Book of Wisdom, Wisdom of Solomon预订的智慧,所罗门的智慧

A book in the Old Testament Apocrypha旧约伪经中的

General Information一般资料

Wisdom, a defense of the Jewish way of life, is one of the books of the Apocrypha; in the Septuagint and Vulgate it is included in the Old Testament.智慧,国防犹太人生活的方式,是伪经的书籍之一;它包含在旧约中译本和武加大。The book is ascribed to King Solomon and stands in the same intellectual tradition as such earlier collections of proverbial wisdom as Proverbs and the Book of Sirach - hence its full title, the Wisdom of Solomon.该书是归因于所罗门王和箴言谚语智慧和西拉奇图书较早集合在同一个思想传统的代表 - 因此它的完整标题,所罗门的智慧。The work was actually written in Greek about 75 BC or perhaps as late as AD 40.这项工作实际上是写在希腊公元前约75年或者迟至公元40。Its author was an Alexandrian Jew who was attempting to strengthen the religious commitment of the Hellenistic Jewish community and, if possible, to convert the Gentiles.它的作者是亚历山大的犹太人谁是试图加强宗教的希腊化的犹太人社区的承诺,如果可能的话,转换外邦人。His work falls into three parts: chapters 1 - 5 stress the superiority of the pious and wise over the godless; chapters 6 - 9 praise personified Wisdom; and chapters 10 - 19 illustrate the marvels of Wisdom, with examples drawn from Israel's history.他的工作分为三个部分:第1 - 5章强调在无神的虔诚明智的优越性;章节6 - 9好评人格化的智慧和第10 - 19章智慧的奇迹,从以色列的历史得出的例子来说明。

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Bibliography 参考书目
JM Reese, Hellenistic Influence on the Book of Wisdom and Its Consequences (1970). JM里斯智慧及其后果(1970年)“的希腊文化的影响。


Book of Wisdom预订智慧

General Information一般资料

Wisdom or Wisdom of Solomon, is a book of the Old Testament in those versions of the Bible following the Greek Septuagint (generally Roman Catholic and Orthodox versions).所罗门的智慧或智慧,是一书在旧约“圣经”的希腊译本(一般为罗马天主教和东正教的版本)的版本。It does not appear in the Hebrew Bible and is placed with the Apocrypha in Protestant versions of the Bible.它不会出现在希伯来文圣经,是摆在新教的圣经版本的伪经。

Authorship作者

The book purports to be a work of the Hebrew king Solomon, but scholars have long doubted Solomon's authorship.这本书看来是希伯来文所罗门王的工作,但学者们早就怀疑所罗门的作者身份。On the basis of internal evidence, many today regard the book as the work of an unknown Jew, probably in the Greco-Egyptian city of Alexandria, during the latter half of the 1st century BC.在内部证据的基础上,今天许多方面的书作为一个未知的犹太人的工作,可能是在希腊和埃及的亚历山大市,在公元前1世纪的后半期。 The language of the original is almost universally believed to have been Greek.原有的语言几乎是普遍认为已被希腊。The author may have used Palestinian and Greco-Egyptian sources, including material originally in Hebrew.作者可能已经使用了巴勒斯坦和埃及希腊来源,包括材料在希伯来文原本。He seems to have written for Greek-educated Jews.他似乎已经为希腊教育的犹太人书面。

Content内容

The first five chapters of the book urge the reader to love righteousness and to seek God, that thereby they may acquire wisdom and immortality.书的前五个章节,敦促读者热爱正义和寻求神,从而有可能获得的智慧和不朽。 The miserable fate of the ungodly, that is, the unwise, is contrasted with the expected blessedness of the righteous.的罪人的悲惨命运,即是不明智的,是与预期的正义幸福对比。Chapters 6-9 are a further commendation of wisdom as the guide of humanity.章6-9是一种智慧的进一步表彰,为人类的指导。The nature of wisdom, its importance, and how one may find it are described, and in the first person, ostensibly that of Solomon, the writer describes his own search for wisdom.的智慧,它的重要性,以及如何可能会发现它的描述,并以第一人称,表面上是所罗门的性质,笔者介绍了他自己的智慧搜索。 Throughout the first ten chapters, wisdom usually is personified as a woman.纵观前十章,智慧通常是作为一个女人的人格化。 In the rest of the book, however, the word wisdom scarcely appears, and the concept of it is quite abstract.然而,在本书的其余部分,这个词的智慧几乎出现,和它的概念是比较抽象。Chapters 10-19, the remainder of the book, chiefly describe the way in which Israel and Israel's ancestors were saved through wisdom.10-19章,本书的剩余部分,​​主要描述了在以色列和以色列的祖先的智慧保存方式。Thus, chapters 10-12 illustrate the saving power of wisdom from the time of the legendary father of humanity, Adam, to the time of Moses; chapters 16-19 illustrate the importance of behaving wisely, or piously, through God's contrasting treatment of the Egyptians and the Israelites.因此,章节10-12说明,亚当,人类的传奇父亲的智慧省电的时候,摩西; 16-19章说明行为明智的重要性,或虔诚,通过上帝的对比治疗埃及人和以色列人。Chapters 13-15, a digression, reflect on the origin and folly of various forms of idolatry. 13-15章,题外话,反映了各种形式的偶像崇拜的起源和愚蠢的。The book seems to end abruptly; it is possible that the author's inspiration failed, or that the original conclusion of the book was lost.这本书似乎突然结束;作者的灵感失败,或者说,失去了原书的结论是有可能。


Book of Wisdom预订智慧

Catholic Information天主教信息

One of the deutero-canonical writings of the Old Testament, placed in the Vulgate between the Canticle of Canticles and Ecclesiasticus.旧约之间的颂歌canticle的和Ecclesiasticus武加大,deutero规范的著作之一。

I. TITLE一,标题

The oldest headings ascribe the book to Solomon, the representative of Hebrew wisdom.最古老的标题归于所罗门的书,希伯来智慧的代表。In the Syriac translation, the title is: "the Book of the Great Wisdom of Solomon"; and in the Old Latin Version, the heading reads: "Sapientia Salomonis".在叙利亚文译本,标题是:“大智慧的所罗门书”,并在旧拉丁美洲版本,标题写着:“Sapientia Salomonis”。The earliest Greek manuscripts -- the Vaticanus, the Sinaiticus, the Alexandrinus -- have a similar inscription, and the Eastern and the Western Fathers of the first three centuries generally speak of "the Wisdom of Solomon" when quoting that inspired writing, although some of them use in this connection such honorific designations as he theia Sophia (the Divine Wisdom), Panaretos Sophia (All Virtuous Wisdom).希腊最早的手稿 - Vaticanus,西奈抄本,Alexandrinus - 也有类似的题词,以及东欧和前三世纪西方的父亲一般的“所罗门的智慧”的发言时引用的启发写作,虽然有些利用它们在这方面,他忒伊亚索菲亚(神的智慧),Panaretos索菲亚(所有厚德载物智慧)尊敬的称号。 In the Vulgate, the title is: "Liber Sapientiae", "the Book of Wisdom".在武加大,标题是:“LIBER Sapientiae”,“智慧之书”。In non-Catholic Versions, the ordinary heading is: "the Wisdom of Solomon", in contradistinction to Ecclesiasticus, which is usually entitled: "the Wisdom of Jesus, the Son of Sirach".在非天主教的版本中,普通的标题是:“所罗门的智慧”,在对比Ecclesiasticus,这通常是题为:“耶稣的智慧,儿子西拉奇”。

II.二。CONTENTS目录

The book contains two general parts, the first nine chapters treating of Wisdom under its more speculative aspect, and the last ten chapters dealing with Wisdom from an historical standpoint.书中包含一般两个部分,第一九章智慧的治疗下更多的投机性的一面,和去年十章,从历史的角度处理与智慧。The following is the author's train of thought in the speculative part (chaps. i-ix).以下是作者的列车在投机的一部分的思想(第一至第九)。Addressing himself to kings, the writer teaches that ungodliness is alien to Wisdom and courts punishment and death (i), and he sets forth and refutes the arguments which the wicked advance to the contrary: according to him, the frame of mind of the ungodly is contrary to man's immortal destiny; their present life is only in appearance happier than that of the righteous; and their ultimate fate is an unquestionable proof of the folly of their course (ii-v).解决自己的国王,作家教,不虔是格格不入的智慧和法院的惩罚和死亡(一),和他载列,并驳斥的论据恶人提前相反:据他介绍,帧的罪人的心态是违背人的不朽的命运,他们目前的生活是只在外观上比正义更幸福,他们的最终命运是一个不容置疑的证明,他们的课程(II - V)的愚蠢。He thereupon exhorts kings to seek Wisdom, which is more needful to them than to ordinary mortals (vi, 1-21), and describes his own happy experience in the quest and possession of that Wisdom which is the Splendour of God and is bestowed by Him on earnest suppliants (vi, 22-viii).他随即劝告国王寻求智慧,这是更needful他们比凡人(六1-21),并介绍了他自己的幸福体验,在追求和拥有的智慧,这是神蝶舞,并赋予他认真suppliants(六,22 - VIII)。He subjoins the prayer (ix) by which he has himself begged that Wisdom and God's Holy Spirit might be sent down to him from heaven, and which concludes with the reflection that men of old were guided by Wisdom -- a reflection which forms a natural transition to the review of Israel's ancient history, which constitutes the second part of his work.他subjoins祷告(九)由他自己乞求智慧和上帝的圣灵可能被送到他从天上,并与反映的老男人用智慧为指导总结 - 形成了一个天然的反射过渡到以色列的古代历史,这构成了他的工作的第二部分的检讨。The author's line of thought in this historical part (ix-xix) may also easily be pointed out.作者在这历史的一部分的思想(九十九),也可能很容易地指出。He commends God's wisdom (1) for its dealings with the patriarchs from Adam to Moses (x-xi, 4); (2) for its just, and also merciful, conduct towards the idolatrous inhabitants of Egypt and Chanaan (xi, 5-xii); (3) in its contrast with the utter foolishness and consequent immorality of idolatry under its various forms (xiii, xiv); finally (4), for its discriminating protection over Israel during the plagues of Egypt, and at the crossing of the Red Sea, a protection which has been extended to all times and places.他赞扬的摩西(x - XI,4)从亚当始祖打交道上帝的智慧(1)(2)对于其刚,和也仁慈,进行对埃及和Chanaan的偶像崇拜的居民(十一,5 - 第十二章);(3)在其完全愚蠢和随之而来的偶像崇拜的不道德行为,根据其各种形式(十三,十四)的对比;最后(4),其对以色列的歧视保护在埃及的瘟疫,并在过境红海,一直延伸到所有的时间和地点的保护。

III.三。UNITY AND INTEGRITY统一和完整

Most contemporary scholars admit the unity of the Book of Wisdom.多数当代学者承认的智慧之书的统一。 The whole work is pervaded by one and the same general purpose, viz., that of giving a solemn warning against the folly of ungodliness.一个是弥漫整个工作和相同的一般目的,即,给人一种对邪恶愚蠢的严正警告。Its two principal parts are intimately bound by a natural transition (ix, 18), which has in no way the appearance of an editorial insertion.它的两个主要部分习习自然过渡(九,18),在没有办法的社论插入的外观。Its subdivisions, which might, at first sight, be regarded as foreign to the primitive plan of the author, are, when closely examined, seen to be part and parcel of that plan: this is the case, for instance, with the section relative to the origin and the consequences of idolatry (xiii, xiv), inasmuch as this section is consciously prepared by the writer's treatment of God's wisdom in its dealings with the idolatrous inhabitants of Egypt and Chanaan, in the immediately preceding subdivision (xi, 5-xii).其下属,乍一看,这可能被视为外国作者的原始计划,仔细检查时,看到的一部分,该计划的一部分:这种情况下,与相对的部分,例如,的起源和偶像崇拜(第十三,十四)的后果,因为作为本节是自觉作家的上帝的智慧处理与埃及和Chanaan的偶像崇拜的居民在紧接细分(十一,5,交往的准备 - 第十二章)。Not only is there no break observable in the carrying-out of the plan, but favourite expressions, turns of speech, and single words are found in all the sections of the work, and furnish a further proof that the Book of Wisdom is no mere compilation, but a literary unit.不仅有计划运载观察没有突破,但最喜欢的表情,轮流讲话,和单独的词在所有工作的部分,并提供一个进一步证明了的智慧之书,并非仅仅是编译,但文学的单位。

The integrity of the book is no less certain than its unity.书的完整性,是一定不低于其统一。Every impartial examiner of the work can readily see that nothing in it suggests that the book has come down to us otherwise than in its primitive form.工作的每一个公正的考官,可以很容易地看到,在没有建议书已下降到我们并非在其原始的形式。Like Ecclesiasticus, Wisdom has indeed no inscription similar to those which open the Books of Proverbs and Ecclesiastes; but plainly, in the case of Wisdom, as in the case of Ecclesiasticus, this absence is no necessary sign that the work is fragmentary at the beginning.一样Ecclesiasticus,智慧确实没有类似那些打开的书箴言和传道书题词的,但显然,在智慧的情况下,在Ecclesiasticus的情况下,这种情况下没有必要的标志,是零碎的工作开始。 Nor can the Book of Wisdom be rightly considered as mutilated at the end, for its last present verse forms a proper close to the work as planned by the author.智慧之书,也不能正确地视为最终肢解其目前的诗句,形成了一个适当的工作接近作者的计划。As regards the few passages of Wisdom which certain critics have treated as later Christian interpolations (ii, 24; iii, 13; iv, 1; xiv, 7), it is plain that were these passages such as they are claimed, their presence would not vitiate the substantial integrity of the work, and further, that closely examined, they yield a sense perfectly consistent with the author's Jewish frame of mind.至于几段为后来的基督教插值(II,24,13三,四,1;十四,7)治疗某些批评家的智慧,这是平原,这些经文,如他们都声称,他们的存在会不抑损工作的大量的完整性,并进一步的仔细检查,他们产生意识与作者的心灵的犹太框架完全一致。

IV.四。LANGUAGE AND AUTHORSHIP LANGUAGE和作者

In view of the ancient heading: "the Wisdom of Solomon";, some scholars have surmised that the Book of Wisdom was composed in Hebrew, like the other works ascribed to Solomon by their title (Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticle of Canticles).在古代标题:“所罗门的智慧”;,有学者推测,智慧之书,是由归因于他们的冠军称号(箴言,传道书,canticle的canticles)所罗门的其他作品一样,在希伯来文。 To substantiate this position they have appealed to the Hebraisms of the work; to its parallelisms, a distinct feature of Hebrew poetry; to its constant use of simple connecting particles (kai, de, gar, oti, etc.), the usual articulations of Hebrew sentences; to Greek expressions traceable, as they thought, to wrong renderings from a Hebrew original, etc. Ingenious as these arguments may appear, they prove no more than that the author of the Book of Wisdom was a Hebrew, writing Greek with a distinctly Jewish cast of mind.为了证实这个位置,他们呼吁工作Hebraisms;其并行,希伯来诗歌的一个显着特点;其经常使用(启,德,噶尔,OTI等)的简单连接颗粒,通常关节希伯来文的句子;希腊表达式可追溯的,因为他们认为,从希伯来文原来的错误渲染等,因为这些参数的巧妙,可能会出现,他们证明没有更多的智慧之书的作者是希伯来文,写与希腊明显的犹太投的心态。 As far back as St. Jerome (Praef. in libros Salomonis), it has been felt that not Hebrew but Greek was the original language of the Book of Wisdom, and this verdict is so powerfully confirmed by the literary features of the entire Greek text, that one may well wonder that the theory of an ancient Hebrew original, or of any original other than Greek, should have ever been seriously maintained.早圣杰罗姆(libros Salomonis Praef.),它已被认为不是希伯来文,但希腊的智慧之书的原始语言,而这个判决是整个希腊文的文学特征,以便有力地证实人们可能想知道,一个古老的希伯来文原的理论,或其他任何比希腊的原始,应该有过认真维护。 Of course the fact that the entire Book of Wisdom was composed in Greek rules out its Solomonic authorship.当然,整本书的智慧,在其所罗门作者希腊规则组成的事实。It is indeed true that ecclesiastical writers of the first centuries commonly assumed this authorship on the basis of the title of the book, apparently confirmed by those passages (ix, 7, 8, 12; cf. vii, 1, 5; viii, 13, 14, etc.) where the one speaking is clearly King Solomon.它确实是真正的第一世纪的教会作家一般认为这个作者的书的标题的基础上,显然证实这些通道(IX,7,8,12;比照七,1,5;第八,13 ,14等),其中一个说显然是所罗门王。But this view of the matter never was unanimous in the Early Christian Church, and in the course of time a middle position between its total affirmation and its total rejection was suggested.但是,这决不是此事的看法一致,在早期基督教教会,并随着时间的推移,其总的肯定和全盘否定之间的中间位置,建议。 The Book of Wisdom, it was said, is Solomon's inasmuch as it is based on Solomonic works which are now lost, but which were known to and utilized by a hellenistic Jew centuries after Solomon's death.智慧之书,有人说,是所罗门的,因为它是基于现在失去了所罗门工程,但被称为所罗门去世后,由古希腊的犹太人世纪利用。 This middle view is but a weak attempt at saving something of the full Solomonic authorship affirmed in earlier ages.这中间的看法是,但在保存完整的所罗门作者的东西两掌在较早的年龄肯定。"It is a supposition which has no positive arguments in its favour, and which, in itself, is improbable, since it assumes the existence of Solomonic writings of which there is no trace, and which would have been known only to the writer of the Book of Wisdom" (Cornely-Hagen, "Introd. in Libros Sacros, Compendium," Paris, 1909, p. 361). “这是一个假设,在有利于自己没有积极的论据,并且,本身是不可能的,因为它假定存在所罗门著作,其中有任何痕迹,这本来只知道的作家智慧“(Cornely哈根,”图书Introd。Libros Sacros,简编“,”巴黎,1909年,第361页)。At the present day, it is freely admitted that Solomon is not the writer of the Book of Wisdom, "which has been ascribed to him because its author, through a literary fiction, speaks as if he were the Son of David" (Vigouroux, "Manuel Biblique", II, n. 868. See also the notice prefixed to the Book of Wisdom in the current editions of the Douai Version).在目前的一天,这是坦率地承认说,所罗门是不是“已归功于他的智慧,书的作家,因为它的作者,通过文学小说,讲,如果他是大卫的儿子”(Vigouroux, “曼努埃尔Biblique”,第二,N. 868。前缀杜埃版本目前版本的智慧之书的通知)。Besides Solomon, the writer to whom the authorship of the work has been oftenest ascribed is Philo, chiefly on the ground of a general agreement in respect to doctrines, between the author of Wisdom and Philo, the celebrated Jewish philosopher of Alexandria (d. about AD 40).除了索罗门,作家为之工作的作者已oftenest冲高斐洛,主要是在教义方面的一般协议的理由之间的智慧和斐洛,著名的犹太哲学家亚历山大(d.约作者,公元40)。 The truth of the matter is that the doctrinal differences between the Book of Wisdom and Philo's writings are such as to preclude a common authorship.事情的真相是,智慧和斐洛的著作的书之间的教义上的差异,如排除一个共同的作者。Philo's allegorical treatment of Scriptural narratives is utterly foreign to the frame of mind of the writer of the Book of Wisdom.Philo的寓言“圣经”叙事治疗是完全陌生的心灵作家的智慧之书的框架。His view of the origin of idolatry conflicts on several points with that of the author of the Book of Wisdom.他的智慧之书的作者,偶像崇拜的冲突起源几点看法。Above all, his description of Divine wisdom bespeaks as to conception, style, and manner of presentation, a later stage of Alexandrian thought than that found in Wisdom.最重要的是,他神圣智慧的描述四起,概念,风格和表述方式,后来的亚历山大阶段思想的智慧发现。The authorship of the work has been at times ascribed to Zorobabel, as though this Jewish leader could have written in Greek; to the Alexandrian Aristobulus (second cent. BC), as though this courtier could have inveighed against kings after the manner of the Book of Wisdom (vi, 1; etc.); and finally, to Apollo (cf. Acts 18:24), as though this was not a mere supposition contrary to the presence of the book in the Alexandrian Canon.作者的工作一直在冲高到Zorobabel的时间,虽然这个犹太领袖在希腊的书面;亚历山大阿里斯托布鲁斯(公元前二百分之),虽然这朝臣对国王的猛烈抨击后,书的方式智慧(六,1等);最后,阿波罗(参徒18:24),虽然这不是一个单纯的假设相反的书在亚历山大佳能的存在。 All these variations as to authorship prove that the author's name is really unknown (cf. the notice prefixed to Wisdom in the Douay Version).所有这些的变化,作者证明了作者的名字实在是未知之数(参见前缀Douay版本智慧的通知)。

V. PLACE AND DATE OF COMPOSITION五,地点和日期组成

Whoever examines attentively the Book of Wisdom can readily see that its unknown author was not a Palestinian Jew, but an Alexandrian Jew.谁检查聚精会神的智慧之书,可以很容易地看到,不知道其作者是不是一个巴勒斯坦的犹太人,而是一个亚历山大犹太人。Monotheistic as the writer is throughout his work, he evinces an acquaintance with Greek thought and philosophical terms (he calls God "the Author of beauty": 13:3; styles Providence pronoia: 14:3; 17:2; speaks of oule amorphos, "the formless material" of the universe, after Plato's manner: 11:17; numbers four cardinal virtues in accordance with Aristotle's school: 8:7; etc.), which is superior to anything found in Palestine.一神教的作家在他的工作,他evinces一个熟人与希腊思想和哲学术语(他呼吁上帝“作者对美的”普罗维登斯pronoia:13:3;风格:14:3; 17:2;谈到欧勒amorphos ,“宇宙的”无形的材料后,柏拉图的态度:11:17;按照亚里士多德的学校的主要优点:8:7;等),这是优于在巴勒斯坦发现任何东西。His remarkably good Greek, his political allusions, the local colouring of details, his rebuke of distinctly Egyptian idolatry, etc., point to Alexandria, as to the great centre of mixed Jewish and heathen population, where the author felt called upon to address his eloquent warning against the splendid and debasing Polytheism and Epicurean indifference by which too many of his fellow Jews had been gradually and deeply influenced.他非常良好的希腊,他的政治典故,细节的地方着色,他明显埃及的偶像崇拜的谴责,等等,点到亚历山大,以混合犹太人和异教徒的人口中心,在这里笔者觉得呼吁,以解决他对的辉煌和贬低的多神教和伊壁鸠鲁的冷漠太多他的犹太同胞已逐渐和深刻地影响雄辩警告。 And this inference from internal data is confirmed by the fact that the Book of Wisdom is found not in the Palestinian, but in the Alexandrian, Canon of the Old Testament.这种来自内部的数据的推论被证实其实是在巴勒斯坦,但在亚历山大,佳能旧约的智慧之书。Had the work originated in Palestine, its powerful arraignment of idolatry and its exalted teaching concerning the future life would have naturally secured for it a placed within the Canon of the Jews of Palestine.起源在巴勒斯坦的工作,其偶像崇拜和其崇高的教学,对未来生活的强大提审将自然获得了放置在巴勒斯坦的犹太人佳能。 But, as it was composed in Alexandria, its worth was fully appreciated and its sacred character recognized only by the fellow-countrymen of the author.但是,因为它是在亚历山德里亚组成,它的价值是完全理解和神圣性只承认作者的同胞。

It is more difficult to ascertain the date than the place of composition of the Book of Wisdom.这是难以确定的日期比的智慧之书的组成。It is universally admitted that when the writer describes a period of moral degradation and persecution under unrighteous rulers who are threatened with heavy judgment, he has in view the time of either Ptolemy IV Philopator (221-204 BC), or Ptolemy VII Physicon (145-117 BC), for it is only under these depraved princes that the Egyptian Jews had to endure persecution.人们普遍承认,当作家描述了一个时期的道德退化和沉重的判断威胁的不义的统治者的迫害下,他在查看时间无论是托勒密四Philopator(公元前221-204),或托勒密第七Physicon(145 -117年),只有在这些堕落的王子,埃及的犹太人不得不忍受迫害。But it is confessedly difficult to decide which of these two monarchs the author of Wisdom had actually in view.但它明白地难以确定,这两个君主的智慧作者观点实际上。It is even possible that the work "was published after the demise of those princes, for otherwise it would have but increased their tyrannical rage" (Lesêtre, "Manuel d'Introduction", II, 445).它甚至可以工作“公布后,这些诸侯的消亡,否则它会反而增加了他们的残暴的愤怒”(Lesêtre,“曼努埃尔德简介”,第二,445)。

VI.六。TEXT AND VERSIONS文本和版本

The original text of the Book of Wisdom is preserved in five uncial manuscripts (the Vaticanus, the Sinaiticus, the Alexandrinus, the Ephremiticus, and the Venetus) and in ten cursives (two of which are incomplete).原始文字的智慧之书,是保存在五(Vaticanus,西奈抄本,Alexandrinus,Ephremiticus和Venetus)安色尔字体的手稿和10 cursives(其中两个是不完整的)。Its most accurate form is found in the Vaticanus (fourth century), the Venetus (eighth or ninth century), and the cursive 68.其最准确的形式被发现在Vaticanus(第四世纪),Venetus(第八或第九世纪),和草书68。 The principal critical works on the Greek text are those of Reusch (Frieburg, 1861), Fritsche (Leipzig, 1871), Deane (Oxford, 1881), Sweete (Cambridge, 1897), and Cornely-Zorell (Paris, 1910).希腊文的主要关键工程的Reusch(Frieburg 1861年),弗里奇(莱比锡,1871年),迪恩(牛津,1881),Sweete(剑桥,1897年),和Cornely - Zorell(巴黎,1910年)。Foremost among the ancient versions stands the Vulgate, which presents the Old Latin Version somewhat revised by St. Jerome.其中最重要的代表武加大,呈现有点圣杰罗姆修订旧拉丁美洲版本之间的古老的版本。It is in general a close and accurate rendering of the original Greek, with occasional additions, a few of which probably point to primitive readings no longer extant in the Greek.它是在一般的希腊原文密切和偶尔的增加,可能几个点不再在希腊现存的原始读数,准确地渲染。The Syriac Version is less faithful, and the Armenian more literal, than the Vulgate.叙利亚版本是那么忠实,和亚美尼亚武加大比字面意思。Among the modern versions, the German translation of Siegfried in Kautzsch's "Apocryphen und Pseudepigraphen des AT" (Tübingen, 1900), and the French version of the Abbé Crampon (Paris, 1905), deserve a special mention.在现代版本中,德国齐格弗里德翻译Kautzsch的“Apocryphen和Pseudepigraphen DES的AT”(蒂宾根大学,1900年),和法国阿贝冰爪(巴黎,1905年)的版本,值得特别一提。

VII.七。DOCTRINE OF THE BOOK书中的学说

As might well be expected, the doctrinal teachings of this deutero-canonical writing are, in substance, those of the other inspired books of the Old Testament.很可能是预期,这个deutero规范书写的教义教导,在物质,旧约的其他灵感的书籍。The Book of Wisdom knows of only one God, the God of the universe, and the Yahweh of the Hebrews.只有一个上帝,宇宙的上帝,和耶和华希伯来人的智慧之书,知道。This one God is "He who is" (xiii, 1), and His holiness is utterly opposed to moral evil (i, 1-3).这一个“神”是“他是谁”(十三,1),和他的圣洁是完全反对道德上的邪恶(1-3)。He is the absolute master of the world [xi, 22 (23)], which He has created out of "formless matter" [xi, 18 (17)], a Platonic expression which in no way affirms the eternity of matter, but points back to the chaotic condition described in Genesis 1:2.他是世界上绝对的高手[十一,22(23)],他创建的“无形此事”[十一,18(17)],柏拉图的表达,没有办法确认永恒的物质,但点回到创世记1:2中所述的混乱状况。 A living God, He made man after His image, creating him for immortality (ii, 23), so that death entered the world only through the envy of the Devil (ii, 24).一个活生生的神,他做了人后,他的形象,创造不朽的,他(II,23),使死亡进入世界上,只有通过羡慕的魔鬼(II,24)。 His Providence (pronoia) extends to all things, great and small [vi, 8 (7); xi, 26 (25); etc.], taking a fatherly care of all things (xiv, 3), and in particular, of His chosen people (xix, 20, sqq.).他的普罗维登斯(pronoia)延伸到所有的事情,大国和小六,8(7);十一,26(25)等,采取一切事物的父爱的护理(第十四,3),特别是,他选择的人(19,20,SQQ。)。 He makes Himself known to men through His wonderful works (xiii, 1-5), and exercises His mercy towards them all [xi, 24 (23), xii, 16; xv, 1], His very enemies included (xii, 8 sqq.).他使​​自己通过他的精彩作品(十三1-5)男子,并行使对他们的所有[席,24(23),第十二章,16条;十五,1]他的怜悯,他非常的敌人(十二,8 SQQ。)The central idea of the book is "Wisdom", which appears in the work under two principal aspects.该书的中心思想是“智慧”,在出现在两个主要方面的工作。In its relation to man, Wisdom is here, as in the other Sapiential Books, the perfection of knowledge showing itself in action.在其有关的人,智慧在这里,在其他智斗书籍,完善知识显示在行动本身。It is particularly described as resident only in righteous men (i, 4, 5), as a principle soliciting man's will (vi, 14, sqq.), as within God's gift (vii, 15; viii, 3, 4), and as bestowed by Him on earnest suppliants (viii, 21-ix).只有(我,4,5)正义的男性居民尤其描述,一个原则征求男人的会(六,14,SQQ),为内上帝的恩赐(七,15;第八,3,4),和(八,21九)认真suppliants赋予他。 Through its power, man triumphs over evil (vii, 30), and through its possession, one may secure for himself the promises of both the present and the future life (viii, 16, 13).通过它的力量,战胜邪恶的人的胜利(七,30),并通过其身上,人们可以为自己争取对当前和未来的生活(第八,16,13)的承诺。 Wisdom is to be prized above all things (vii, 8-11; viii, 6-9), and whoever despises it is doomed to unhappiness (iii, 11).智慧是高于一切事情的珍贵(8-11,第七,第八,6-9),和谁鄙视,这是注定要的不满(III,11)。In direct relation to God, Wisdom is personified, and her nature, attributes, and operation are no less than Divine.在对上帝的直接关系,智慧是人格化,和她的本质,属性和操作并不比神圣少。She is with God from eternity, the partner of His throne, and the sharer of His thoughts (viii, 3; ix, 4, 9).她是永恒的,他的王位的合作伙伴,和他的思想的共享资源(3;第八,九,4,9)神。She is an emanation from His glory (vii, 25), the brightness of His everlasting light and the mirror of His power and goodness (vii, 26).她是从他的荣耀(七,25),他永远的光亮度和(七,26)他的力量和善良的一面镜子流溢。 Wisdom is one, and yet can do everything; although immutable, she makes all things new (vii, 27), with an activity greater than any motion (vii, 23).智慧,还可以做的一切,虽然一成不变的,她使所有新事物(七,27)与活动,比任何运动(七,23)。When God formed the world, Wisdom was present (ix, 9), and she gives to men all the virtues which they need in every station and condition of life (vii, 27; viii, 21; x, 1, 21; xi).当神所形成的世界,智慧是目前(IX,9),和她给男人的美德,他们在每个车站和生活条件的需要(27七,八,21,X,1,21;十一) 。Wisdom is also identified with the "Word" of God (ix, 1; etc.), and is represented as immanent with the "Holy Spirit", to whom a Divine nature and Divine operations are likewise ascribed (i, 5-7; vii, 22, 23; ix, 17).智慧还确定了与“字”的神(IX,1等),并代表内在的“圣灵”,其中一个神圣的性质和神圣操作也同样冲高(I,5-7;七,22,23;九,17)。 Exalted doctrines such as these stand in a vital connection with the New Testament revelation of the mystery of the Blessed Trinity; while other passages of the Book of Wisdom (ii, 13, 16-18; xviii, 14-16) find their fulfilment in Christ, the Incarnate "Word", and "the Wisdom of God".上人的学说,如这些带有神秘的祝福三位一体的新约圣经启示的重要连接的立场,而其他段落的智慧之书(II,13,16日至18日;十八,14日至16日)发现其履行基督的化身的“字”,和“神的智慧”。 In other aspects too, notably with regard to its eschatological teaching (iii-v), the Book of Wisdom presents a wonderful preparation to the New Testament Revelation.在其他方面,特别是关于末世论教学(III - V),智慧之书,提出了一种奇妙的准​​备,以新约圣经的启示。 The New Testament writers appear perfectly familiar with this deutero-canonical writing (cf. Matt., xxvii, 42, 43, with Wis., ii, 13, 18; Rom., xi, 34, with Wis., ix, 13; Eph., vi, 13, 17, with Wis., v, 18, 19; Heb., i, 3, with Wis., vii, 26; etc. It is true that to justify their rejection of the Book of Wisdom from the Canon, many Protestants have claimed that in viii, 19-20, its author admits the error of the pre-existence of the human soul. But this incriminated passage, when viewed in the light of its context, yields a perfectly orthodox sense.新约作者似乎完全熟悉这个deutero规范书写(参见马特,二十七,42,43,与美国威斯康星州,II,13,18;罗马书,十一,34岁,与美国威斯康星州,九,13; 。厄,六,13,17,与美国威斯康星州,V,18,19;希伯来书,我,3,与美国威斯康星州,七,26;等,这是事实,以证明自己的智慧之书,拒绝从佳能声称,许多新教徒19日至20日,在第八,其作者也承认人类灵魂的预先存在的错误,但这种牵连通过时,在其范围内的光看,会产生一个完全正统的意义。

Publication information Written by Francis E. Gigot.弗朗西斯大肠杆菌Gigot编写的出版物信息。 Transcribed by Thomas M. Barrett.转录由托马斯M巴雷特。Dedicated to the Christian judges through the ages The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XV.专用于千古基督教天主教百科全书,卷十五法官。Published 1912.发布1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

(Catholic commentators are marked with an asterisk *.) GRIMM (Leipzig, 1860); SCHMID (Vienna, 1865); * GUTBERLET (Munster, 1874); BISSELL (New York, 1880); DEAN (Oxford, 1881); *LESETRE (Paris, 1884); FARRAR (London, 1888); SIEGFRIED (Tubingen, 1890); ZUCKLER (Munich, 1891); *CRAMPON (Paris, 1902); ANDRE (Florence, 1904); *CORNELY-ZORRELL (Paris, 1910). (天主教评论家都标有星号*)GRIMM(莱比锡,1860年); SCHMID(维也纳,1865年); * GUTBERLET(明斯特,1874年);比斯尔(纽约,1880年),院长(牛津,1881年); * LESETRE (巴黎,1884年); *冰爪(巴黎,1902年),安德烈(佛罗伦萨,1904年); * CORNELY ZORRELL(巴黎,1910年法拉(伦敦,1888年);齐格弗里德(蒂宾根大学,1890年); ZUCKLER(慕尼黑,1891年); )。


Book of the Wisdom of Solomon所罗门的智慧书

Jewish Perspective Information犹太透视信息

ARTICLE HEADINGS:文章标题:

Contents of the Book.书中的内容。

Hellenistic Passover Haggadah.希腊逾越节哈加达。

Wonders of the Exodus.出埃及的奇迹。

The Folly of Idolatry.愚蠢的偶像崇拜。

Plagues upon Egypt.瘟疫后,埃及。

Authorship and Date.作者署名和日期。

Apocryphal book written in Alexandria about the middle of the first century BC That it was composed in Greek by an Alexandrian Jew has been conclusively shown by Freudenthal ("JQR" iii. 722-753).杜撰的书在亚历山大的书面约公元前一世纪,它是在希腊组成由亚历山大的犹太人中叶被最终弗赖登塔尔(“jqr”三。722-753)。 The book has neither an introductory verse nor a regular conclusion.这本书既不是一个介绍性的诗句,也不是普通的结论。In fact, it consists of three independent parts which have no real connection, and which treat of subjects altogether different, a fact clearly recognized by Bretschneider, Eichhorn, and others, but disputed by Grimm ("Kurzgefasstes Exegetisches Handbuch zu den Apocryphen des Alten Testaments," vi. 9-24, Leipsic, 1860) and his followers.事实上,它由三个独立的部分有没有真正的连接,科目的治疗完全不同,Bretschneider,艾希霍恩,和其他人清楚地认识到,但格林(“Kurzgefasstes Exegetisches手册下载组书斋Apocryphen DES Alten圣经有争议的事实“六。9-24,Leipsic,1860年)和他的追随者。

Contents of the Book.书中的内容。

The first six chapters of Wisdom form an address to the rulers of the earth (i. 1; comp. iii. 8; vi. 1-2, 9, 21).前六个章节的智慧形成了地球的统治者(一1;比赛三8;。VI 1-2,9,21)的地址。 They accentuate the necessity of wisdom as indispensable to rulers (i. 6, vi. 9-25), although they are chiefly directed against the Epicureans, the ungodly who deny immortality, indulge in lust and incest, and mock the righteous and the learned, who in their turn upbraid them for their lawlessness and licentiousness (ii. 1-16).他们突出的智慧作为中不可缺少的统治者(一6,第六。9-25)的必需品,虽然他们主要是对伊壁鸠鲁,否认不死的敬虔,沉迷于欲望和乱伦,和模拟的正义和教训在轮到自己谁吒他们的无法无天和淫(白介素1-16)。 In contrast with them the "saints" (Ḥasidim) whom they expose to torture (ii. 19, iii. 1) and to a martyr's death (iii. 2) are called "sons of God," initiated into His mystery, promised an inheritance in eternal life (i. 14; ii. 13, 21, 23; iii. 4, 15; iv. 1; v. 15) like Enoch (iv. 10-16), and assured of a crown of glory in the world to come (v. 16).在与他们的“圣人”(Ḥasidim)他们揭露酷刑(白介素19,三1)和烈士的死亡(III. 2)对比被称为“神的儿子”,他的神秘发起,承诺继承,21一14;二13,23;三,四,15; IV 1。诉15)永恒的生命(如诺(10-16 iv.),并保证在冠的辉煌世界来(16节)。Finally, wisdom is introduced in vi.最后,智慧是在VI。9-25 as the speaker, and as the one who bestows the divine kingdom and confers immortality (vi. 20-21); whereas sin brings death, since "through envy of the devil came death into the world" (ii. 24).9-25扬声器,和谁赋予的神圣王国,并赋予不朽的(VI. 20-21);罪而带来的死亡,因为“来了羡慕的魔鬼死亡融入世界”(白介素24) 。The second part (ch. vii.-ix. 17) contains an address of King Solomon, relating how his life was guided solely by wisdom, and closing with a prayer offered by him to God that he might obtain her.第二部分(章vii.-ix. 17)包含有关如何指导他的生活完全由智慧,所罗门王的地址,并提供由他向上帝祈祷,他可能会得到她闭幕。

Here wisdom is represented as a mystic power which imparts not only knowledge of all mysteries and the spirit of prophecy (vii. 17-21, 27), but even immortality (viii. 13), while it is also a cosmic force invested with twenty-one divine attributes, this number being either a triple multiple of seven, or, if originally twenty-two instead of twenty-one, corresponding to the twenty-two letters of the Greek alphabet (vii.22-23).这里的智慧是代表,不仅是知识的一切奥秘和预言(vii. 17日至21日,27)的精神,但即使不死(viii. 13)作为一种神秘力量赋予,同时它也是投资与二十一个宇宙的力量神的属性之一,这个数字是七三重多个,或者,如果最初二十,而不是二十一,二十二个字母,希腊字母(vii.22 23)。At the same time, wisdom, as in the Platonic system, is believed to teach the four cardinal virtues of temperance, prudence, justice, and fortitude (viii. 7).与此同时,智慧,在柏拉图系统,相信教节制,谨慎,公正,刚毅(7 viii.)的四种基本美德。The prayer of Solomon refers to the heavenly tabernacle prepared from the beginning, and to his own predestination (ix. 7-8; see Preexistence).所罗门的祷告,是指从一开始就准备,天上的帐幕和他自己的宿命(ix. 7-8;见前世)。Wisdom is described as a cosmic principle dwelling on the throne of glory next to God, and as knowing and designing all things (ix. 1, 4, 10), being identical with the creative Word (ix. 1) and the Holy Spirit (ix. 17).智慧被描述为一个宇宙的原则住宅旁边的神的荣耀的宝座上,认识和设计所有的东西(ix. 1,4,10),与创意的Word(ix. 1)和圣灵相同(九,17)。

Hellenistic Passover Haggadah.希腊逾越节哈加达。

While these two portions of the book form a unity to some extent, and probably gave the entire work its title of "Wisdom of Solomon," the last section (ix. 18-xix. 22) is devoid of all connection with what precedes.虽然这些书的两部分,在一定程度上形成了团结,并可能给整个工作“智慧的所罗门,”最后一节(ix. 18 22 - XIX)是没有什么之前所有的连接的头衔。The speaker is no longer Solomon, but the author or the saints (xvi. 28, xviii. 6 et passim), who recite the history of Israel's redemption from Egypt and other enemies.扬声器不再是所罗门,但作者或圣人(xvi. 6月28日,第十八等各处),谁背诵的以色列从埃及和其他敌人的赎回的历史。In like manner, the words are not addressed to the kings of the earth (ix. 18; x. 20; xi. 4, 9, 17, 21; et passim), but to God, the deliverer from the Red Sea.在喜欢的方式,问题不解决,地上的君王(18 ix.; X. 20席4,9,17,21;等各处),但到神,从红海的释放者。The whole appears on close observation to be part of a Passover Haggadah recited in Egypt with reference to Gentile surroundings, and it accordingly abounds in genuine haggadic passages of an ancient character.出现在密切观察整个逾越节哈加达泰尔周围背诵在埃及的一部分,并相应地在一个古字的真正haggadic通道比比皆是。 The tenth chapter serves as a connecting-link between the Solomonic Wisdom-book and this Passover-Haggadah fragment, and must, therefore, be taken with the last verse of the ninth chapter and the first of the eleventh, in both of which wisdom forms the theme.第十章作为一个所罗门智慧书,这逾越节哈加达片段之间的连接链路,因此,必须采取与第九章最后一节和第十一届首次在这两种形式的智慧,主题。 Here, however, it has nothing in common with the Solomonic wisdom, which, enabling the king to penetrate into all the mysteries of heaven and earth, to study the world of the spirits, and to learn the virtues of stones and roots, thus came very close to the Platonic wisdom (vii. 17-26).然而,在这里,它已与所罗门的智慧,王渗透到所有的天地的奥秘,研究世界的精神,和学习的石头和树根的美德,使毫无共同之处,从而来非常接近柏拉图的智慧(vii. 17-26)。The wisdom of the haggadist is exclusive and hostile to the Gentile world, rather than cosmopolitan and broad, saving only the righteous and bringing ruin upon the wicked (ix. 18, x. 1-21). haggadist的智慧是排斥和敌视向詹蒂莱世界,而非国际性和广泛的,只保存正义,让恶人的毁灭(ix. 18,十1-21)。From this point of view the lives of the Patriarchs are recounted to lead up to the story of the Exodus.从这个角度来看的始祖的生活讲述带领出埃及记的故事。Wisdom taught Adam to rise from his fall by repentance (comp. "Vita Adæ et Evæ," viii.; Pirḳe R. El. xx.); but it caused Cain and his generation to perish (x. 1-3).智慧教导亚当上升悔改,从他的秋天(comp.“维塔Adæ等Evæ,”八;。PirḳeR.萨尔瓦多XX),但它引起的该隐和他那一代人亡(十1-3)。 It saved Noah, Abraham, and Lot, but brought lasting doom upon the offenders (x. 4-9).它救了挪亚,亚伯拉罕,和地段,但带来持久的厄运后,罪犯(十4-9)。It showed Jacob the kingdom of God in the vision of the ladder (comp. Gen. R. lxviii. 16; Targ. Yer. to Gen. xxviii. 12) and gave him victory over all his pursuers (x. 10-12).这表明在阶梯的视野(comp.将军河LXVIII 16。。塔尔格也门里亚尔创二十八12)雅各神的国度,给了他战胜他追兵(X. 10-12) 。It preserved Joseph the righteous from sin, went with him into the pit and the prison, and raised him to the throne and to glory, but covered his detractors with shame (x. 13-15).它保存约瑟夫从罪恶的正义,与他走进坑和监狱,并提出了他的王位和荣耀,但覆盖着耻辱(X. 13日至15日)他的贬抑。 It delivered Israel from its heathen oppressors, entered into the soul of Moses, enabling him to work all his miracles before Pharaoh, and, in the shape of a protecting pillar of cloud by day and of an illuminating fire by night, guided the people through the wilderness and through the Red Sea, while it drowned the Egyptians and cast them up again from the deep to enrich the Israelites with the spoils that floated upon the water (x. 15-20; comp. Mek., Beshallaḥ, 6; Targ. Yer. to Ex. xiii. 21; xv. 12, 20; Josephus, "Ant." ii. 16, § 6).它提供从异教徒进入摩西的灵魂压迫者,以色列,使他的工作法老面前,他的奇迹,而且,在一个云白天和夜间照明消防保护支柱的形状,引导人们通过旷野和通过红海,而淹没了埃及人和再次抛弃他们从深海丰富的战利品,浮动后的水(X. 15-20以色列人;比赛MEK,Beshallaḥ,6;塔尔格也门里亚尔前第十三21;。XV 12,20;。“蚂蚁”约瑟夫,二16,§ 6)。 It also opened the mouths of the dumb so that they joined in the song of the people in praise of God at the Red Sea (x. 21; comp. Mek. to Shirah [Song of Moses], 1), and it prospered the work of Moses in the wilderness (xi. 1-4).也开了哑巴的嘴,使他们在歌曲的人在赞美神(X. 21。比赛MEK Shirah [摩西之歌],1)在红海加入,和它繁荣摩西在旷野(xi. 1-4)。

Wonders of the Exodus.出埃及的奇迹。

This section is followed (xi. 5-xix. 21) by a haggadic discourse in the form of a prayer of thanks-giving on the Egyptian plagues and other miracles connected with the Exodus, obviously to be recited on the eve of the Passover (xviii. 6-9; comp. Josephus, "Ant." ii. 16, § 4; Book of Jubilees, xlix. 2-6).其次是本节(5 xi. 21 - XIX)由haggadic话语感谢给埃及瘟疫和其他与出埃及记的奇迹祈祷的形式,显然是要背诵的逾越节前夕(第十八6-9。“蚂蚁”比赛约瑟夫,II 16,§ 4;的jubilees,XLIX图书2-6)。The fundamental principle of the ancient Haggadah is that God metes out the perfect justice expressed by the Rabbis in the phrase "middah keneged middah" (= "measure for measure"), so that the book declares: "Wherewithal a man sinneth, by the same also shall he be punished" (xi. 16).古代哈加达的基本原则是,由“middah keneged middah”(=“措施措施”一语中的的神)的拉比表示完美的正义METES,使书中宣称:“一个人sinneth必要的资金,由同样,他受到惩罚“(xi. 16)。This was applied to the Egyptians with reference to Ex.这是埃及人的EX。xviii.十八。11 (see Targum ad loc.; Soṭah 11d).11(见他尔根广告同上。Soṭah11D)。Here, however, the haggadist goes so far as to maintain that the very thing which proved an instrument of vengeance to the Egyptians became a means of safety for Israel (xi. 5).然而,这里的haggadist竟以保持的东西,这证明复仇埃及人的工具,成为以色列(5 xi.)的安全手段。The water in which the Israelitish children were to be drowned was turned to blood for the parched Egyptians, while it flowed forth from the rock to quench the thirst of the children of Israel in the desert (xi. 4-7). Israelitish儿童被水淹死的水转向炎热的埃及人的血液,当它从岩石流出来解渴的以色列儿童在沙漠中口渴(xi. 4-7)。In like manner, the animals worshiped by the Egyptians became the source of terror and harm to them (xi. 15-19, xii. 24-27); "for these [the Israelites] thou didst admonish and try, as a father: but the other [the Egyptian people], as a severe king, thou didst condemn and punish" (xi. 10), even though God loves all His creatures, and waits for the repentance of the sinner because He is the lover of souls (xi. 24-xii. 2).在喜欢的方式,由埃及人崇拜的动物成为恐怖和伤害他们的源(xi. 15-19,24-27。第十二);“这些[以色列人]你复活,训诫,并尝试作为一个父亲,但其他[埃及人民],作为一个严重的国王,你复活,谴责和惩罚“(xi. 10),即使上帝爱他的一切生物,并等待悔改的罪人,因为他是灵魂的情人(十一,24 XII。2)。The real cause of the doom of such Gentile nations as the Canaanites was their commission of the capital sins of idolatry and murder (xii. 4-7; comp. Sibyllines, i. 150, 178; iii. 36-40, 585-605, 761-764; et passim).迦南人的外邦国家灭亡的真正原因是他们的偶像崇拜和谋杀资本的罪孽委员会(xii. 4-7;比赛Sibyllines岛150,178;。,三36-40,585-605 761-764;等各处)。Yet even they were given time for repentance; wherefore God sent the wasps before Israel to destroy the Canaanites gradually, instead of killing them all at once (xii. 8-11; comp. Ex. xxiii. 28; Soṭah 36a); for God blends mercy with justice, to teach "that the just man should be merciful" (xii. 19; comp. i. 6), and unrepentant Egypt was thus severely punished until she acknowledged the God she had denied (xii. 27).然而,即使他们给予悔改的时间;何方上帝派来的黄蜂之前,以色列逐步摧毁的迦南人,而不是一次全部杀死他们(xii. 8-11。比赛前28 XXIII。Soṭah36A);,为神混合怜悯与正义,教“的,公正的人应该是仁慈的”(xii. 19;比赛一6),和死不悔改埃及因此被严惩,直至她承认她曾否认神(xii. 27)。

The Folly of Idolatry.愚蠢的偶像崇拜。

Egyptian (and Greek) idolatry is declared (xiii. 1-10) to be far less excusable than Babylonian star-worship, and it is therefore derided (xiii. 11-19) in terms borrowed from Isa.宣布埃及和希腊的偶像崇拜(xiii. 1-10)要远远低于巴比伦明星崇拜情有可原,它是由伊萨借来的条款,因此嘲笑(xiii. 11-19)。xliv.XLIV。13-20.13-20。Idolatry was first introduced by the giants who were descended from the fallen angels.偶像崇拜中首次引入巨头谁是堕落天使的后裔。Its purposes were corruption and fornication (xiv. 1-13); it owed its hold on mankind to the honor paid the images of dead sons (xiv. 14-21; comp. Book of Jubilees, xi. 4; Bezold, "Die Schatzhöhle," p. 31), and it led to murder, adultery, theft, and perjury (xiv. 22-31).其目的是腐败和淫乱(1-13 xiv.);它欠其对人类的荣誉,死的儿子支付的图像(xiv. 14-21排版书的jubilees,十一4; Bezold,“模具Schatzhöhle,“第31页),并导致凶杀,奸淫,偷窃,和作伪证(xiv. 22-31)。Knowledge of God alone guides to righteousness and immortality, while the enemies (the Romans and the Greeks of Alexandria, as well as the Egyptians)who hold Israel in subjection are termed foolish image-worshipers (xv. 1-15; comp. Ps. cxv., recited on the eve of the Passover).神的知识单独指导,以正义和不朽,而持隶属以色列的敌人(罗马和亚历山大的希腊人,以及埃及人)被称为愚蠢的形象崇拜者(xv. 1-15;比赛诗篇。第一百一十五,背诵的逾越节前夕)。The Egyptian animal-worship again suggests to the haggadist the idea that while the beasts became a torment to Egypt, the quail became nourishing food for the people of God (xvi. 1-4); and though the serpents bit the Israelites in the wilderness, they were in the end a sign of salvation for them, admonishing them to look to God as the savior whose word heals all (xvi. 5-12; comp. RH iii. 8c).再次表明埃及的动物崇拜haggadist的想法,而野兽成为埃及折磨,鹌鹑成为神(1-4 xvi.)人的滋补食品;虽然蛇位以色列人在旷野,他们在最后的拯救他们的标志,告诫他们看作为神的救世主,其字愈合(xvi. 5-12;比赛RH三8C)。The fire which fell with both the hail and the rain (Ex. ix. 24; Tan., Wayera, ed. Buber, p. 22), as well as in the sea (Ex. xiv. 24; Targ. Yer. ad loc.; Josephus, "Ant." ii. 16, § 3), like the fire which would not destroy the frogs in the oven (xix. 21; Pes. 53b), manifested the wondrous power of God (xvi. 16-19).谭火与冰雹和雨下跌(出九24;,Wayera,ED布伯,第22页。),以及在海上(出十四24;塔尔格也门里亚尔广告。“蚂蚁”。LOC约瑟夫,二16,§ 3)像火不会破坏在烤箱中的青蛙(xix. 21; PES 53B),体现了神奇妙的功率(xvi. 16 - 19)。On the other hand, the manna, which fell like hoar frost and was flavored to suit every wish and taste, did not melt in the heat of the wilderness, but disappeared under the first rays of the sun that the people might offer their praise early in the morning (comp. Yoma 75a; Targ. Yer. to Ex. xvi. 21; Mek., Wayassa', 4 [ed. Weiss, p. 58a]; for the Essene prayer at sunrise see Josephus, "BJ" ii. 8, § 5; Ber. 9b; and comp. Essenes).甘露,像白霜下跌,是调味,以满足每一个愿望和品位,另一方面,没有融化在旷野的热量,但在第一缕阳光的消失,人们可能会提供他们的赞美早在早晨[ED魏斯,第58A(75A comp.山脉;。塔尔格也门里亚尔前十六21;。。MEK,Wayassa“,4];看到日出的厄祈祷约瑟夫,”北京“二8,§ 5;误码率9B;。排版爱色尼)。

Plagues upon Egypt.瘟疫后,埃及。

The Egyptian plague of darkness, in striking contrast to the light in the houses of the children of Israel (Ex. x. 21-23), is declared to have been a punishment for their imprisonment of the Israelites, the future bearers of the light of the Law, and for their pride in their intellectuality, besides being a token of their future doom (xvii. 1-xviii. 4).黑暗埃及的瘟疫,在鲜明的对比,在以色列(出X. 21-23)的孩子的房子,宣布已为他们对以色列人监禁的惩罚,轻未来的承担者法,并为他们在自己理智的自豪感,除了是一个对自己未来的厄运的令牌(xvii. 1 4 - XVIII)。The last plague, the death of the first-born, was the punishment for the intended murder of the Israelitish children (xviii. 5).最后的瘟疫,死亡的第一个出生的,是Israelitish儿童意图谋杀(xviii. 5)的处罚。This same night of watching proved to be the doom of the Egyptians and the election of Israel, so that on the one side resounded cries of lamentation, and on the other were heard songs of thanksgiving (xviii. 7-17).这被证明是死命的埃及人和以色列的选举,使一方的哀叹响彻的呼喊,和其他人听说过感恩节的歌曲(xviii. 7-17)看同一个晚上。The almighty "Word" carried the sword of death throughout Egypt, and by this same power Aaron, with his robe, his breastplate, and his diadem decked with divine mysteries, subdued the angel of death (xviii. 20-25).全能的“字”进行了整个埃及的死亡之剑,此相同的电源亚伦,他的长袍,他的胸牌,和他的王冠与神圣的奥秘双层,制服死亡天使(xviii. 20-25)。Finally, the destruction of the Egyptians in the Red Sea is described as a renewal of the miracle of Creation (xix. 1-6), since out of the sea rose a green field (comp. Targ. Yer. to Ex. xv. 19).最后,埃及人在红海的破坏是由于海描述为一个创造奇迹的重建(xix. 1-6),一个绿色的田野(comp.塔尔格。也门里亚尔。上升到前十五。 19)。The Egyptians had been more brutal in their treatment of the strangers than had the inhospitable Sodomites, thus accounting for the severity of their punishment (xix. 13-22).埃及人已更加残酷对待陌生人超过了荒凉的玛,从而对他们的处罚的轻重(xix. 13-22)会计。Here the Haggadah breaks off abruptly.这里的哈加达打破突然关闭。

Authorship and Date.作者署名和日期。

It is evident that these three parts, or at least the first two (i.-ix., x.-xix.), can not have emanated from the same author, for neither the style nor the views can be ascribed to one and the same person.很明显,这三个部分,或至少两个(i.-ix.,X - XIX),不能有同一作者所产生的,为的风格,也不是意见既不可以归因于一个同一个人。This leads to the supposition that the original Wisdom of Solomon and the Passover-Haggadah fragment were probably joined together and then treated as one book.这导致,所罗门和逾越节哈加达片段的原始智慧,可能在一起,然后加入被视为一书的假设。Grätz ("Gesch." 4th ed., iii. 382-385, 611-613) finds in the work allusions to the apotheosis of Caligula (38-40 CE), but the deification of the Ptolemies goes back to Egyptian custom.格拉茨(“Gesch。”第4版。三,382-385,611-613)发现在工作中的典故卡里古拉(38-40 CE)神化,但托勒密神化追溯到埃及的习俗。Ch.CH。ii.II。and iii.及iii。refer to Jewish converts, not to Greeks in Alexandria.指犹太教皈依,而不是在亚历山大的希腊人。The character of the book as regards the creative Wisdom, Word, and Spirit indicates a stage prior to the Philonic system, and the Biblical story shows a haggadic form still fresh and not yet compressed into a rigid system, as in Philo (see Siegfried, "Philo von Alexandria," pp. 22-24, Jena, 1875).至于书的特点创造性智慧,字和精神,表示前一个阶段的Philonic系统,和圣经故事显示一个haggadic形式仍记忆犹新,并成为一个僵化的体系尚未压缩在斐洛(见齐格弗里德, “斐洛冯亚历山德里亚,”第22-24页,耶拿,1875年)。The apostle Paul (see Grafe, "Das Verhältniss der Paulinischen Schriften zur Sapientia Salomonis," Freiburg-im-Breisgau, 1892; comp. also Saul of Tarsus), the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews (Heb. i. 3, iv. 12; comp. Wisdom vii. 22, 26), and others have drawn from the Book of Wisdom.使徒保罗(见格拉夫,“达斯Verhältniss DER Paulinischen Schriften楚Sapientia Salomonis”,弗赖堡- IM -布赖斯高,1892年;比赛也扫罗的塔尔苏斯),希伯来书信的作者(希伯来书一,三,四12;比赛智慧七22,26),以及其他来自智慧之书。 This places the date of the book, or at least that of the first part, with certainty in the first century BC A Hebrew translation of the Wisdom of Solomon is mentioned by Naḥmanides in the preface to his commentary on the Pentateuch.这地方的书的日期,或至少在公元前一世纪的第一部分,一个是在他的评论就pentateuch前言中提到Naḥmanides的智慧的所罗门希伯来文翻译肯定。 A Hebrew version with a commentary was published by Hartwig Wessely (Berlin, 1780), and a German translation with notes, valuable for the references to rabbinical literature, was made by M. Gutmann (Altona, 1841).一个希伯来文版本的评论发表哈特维希威斯利(柏林,1780年),和宝贵的拉比文献的引用,一个音符的德语翻译,是由M.古特曼(阿尔托纳,1841年)。

Kaufmann Kohler考夫曼科勒

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.1901至1906年之间出版的犹太百科全书。

Bibliography:参考书目:

For the extensive literature see Schürer, Gesch.对于大量的文献,看到Schürer,Gesch。3d ed., iii.3D版,第三。 377-383.377-383。The chief editions, besides that contained in Fritzsche's Apocryphi Grœci, are: Reusch, Liber Sapientiœ Grœce, Freiburg-im-Breisgau, 1858; Deane, Book of Wisdom, Oxford, 1881.首席版本,除了弗里切的Apocryphi Grœci中,主要有:Reusch,LIBER Sapientiœ Grœce,弗赖堡- IM -布赖斯高,1858;迪恩,智慧,牛津大学,1881年的图书。On the question of the original language see Margoliouth, Was the Book of Wisdom Written in Hebrew?在原语见马戈柳思的问题,是在希伯来文写的智慧书?in JRAS 1890, pp. 263 et seq.; answered by Freudenthal, What Is the Original Language of the Wisdom of Solomon? 1890年在JRAS,第263及以下;弗赖登塔尔回答,什么是原所罗门的智慧语言?in JQR iii.在JQR第三。722-753.K.722 753.K。



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