一个国家的宽限期进行的优秀作品。

In the belief that Lutheran heresy was based on a misunderstanding of the sacraments, the council devoted more time to them than any other doctrinal issue.路德异端是基于误解的圣礼的信念,会倾注更多的时间,他们比任何其他的教义问题。The council confirmed that there are seven sacraments instituted by Christ (baptism, confirmation, communion, penance, unction, orders, marriage) and condemned those who said that sacraments are not necessary for salvation or that through faith alone, and without any sacrament, man can be justified.理事会确认,有七个圣礼由基督(洗礼,确认,共融,忏悔,油膏,订单,婚姻)提起,并谴责那些说圣礼是不是仅通过信仰,并没有任何圣礼得救的或必要的,人是有理由的。 Sacraments contain the grace they signify and confer it ex opere operato, irrespective of the qualities or merits of the persons administering or receiving them.圣礼包含宽限期,他们表示,并赋予它前opere operato,不论品质或管理或接受他们的人的优点。The council confirmed transubstantiation, that the substance of bread and wine is changed into the body and blood of Christ while the appearance of bread and wine remains.理事会确认陷于变体,面包和酒的物质进入体内,而面包和酒的外观仍然基督的血改变。Luther's real presence doctrine; the symbolist doctrine of Zwingli, Karlstardt, and Oecolampadius; and Calvin's medial position (presence is real but spiritual) were all condemned; as were those who denied that the whole of Christ is received when the bread alone is taken at communion.路德的实际存在学说的茨温利的象征主义的学说,Karlstardt和Oecolampadius;和卡尔文的内侧位置的存在是真实的,但精神是所有谴责;作为被那些谁否认,整个基督是收到时的面包仅是采取在共融。 The council also affirmed that in the Mass, which must be said in Latin, the Son is offered anew to the Father, a sacrifice by which God is appeased and which is efficacious for the living and the dead.理事会还肯定的质量,必须在拉美说,儿子是提供了重新的父亲,一个牺牲,上帝是姑息,这是有效的生活和死亡。

In its article on Scripture the council again rejected Lutheran teaching.在其文章经文,安理会再次拒绝路德教学。Tradition was said to be equally authoritative with Scripture; the correct interpretation of the Bible was the preserve of the Catholic Church; the Vulgate was to be used exclusively in public readings and doctrinal commentaries.有人说是同样的权威与圣经传统的“圣经”的正确解释是天主教保留;武加大专门用于公共读数和理论评论。

The Tridentine decrees enjoyed great prestige and determined Catholic belief and practice for four centuries.律但丁法令享有巨大威望和坚定的天主教信仰和实践四个世纪。

FS Piggin财政司司长皮格金博士
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
G. Alberigo, "The Council of Trent: New Views on the Ocassion of Its Fourth Centenary," Con 7.1:28-48; J. Delumeau, Catholicism between Luther and Voltaire: A New View of the Counter Reformation; P. Hughes, The Church in Crisis: A History of the General Councils; H. Jedin, A History of the Council of Trent; HJ Schroeder, Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent.G. Alberigo,“安理会的遄达:新观点,在其第四百周年纪念之际,”CON 7.1:28-48; J. Delumeau,天主教之间路德和伏尔泰:反改革的一个新视角;体育休斯教会在危机:历史总议会; H. Jedin,安理会的遄达历史;黄建忠施罗德,大炮和法令安理会的遄达。


The General Council of Trent, 1545-63总理事会的遄达,1545年至1563年

Advanced Information先进的信息

Martin Luther's revolt was, almost from the beginning, an essential matter, ie, it was explicitly directed against the pope's essential claim that he is the ruler of the whole Church of Christ.马丁路德的反抗是,几乎从一开始,一个重要的问题,即它是明确针对教宗的基本声称他是基督的全教会的统治者。He had already moved away from the Catholic belief, in certain matters regarding the divine forgiveness of sins, by the time he made the famous attack on Indulgences with which Protestantism began (1517).他已经搬走了天主教信仰,在关于神的宽恕的罪孽,他提出了著名的宽容与新教开始(1517)攻击的时候,一定问题。 Within a further six months he was writing that the first thing needed in order to cure the manifold ills that afflicted religion was to overthrow the whole accepted system of theological teaching (1518).在其后的6个月,他写,首先需要的,为了治好折磨宗教是要推翻整个接受神学教学系统(1518)的多方面的弊病。To the papal legate who now called on him, in the name of a fundamental papal law, to withdraw his teaching about Indulgences Luther replied by denying the validity of that law; and, within a few weeks, by appealing from the pope who had commissioned the legate, to the judgment of the next General Council whenever it should meet--an appeal made in due legal form, and in defiance of the papal law that forbade such appeals.现在叫他,在教皇的一个基本法律的名称,撤回他对路德否认该法的有效性回答的放纵教学;,在几个星期内,由曾委托教皇呼吁罗马教皇的legate特使,来判断未来总理事会时,它应满足 - 在适当的法律形式提出的上诉,并在藐视教皇法律禁止这类上诉。The controversies continued without intermission, and a year later than the appeal (ie, in 1519) Luther's mind had moved so far that he now denied that General Councils had any special divine protection that kept them from erroneous teaching when deciding questions about belief.争议不断,不设中场休息,一年后上诉(即1519年)路德的心灵感动至今,他现在否认一般的议会有任何特殊的神圣的保护,使他们从错误的教学的决定对信仰问题时。

These rebellious principles were listed among the errors for which Luther was condemned by the papal bull Exsurge Domine (June 15, 1520).这些叛逆的原则被列为路德谴责罗马教皇的公牛Exsurge Domine(1520)6月15日,的错误。He was given sixty days to appear and publicly recant his sayings.给了他60天出现,并公开宣布放弃他的说法。Instead, he wrote two most violent--and exceedingly popular--pamphlets, the one to show how the popes had systematically corrupted the whole teaching of Christ for a thousand years and so led all the world astray, the other denouncing the papal institution as a vast financial racket which, for centuries, had been draining the life out of Germany.相反,他写了两个最猛烈的 - 极为流行 - 小册子,一个教皇如何有系统地损坏了一千多年的基督的整个教学等主导世界上所有的歧途,其他谴责罗马教皇的机构一个庞大的金融球拍,几个世纪以来,已经耗尽了德国的生活。 In impassioned phrases he called on the princes of Germany to destroy the papacy, and to wash their hands in the blood of the sacrilegious impostors at Rome.在慷慨激昂的词组,他呼吁德国诸侯摧毁教皇,洗他们的手,在罗马的亵渎冒名顶替的血液。As to the bull Exsurge, Luther waited until the fatal sixtieth day, and then with a vast amount of public mockery, he threw it into the bonfire kindled on the town dunghill--and into the flames he threw, after the bull, the whole collection of the popes' laws binding the whole Church of Christ.至于牛市Exsurge,路德等到致命的第六十天,然后与广大公众的嘲弄,他全身心地投入到镇粪堆上燃起了篝火 - 入火焰,他扔的牛市后,整个收集的教皇“法律约束力的整个教会的基督。

This was spectacular, and symbolical.这是壮观,象征性的。Not for centuries had there been any defiance so far-reaching--and with the encouragement and protection of the state.不是有几百年了如此深远的任何无视 - 与国家鼓励和保护。To what means were the popes, drawing on a vast experience of crisis, now to turn and so avert the general destruction that threatened German Catholicism?拿什么教皇,吸取危机的丰富经验,现在反过来,所以避免了一般的破坏,威胁德国天主教?There could only be one answer, since this was the opening of the sixteenth century.有可能答案只有一个,因为这是十六世纪的开放。From all quarters came a demand for the classic panacea.来自四面八方来到经典的灵丹妙药的需求。The pope must call a General Council.教宗必须调用一个总理事会。And finally the General Council met, the Council of Trent--but not until twenty-five years after the great defiance of the appeal to the princes and the Wittenberg bonfire.最后,总理事会满足,安理会的遄达 - 但直到二十五年后上诉的蔑视,王子和维滕贝格篝火。

Since in all that long time the needed council never ceased to be talked of by Catholics and by rebels, by princes and by popes, and since it was amid the angry dissensions on the subject between Catholic princes and the popes that the men were largely formed who actually were the Council of Trent, to recall something of those twenty-five unhappy years is a first condition of understanding the history of the council, of its failures as of its splendid successes.由于所有长的时间,需要安理会从未停止谈到天主教徒和叛乱分子的王子和由教皇,因为它是市场上的主体之间天主教王子和教皇的男子大体形成愤怒的纠纷究竟是谁安理会的遄达,记得那些二十五个不满两年的事,了解其辉煌成就的失败理事会的历史,是一个首要条件。

The sentences of bishops, and popes also, against heretics were mere noise until they were taken up by the State and put into execution.句子的主教和教皇也对异教徒只是噪音,直到他们被带到了由国家执行。Luther was assured that his own sovereign, the elector Frederick the Wise, would not execute the bull Exsurge.路德是保证自己的主权,选民弗雷德里克智者,不会执行牛市Exsurge。It was however quite another thing to be assured that the sentence would remain a dead letter once the pope had appealed to the emperor and the princes of Germany, assembled at the first diet of the new emperor's reign.然而,这是另一回事放心的判决将成为一纸空文,一旦教宗呼吁德国皇帝和诸侯,在新的皇帝在位的第一饮食组装的东西。It met at Worms in January 1521, and in the way it both thwarted and supported the pope it was curiously prophetic of the history of the coming years.一月1521,并会见在蠕虫的方式,阻挠和支持教皇未来几年的历史,它是好奇的预言。The princes accepted the papal sentence, and they made it their own by outlawing Luther.诸侯接受罗马教皇的一句话,和他们自己的取缔路德。Whoever could, might kill him without fear of punishment, as though he were a dangerous bandit.谁可以,可能会杀死他没有惩罚的恐惧,因为他虽然是一个危险的强盗。But they ignored the papal sentence to this extent that they re-tried Luther; that is to say, they gave him a hearing, under a safe conduct, refusing to listen to the protestations of the ambassador whom the pope had sent to direct the action of the diet.但他们忽略了教皇的句子到这个程度,他们重新尝试路德;也就是说,他们给他下一个安全的行为举行听证会,拒绝听取大使抗议教皇发送到直接的行动饮食。 The action of this solemn assembly was thus a great public flouting of the papal law, a serious repudiation, in a most serious matter, of the will of the man whom all these princes acknowledged to be the head of their church.在这个庄严的大会的作用,因此罗马教皇的法律,一个严重的不可否认性,在一个最严重的问题,该名男子将其中所有这些王子承认是他们的教会的头,一个伟大的公开蔑视。

This is not the place in which to tell again the familiar story of the events of the next ten years.这是不是地方,而在这熟悉的故事,在未来十年的事件再次告诉。But something must be said, however briefly, about the papal delay in applying the only remedy that could meet the German situation--the General Council.可是,我必须说,但是简单,教皇延迟申请唯一的补救办法,可满足德国的情况 - 总理事会。

The general attitude towards the plan of a General Council may thus be summed up: the man who was pope through the greater part of the period, Clement VII (1523-34), was at heart consistently hostile; the cardinals and other officers of his Curia were, for quite other reasons, still more hostile; the German Catholics were eager for a council, but a council in which they would really matter, a council fashioned rather after the pattern of a parliament than General Councils have usually been; the Catholic kings who enter the story are Charles I of Spain (just lately become the emperor Charles V), the life-long champion of the council idea, and Francis I of France, its bitterest opponent.向总理事会计划的态度可能会因此总结了:谁是通过教皇期间的更大的一部分,克莱门特七世(1523年至1534年),该名男子在心脏一贯敌视;他的枢机主教和其他人员相当的其他方面的原因,教廷,更敌对的德国天主教徒渴望一个议会,但议会中,他们将真正的问题,会后的议会比一般的议会模式,而老式通常被天主教进入故事的国王查理一世西班牙(只是最近成为皇帝查理五世),终身冠军安理会的想法,和法国的法兰西斯一世,其激烈的对手。 And the history of Europe during the crucial twenty-five years, 1520-45, is little more than the history of the duel between these two princes.在关键的二十五年的历史,1520年至1545年,欧洲几乎没有比这两个王子之间的决斗的历史。In their wars Clement VII, as often as he dared, sided with the King of France, for purely political reasons--it was, invariably, the side that lost.在其战争克莱门特七世,他敢往往,片面与法国国王,纯粹是出于政治原因 - 这是,不约而同地,失去的一面。

The council problem comes to this, that a General Council was absolutely necessary, and that, for political reasons, it was just not possible to summon one.理事会的问题涉及到这一点,总理事会是绝对必要的,而且,出于政治原因,它是不可能召唤之一。Whence, inevitably, on the part of Charles V, and of the German princes, a succession of schemes to bring back the Lutherans (for this, in the early years, is what it was hoped the council would achieve) by negotiations, conferences, local councils, informal councils, and the like.从何而来,不可避免地,对部分查理五世和德国王子,一个继承计划带回路德会(为此,在最初几年,这是什么希望安理会将实现)的谈判,会议,地方议会,非正式议会,等等。 All of these failed and, in the long run, these ventures complicated the problem of reconciliation or submission; while the refusal of the Holy See really to take action gradually destroyed all confidence in its integrity among the Catholic princes of Germany.所有这些失败的,从长远来看,这些企业复杂的和解或提交的问题,而拒绝圣灵看到真正采取行动,逐渐摧毁了所有在其完整性的德国天主教诸侯之间的信心。 To such a depth, indeed, had the prestige of Rome sunk that when the successor of this timorous, vacillating, and all too worldly-wise pope announced, in the first hours of his reign, that he proposed to summon a General Council, the news stirred not a ripple among the Catholic reformers of Germany.事实上,这样的深度,有威望的罗马沉没时这种胆怯,动摇的继任者,太世故教宗宣布,在他在位的第一个小时,他建议召集总理事会,新闻搅拌不是德国的天主教改革者之间的纹波。

This second pope was Paul III (1534-49) and ultimately he lived to see the council he had dreamed of meet at Trent, but after bitter vicissitudes--for some of which history must hold his own personal failings responsible.这第二教宗保禄三世(1534年至1549年),最终他看住他的梦想会满足于遄达,但后苦沧桑 - 其中一些历史必须持有自己个人的失败负责。The catalogue of these events needs to be set down.这些事件的目录需要设置了。

By the time of the election of Paul III (October 13, 1534) the situation in Germany had radically altered since Leo X had first faced the problem in the Diet of Worms (1521).由保禄三世(1534年)10月13日,选举的时间在德国的情况从根本上改变了自利奥x首先面临的问题在国会的蠕虫(1521)。 The Lutheran movement had long since passed from the stage where it was a matter of preachers and writers and the masses they influenced.路德运动早已通过的地步,这是一个传教士和作家的问题和他们的影响的群众。The state was now in control of it, half a dozen princes in central Germany and a number of leading cities north and south.国家现在控制它,半打王子在德国中部和一些主要城市的北部和南部。In all these places the adherents of the new religion and the preachers were organised into churches, installed in the buildings that had once been Catholic; monasticism had been abolished and the monks' properties taken over by the state; the clergy who wished had married, with the state's approval; the mass was everywhere forbidden and the new rites made obligatory; and these Lutheran states were banded together in a formidable military alliance, so powerful that it had been able (at a moment when a Turkish invasion threatened) to ignore the diet's summons to disband and submit, and furthermore it had won for their sect's new status in these regions a provisional acquiescence from the emperor.在所有这些地方的新的宗教信徒和传道人进入教堂举办,曾经是天主教在建筑物上安装;修道已取消和僧侣的属性,由国家,谁希望神职人员结婚了,国家批准;群众到处禁止和在新的礼仪作出强制性;和这些路德国家联结在一起在一个强大的军事同盟,如此强大,它已被能够在一个时刻,当一个土耳其入侵威胁忽视饮食的传票解散,并提交,此外,它赢得了他们的教派在这些地区的新地位,从皇帝的临时默许。

One root of Clement VII's troubles had been his ambition to strengthen the hold of his family--the Medici--as rulers in what had been the republic of Florence.克莱门特七世的麻烦的根源之一,他的野心,以加强在了哪些佛罗伦萨共和国的统治者 - 按住他的家人 - 梅迪奇。 With Paul III there was the like family concern, to see his son, Pierluigi, established among the reigning families of Europe.保罗三有类似家庭的关注,看到他的儿子,皮耶路易吉,卫冕欧洲家庭之间建立。In the end the pope succeeded, giving him in fief the duchies of Parma and Piacenza, carved out of the States of the Church, and marrying Pierluigi's son-- Ottavio--to a natural daughter of Charles V. The intricate business of forcing his offspring into the charmed circle of royalty-by-birth, the negotiations with Charles for example over recognition of the new duchies, runs like a subtle poison through what was, despite the very evident Renaissance worldliness of this great pope, the leading policy of his reign, the calling of this council that would reform the life of the Church and heal the divisions in Germany.教皇最终成功,给他封地在帕尔马和皮亚琴察公国,雕刻出的国家教会,并娶皮耶路易吉的儿子 - 奥塔维奥 - 到了查尔斯的亲生女儿五,复杂业务,迫使他运行到版税出生的小圈子,例如在承认新的公国的谈判,与查尔斯的后代一样是通过什么微妙的毒药,尽管这个伟大的教宗非常明显的文艺复兴时期的世俗,他的主要政策即位后,本会呼吁,改革教会的生活和医治在德国的分裂。

Paul III's first obstacle was his cardinals, who voted unanimously against the plan to call a council, when he proposed it.保罗三世的第一个障碍是他的枢机主教,谁投了反对票调用会,当他提出的计划一致。After an exhaustive study of the situation in Germany--a matter where he had everything to learn--he despatched nuncios to all the courts of Europe, to the Lutherans as well, with invitations to attend.- 无论身在何处,他的一切学习 - 在德国的情况进行详尽的研究后,他寄发nuncios所有欧洲法院,以及路德会,与应邀出席。The French king was unfavourable, the German Protestants refused with insults.法国国王是不利的,德国新教徒拒绝与侮辱。In these negotiations a whole year went by, and then, on June 2, 1536, the official announcement was made: the council would meet at Mantua, May 23, 1537.在这些谈判中整整一年过去了,然后,6月2日,1536,官方公布的是:安理会将在1537年5月23日,曼图亚,满足。 What followed next, however, was a whole series of postponements that finally brought the Catholics of Germany to feel that the new pope was as shifty as the old; postponements first to November 1537, then to May 1538, then to April 1539, and then a postponement indefinitely.然而,随之而来的,是一个全系列的推迟,终于使德国的天主教徒认为,新教皇是老缩骨;推迟首次年11月1537年,然后到1538年5月,然后1539年四月,然后一个无限期推迟。

The reasons given were real enough, the steady refusal of the French king to co-operate (ie, in practice, the impossibility of any French bishop or cardinal taking part in the council), the renewal of the war between France and the emperor, and so forth.原因是不够真实,拒绝法国国王的合作(即,在实践中,任何法国主教或枢机主教不可能在安理会中的一部分)的稳定,重建法国和皇帝之间的战争,等等。 But it came to be believed that the true cause was that the pope really preferred that the council should not ever take place.但后来被认为真正的原因是,教皇真的希望,安理会不应发生。

Actually, as the years went by, Paul III came to understand that the task before the council was much more complex than he had conceived, or his official advisors.其实,随着岁月的流逝,保罗三是要明白,摆在安理会面前的任务是要复杂得多,他的设想,或他的官方顾问。As was to be the case with the Vatican Council, three hundred years later, the official world began by oversimplifying the problem.由于是同梵蒂冈理事会的情况下,三百年后,世界官方开始由简单化的问题。The heresies, it was thought, could be simply dealt with by re- enacting the various decrees in which, at their first appearance, centuries before, they had been condemned.的歪理邪说,它被认为可以简单地处理与重新颁布的各种法令,在他们的第一次亮相,百年前,他们已谴责。There would, of course, be no need to discuss such burning topics as the reform of the Curia Romana--that was not the business of any council, but a matter for the pope's personal action.有,当然,是没有必要讨论燃烧教廷协会的改革课题 - 这不是安理会任何业务,但教宗的个人行动的问题。The reform of Catholic life, again, called for no great research; the old laws were adequate, if only they were enforced.再次,改革天主教的生活,没有很大的研究称为旧的法律已经足够,只要他们执行。The council, once it met, would accomplish its task in a matter of weeks. ,一旦得到满足,该委员会将在几个星期内完成其任务。Actually, the working time of the Council of Trent--to anticipate the story--was to amount to four and a half years; the constant hard work of the bishops and theologians who attended would produce a mass of decrees and canons exceeding in volume the whole of the legislation of all the previous eighteen General Councils.事实上,安理会的遄达的工作时间 - 预测故事 - 达4年半,出席的主教和神学家的不断辛勤工作,会产生一个法令的质量和大炮货量超过以前所有的18个省议会的立法整体。

What was also gradually borne in on Paul III was that the kind of council he had in mind--the traditional meeting of bishops--was not at all what Charles V was thinking of, nor the Catholics of Germany.什么也逐渐承担保罗三是他心目中的那种会 - 传统的主教会议 - 不是在查理五世是思想,也不是德国天主教徒。Was the coming council to begin with a new religious crisis, with all these champions of the council demanding a say in how it should conduct its business, in what should appear upon its agenda?未来会开始一个新的宗教危机,安理会的要求,一个说应该如何开展业务,在其议程后应该出现什么,所有这些冠军,?The Catholic critics of the intolerable abuses--for which the Roman Curia was generally held responsible--now expected to be heard, at the council.不可容忍的侵犯天主教批评 - 为罗马教廷普遍追究责任 - 现在在安理会预计将听到。Luther's insistent cry, that there would never be any reform so long as Rome controlled the council, found echoes in the secret thoughts of many of Luther's Catholic adversaries.路德坚持哭,永远不会有任何改革只要罗马控制了理事会,发现在许多路德天主教对手的秘密思想相呼应。

And the achievement of the councils of Constance and of Basel, in those sessions ever since officially disregarded, came into the mind of more than one Catholic reformer as the obvious instrument to bring off the desired improvement. Constance和巴塞尔委员会的成就,在那些正式无视以来的会话,进入了不止一个明显的仪器所需的改善带来了天主教改革者的头脑。The acts of these councils, the wholeheartedly Catholic bishop of Vienna (for example) wrote to Rome, were indispensable as a guide to the council now under consideration.这些议会,维也纳全心全意天主教主教(例如)写信给罗马,作为指导,现在安理会正在审议的行为是不可缺少的。 German bishops, supporting the pope's desire for a council, were taking for granted that just as they desired it should meet in Germany, so it would follow the pattern of these two classic German councils.德国主教,支持教宗的一个议会的愿望,是理所当然的,正如他们想要的,它应满足在德国,所以它会遵循这两个经典的德国议会的模式。 How was the pope to accept this position, and not risk at the outset a new damaging controversy about the nature of his own authority?教皇是如何接受这个位置上,而不是在一开始就一个新的风险有关损害他自己的权威性质的争议? a controversy that might send thousands of Catholics in Germany, not, indeed, into the Lutheran body but into schism no less disastrous.一场争论可能发送成千上万的天主教徒在德国,没有,确实到路德机构,但不低于不堪设想到分裂,。 Then there were the Catholics who, for years, had been thinking that unless the power of the Curia to grant dispensations were checked, reform legislation would be a dead letter from the day it was enacted.然后是谁,多年来,一直以为,除非教廷的权力授予特许进行了检查,立法改革将是一纸空文,从颁布之日起的天主教徒。

"The pope was not merely having bad dreams when he saw these dangers."[1] And so he hesitated, time and again, and even when he did not hesitate he failed to be insistent. “教皇不仅是有坏的梦想,当他看到这些危险。”[1]所以他犹豫了一下,一次又一次,甚至当他没有犹豫,他没有被坚持。With all his gifts--and with the merit of the great reform he had achieved in his own personal life--Paul III was far from that perfect state where the supernatural controls every act and every thought.与所有他的礼物 - 与他在他自己的个人生活方面取得的伟大的改革的好处 - 保罗三是从超自然的控制每一个行为和每一个思想,完美的状态。He was not a saint.他不是一个圣人。And as his great servant Cardinal Girolamo Morone once expressed it, "He who conducts God's business must not be exclusively actuated by human considerations."[2]他的伟大的仆人吉罗拉莫条纹枢机曾表示,“他谁进行上帝的业务绝不能只限于驱动由人为因素。”[2]

The emperor now won over the pope to try what another, much lauded method might do to bring peace to Germany, the method of peaceful negotiation between the theologians of both parties, with reunion (perhaps) as the fruit of "a better understanding of what it is that divides us."皇帝现在赢得了教皇尝试另一个大加称赞,方法可能会带来和平“更好地了解一个什么样的水果到德国,双方的神学家之间的和平谈判的方法,与团聚(或许)这是我们的分歧。“ For many years some leading Catholics had been urging that this way promised better results, some of them influenced in part--let it be bluntly stated--by the fatal delusion that the differences between the Church and the Lutheran bodies did not amount to a real separation.多年来,一些领导天主教徒已敦促这样许诺更好的结果,其中一些影响部分 - 让它直言 - 由教会和路德机构之间的差异并不构成一个致命的错觉真正的分离。This seemingly incredible blindness had one source in the dangerous superficialities of Erasmus, who, for example, saw no reason why any differences mattered provided men agreed in accepting Christ, and who could not understand why either party would not accept as a sufficient statement of the Eucharistic mystery the unexamined ambiguity that Christ is here present somehow.这看似不可思议的失明了一个来源的伊拉斯谟的危险浅薄,,例如,认为没有理由为什么要紧的任何分歧提供男子同意接受基督,谁不明白为什么任何一方不接受作为足够声明圣体奥迹的未经审查的模棱两可,基督是在座莫名其妙。 The "appalling" intellectual confusion of which Jedin[3] speaks is indeed, by this time, a leading characteristic of the age among the Catholics.“令人震惊”智力混乱,其中Jedin [3]讲确实是,这个时候,一个领先的天主教徒之间的年龄特点。

Let it be remembered, also, that in the twenty years since the somewhat elementary directions of the bull Exsurge, Rome had not said a word about the divergencies.让我们记住它,同时,牛市Exsurge的一些小学的方向,在二十多年以来,罗马没有说一个字有关的分歧。 Lutheranism had, since then, developed all its doctrines, and a varied host of Catholic writers, each according to his lights and temperament, had, in criticising the heresiarch, offered his own solution for the new theological problems he had posed.路德教了,从那时起,其所有的教义,不同主机的天主教作家,根据他的灯和气质,在批评heresiarch,提出自己的解决方案为他带来了新的神学问题。 For the Catholic princes and their political advisors the "conference" method offered this advantage that an official business like the General Council must result in clear-cut definitions of doctrine; in sentences, that is to say, and a summons to accept these or take the appropriate punishment; in strong resistance, and- -who knows?--in civil war.对于天主教王子和他们的政治顾问“会议”的方法提供了这种优势,如总理事会正式营业的结果必须在明确的定义学说的句子,这是说,传票接受这些或采取相应的处罚;在强大的阻力,和,谁知道 - 在内战。And this with Francis I longing to renew the war against Charles; and the French ally, the Turk, already at the gates!这个我渴望在家门口再次对查尔斯的战争;和法国的盟友,土耳其人,已经与弗朗西斯! Of the emperor's critical position, in the world of armies, of the grave risk of a Catholic defeat, the belligerents in the Sacred College and the Curia knew all too little.皇帝的关键位置,在世界军队的一所天主教失败的严重风险,交战各方在神圣的大学和教廷知道得太少。Paul III never lost sight of all this.保罗三世从来没有失去这一切的视线。His knowledge was one reason for his reluctance to act with decision.他的知识是他不愿意采取行动决定的原因之一。

The high-water mark of the reunion-through-negotiation movement was the conference held at Ratisbon in the summer of 1541 about which historians are still arguing.高水位标记的团聚,通过协商的运动是在1541夏天,历史学家仍在争论在拉蒂斯邦举行会议。This history is of interest because it does much to explain what, at first sight, is utterly incomprehensible, viz., that nearly thirty years went by before the vitally necessary council met, and also because it reveals the nature of one serious weakness that hampered the Catholic champions in these critical years.这个历史的兴趣,是因为它没有太多解释什么,乍一看,是完全不可理解的,即,近三十年过去了必需理事会会见之前,还因为它揭示了一个严重的弱点,阻碍性质在这些关键年天主教冠军。

To Ratisbon, where most of the princes of Germany attended and the emperor himself, there came two of the principal reformers, Philip Melanchthon and Martin Bucer, the last-named bringing with him a reformer of the second generation who was soon to eclipse in influence all the rest, the young John Calvin.拉蒂斯邦,其中大多数德国王子出席和皇帝本人,才出现了两个主要改革者,菲利普梅兰希顿和马丁布策尔,最后命名带着他的人很快就被第二代改革者月食影响所有的休息,年轻的约翰卡尔文。 The pope sent, as legate, the Venetian Gaspar Contarini, theologian and statesman, the greatest figure the Curia had known for generations, and a man of saintly life.教皇派出特使,威尼斯人加斯帕尔黎尼,神学家和政治家,教廷世代最伟大的人物,一个圣洁的生活的人。If Contarini, a steady opponent of extreme solutions, went to Ratisbon still really believing that disagreement about the essentials was not so serious as many believed, he was soon enlightened.黎尼,稳步对手极端的解决办法,如果去拉蒂斯邦还是真的认为有关的要领的分歧并没有那么严重,许多人认为,他很快就被开明。 Though he contrived an apparent, momentary harmony on the question of Justification, there was no resolving the flat contradictions he encountered on the doctrines of the Eucharist and of the sacrament of Penance.虽然他做作的一个明显的理由问题上一时的和谐,有没有解决,他对圣体和圣忏悔教义中遇到平坦的矛盾。The conference failed utterly, and when Paul III announced that the preparation for the General Council would be resumed the emperor did not dissent.会议完全失败,当保罗三宣布,编制总理事会将恢复皇帝没有异议。The conference had had this useful result: it demonstrated to the "practical" minds the truth which the controversial theology of twenty years had ever insisted on, that Catholicism and the new theologies were contradictory, and impossible to reconcile.会议对这个有用的结果:它表明,以“实用”的心目中永远坚持了二十多年的争议神学,天主教和新的神学矛盾,无法调和的真理。

The bull convoking the council is dated May 22, 1542. convoking理事会的牛市,1542年5月22日。It was to meet on November 1 following, at the episcopal city of Trent, the first town outside Italy on the great road along which for a thousand years and more the traffic had travelled between Rome and Germany.它是为了满足主教城市的遄达,意大利以外的第一镇了一千多年,更沿交通前往罗马和德国之间的伟大道路上,在11月1日以下。 Trent was a city of the empire, a German city where the bishop was also the reigning prince.特伦特是一个帝国的城市,一个德国城市的主教也公爵。Eighty miles to the north, along the same road, is Innsbruck, the capital of Charles V as Count of Tyrol. 80英里的北部,沿着同样的道路,是因斯布鲁克,作为计数蒂罗尔州的查尔斯五世的资本。

The three legates appointed to preside arrived at Trent on November 2. 11月2日抵达在遄达三家获委聘的legates主持。They found scarcely a single bishop awaiting them.他们发现几乎没有一个单一的主教,等待他们。In January 1543 the representatives of the emperor arrived, and very slowly bishops came in-- very slowly, for by May there were no more than a dozen.在1543年1月的皇帝的代表抵达,非常缓慢主教进来 - 很慢,五月有不超过一打。The fact was that four months before the summons of Paul III's bull, the long-expected war had broken out between France and the empire.事实是,前四个月的传票保罗三世的牛市,期待已久的战争打破了法国和帝国之间的。Francis I had explicitly refused to countenance the council, and had forbidden the hundred bishops of France to leave the country.弗朗西斯我已经明确拒绝面容理事会,并禁止百主教法国离开该国。The emperor, driven to fury by the pope's determined neutrality in the war, had taken a similar course, barring out thereby any participation of the bishops, not only from Spain, but from his kingdom of the Two Sicilies (110 bishops), from the Netherlands, from Austria and Hungary; and affording an excuse for all the bishops of the empire.的皇帝,带动教宗的决心在战争中的中立性,以愤怒,已经采取了类似的过程,限制,从而参与的主教的,不仅来自西班牙,但由他的两个西西里(110主教)英国从荷兰,奥地利和匈牙利;和提供所有主教的帝国的借口。 A General Council, at a time when three fourths of the bishops of the world were violently prevented from attending?总理事会,一次当三个世界主教的四分之三被暴力无法参加?By July 1543 there was only one thing to be done, suspend the council yet once again. 1543年7月,只有一件事情要做,但再次暂停理事会。

How, upon the peace between the rival sovereigns (September 1544), Francis I withdrew his prohibition, while Charles was reconciled to the pope, and how next there supervened the new trouble over the investment of the pope's son with the duchies of Parma and Piacenza--all these highly relevant matters must be studied elsewhere.[4] But in November 1544 Paul III revoked the suspension of the council, and on March 13, 1545, the legates once more made their entry into Trent.的的对手主权国家之间的和平(9月1544日)后,弗朗西斯本人撤回他的禁令,而查尔斯是调和向教宗,和如何旁边有supervened超过投资教宗的儿子与帕尔马和皮亚琴察的公国的新麻烦 - 所有这些高度相关的的事项,必须研究[4]但在1544年11月,保三,撤销暂停理事会,1545年3月13日,该legates再次进入到遄达。

The council was solemnly opened there on December 13, with thirty-one bishops in attendance and forty-eight theologians and canonists, technical experts, summoned to assist them.理事会隆重开幕,12月13日,与三十一主教出席和四十八个神学家和圣教法典,技术专家,召见,以协助他们。

It will perhaps help the reader if, before the attempt is made to convey what is contained in the legislation of Trent--itself equal in volume to this present work--it is stated, once and for all, that the various political difficulties that had delayed the council's meeting for so many years never ceased to harass it during its entire progress.它也许会帮助读者,如果前试图传达什么是立法的遄达 - 本身在量,以目前这个工作平等的 - 这是说,一劳永逸,各种政治上的困难,推迟安理会的会议,这么多年,从来没有停止骚扰在其整个进展。Here, of course, lay the cause of the two long suspensions which the council suffered--one of four years and one of ten.在这里,当然,打下会遭受的两个长期停牌的原因 - 一个四年十之一。The council's history has, in fact, three chapters: sessions 1-10, December 13, 1545, to June 2, 1547; sessions 11-16, May 1, 1551, to April 28, 1552; sessions 17-25, January 17, 1562, to December 4, 1563安理会的历史,事实上,三个章节:会议1-10,1545年12月13日,,1547年6月2日,会议11-16 5月1日,1551,1552年4月28日,会议17-25日,1月17日1562年,1563年12月4日,

What I now propose to do is to explain how the council organised itself, how the bishops and the technicians did their work, and then to show, by some examples, the tone of the council's treatment of the twofold task before it, viz., the restatement of belief in opposition to the new theologies, and the reformation of Catholic life.我现在提出做的是解释如何理事会举办的本身,如何的主教和技术人员做他们的工作,然后一些例子显示,之前,安理会的治疗双重任务的基调,即。重述,反对新的神学信仰和天主教的生活的改革。

The direction of the council was in the hands of the three cardinal- legates.该理事会的方向是在三个基本的​​legates手中。Of these the senior, Gian Maria del Monte, a man of fifty-eight, had been in the service of the papal curia for well over thirty years.这些高级管理人员,吉安玛丽亚蒙特,五十八岁的男子,已远远超过30年在罗马教皇的教廷服务。 He was esteemed one of its leading canonists and had a vast experience of administration, civil and ecclesiastical.他是受人尊敬的领先圣教法典之一,有丰富经验的行政,民事和教会。He was the practical man of the trio, level-headed, firm, and a good manager of men.他的实际男子三人,头脑清醒,坚定,和一个男人的好经理。The second in rank, Marcello Cervini, was another type altogether, a theologian primarily and a man of rigidly austere life, dedicated passionately to the extirpation of the abuses that had almost become an ecclesiastical institution.排名第二,里皮Cervini,是完全另一种类型,一个神学家主要的硬性过紧日子的人,热情的滥用摘除,几乎成为一个教会机构。 He was not really a curialist at all, and had come to the notice of Paul III as a tutor to the pope's two grandsons whom the old man had made cardinals, at the age of fifteen, in the opening weeks of his reign.他是不是真的一个curialist,并作为一个导师教宗的两个孙子老头枢机主教,在十五岁,在他在位的开放周,保罗三世的通知。 The third legate was the solitary English cardinal, Reginald Pole, the near kinsman of King Henry VIII, and an exile for his faith this many a year.第三特使是孤立英语红衣主教,雷金纳德极,亨利八世国王的近亲,和他的信仰这许多年的流亡。His mother, and other relations, had some years before been executed by the king, and the cardinal was continuously in danger from the Italian bravos whom Henry hired to assassinate him.他的母亲,和其他关系,一些几年前被执行,由国王和红衣主教是不断从意大利bravos其中亨利雇来暗杀他的危险。

Pole, at forty-five, was roughly Cervini's contemporary, a scholar primarily, the Christian humanist indeed, and learned in the Fathers, in the new Renaissance manner.极,在四十五个,大约Cervini当代的学者为主,基督教人文主义确实,在父亲和教训,在新文艺复兴时期的方式,。 With his great friend Contarini, whom a premature death had carried off in 1542, he was regarded by all as the very embodiment of the Catholic Reformation.随着他的伟大的朋友黎尼,过早死亡的人在1542年,他被视为所有天主教改革的化身。It fell to him to write the opening address of the legates to the council--a frank admission that it was clerical sin mainly that had brought religion to this pass, and a passionate plea for sincerity in the deliberations.它下降到他写的地址 - 一个坦率地承认,这是文书罪,主要是带来了宗教这一关,一个充满激情的呼吁诚意在审议安理会的legates开放。One who was present has recorded that as the secretary of the council read the speech, the bishops instinctively turned to look at Pole, recognising from its tone and content who was its actual author.一个人在场,理事会秘书宣读的讲话记录,主教们本能地把目光转向了​​在北极,其语气和内容,其实际作者承认。Paul III could have given no clearer sign of his own sincerity than in this association of Cervini and Pole in the direction of the longed-for council.[5]保罗三可以比没有更清楚自己的诚意的符号,在这个协会Cervini和北极方向渴望已久的会。[5]

As to procedure, the bishops decided that only bishops and generals of religious orders should have the right to a vote.至于程序,主教们决定,只有主教和宗教命令的将领,应该有表决的权利。The question whether to treat doctrinal matters first (as the pope required, to the anger of Charles V) or the reforms, they settled by treating both simultaneously-- along with each decree about a doctrine called in question by the reformers there would be enacted a definite law about reforms.是否将教义事项(如教皇要求,愤怒的查尔斯五世)或改革的问题,他们定居治疗两手抓 - 随着各有关质疑,有将颁布改革者一种学说的法令关于改革的明确的法律。After some experiments the following system of work was adopted.经过一些实验系统通过以下工作。The technicians would debate the proposed decree with the bishops assisting as an audience.技术人员将辩论的建议作为一个观众的协助主教法令。This was the meeting called the "particular congregation" of the council.这是会议被称为“特别是众”的理事会。Next the bishops, meeting alone, discussed the matter under the presidency of the legates--the "general congregation"--and came to a final conclusion about the text.未来的主教会议单靠,讨论的主持下,该legates的问题 - “一般众” - ,来到一个有关文本的最后结论。Then, in a public meeting called a "session," an open vote was taken and the decree read out as the council's definition.然后,在一次公开会议称为一个“会话”,一个开放的表决是采取读取该法令作为安理会的定义。In the first chapter of the council's history the public sessions took place in the cathedral of Trent, later in the church of S. Maria Maggiore.在安理会历史上的第一章,参加公开会议的遄达大教堂举行,后来在教堂S.玛利亚教堂。The particular congregations were held in various mansions of the little city.特定的教区举行了各种豪宅的小城市。Of the twenty-five public sessions between 1545 and 1563, seventeen were devoted to definition of doctrine and the promulgation of reform laws. 1545和1563之间的二十五个公开会议,17个专门的定义学说和改革法的颁布。The rest were ceremonial occasions for the transacting of the inevitable legal formalities--the opening of the council, the various suspensions, and reopenings, and so forth.其余的礼仪场合的必然法律手续的办理 - 理事会开幕,各种悬浮液,并重新开放,等等。

The technical work done by the bishops, the theologians, and the canonists was of a very high order, and the work was done thoroughly.由主教,神学家,在圣教法典完成的技术工作是一个非常高的顺序,工作做透。It took, for example, seven months to hammer out the decree on the key doctrine of Justification, forty-four particular congregations and sixty-one general congregations.了,例如,7个月敲定对关键学说的理由,四十四个特别是教会和一般六十一众法令。The decrees about belief especially are evidence of the theological revival that had begun with the emergence of the great figure of Cajetan, and is marked by the teaching of Francis de Vittoria and Soto-- the last named of whom actually took part in the council.法令关于信仰,尤其是神学的复兴,与伟大的人物出现的Cajetan开始的证据,并标明是由弗朗西斯德维多利亚和索托教学 - 命名其中的最后实际参加理事会的一部分。The language of the decrees, again, is that of men influenced by the new classical learning of the Renaissance--as is that other literary monument of the council, the so-called Catechism of the Council of Trent.语言的法令,再次,是影响新文艺复兴时期的古典学习的男子 - 这是其他文学纪念碑安理会,安理会的遄达所谓的教义问答。And all in all, the theological achievement of Trent is a memorial to the small band of competent writers who, from Luther's first adventure, had never ceased to examine critically and to expose the weaknesses and the mischievousness of his theology.而这一切的一切,神学成就的遄达是主管作家的人,从路德的第一次冒险,从未停止严格审查和揭露的弱点和他的神学的恶作剧的小乐队的纪念。

It was a small band also who, at Trent, whether of the theologians or of bishops, brought about this great result.这是一个小乐队还谁,在遄达,无论是神学家或主教,这个伟大的结果带来。The modern French historian who, to a statement similar to this, appends the word heureusement was not merely cynical.现代的法国历史学家,类似这样的一份声明中,追加字heureusement不仅仅是玩世不恭。The comparatively small number of bishops made for manageable discussions.数量相对较小,为便于管理讨论主教。When, three hundred years later, there appeared at the Vatican Council some seven hundred or so bishops and, in the early days, the drafts of decrees prepared proved inadequate, and debates dragged on endlessly, a prelate who knew his history said, feelingly, "If the Fathers of Trent could rise from their graves, they would disown us."时,三百年后,出现在梵蒂冈理事会大约七百元左右的主教,在创业初期,法令草案编制证明不足,和辩论无休止地拖,主教谁知道他的历史说,情意绵绵, “如果父亲的遄达可能上升,从他们的坟墓,他们会不认我们。”The number of bishops present at the Tridentine sessions varied greatly.律但丁会议在主教的数量差别很大。At the opening of the council there were, besides the legates, 32.在理事会开幕式上,除了该legates,32。During the remainder of this first (1545-47) period the numbers gradually increased to 68.在这第一期(1545年至1547年)的其余部分的人数逐渐增加至68个。In the two sessions of the second (1551-52) period there were 44 and 51, respectively.在第二期(1551年至1552年)两会有,分别为44和51。The third (1562-63) period began with 105, and rose to 228 at the session of November 11, 1563.第三个时期(1562至1563年)开始与105,并在1563年11月11日,会议上涨到228。At the closing session there were 176.在闭幕会议上有176。As well as the bishops, there were also present the generals of five religious orders, who were full members of the council, with the right to speak and to vote.以及主教,目前也有五大宗教的订单,理事会正式成员的发言和投票的权利,将军。Two of these played a principal role in the council, the Augustinian Girolamo Seripando[6] in the Paul III period of the council, and the Jesuit, Diego Lainez in the two closing years.其中两个在安理会中发挥主体作用,奥古斯丁吉罗拉莫Seripando [6]在保禄三世时期的理事会,和耶稣,圣迭戈莱内斯在两个最后几年。

Throughout the council, the great majority of the bishops were from Italian sees--which does not imply that they were all equally at the disposal of the Curia Romana.整个理事会,主教绝大多数是从意大利看到的 - 这并不意味着教廷协会的处置,他们都同样。The Italy of the sixteenth century was not, of course, a single unified national state.十六世纪的意大利,当然没有一个统一的民族国家。In central Italy--one sixth of the whole Italian territory--the pope was the sovereign.在意大利中部 - 第六整个意大利领土 - 教宗的主权。To the south and in Sicily and Sardinia, it was Charles V (as King of Naples) who ruled, and he also ruled the Duchy of Milan in the north.到南部和西西里岛和撒丁岛,它是查理五世(那不勒斯国王)谁统治,他也排除在北部的米兰公国。Whether the 110 bishops of the kingdom of Naples were likely to favour papal policies against those of their king needs no telling.那不勒斯王国的110主教是否有可能赞成教皇政策对他们的国王的需要,没有人知道。To the east of Milan lay the Venetian Republic, one of the most powerful states in Europe which, notoriously and for generations, had taken its own line in ecclesiastical affairs.东米兰奠定了威尼斯共和国,臭名昭著和子孙后代,采取了自己的路线在宗教事务,在欧洲最强大的国家之一。In a list of 270 bishops present, at one time or another, during the third period of the council, 187 are set down as "Italians," 31 are Spaniards, 26 French, with no more than 2 from Germany.目前,在同一时间或其他理事会第三期期间,270位主教名单,187设置了“意大利”,31个是西班牙人,法国26,来自德国的不超过2。

The various orders of friars played a great part in the council, furnishing the bulk of the theological experts, and--many others of them--sitting as bishops.各种命令的修士发挥在安理会中的很大一部分,提供了大量的神学专家, - 其中的许多其他人 - 坐在作为主教。 There were no fewer than 23 Dominican bishops at the council, for instance, and a total of 28 Dominican theologians besides.有不少于23多米尼加主教在安理会,例如,共28多米尼加神学家,除了。It was at Trent that St. Thomas Aquinas first really came into his own as the doctor communis among the theologians.正是在遄达,圣托马斯阿奎那第一次真正融入​​了自己之间的神学家,医生communis。

The prestige of the Council of Trent was to approach the fabulous in the ensuing centuries.安理会的遄达的威信是在随后的几个世纪神话般的方法。And not surprisingly.不奇怪。 In answer to the challenge of the reformers it had surveyed anew the greater part of the Christian belief and had reaffirmed it, always with an especial explicitness about the points where Luther and the rest had gone astray.在回答它重新调查的基督教信仰的一部分,并重申它,特别是关于路德和其余的人误入歧途点的明确性总是改革者的挑战。 It had looked directly in the face the dreadful disorders that had for centuries disfigured the practice of religion, and had laid the axe to the root of the tree.期待已久,它直接面对的可怕的障碍,几个世纪以来,毁容的宗教实践,并奠定了斧头向树的根。It had no less boldly innovated in the remedies it provided.它没有少大胆创新,在它提供的补救措施。The decrees of Trent "remain to this very day, the most noble part of all the Church's legislation," a modern authority can say.[7] All this is what every man knows about the Council of Trent.法令的遄达“仍然是这一天,所有的教会的立法最高贵的部分,”一个现代化的权威可以说,[7]这是每个人都知道有关安理会的遄达。 It remains for us to examine, a little more in detail, what those scores of pages of reform decrees contain.它仍然是我们研究的,详细一点多了,什么改革页分数法令包含。Perhaps the summary will be less deadly if it follows the simple historical fact that the council abolished altogether many practices hitherto lawful, and introduced much that was new, and that it hoped to secure the future observance of what it now decreed by the related legal devices of a new kind of power for the diocesan bishop and of penalties for wrongdoing that would work automatically.摘要或许会少致命的,如果它遵循简单的历史事实会取消完全的许多做法迄今合法的,并介绍了很多,这是新和,它希望它现在颁布相关的法律手段,以确保未来的遵守一种新的教区主教的权力和不法行为的惩罚,会自动工作。 The summary list of the achievements that follows is not, of course, complete, and it does not follow the chronological order of the sessions. ,当然,总结所取得的成就如下列表不完整的,它不遵循时间顺序排列的各届会议。

Of all the chronic scandals of the fourteen to the sixteenth centuries none had given rise to more continuous resentment than the papal licences to ecclesiastics to hold more than one see, or abbey, or parish simultaneously--scandals connected with what is called compendiously, the benefice system.销售所有慢性丑闻的十四到十六世纪没有比教皇许可证教区的崛起,更多的持续的不满,持有超过一见,或修道院,或教区同时 - 什么是所谓的compendiously的连接丑闻,。采邑制度。Trent utterly forbade this practice--even where the beneficiaries were cardinals--and the council ordered all existing pluralists to surrender all but one of the benefices they held.特伦特完全禁止这种做法 - 即使受益人为枢机主教 - 安理会下令所有现有的多元主义,放弃所有,但他们所持的benefices之一。It abolished, also, all expectatives, that is to say, all grants of posts when they next fell vacant; and, with these, "coadjutorships with the right of succession," the practice whereby the benefice-holder secured, in his own lifetime, the nomination of his successor (a relative usually) to whom, when something better for himself turned up, he could surrender the parish, or canonry, or see.也取消,所有expectatives,也就是说,当他们未来下跌空置的职位所有赠款;,与这些“继承权coadjutorships”,即采邑人在他自己的一生抵押的做法提名他的继任者(通常是一个相对),谁的东西更好地为自己打开了,他可以交出教区,牧师会会员,或看到。 The choice of coadjutors to sees was strictly reserved henceforth to the pope. coadjutors选择到看到的是严格保留今后教皇。Meanwhile the third chronic benefice scandal was checked--the absentee priest or abbot or bishop, who never even saw his flock but merely drew the profits while a hireling tended them at a salary.与此同时,第三慢性采邑丑闻检查 - 缺席的神父或住持或主教,甚至从来没有看到他的羊群,但只是提请利润而雇工往往在他们的薪金。

Dealing with which the council roundly says, "The law about residence has become in practice a dead letter."处理与安理会全面地说,“关于居留法已成为在实践中成为一纸空文。”The new method of dealing with this old trouble was to forbid all licences allowing clerics with a cure of souls to reside away from their posts, to set out in detail the limits of the temporary leave annually allowed them, and to provide an automatic penalty of loss of right to the income--so that the delinquent who managed to get the income was, in effect, stealing it and bound to restitution.新的方法处理这个老毛病,禁止所有许可证允许神职人员与治愈的灵魂居住离岗位,详细设置的限制,每年允许他们暂时离开,并提供自动罚款权的收入损失 - 使拖欠,谁管理,以获得收入,实际上,偷它必然要恢复原状。No more were there to be sees where, like Milan, no archbishop had resided for a hundred years.没有更多的在那里可以看到的地方,像米兰,没有大主教居住百年。

Other dispensations, to the profit of the benefice-hunting cleric, which were now abolished were the permissions which enabled newly appointed bishops to delay their consecration all but indefinitely, so that boys could be appointed to sees, draw their revenues (or their parents draw them in their stead), and, when arrived at an age to be ordained and consecrated, could remain in their semi-lay state until, succeeding to some lay dignity, they chose to resign an abbey or see, marry and found a family.其他特许,利润的采邑狩猎教士,现在取消的权限,使新任命的主教,他们的奉献所有,但无限期延迟,让男生可以任命认为,借鉴他们的收入(或他们的家长借鉴他们在代之而起的),并在被祝圣和奉献的时代来到的时候,可以留在他们半躺在状态,直到成功的一些奠定尊严,他们选择了辞职修道院或看到的,结婚和建立家庭。 No one, henceforward, is to be appointed to a see who has not been in Holy Orders for at least six months, and he must be consecrated within six months, or the appointment lapses.没有人,从今以后,被任命为看看谁没有在至少6个月的圣订单,他必须在6个月,或委任失效奉献。For lesser clerics, the dispensation, so often given, to delay receiving the orders which were the very condition of holding the post was likewise abolished; and also licences to be ordained by whatever bishop the cleric chose.对于较轻的神职人员,配药,所以常常给,拖延接受订单,其中持有同样取消后的条件;还许可证,由神职人员选择任何主教祝圣。 Bishops were now told that it was their duty to ordain personally all the clerics destined to work in their own particular sees.主教们现在告诉亲自祝圣神职人员注定在自己特定的工作,认为这是他们的责任。The benefice-holder not yet ordained must go for ordination to the bishop of the diocese where his benefice lay.必须去协调,他的采邑奠定教区主教的采邑持有者尚未受戒。

Money--the cleric's need and desire for more and more of it--was certainly one main cause of the religious malaise whence Luther's chance came.钱 - 萨德尔的需要和渴望更多和更 - 肯定是一个宗教弊病何处路德的机会来了的主要原因。Trent cut away two perennial sources of trouble by abolishing, under most stringent automatic penalties, the custom by which bishops, making the visitation of their dioceses, either levied a tax on the parishes visited, or were given tributes of affection, free gifts, etc., in the shape of money, and otherwise.遄达废除切去两个常年来源麻烦,根据最严格的自动惩罚,自定义,其中主教,使探视他们的教区,无论是征收的一种税教区访问,或给予亲情的贡品,免费赠品等,在钱的形状,否则。 And it abolished similar age-long customs for the benefit of the bishop at ordinations.它废除了类似的年龄长的习俗,在祝圣主教的利益。Finally the council remembered Luther, and how his revolution had started, in 1517, with a declaration against Indulgences which stressed the scandals deriving from the connection between these and the Christian duty to give alms to pious causes.最后会记住路德,以及如何他的革命的开始,在1517年宣言强调和基督徒的责任施舍,以虔诚的原因之间的连接产生的丑闻对放纵,。 The council speaks of these abuses as the occasion of heretical blasphemies, and of the wickedness of the alms collectors' practices being the source of great mischief to the ordinary Catholic.会说话的这些侵犯邪教亵渎之际,和邪恶的施舍收藏家“的做法,是伟大的恶作剧普通天主教。

The very office-- name and thing--of clerical "alms-collector" (questor in Latin) is therefore abolished, the council bluntly stating that after two centuries of lawmaking there seemed to be no hope of their amendment.因此取消非常办事处 - 名称和东西 - 办事员“施舍收藏家”(在拉美questor),会直截了当地指出,经过两个世纪的立法权,似乎是没有希望他们的修正案。The duty of announcing Indulgences was reserved henceforward to the bishop of the diocese, and, for the future, the giving of an alms was never to be the necessary condition for the gaining of an Indulgence.保留宣布放纵的职责是从今以后教区主教,并给予的施舍,对于未来,从未获得一个放纵的必要条件。

Finally, in the matter of marriage, the council restricted the force of the law which forbade marriage between in-laws (so to call them) related through sinful sex relations,[8] between those related through a brother or sister's solemn espousals (sponsalia), or by the spiritual relationship set up through the sacrament of baptism--the council frankly admitted that the number of these prohibitions had become an occasion of sin to very many, of invalid marriages, for example, contracted in ignorance, which the partners refused to abandon, and which could not be broken off without danger of further sin.最后,在婚姻问题上,安理会限制它禁止中,法律通过罪孽深重的性别关系相关的,以便向致电他们,[8]之间通过一个弟弟或妹妹的严正espousals相关者(sponsalia之间的婚姻的法律效力),或者由安理会通过洗礼精神的关系 - 坦率地承认,这些禁令已成为罪的场合很多,例如,无效婚姻,在无知承包,它的合作伙伴拒绝放弃,并没有进一步罪的危险,这不能被打破。The council also abolished secret marriages--marriages where none need be present but the man and woman who contracted the marriage.理事会还废除秘密婚姻 - 婚姻没有必要存在,但男人和女人谁承包的婚姻。Such marriages--provided the parties were really free to marry--were true marriages.这种婚姻 - 为各方提供真正自由地结婚 - 婚姻是真实的。

But since the fact of the marrying could not be proved by independent testimony, and since the mutual contradiction of the two partners (should one of them choose to abandon the other) was not capable of resolution, these secret marriages were a chronic source of trouble.但自从结婚可以由独立的证词证明,和相互矛盾的两个合作伙伴(其中一人选择放弃其他)以来没有解决的,这些秘密结婚很麻烦的慢性源。 The Church, says the council's decree (Tametsi, November 11, 1563), "has ever held the practice in detestation, and strictly forbidden it."教会说,安理会的法令(1563年11月11日,Tametsi),“有一次在厌恶的做法,严禁。”To contract a marriage in this way was, generally speaking, a grave sin.合同在这样的婚姻,一般来说,一个严重的罪过。Those married in this clandestine fashion were, once the fact was discovered or admitted, condemned to a public penance in reparation of the scandal, and compelled to renew their matrimonial pledges in due form in the parish church.在这个秘密的方式结婚人,一旦事实被发现或承认,谴责在赔偿的丑闻公开忏悔,并被迫延长婚姻的承诺,在适当形式在教区教堂。 The council's proposal, to decree that clandestine marriages were, by the fact, not marriages at all, met with strong opposition.该委员会的建议,法令,秘密结婚的事实,而不是在所有的婚姻遭到强烈反对,。All, of course, acknowledged the terrible evil they had caused from time immemorial, but many bishops doubted whether the Church had the power to make the declaration which, for the future, nullified all marriages but those contracted before three witnesses, one of whom must be the parish priest (parochus, ie, "pastor" in the modern American parlance) or a priest licensed by him or by the bishop.[9]所有的,当然,承认他们从远古时代造成的可怕的邪恶,但许多主教怀疑教会是否有权力作出声明,对于未来,废止所有的婚姻,但前三个证人承包的,其中一人必须[9]教区牧师(parochus,即,“牧师”在现代美国的说法),或由他或由主教授权一名牧师。

The reader will perceive, behind the objection, the shade of a doctrinal controversy about the power of the Church of Christ with reference to the matter and form of the sacraments.读者会察觉到,背后的反对,一提及此事,并形式的圣礼基督的教会权力的教义争议的阴影。To avoid the chance of a debate about this, the council dealt with the practical problem only, and it is among the disciplinary reforms, and not among the decrees on doctrine, that the great change was placed.为了避免对此进行辩论的机会,安理会处理的实际问题,而且是改革之间的纪律,而不是学说之间的法令,被置于巨大的变化。 At the same time the council refused to declare null for the future marriages of young people made without the consent of their parents.与此同时,安理会拒不申报空未经其父母同意的年轻人对未来的婚姻。"Had there been no other reason for calling this council," said a bishop who took part in it,[10] "this task alone, the condemnation of furtive marriages, would have justified its being summoned, for there was not a corner of the world that this plague had not infected, the occasion, for generations, of an infinity of wicked deeds."[11] “有没有致电本会的其他原因,说:”一个主教参加在它的一部分,[10]“仅此任务,谴责偷偷摸摸的婚姻,将足以支持其被传唤,有没有一个角落世界,这场瘟疫没有感染之际,为几代人,一个邪恶的事迹无穷。“[11]

The bishop's arm as a reformer is strengthened, time and again, in the Tridentine reforms, by the clause that he acts "as delegated for this by the Holy See."加强主教的手臂作为一个改革者,时间,并再次,在律但丁改革的条文,他的行为,“教廷委派看到。”This in such matters as these: the visitation of all chapters within his diocese, of all monasteries which are held "in commendam,"[12] and of all "pious places," ie, places of pilgrimage, shrines, and so forth; for the examination of all dispensations sent through him, from Rome, to his subjects (and henceforth it is always to the petitioner's bishop that dispensations will be sent), of all Roman permissions to change the terms of wills; the examination and correction of all notaries, a race whose costly incompetence is frequently complained of; the correction of all secular clerics who live in his diocese, and of all regulars there who are not living within a monastery; for the summary, out- of-hand correction of notorious and defiant concubinary clerics, and for the suppression of all abuses and superstitions centering round the mass.这在像这些问题举行的所有寺院,在他的教区之内的所有章节的探视“在commendam的”,[12]和所有“虔诚的地方”,即地方的朝圣圣地,等等;审查所有特许发送通过他,从罗马到他的科目从此它是始终信访人的象,特许将被发送的所有罗马的权限,更改遗嘱的条款;的所有检查和校正公证员,一个种族,其昂贵的无能常常抱怨;所有居住在他的教区,和所有的常客还有谁不生活在修道院的世俗教士改正;摘要,手纠正和臭名昭著的目中无人concubinary神职人员,并为所有的滥用和迷信一轮围绕群众的镇压。

In all these cases the bishop's sentence takes effect immediately.在所有这些情况主教的判决立即生效。He is given the like power to unite neighbouring parishes, and to divide parishes that are, geographically, too large, and this whether the priests are willing or not, and he may finance the new from the revenues of the old as he judges best.他是给像的力量团结邻近教区,并划分教区,地理,过大,这是否祭司愿意与否,他可能从老根据他的判断最好的收入的新的融资。 Where the priest is too ignorant to preach, the bishop may provide him with a better instructed curate, fix his salary and compel the parish priest to pay it.牧师太无知鼓吹,主教可能提供一个更好的指示牧师的他,解决他的工资,并迫使教区牧师支付。Dilapidated churches are a frequent subject of comment in all medieval church records.破旧的教堂是所有中世纪教堂记录的注释在频繁的主题。The bishop's powers "as delegated," etc., make it possible to compel the repair of churches, ie, to compel those to whom the parish revenues are paid to finance the repairs, even the repairs of monastic churches where the superior of the local abbot is negligent in this duty.主教的权力“下放”等,使人们有可能迫使修复教堂,即迫使那些教区收入支付给金融维修,甚至连本地优越的寺院教堂的维修住持是疏忽,在这个责任。 Finally, he may use the same power to finance, out of the revenues of the cathedral chapter, the new public lectureship of Sacred Scripture which he is ordered to institute in his see-city, the Scripture teaching in the diocesan "high school," and the diocesan seminary which he is now ordered to found.最后,他可能会使用相同的功率输出的大教堂章节,他下令在他看到城市研究所的新圣经公共讲师,在教区圣经“高中教学,”收入的资金,教区修院,他现在是责令的发现。 One sometimes hears the nonsense that never have bishops really been bishops since the Council of Trent.人们有时听到的废话,从来没有真正以来安理会的遄达主教主教。Actually, with Trent there came to an end, once and for all, that reign of the exemptions from episcopal authority which had plunged the Church into an anarchy that had well nigh destroyed her religious life, so that Pole, as legate at the council, could speak of "the almost ruined Church."其实,与特伦特走到了尽头,一劳永逸,这已陷入无政府状态,以及夜间摧毁了她的的宗教生活教会主教的权力豁免的统治,因此,北极,在安理会特使,可以讲“教会几乎毁了。”

There are three phrases that continually recur in this new legislation, tamquam delegatus, deinceps (ie, henceforward), and ipso iure, a phrase of the same force as our own common expression, English now as well as Latin, ipso facto--the fact here, being the law in which the phrase appears.有三句话,不断重演在这个新的立法,tamquam delegatus,deinceps(即,从今以后),IPSO iure短语,作为我们自己的共同表达,英语力量的现在以及拉丁文,依照事实 - 其实在这里,法律词组。This is the magical automatic penalty.这是神奇的自动罚款。The law issues an order, and states a penalty, and the delinquent incurs the penalty immediately he breaks the law, sometimes a spiritual penalty such as excommunication, sometimes the loss of a title to income.订单的法律问题,以及各国的罚款,以及拖欠招致的惩罚,他立刻打破法律,有时一个如被逐出教会的精神罚款,有时丧失所有权收入。 Some of these penalties we have met already, incidentally, on our voyage through the forest.这些刑罚,我们已达到了,顺便说一句我们的航程,穿过森林。Here are more specimens.这里有更多的标本。It is the bishop who is the subject chiefly affected.这是主教,谁是主要受影响的主题。The bishops at Trent are legislating about their own order; they are reforming bishops, securing to the best of their powers that "Never again," etc., etc. It is with laws providing against the catastrophe of bad bishops that the council's reforms, indeed, begin; to which the blunt honest words of Pole's keynote speech, at the opening of the council, all but compelled them.遄达主教是对自己的秩序立法,他们是改革的主教,确保其权力,“下不为例”等,等,对灾难坏主教,安理会的改革提供法律,事实上,开始到北极的主题演讲会开幕式,钝诚实的话,但迫使他们。

"Let us come to what are called abuses. It will be found that it is our ambition, our avarice, our cupidity that have wrought all these evils on the people of God."“让我们来什么是所谓的 这将是发现,这是我们的野心,我们的贪婪,我们的贪婪,造成所有这些罪恶,上帝的子民的虐待。” Trent may indeed have been the glorious triumph of orthodoxy over the new heresies, but we shall fail wholly to understand the real changes it brought about, unless we see also in the council the repentant episcopate, sitting in sackcloth and ashes.特伦特可能确实已经光荣的胜利对正统的新邪说,但我们将无法完全理解它带来的真正变化,除非我们看到在安理会悔改的主教,坐在麻布和灰烬。 "Before the tribunal of God's mercy we, the shepherds, should make ourselves responsible for all the evils now burdening the flock of Christ not in generosity but in justice." “神的怜悯,我们的法庭前,牧羊人,应该使自己所有的罪恶现在负担着基督的羊群负责 不慷慨,但在司法 。So Pole, once more.因此,北极,一次以上。

These reforming bishops, then, use the device of the "automatic" penalty so that the absentee bishop loses the right to his income, and the pluralist is deprived of sees he will not resign; that the concubinary prelate who defies the warnings of the provincial council loses his see; that the bishop becomes (in law) a thief who accepts gifts from those he ordains or from the parishes and other churches where he is making the visitation; and that the metropolitan is deprived of his right to officiate who fails to report to Rome the fact of a defiantly absentee suffragan.这些改革主教,然后,使用设备的“自动”处罚缺席主教,使失去的权利,他的收入,和多元,是剥夺认为他不会辞职; concubinary主教谁违抗省警告会失去他看到主教成为一个小偷(法)人接受从那些他ordains或探视他是从教区和其他教会的礼物;大都市是剥夺他的主持权人未能报告到罗马的一个挑衅缺席副主教的事实。 It is in the same way, too, that the pluralist of lesser degree is reached, and the non- preaching parish priest is fined.正是以同样的方式,达到了程度较轻的多元,非说教教区神父被罚款。

The simplest remedy for whatever has been amiss in these matters is to appoint to the office none but good men, competently endowed with the needed natural gifts and technical training.最简单的补救,对于任何已经在这些问题上的不妥是委任的办公室都没有,但好男人,胜任赋与需要的天赋和技术培训。 And on this subject the council has much to say, about preliminary enquiries before the appointments are made.关于这个问题的安理会有什么好说的,有关的初步查询前的任命。Ultimately the responsibility lies with that supreme authority whose bulls are the essential element in all these appointments.最终的责任在于,至高无上的权威,其公牛队在所有这些任命的重要组成部分。The council ventures to hint at negligence here as the chief source of the evils.安理会合资暗示疏忽这里的罪恶的主要来源。"In the last place, this holy synod, troubled by the number of these most serious evils, cannot refrain from putting on record, that nothing is more necessary for the Church of God than that the most blessed pope of Rome, who by his office is bound to the care of the whole Church, should give this particular matter his closest attention, [namely] to associate with himself, as cardinals, only men of exceptional character and gifts, and to appoint as diocesan bishops the very best and most suitable; and this all the more because our Lord, Jesus Christ, will require at his hands the blood of those sheep of Christ who have perished through the wicked misgovernment of neglectful bishops unmindful of their duty."[13] “在最后的地方,这主教,困扰这些最严重的罪恶的数量,可以不是不要备案,,什么是多神的教会有必要比,在罗马最有福的教宗,谁由他的办公室是必然要照顾整个教会,应该给他最亲密的关注这一具体问题,即联想到与自己,为枢机主教,只有男人的特殊性质和礼物,并任命为教区主教最好的和最合适的;更因为我们的主耶稣基督,将需要通过恶人弊政的疏忽主教不顾他们的义务丧生的那些羊基督的血在他的手中“[13]。

Both cardinals and bishops are explicitly warned that the natural affection of a man for his kinsfolk breeds nepotism, that this affection can be "a seeding-plot of many evils in the Church."枢机主教和主教都被明确警告说,他的亲属滋生裙带关系的人的自然感情,这种感情可以是“一个在教会里的许多罪恶的种子情节。” So the council forbids these personages to provide for their relations out of church revenues.因此,安理会禁止这些人士为两国关系的教会收入。If they are poor folk, they may, of course, be succoured like other poor folk.如果他们是穷人的民间,他们可能,当然,像其他贫困民间succoured。And one of the most obnoxious troubles of the past centuries is faced when the council begs bishops to be moderate in the use of excommunication, "for experience teaches that if this penalty is inflicted rashly, and for slight offences, it provokes contempt, not fear, and works harm to the offender rather than good"--excommunication being, in the mind of the Church, not a vindictive act but medicinal, something done to bring a man to his senses.过去几个世纪最厌恶的烦恼之一是会回避时所面临的的主教逐出教会使用温和,“经验教导,如果这个点球是轻率造成的,轻微的罪行,它挑起蔑视,而不是恐惧工程的危害的罪犯,而不是好“ - 被逐出教会被,在教会的心中,不是一个报复行为,但药用,做他的感官,使一个人的东西。Bishops are warned especially not to allow themselves, in this matter, to be made the tools of the state, excommunicating according to the wish of the prince.主教们警告说,尤其是不要让自己,在这个问题上,作出了国家的工具,根据王子希望开除。

Two more items in this lengthy selection and we have done; one of them about the layman--a rare subject for direct notice in these Canon Law sections.两个项目,在这个漫长的选择,我们已经做了,其中一个有关门外汉 - 一种罕见的题目直接通知这些佳能法部分。 The subject is duels, the use of which, as an acknowledged social convention among the nobles--and what a curse it was to be down to the mid- nineteenth century!--is now first establishing itself.主题是决斗,使用其中,作为一个公认的社会习俗之间的贵族 - 什么诅咒,它是在十九世纪中叶 - 现在是先建立本身。 The council's principle is that the man who kills another in a duel is a murderer.该委员会的原则是,该名男子杀死另一个在决斗是一个杀人犯。The man killed dies with the stigma that his last intention, too, was murder.该名男子死亡,死亡与耻辱,他最后的意图,也被谋杀。 The seconds are accessories to murder, and the friends of the parties who assemble to see the duel are approvers.秒谋杀配件,组装看到决斗各方朋友的审批。All, then, are henceforward punished by ipso facto penalties: the principals and the seconds are excommunicated, and incur the legal penalty of "perpetual infamy"--never again will a court of law consider their testimony in any case before it; they rank as professional criminals, and are all to be held as murderers.所有,那么,从今以后处罚事实上处罚:校长和秒驱逐,并招致“永久的骂名”法律惩罚 - 一个法院绝不会再考虑他们的证词之前,在任何情况下,他们的排名专业罪犯,并举行凶手。If one of the party is killed in the duel he is not to be given Christian burial.如果其中一方是在决斗中丧生,他是不被基督教墓地。All who encourage the duel, and the spectators, are also, by the fact, excommunicated.鼓励的对决,观众,也都是事实,逐出教会。Rulers, whatever their rank (and the emperor is explicitly mentioned), who make provision for the fighting of duels-- providing a kind of official duelling ground (for example) are ipso facto excommunicated, and lose all their jurisdiction over the place where this is situated, if it is a fief of the Church; if it is held by a lay prince, the place reverts to the suzerain.统治者,不管他们的排名(皇帝明确提到),作出规定,为战斗的决斗 - 提供一个正式的决斗地面(例如)是事实本身逐出教会,并失去了他们所有的司法管辖区在地方,凡本坐落,如果它是一个教会的封地;如果它是一个奠定王子举行的地方恢复的宗主国。

"With regard to the ordination of priests, Holy Father, no care whatever is taken," the cardinalitial committee on reform had reported to Paul III, eight years before the council met. “牧师,圣父,没有照顾,无论是采取协调方面,”cardinalitial改革委员会报告说,在安理会开会之前保罗三,8年。"The most ignorant of men," they said, "and sprung from the dregs of society, and even themselves depraved, mere youths, are everywhere admitted to holy orders." “最无知的男人”,他们说,“从社会渣滓如雨后春笋般涌现,而且连自己堕落的,单纯的青年,到处都是承认,进入神圣的订单。”We touch on one of the great mysteries of medieval Catholicism, not that there were bad priests, but that the Church never faced the problem of training and educating the rank and file of the parochial clergy--and this in the centuries which saw the rise of such remarkable formative institutions as the monastic orders and the orders of friars.触摸中世纪天主教的伟大的奥秘之一,而不是有坏神父,但教会从未遇到过的培训和教育的排名和教区神职人员的文件的问题 - 而这在其中看到了崛起的世纪如此骄人的形成机构作为寺院的订单和订单的修士。Here, more than in any other point, with Trent a new age begins.在这里,超过任何其他点,采用遄达一个新时代的开始。"Youth, unless rightly trained, sinks to the pursuit of the lustful pleasures of the world," say the venerable Fathers of the council.“青年,除非正确的训练,以追求世界的淫荡乐趣汇”,说的会可敬的父亲。"Unless a boy has been formed in habits of prayer and religion from his tenderest years, before the habits of adult vice can take root, he will never perfectly persevere in ecclesiastical discipline, unless by some very great and more than ordinary grace from God." “除非一个男孩已经形成了从他的温柔多年的祈祷和宗教习惯,成人副习惯之前,可以生根,他将永远不会完全坚持教会纪律,除非一些非常伟大的,从神的普通恩典。 “So the council now decrees that every bishop shall set up a special college where picked boys shall live and be given a religious training, be taught to live the clerical life.因此,安理会现在法令,每一个主教应成立一个特殊的学院回升男孩将生活,给予宗教训练,教生活文书的生活。

These are to be boys who give promise of perseverance in the Church's service, poor boys preferably.这些是谁给的毅力在教会的服务承诺,穷人男孩最好的男孩。They must be twelve years old at least, and able to read and write well, and of legitimate birth.他们必须至少12岁,并能够读取和写的很好,和合法的诞生。This college "will become a permanently fruitful seed-bed (seminarium) of ministers of God."这个学院“将成为一个永久富有成效种子床神的部长(seminarium)。”

The council, in this aside, has given the new institution the name it will henceforward always bear--the seminary.安理会在这一边,给了新的机构名称,从今以后将始终牢记 - 神学院。The programme of studies is next set out, and the way of life: daily mass, monthly confession, Holy Communion as often as the boy's confessor judges.下一组研究方案,生活方式:每天的质量,每月供述,圣餐经常男孩的忏悔法官。On Sundays, and at the great feasts, the seminarians will assist at the services in the cathedral, hard by which the college is to be placed, or in other churches in the town.在星期日,在伟大的节日,修道会协助在大教堂的服务,很难放置到该学院,或在其他教会在镇。Unsuitable boys, the incorrigible above all and the troublemakers, are to be sent away.不合适的男孩,上述所有屡教不改的肇事者,被送走。As the years pass, they receive minor orders and go on to their professional studies, Holy Scripture, ecclesiastical treatises, the administration of the sacraments (especially the hearing of confessions), the Church's ritual.随着岁月的传递,接收未成年人的订单,并继续以自己的专业研究,圣经,教会的论文,管理的圣礼(尤其是听证会的供词),教会的仪式。 They will receive Holy Communion more frequently once they are in minor orders, and will begin to be associated with the practical work of the parish clergy.他们将接受圣餐更频繁,一旦他们在小的订单,将开始与教区神职人员的实际工作。Once they receive the subdiaconate they are to communicate every week.一旦他们沟通每周收到subdiaconate。

For this first of the major orders they must be twenty-one years of age completed, for the diaconate twenty-two, for the priesthood twenty-four.对于这个第一个大订单,他们必须完成二十一岁的年龄,为diaconate二十,二十四神职人员。The foundation of these new colleges the bishops are to take in hand quam primum--at the earliest opportunity.这些新学院的基础主教在手华富嘉洛primum - 在最早的机会。

The remainder of this very long decree is taken up with rules about the choice of teachers, and their needed academic qualifications.在这个很长的法令的其余部分是采取了对教师的选择规则,他们需要的学历。As to finance, the bishop is given exceptionally wide powers to call upon all the ecclesiastical revenues of his diocese, of the regulars (even the exempt) as well as the diocesan clergy, the mendicant orders alone excepted.至于金融,主教是给予格外广泛权力,呼吁所有教会的收入他的教区的常客(甚至免除),以及教区神职人员,乞讨订单仅除外。 Special provision is made for the diocese that is too poor or too small to provide its own seminary.教区是太穷或太小,无法提供自己的温床作了特别规定。

These clergy, thus carefully trained, and now duly ordered, how are they to live?这些神职人员,从而认真训练,现在正式下令,他们如何生活?The sixteenth-century parish rarely needed more than one priest to attend to it--so numerous were the parish churches, even in the cities.[14] In most churches there were chapels built by pious men of means, where mass was daily offered for the repose of the souls of themselves and their family--the chantries.十六世纪的教区很少需要超过一个牧师出席 - 如此众多的教区教堂,即使在城市,[14]在大多数教会有虔诚的男子意味着建造的教堂,每天提供质量对自己和家人的灵魂安息 - chantries。 The funds left were sufficient to keep the priest appointed to the duty--this was his benefice.剩下的资金足以让牧师任命责任 - 这是他的采邑。Very often also he served as schoolmaster.很多时候,他担任校长。Now one of the trials of the pious man down to the end of the Middle Ages had been the sight of the horde of beggar-priests--priests without any benefice at all, driven to live by their wits out of the general benevolence of the laity.一个虔诚的人的审判下降到中世纪末期已看到的乞丐神父的部落 - 没有任何采邑在所有的祭司,带动一般仁住自己的智慧俗人。 As well as founding the seminary system, Trent forbade bishops to ordain candidates who could never be of service, and also all who were not able, at their ordination, to bring legal proof that they were in peaceful possession of a benefice the income of which was enough to support them.以及成立神学院系统,特伦特禁止主教祝圣的候选人可能永远不会被服务,并也无法在他们的协调,使合法证明,他们在和平占有一个采邑的收入足以支持他们。 Even good, suitable candidates are not to be ordained, says the new law, if they are lacking here.即使是好的,合适的人选是不被祝圣说,新的法律,如果他们缺乏。This benefice, if it is the only one the priest possesses, he is never allowed to resign without expressly stating that it is the benefice by title of which he was ordained.这采邑,如果是只有一个牧师拥有,他是决不允许辞职没有明确指出它是由所有权的采邑,其中他被任命。

The sixteen dogmatic decrees of the council, for all their terse style, would run to some sixty pages of this size even in a terse translation.理事会的十六个教条式的法令,其简洁的风格,将运行到这种规模的60页,即使在一个简短的翻译。Little more can be done than to list them, and for the student of history especially, to point out the excellent starting point they are for the study of the Catholic religion as it was in the early sixteenth century, and of the theological case between the Church and the reformers.多一点就可以做得比列出来,和历史的学生,特别是指出了很好的起点,他们对天主教的研究,因为它是在十六世纪初,和神学之间的情况下教会和改革者。 It is a statement of that case as simple and as clear as it is authoritative.这种情况下,这是一个简单和明确的,因为它是权威的的声明。These decrees are, in form, miniature theological treatises, and they are carefully not written in the technical language theologians use.这些法令的形式,微型神学论文,他们是经过精心没有在技术语言神学家使用的书面。 To each decree there is a list of canons annexed, statements, that is to say, of some point of the reformed teaching which is contrary to the teaching set forth in the decree and therefore condemned.对每一个法令是有大炮所附报表,也就是说,一些载于该法令,因此谴责这是违反教学改革教学点。

Here, in chronological order, is the list of the dogmatic decrees, with the dates of the sessions when they were passed, and a note of the number of the canons attached to them and of the length (in printed pages) of the decrees:在这里,按时间顺序,是教条式的法令清单,各届会议的日期时,他们获得通过,注意和重视他们的大炮的数量和长度的法令(打印页数):

Doctrine学说 Session会议 Date日期 Canons大炮 Decrees法令
The Holy Scriptures圣经 4 4 8th Apr 15464月第1546号8日 None没有 1 1
Original Sin原罪 5 5 7th Jun 1546六月第1546号7 5 5 4 4
Justification理由 6 6 13th Jan 15471月1547年13日 33 33 16 16
The Sacraments in General在一般的圣礼 7 7 3rd Mar 15473月1547年3 13 13 1 1
Baptism洗礼 7 7 3rd Mar 15473月1547年3 14 14 None没有
Confirmation确认 7 7 3rd Mar 15473月1547年3 3 3 None没有
The Holy Eucharist II [15]圣体圣事II [15] 13 13 11th Oct 1551年10月1551 11 11 11 8 8
Penance忏悔 14 14 15th Nov 155111月1551 15 15 15 15 15
Extreme Unction临终 14 14 4th Nov 155111月1551 4 4 4 3 3
The Holy Eucharist II [16]圣体圣事二[16] 21 21 16th Jun 1562第16届六月1562年 4 4 3 3
The Holy Eucharist II[17]圣体圣事II [17] 22 22 9th Sep 1562九月1562年9日 9 9 4 4
Holy Orders圣职 23 23 15th Jul 1563七月1563年15日 8 8 3 3
Marriage结婚 24 24 11th Nov 156311月1563年11 12 12 1 1
Purgatory炼狱 25 25 4th Dec 1563年12月1563年4 None没有 1 1
Cults: Saints Relics Images邪教:圣徒文物图片 25 25 4th Dec 1563年12月1563年4 None没有 3 3
Indulgences放纵 25 25 4th Dec 1563年12月1563年4 None没有 1 1

It will be observed that more than half of the text of the decrees is given to the doctrine of the sacraments.这将是观察,超过一半的法令文本的圣礼的教义。This, indeed, ever since Luther's famous tract, The Babylonian Captivity of the Church (1520) had been the main point of the Protestant assault, in this sense, that what was challenged here was what every man could appreciate immediately, namely, the actual practice of the religion instituted by Christ our Lord.事实上,自从路德著名的道的教会的巴比伦圈养(1520)已被主要的新教殴打点,在这个意义上说,是挑战,这里是什么每个人都可以欣赏立即,即,实际提起由基督我们的上帝的宗教实践。 All could see here the difference between the old and the new, where only a select few were in a position to judge the implications of the new key-doctrine that Justification is through faith alone.所有可以在这里看到旧的和新的,其中只有一小部分在一个位置来判断的新的关键学说,通过信仰的理由是单独的影响之间的差别。 With this heresy the Council dealt very faithfully, in a single decree of sixteen chapters that takes up one- quarter of the whole text.有了这个异端安理会处理非常忠实地,在一个单一的法令16章,占用一季度整个文本。

Trent, it is sometimes said, put an end once and for all to the indefiniteness and confusion of thought among Catholics--to their comparative freedom to believe pretty much what they liked, in one version of the criticism.特伦特,有时说,杜绝一劳永逸的天主教徒之间的不确定性和混乱的思想 - 他们非常相信他们喜欢比较自由,批评的一个版本。But this matter of terminating differences, when true at all, is true only with a great reservation.但这种终止的差异,当所有的事情,是真的只能用一个很大的保留。The confusion, or division of opinion, was not about traditional doctrine but about the problems raised by the new theories, differences in part related to the practical problem how best to deal with the points raised by Luther, and how to reconcile the Lutherans by so stating the tradition that it would satisfy them also.混乱,或意见分歧,是不是对传统教义,而是新的理论提出的问题,部分的差异相关的实际问题,如何最好地处理与路德提出的各点,以及如何调和路德会说明传统,它将满足他们的需求也。 The idea that the Catholic unity in the fundamentals of belief about grace, original sin, justification, and the sacraments is the fruit of the Tridentine restatement of Catholic doctrine, is too grotesque for patience to bear.有关宽限期,原罪,理由和圣礼的信念的基础天主教的统一,是天主教教义的律但丁重述的水果,是我们的想法太怪诞的耐心承受。 Nowhere does the council say--in effect--so far some Catholics have believed it is X, others that it is Y. but from henceforth, all shall believe it is Y. It is, on the contrary, forever using such phrases as, "following the teaching of the Fathers we define"中没有会说 - 实际上 - 迄今一些天主教徒认为这是X,别人认为它是Y但是从今以后,所有应相信它是Y,相反,它是永远用这样的短语“教学的父亲后,我​​们定义 。 Where is the doctrinal definition of this council, for comment on which the theological lecturer will not turn for guidance to St. Thomas, to say nothing of one or other of the Fathers?本会的教义的定义在哪里,评论神学讲师不会反过来为指导圣托马斯,一个或其他的父亲说什么?

Trent is a witness to the age-long tradition, to the Apostolic tradition, as truly as Nicaea twelve hundred years before or the Vatican Council three hundred years later.特伦特是一个年龄悠久传统的见证,使徒传统,真正尼西亚百年前十二个月或梵蒂冈理事会三百年后。It never does more than state, with the peculiar authority and explicitness of a General Council, what the body of the teaching theologians had been agreed on for centuries and the Church as a whole had implicitly accepted and practiced.它从来不会比国有,特有的权威和总理事会的明确性,身体的教学神学家已经商定的世纪,教会作为一个整体已含蓄地接受和实行。 As to questions which do not touch the substance of a particular doctrine, but regard methods of explaining and defending it, questions of its history, its relation to other doctrines, questions arising from the various ways in which different ages have set it out, the council decides nothing.至于不涉及一个特定的学说的实质,但关于解释和捍卫它的方法的问题,它的历史问题,它关系到其他学说,在不同年龄段的设置,从各种方式产生的问题,安理会决定无关。 From the learned warfare of the Catholic theologians about such matters, it carefully distinguishes its own role, which is not theological scholarship but the preservation of the traditional belief, and the exposure, and condemnation therefore, of whatever contradicts this.从了解到战争的关于这些事项的天主教神学家,仔细区分其自身的作用,这是不是神学奖学金,但保存的传统信仰,并曝光和谴责,因此,任何违背这个。

As to the theological views put forward in the council, and rejected, in, eg, the long discussions that preceded the decree on Justification, when what was called the theory of the double Justification was proposed as an orthodox solution that might reconcile Lutheranism and Catholicism--how new such ideas were among Catholic theologians is illustrated, it may be suggested, from the fact that when the leading theologian of the age, Cajetan, was dealing, in 1507,[18] with St. Thomas' refutation (two centuries in advance) of Luther's basic theory, he has no comment to make about this that would suggest that anywhere among theologians was there any division of opinion on the essence of the question.神学观点在安理会提出,并拒绝在,例如,理由法令之前长时间的讨论,什么是所谓的理论的双重理由是作为正统的解决方案,可能调和路德教,天主教提出的 - 说明了新的天主教神学家之间的这种想法,它可能会建议,从事实,两个世纪时的年龄,Cajetan,领先的神学家是在1507年,[18]与圣托马斯驳斥(提前路德的基本理论),他一直没有作出这个建议,不同的神学家之间的任何地方有任何的意见,对问题的实质分工的评论。

The decrees restate the whole doctrine; they are not merely a contradiction of the reformers' innovations.该法令重申整个学说;,他们不只是一个改革者的创新的矛盾。The canons attached to the decrees are short summary condemnations of heresies that contradict the doctrine set out in the decree, and not of the new, contemporary heresies only.法令大炮的简短摘要谴责违背法令的学说,而不是新的,当代的异端邪说异端。Thus, along with the Lutheran theories about Original Sin, there are also condemned (yet once again) the heresies of Pelagius.因此,随着路德理论原罪,也有谴责(尚未再次)伯拉纠的异端邪说。To show something of the council's teaching, the canons on the key doctrines of Justification, the Sacraments in General, and the Holy Eucharist will now be summarised.要显示的东西安理会的教学,对关键学说的理由大炮,在一般的圣礼和圣体圣事现在将总结。

In the matter of Justification, a doctrine which now makes its first appearance--in its own right--at a General Council, these new errors are condemned:[19] the theory that man is passive, like a stone, under the influence of grace; that since Adam's fall there is no real freedom in the human will, this last idea being an invention brought into the Church by the devil; that the good works done by man before he is justified are sins meriting damnation; that nothing but faith is requisite to achieve Justification; that man can be justified otherwise than through the justice of Christ;[20] that man is justified by the imputation only, of the justice of Christ--Justification being no more than God showing favour to a man; that the faith without which man cannot be justified is the trustful confidence that the divine mercy has forgiven his sins for Christ's sake; that it is a condition for a man's sins being forgiven that he believes, without any hesitation, that his sins have been forgiven; that no one is justified unless he believes he is justified, this belief being what brings about absolution and justification; the justified man is bound to believe, as of faith, that he is numbered among those predestined [to eternal life]; that all men except these are, by the Divine Power, predestined to evil; to believe is the only thing commanded in the Gospel, all the rest being neither commanded nor forbidden, the Ten Commandments having nothing to do with being a Christian;这些新的错误问题的理由,一种学说,现在它的首次亮相 - 在自己的权利 - 在一个总理事会,谴责:[19]该理论认为人是被动的,像石头一样的影响下,的宽限期;,自亚当的秋天,没有人的意志的真正的自由,这最后的想法是魔鬼到教会带来一个发明,由人完成之前,他是有道理的好作品是罪孽值得诅咒,说什么,但信仰是必要的,实现的理由;不是通过基督的正义,否则,人可以合理; [20]人是有道理的归集只,基督的正义 - 理由比上帝偏袒一名男子;,在没有这些的人可以不被合理的信念是在信任的信心,的神圣慈悲已原谅为基督的缘故他的罪过;,它是一个男人的罪孽条件被原谅,他认为没有任何犹豫,,他的罪过已原谅,没有人是有道理的,除非他认为他是有道理的,这种信念是什么带来赦免和理由;正当男子必然相信,信仰,他是注定[永生]这些编号的;除了这些所有的人都,由神力,注定了邪恶,相信是唯一的福音指挥,其余全部是既不指挥,也不禁止,十诫一个基督徒无关;

Christ our Lord was sent as a Redeemer to save, not as lawgiver to be obeyed; man, once justified, cannot sin or fall from grace; there is only one sin that is mortal, the sin of not believing, and through no other sin can grace once attained be lost.基督我们的主被作为一个救赎者,以保存,不作为立法者,以将服从;的人,一旦合理,罪或失宠;有是唯一之一的罪,是凡人,不相信的罪恶,并通过无其他罪可以宽限期曾获丢失。

This is not a complete account of what the thirty-three canons about Justification contain.这是不完整的约33个理由大炮包含帐户。It omits some more subtle statements that would call for a lengthy explanation, and it omits canons which state, not a theory the reformers put out, but Catholic doctrine which they deny.它省略了一些更微妙的陈述,这将要求一个冗长的解释,它省略了大炮哪个国家,不是一个理论的改革者熄,但他们否认天主教教义。

As to the new theories about the kind of thing sacraments are, the canons[21] condemn those who say: that there are more or less than seven sacraments instituted by Christ our Lord--baptism, confirmation, the Eucharist, penance, extreme unction, order, marriage--or that any one of these is not truly a sacrament in the full sense of the word; that these sacraments only differ from the sacraments of the Jewish dispensation as one ritual from another; that the sacraments are not a necessity of salvation, but that through faith alone, and without the sacraments at all, man can obtain from God the grace of Justification; that the sacraments were instituted for the purpose of nourishing only faith; that the sacraments do not contain and confer the grace which they signify--as though they were but outward signs of the grace or justice received through faith, badges of Christian profession that mark off the believer from the infidel; that the sacraments do not themselves confer grace by the very activity of the sacrament (ex opere operato), but that only faith in the divine promises is sufficient to obtain grace; that all Christians have the power to administer all the sacraments; that any pastor of the Church can change the received and approved rites used by the Church in the solemn administration of the sacraments.事圣礼一种新的理论,该炮[21]谴责那些人说:有多于或少于七个圣礼由基督提起我们的上帝 - 的洗礼,确认,圣体圣事,忏悔,临终秩序,婚姻 - 或任何其中之一就是没有真正在这个词的完整意义上的的圣事,这些圣礼只有从一个仪式从另一个犹太省却圣礼不同;圣礼不是必需品救恩,但仅通过信仰,并没有在所有的圣礼,的人能获得来自上帝恩典的理由;圣礼滋养只有信仰的目的建立的圣礼不包含并赋予的恩典他们表示 - 尽管他们在宽限期或正义的外在迹象收到通过信仰,基督教界的徽章,标记过的信徒从异教徒的圣礼不授予圣餐的活动(前宽限期opere operato),但在神圣的承诺,只有信仰是足以获得宽限期;所有的基督徒都有权管理所有的圣礼;任何教会的牧师可以改变收到并批准使用仪式在庄严的教堂管理的圣礼。

As to the doctrine called the Real Presence,[22] the council condemns: those who, denying that Jesus Christ, God and Man, is truly, really, substantially present in the sacrament of the Holy Eucharist, hold instead that He is only present as in a sign or image or manifestation of power (in virtute); those who say that the substance of the bread and the wine remains along with the body and blood of Christ, denying that marvellous and unique changing of the whole substance of the bread into the Body [of Christ] and the whole substance of the wine into [His] Blood, while the appearance of bread and wine still remain--the change which the Catholic Church most suitably calls Transubstantiation; those who say that the Body and Blood of Christ is not there following upon the consecration (peracta consecratione), but only while the sacrament is in use, while it is being received, that is to say, but not before this or after this, and that in what is left over of the consecrated hosts or particles after communion has been administered, the true Body of the Lord does not remain; who say that the main fruit, or the sole fruit, of this sacrament is the forgiveness of sins; or that Christ the only begotten son of God is not to be adored in this sacrament with the externals of the reverence called latria,[23] and that those who do so adore Him in this sacrament are idolaters; that Christ is shown forth in this sacrament to be received [by the communicant] in a spiritual manner, and not also sacramentally and really; that only faith is sufficient preparation for receiving this most holy sacrament.至于学说所谓的真实存在,[22]安理会谴责:这些人,否认耶稣基督,神和人,是真正的,真的,大大目前在圣圣体圣事,持有相反,他是目前唯一的标志或形象或权力的表现(中virtute);,那些说的面包和酒的实质仍然伴随着基督的身体和血液,不可否认,奇妙独特的整个物质的面包变化[基督]机构和酒到整个物质[他]的血液,而面包和酒的外观仍然 - 天主教教会最适当呼吁陷于变体的变化;那些说,身体和血液基督是不是有以下后,奉献(peracta consecratione),但只有当圣餐是在使用,而它正在接收,也就是说,但不是之前或在此之后,而且在什么是遗留一直管理着神圣的主机或颗粒后共融的真身,主不留;人说,主要水果,或唯一的水果,这圣餐,是罪的赦免;或基督唯一的独生子神崇拜在此圣礼与外部的崇敬所谓latria,[23],这样做那些崇拜他在这圣餐是拜偶像;基督是在这圣餐来回[communicant收到一种精神的方式,而不是也sacramentally,真的,只有信仰是有足够的准备接受这个最神圣的的圣事。

The Council denies[24] that there is a divine command that all shall receive Holy Communion under both the forms, ie, of wine as well as of bread, and that it is a necessary sacrament for little children It condemns those who deny that the whole Christ is received when Holy Communion is received under the form of bread alone.会否认[24]有一个神圣的命令,所有应接受圣餐下两种形式,即葡萄酒以及面包,这是一个必要的圣餐小孩子谴责那些否认整个基督收到圣餐时,收到下单形式的面包。

There remain the canons attached to the decree about the sacrifice called the Mass,[25] clear statements in everyday language.仍然有牺牲的法令,该炮所谓地下,[25]在日常语言中明确的声明。 The Council condemns those who say: there is not offered in the Mass a true and proper sacrifice to God; nothing more is meant by this word "offered" than that Christ is given to us to be eaten; Christ by the words Do this in commemoration of Me,[26] did not constitute the apostles priests, or ordain them, so that they and other priests should offer His body and blood; the sacrifice of the Mass is a sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving only, or a mere commemoration of the sacrifice offered on the Cross, but not a sacrifice whereby God is appeased; [the sacrifice] profits only those who receive [Holy Communion]; Mass should not be offered for the living and the dead, or for sins, penalties, satisfactions, and other necessities; a blasphemy is inflicted, through the sacrifice of the Mass, on the most holy sacrifice wrought by Christ on the Cross; the Mass takes away from the sacrifice on the Cross; the Canon[27] of the Mass is full of errors and should be done away with; the masses where none but the celebrating priest receive Holy Communion are unlawful and should be abrogated.安理会谴责那些人说:有没有在大众提供一个真正的和适当的牺牲,神本“提供”比基督是给我们吃一词的含义无非是基督的话,这在[26]我的纪念,不构成使徒祭司,或祝圣他们,使他们和其他神职人员应该给予他的身体和血;牺牲的群众牺牲的只有赞美与感恩,还是仅仅是纪念牺牲在十字架上所提供的,但不是一种牺牲,即上帝是姑息; [牺牲]的利润只有那些谁收到[圣餐];质量不应该提供的生活和死亡,或为罪,处罚,满意,和其他必需品;造成的亵渎,是通过牺牲的群众,由基督在十字架上所造成的最神圣的牺牲;地下,在十字架上的牺牲;佳能[27]地下充满错误,应该取消;群众,但没有庆祝牧师领圣餐是非法的,应该废除。

It has been a simpler task to tell the story of what the council accomplished, without any reference to the contemporary events of those eighteen years, 1545-63.它已经告诉什么会完成的故事,一个简单的任务没有任何提及的那些十八年,1545年至1563年的当代事件。But, without requiring anything like the history of those years, the reader is entitled to ask, Why was the council twice interrupted, and for so long a period?但是,没有任何需要像当年的历史,读者有权问,为什么是安理会两次中断,这么长一段时间呢?In 1547 the cause was the outbreak of the plague at Trent.原因是在1547年爆发的鼠疫在特伦特。The council hastily voted an adjournment to Bologna (March 10) to the fury of Charles V (who took for granted that the plague was mere excuse) and to the embarrassment of Paul III, who realised he would be held responsible for what was, in fact, in no way his doing.会贸然投休会到博洛尼亚(3月10日)的愤怒的查尔斯五世(理所当然瘟疫仅仅是借口)和保罗三,谁意识到,他将负责什么,尴尬事实上,在没有办法,他这样做。 Several sessions were held at Bologna in 1547, a mere marking of time.几届会议于1547年在博洛尼亚举行,只是时间的标记。Meanwhile the emperor carried his attack on the pope to the uttermost limits--ordering his own bishops not to leave Trent, proclaiming that this handful was the real council and the majority at Bologna a mere conventicle.与此同时,皇帝进行他对教皇的攻击到了极处的限制 - 订购自己的主教不要离开遄达宣称,这极少数是真正的理事会和在博洛尼亚的多数只是conventicle。

This crisis had come, in fact, at a moment when the political relations of emperor and pope were at their worst.其实,在皇帝和教皇的政治关系,在最坏的时刻已经来了,这场危机。The opening of the council in 1545 had found them allies in Charles' often-delayed, but now about to be executed, war against the German Protestant league.理事会于1545年启用,发现他们在查尔斯经常推迟的盟友,但现在将要执行的,战争对德国新教联盟。But by the time of Alva's crushing defeat of the princes at Muhlberg (April 24, 1547) relations between the chiefs were strained.但由阿尔瓦的破碎米尔贝格(1547年4月24日)的首领之间的关系诸侯战败时的紧张。The pope's unsatisfactory son, Pierluigi, whom he had invested with the duchies of Parma and Piacenza, against the emperor's will (and possibly against his rights) in 1545, was a thorn in the emperor's side.教宗的不能令人满意的儿子,皮耶路易吉,他投资了帕尔马和皮亚琴察公国反对皇帝的意志(也可能是对他的权利),于1545年,是在皇帝身边的眼中钉。 The imperial viceroy in Milan arranged the duke's assassination (September 10).帝国总督安排在米兰公爵的暗杀(9月10日)。 Was Charles V privy to this?查理五世枢密院是这样做呢?It is hardly likely, but he had assented to the plan to expel Pierluigi by force (May 31).这是不大可能的,但他同意计划驱逐皮耶路易吉力量(5月31日)。This crime was committed in the early weeks of the Bologna period of the council.这一罪行是在博洛尼亚期间安理会的最初几周。 Charles, by virtue of Muhlberg, was master of Germany as no emperor had been for hundreds of years.查尔斯凭借米尔贝格,是德国的主人,没有皇帝了数百年。A brittle glory it was to prove, but the threat of this prince, already ruler of half of Italy, to the independence of the pope was real indeed.脆性的辉煌,这是证明,但这个王子的威胁,已有一半意大利的统治者,教皇的独立性的确是真实的。And the emperor used his mastery to impose on Catholic and Protestant, in Germany, a religious settlement of his own, the so-called Interim.和皇帝用自己掌握强加在天主教和新教,在德国,一个他自己的,所谓的临时宗教解决方案。Was Charles now going to prove himself a Spanish Henry VIII?查尔斯现在要证明自己是西班牙亨利八世呢?The old pope found somewhere a reserve of patience, and the explosion never happened.老教皇发现某处储备的耐心,从来没有发生过爆炸。The bishops went home from Bologna, and from Trent, and then in November 1549 the pope died.主教们回家从博洛尼亚,特伦特,然后在1549年11月教宗死亡。

There followed the long dramatic ten weeks' conclave of 1549-50, in which Pole almost became pope, and from which the senior president at Trent, Del Monte, emerged as Pope Julius III.随后长期戏剧性的10周的秘密会议1549年至1550年,在南极几乎成为教皇,并从其中高级总裁在特伦特,德尔蒙特,作为教皇朱利叶斯三世出现。 And now began the old weary business of persuading Charles to cooperate in the reassembly of the council, and the French king too.现在开始老厌倦说服查尔斯进行合作,安理会的重组业务,和法国国王。Charles had a new point to urge--the reassembled council should be a new council altogether; the Protestants would be pleased if all the matters defined at Trent were treated anew as open questions.查尔斯有一个新的起点,敦促 - 重新安理会应该是一个完全新的理事会;新教徒会很高兴,如果在特伦特定义的所有事项都被视为重新开放式问题。The French king, Henry II, whose reign[28] had barely begun utterly refused to have anything to do with the council.法国国王亨利二世,其在位[28]刚刚开始完全拒绝有什么关系理事会。He was, in fact, on the verge of war with the pope, the casus belli being the revolt of Paul II 's grandsons against the new pope.宣战,其实他与教皇在战争的边缘,对新教皇保禄二世的孙子的反抗。The French king had taken up their cause.法国国王采取了自己的事业。Julius III, as more than one incident at Trent, especially with Charles V's bullying commissioners, had shown, had one of the great tempers of the day.朱利叶斯三,不止一个事件,特别是与查尔斯五世的欺凌专员,在特伦特,表明了伟大的日子脾气之一。But somehow he managed to stifle it, and despite some bad blunders and vacillation he managed to get the council on its feet again in 1551.但不知何故,他设法扼杀它,尽管一些不好的失误和动摇,他设法得到它的脚在1551年的安理会再次。It was in this period that the Protestants accepted the invitation to come to the council--an incident which merely showed beyond all doubt that the new doctrines were not reconcilable with the old.正是在此期间,新教徒接受邀请来到安理会 - 事件只是毫无疑问的表明,新学说与旧的调和。

And now in Germany the war with the Protestant League took up once more.现在在德国新教联盟的战争再次拿起。This time it was the emperor who was defeated and his army destroyed, in southern Germany.这一次是谁被打败的皇帝和他的军队在德国南部,销毁。he pursuit was so hot that Charles himself narrowly escaped capture, and as he made his way over the mountains to a precarious safety at Innsbruck, the bishops of the council decided it was high time they, too, moved south.他的追求是如此炎热,查尔斯本人险遭捕捉,他翻山越岭到岌岌可危的安全在因斯布鲁克途中,主教理事会决定它的时候,他们也南移。 So ended the Julian period of the Council of Trent.所以结束了朱利安时期安理会的遄达。

Julius III died in 1555, to be succeeded by his one-time colleague at Trent, Cervini, whose reign lasted but a short three weeks.朱利叶斯三世死于1555年,由他的一次性同事特伦特,Cervini,其在位长达但短短的三个星期成功。Then came Gian Pietro Caraffa--Paul IV--a hale old man of seventy-nine, the grimmest reformer who ever sat in St. Peter's chair.然后来到吉安Caraffa彼得 - 保罗四 - 一个硬朗的七十九岁的老人,曾经在圣彼得的椅子坐了严峻的改革者。As a young bishop, forty years earlier, he had sat in the all but futile Fifth Council of the Lateran.作为一个年轻的主教,40年前,他坐在拉特兰所有,但徒劳的第五届理事会。Perhaps it was here that he developed his strong belief that little good came of councils.也许正是在这里,他发展了他的一点好了议会的坚定信念。He had other methods, and for heretics they were simple enough--the stake.他有其他的方法,并为异端,他们很简单 - 股权。Paul IV's four years of government in Rome was a reign of terror for evildoers and lawbreakers of every sort, clerical as well as lay.保罗四的4年政府在罗马是一个坏人和不法分子的每一个排序的恐怖统治,文书以及奠定。

His death was followed by a conclave that lasted four months.他去世之后,一个秘密会议,历时4个月。 From it came forth a pope as great a contrast to this passionate, unbalanced Neapolitan as could be imagined, Gian Angelo de' Medici, a Milanese, who took the name Pius IV.从它出来的巨大反差可以想像这个充满激情的,不平衡的那不勒斯教皇,吉安安杰洛德美第奇,一个米兰,参加的名称碧岳四。He was by training a lawyer, and by his career a professional administrator, who had governed one city after another for Clement VII and Paul III; and for his moderation he had found it prudent to leave Rome, in the days of Paul IV.他是一家专业训练的律师,和他的职业生涯管理员,曾管辖后,又一个城市,克莱门特七世和保罗三;和他的温和,他发现了审慎离开罗马,保罗四天,。 His election had produced the ideal character for the delicate business of reconciling to Rome the various Catholic princes recently alienated--particularly the Hapsburgs for whom Paul IV had had an unconcealed personal hatred.他的当选罗马调和各种天主教王子最近疏远的微妙业务产生了比较理想的字符 - 特别是Hapsburgs对他们来说,保罗四世曾毫不掩饰的个人仇恨。

Charles V had died a few months only before Paul IV.查尔斯五世去世仅几个月前,保罗四。In the empire his brother, Ferdinand I, had replaced him; in the rest of his dominions his son, Philip II.他的弟弟,在帝国斐迪南一世,取代了他在他的统治他的儿子,菲利普二世的其余部分。In France too there was a new ruler since June 1559, when Henry II was killed in a tournament--his fifteen-year-old son, Francis II.在法国也有一个新的统治者,自六月1559号决议时,亨利二世在一场比赛中丧生 - 他15岁的儿子,弗朗西斯二世。This boy, whose wife was Mary, Queen of Scots, lasted barely a year and a half, and the sovereign with whom Pius IV had to treat was this boy's mother, Catherine de' Medici, the queen-regent for his still younger successor.这男孩,其妻子玛丽,苏格兰女王,持续了几乎一个一年和半,和这个男孩的母亲,凯瑟琳 - “第奇,的他仍然年轻的继任皇后,摄政王的主权与之碧岳四有治疗。Add that in England the short-lived Catholic restoration of Mary Tudor had just ended, and that Pius IV faced the fait accompli of a restoration of the entire Protestant regime, with Catholicism proscribed utterly in legislation that culminated in the death penalty, and with all the bishops the new queen's prisoners.添加碧岳四,在英国的短暂恢复天主教玛丽都铎刚刚结束,并面临既成事实恢复整个新教政权,天主教被禁完全在立法,在死刑的高潮,并与所有主教新皇后囚犯。 The queen was, of course, Elizabeth.女王当然,伊丽莎白。

I. Given this unusual array of talent among the leading princes, and the fact that all the old preposessions of those who were Catholics still survived-- the instinct to take control of the religious crisis into their own hands, to settle the problems of their own realms, for example, by a national council not under papal influence--given all this, the fact that Pius IV succeeded in reassembling the council, at Trent, within little more than two years would suggest that he is a more important figure than has usually been recognised.一,鉴于居于领先地位的王子的这一不寻常的人才阵列,和事实是天主教徒那些老preposessions仍然存活 - 本能考虑到自己的手中控制的宗教危机,解决他们的问题自己的领域,例如,一个国家会不会罗马教皇的影响下 - 鉴于这一切,碧岳四,成功重组安理会,在遄达内两年多一点的,表明他是一个比较重要的数字比通常也被承认。

With patience and prudence and a constantly firm purpose, he guided the council through what proved to be the major part of its work, and through a continuity of passionate discussions where Spanish and French bishops, as well as Italian, had to be considered and managed.有了耐心和谨慎的和不断坚定目的,他指导安理会通过什么证明是其工作的重要组成部分,通过一个充满激情的讨论必须考虑到西班牙和法国的主教,以及意大利,的连续性和管理。 The most dangerous moments were when the Spaniards strove for a decision that the personal obligation of the bishop to live in his diocese was an obligation of divine law, and not merely of synodal legislation.最危险的时刻,当西班牙人决定的努力,住在他的教区主教的个人义务是神圣的法律的义务,而不是仅仅主教会议的立法。 The danger was that this excellent idea masked a point of theology, and was meant to lead to a discussion of the loaded question, Is the pope the superior of the General Council or its servant?危险是极好的主意,这掩盖了神学点,是为了导致加载的问题进行讨论,是教皇上级总理事会或者其受雇人?the question that had racked the Church of the previous century, and for a renewal of which the Church of the sixteenth century was by no means yet sufficiently healthy.曾费尽上个世纪的教堂,并为其中一个重建的16世纪的教会绝不尚未得到充分的健康问题。That the premature discussion of this particular application of the defined doctrine of the papal supremacy was averted was due, in especial manner, to the great cardinal whom Pius IV sent to preside at the last months of the council, Girolamo Morone.过早讨论这个特定的应用程序的定义是可以避免的教皇至高无上的学说,这是因为,在特殊的方式,伟大的红衣主教碧岳四派主持理事会,吉罗拉莫条纹的最后几个月。

The great council[29] ended with what jubilation about the work done may be imagined.伟大的议会[29]结束什么喜庆约所做的工作可能是可想而知的。The pope by a special bull confirmed all it had decreed, and by a second bull forthwith abolished all privileges and exemptions previously accorded by his predecessors which went contrary to the decrees; and to settle authoritatively all questions arising out of the interpretation of the decrees he created a permanent commission of cardinals, the Congregation of the Council of Trent, a body which developed into a kind of permanent Ministry of the Interior of the Catholic Church, and which functions to this day as one of the most important instruments of the government of the Church.教皇由一个特殊的牛市确认所有已颁布法令,由第二个牛市随即取消了以前由他的前辈给予的一切特权和豁免,其中又以违反法令;和权威来解决所有问题的法令,他的解释所引起的创建一个永久委员会的枢机主教,安理会的遄达众,一个机构,它发展成一种永久的天主教教会的内部部,它的功能,以这一天作为政府的最重要手段之一教会。 The matter of providing the revised edition of the official Latin translation of the Bible, a revised Breviary and Missal, a Catechism and an Index of books dangerous to Faith and Morals, the council had left to the pope.提供官方的拉丁文译本“圣经”,修订后的祈祷书和Missal,一个教义问答和书籍危险信仰和道德指数的修订版的问题,安理会已经离开教皇。

It was the immediate successor of Pius IV who saw to all these, except the new Bible.这是碧岳四的直接后继者,除了看到所有这些新圣经。This successor was the Dominican, Michele Ghislieri, known to history as Pius V (1566 72), in whom the aspirations of good men for centuries were realised, a living saint ruling the Church.这的继任者是多米尼加,米歇尔Ghislieri,碧岳五(1566 72)被称为历史,在其中世纪的好男人的愿望实现了,生活圣人统治教会。Of all the services rendered by St. Pius V (he was canonised by Clement XI in 1712) none was greater than this, that in his ruling of the Church he was as scrupulously obedient to the laws of Trent as he had been obedient to the Dominican constitutions during his long life as a friar.圣皮乌斯V(他于1712年由克莱门特十一canonised)提供的所有服务都不是比这更大的,在他的教会的裁决,他是作为严格服从法律的遄达,因为他一直听话的多米尼加宪法在他的修道士的寿命长。 He set an example which none of his successors could ever ignore; and perhaps nowhere more powerfully than in what he did with the task from which the council, in its last moments, shrank--the reformation of the Catholic Princes, ie, the defence of the rights of religion against the encroachment of the Catholic state.他树立一个榜样,没有他的继任者能不断忽略;,也许无处更有力地比他的任务理事会,在其最后时刻,萎缩 - 改革天主教王子,即辩护反对天主教国家的侵犯宗教权利。But to say more about this would be to write the tragic history of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, of a fight where there were defeats, but no surrenders.但要回答这个问题的更多信息将写入十七和十八世纪的悲惨历史,那里有失败的战斗,但没有投降。The ideal of the example set by St. Pius V was at times obscured.圣皮乌斯V以身作则的理想,有时模糊。It was never forgotten.这是永远不会忘记。And never, since his time, has there been any such moral falling away--nor anything remotely recalling it- -as what, in almost all his life before his election, he himself had been witness of in the highest place of all.从来没有,因为他的时间,有任何此类的道德下降距离 - 没有任何远程回顾它,在几乎所有他的生活之前,他当选,他本人已经在所有的最高的地方见证。

NOTES附注

1. 1。Jedin, A History of the Council of Trent, I, 351.Jedin,安理会的遄达351,我的历史。These last two pages of my account are especially indebted to this great book.这些最后两页我的帐户特别感谢这个伟大的书。Cf.比照346-54.346-54。

2. 2。Ibid., 354.同上,354。

3. 3。Op.作品cit., 369.前引书,369。

4. 4。Pastor, History of the Popes, XII, chaps.牧师,历史教皇,第十二章。4, 5; a masterly summary in Jedin, A History of the Council of Trent, 1, 490-544. 4,5,巧妙地总结在Jedin,安理会的遄达历史,1,490-544。

5. 5。Del Monte is the future pope Julius III (1549-55), Cervini the all too short lived Marcellus II (1555) commemorated in the title of Palestrina's fine mass, and Pole only failed to become pope in 1549 through his refusal to take the least step--he would not even say he was willing--on his own behalf in the conclave.德尔蒙特是未来教皇朱利叶斯三(1549年至1555年),Cervini的太短住马塞勒斯II(1555)在纪念的标题帕莱斯特里的优良质量,并极不仅没有成为教皇在1549年通过他拒绝,至少可以采取的一步 - 他甚至不会说他愿意 - 他自己的名义在秘密会议上。

6. 6。Seripando, created cardinal by Pius IV (1559-65), later served as one of the presidents of the council, 1 562-63.Seripando,碧岳四(1559年至1565年),后来担任安理会主席之一,1 562-63枢机主教。7. 7。Maroto, Institutiones Iuris Canonici (1919),1, 87.Maroto,Institutiones Iuris Canonici(1919年),1,87。

8. 8。As King Henry VIII was "kin" to Anne Boleyn through his sinful association with her older sister, Mary.作为亨利八世国王是“近亲”安妮•博林罪孽深重协会通过他与她的姐姐玛丽。

9. 9。The new law was passed by 155 votes to 55, GH Joyce, SJ, Christian Marriage (1933), 127.新的法律,通过以155票对55,生长激素乔伊斯,律政司司长,基督教婚姻(1933),127。

10. 10。Jerome Ragazzoni, coadjutor to the see of Famagusta, preaching the sermon with which the council closed, December 4.杰罗姆Ragazzoni,帮手见的法马古斯塔,讲经布道会封闭,12月4日。

11. 11。These summaries, as has been said, are only of the principal matters.这些摘要,正如人们所说的,只有主要事项。But among these surely is, also, the change by which the council abolished the age-long right of metropolitans (archbishops) to make the visitation of all the sees of the bishops of their province, the local bishop's jurisdiction suspended the meanwhile, and the archbishop correcting what he found amiss and ordering the penalties this called for.的当地主教的管辖范围,但其中肯定,也,其中安理会取消了的大都市历来权利(大主教)探视所有的主教本省看到的更改,暂停的同时,在大主教纠正他发现不对劲,并订购这要求的处罚。

12. 12。A monastery was said to be "in commendam" which was granted as his benefice to a cleric who was not a member of the community or of the order or even of any religious order.被说成是“在commendam”作为他的采邑授予教士谁没有一个社会或成员的命令或任何宗教秩序甚至修道院。These commendatory abbots, who were not bound to reside at the monastery, were sometimes not even in major orders.这些褒义词,不一定要居住在寺院的方丈,有时甚至在大订单。

13. 13。Postremo eadem sancta synodus, tot gravissimis ecclesiae incommodis com mota, non potest non commemorare, nihil magis ecclesiae Dei esse necessarium quam ut beatissimus Romanus Pontifex, quam sollicitudinem universae ecclesiae ex munens sui officio debet, eam hic potissimum impendat, ut lectissimos tantum sibi cardinales adsciscat, et bonos maxime atque idoneos pastores singulis ecclesiis praeficiat, idque eo magis, quod ovium Christi sanguinem, quae ex malo negligentium et sui officii immemorum pastorum regimine peribunt Dominus noster Iesus Christus de manibus eius sit requisiturus.Postremo eadem sancta synodus,TOT gravissimis该书incommodis COM莫塔,非potest非commemorare,nihil MAGIS,该书之ESSE necessarium华富UT beatissimus罗马努斯教皇,华富sollicitudinem universae,该书前munens穗委员debet,EAM HIC potissimum impendat,UT lectissimos tantum SIBI cardinales adsciscat ,等bonos MAXIME atque idoneos pastores singulis ecclesiis praeficiat,idque EO MAGIS,狴ovium斯蒂sanguinem,quae前马洛negligentium等隋officii immemorum pastorum regimine peribunt Dominus noster Iesus CHRISTUS DE manibus eius坐在requisiturus。 Session 24 (Nov. 11, 1563) De Reformatione, chap.会议24(1563)11月11日,德Reformatione,第一章。1, the final paragraph. 1,最后一个段落。

14. 14。In London, for example, a city of about 100,000 people at the beginning of the 16th century, there were 93 parish churches alone.例如,在伦敦,在16世纪初的约10万人的城市,有93个教区教堂单独。

15. 15。The doctrine of the Real Presence; the worship of God present in the sacrament, the use of the sacrament.该学说的真实存在的神的崇拜,目前在圣餐,圣餐。

16. 16。On Communion under both kinds, and the Communion of little children.共融下两种,和小孩子的共融。

17. 17。On the Sacrifice of the Mass.在牺牲的马萨诸塞州

18. 18。Just ten years before Luther's 95 Theses appeared.短短十几年之前,路德的95论文出现。

19. 19。Session 6, January 13, 1547.6,会议,1547年1月13日。The Latin text of the canons here summarised is in Denzinger, pp. 277-81.这里总结的大炮的拉丁文本是在登青格,第277-81页。 With respect to the phrase "all are condemned," which continually recurs in these canons, it is to be observed that the council has in mind Catholics and the ex-Catholics who, abandoning the traditional doctrines, founded the various reformed bodies.关于“都谴责”的短语,不断在这些大炮复发,这是必须遵守安理会在心灵天主教徒和前天主教徒谁,放弃传统的学说,创立了各种改革机构。 The bishops at Trent were not addressing that multitude of later, non-Catholic Christians who, born and bred in these forms of belief, worship God and keep His law after a non-Catholic fashion in all good faith.主教在特伦特没有解决,许多后,出生,并在这些形式的信仰培育,拜上帝会后,所有真诚的非天主教的时尚保持他的法律,非天主教的基督徒。 To these, the personal condemnation was not addressed, although the condemnation of the theories inevitably stands.这些,个人的谴责没有解决,虽然谴责理论不可避免地停留。

20. 20。A heretical caricature of traditional doctrine, found useful in the Reformation propaganda.邪教漫画的传统学说,发现有用的,在改革的宣传。

21. 21。Session 7, March 3, 1547.1547年3月3日,7日,会议Latin text ibid., 281-82.拉丁文字同上,281-82。

22. 22。Session 13, October 11, 1551.13届,10月11日,1551。Latin text ibid., 290-91.拉丁文字同上,290-91。

23. 23。That homage due to God alone, as the Creator of all.这敬意由于只有上帝,因为所有的创造者。

24. 24。Session 21, June 16, 1562.21届,1562年6月16日。Latin text ibid., 310.拉丁文字同上,310。

25. 25。Session 22, September 9, 1562.1562年9月9日,22日,会议Latin text ibid., 314-15.拉丁文字同上,314-15。

26. 26。Luke 22:19.路加福音22点19分。

27. 27。The long prayer which is the core of the rite, during which the consecration takes place.长期的祈祷仪式的核心,奉献在这期间发​​生。

28. 28。Francis I died March 31, 1547.弗朗西斯我于3月31日,1547日去世。

29. 29。December 4, 1563.12月4日,1563。

From: THE CHURCH IN CRISIS: A History of the General Councils: 325-1870来自:教会在危机:历史总议会:325-1870
CHAPTER 19第19章
Mgr.经理。Philip Hughes菲利普休斯



Also, see:此外,见:
Ecumenical Councils普世议会


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