Adoption (Religious)领养(宗教)

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Adoption is the giving to any one the name and place and privileges of a son who is not a son by birth.领养是给任何一个不是由出生的儿子的儿子是谁的名字和地点和特权。(1.) Natural.(1)自然。 Thus Pharaoh's daughter adopted Moses (Ex. 2:10), and Mordecai Esther (Esther 2:7).因此,法老的女儿通过摩西(出埃及记2:10),末底改和以斯帖(以斯帖记2:7)。(2.) National.(2)国家。 God adopted Israel (Ex. 4:22; Deut. 7:6; Hos. 11:1; Rom. 9:4).神通过以色列(出4:22;申命记7:6;居者有其屋11:1;罗马书9:4)。 (3.) Spiritual.(3) 精神。An act of God's grace by which he brings men into the number of his redeemed family, and makes them partakers of all the blessings he has provided for them. Adoption represents the new relations into which the believer is introduced by justification, and the privileges connected therewith, viz., an interest in God's peculiar love (John 17:23; Rom. 5:5-8), a spiritual nature (2 Pet. 1:4; John 1:13), the possession of a spirit becoming children of God (1 Pet. 1:14; 2 John 4; Rom. 8:15-21; Gal. 5:1; Heb. 2:15), present protection, consolation, supplies (Luke 12:27-32; John 14:18; 1 Cor. 3:21-23; 2 Cor. 1:4), fatherly chastisements (Heb. 12:5-11), and a future glorious inheritance (Rom. 8:17,23; James 2:5; Phil. 3:21).一个神的恩典的行为由他带来到他赎回家庭的男子,并让所有的他已经为他们提供祝福他们有分 。采纳代表的融入其中,信徒是由理由推出 ​​新的关系,以及连接的权限相关的,即,(约翰福音17:23;罗5:5-8)上帝特有的爱的兴趣,一种精神性质(2宠物1:4;约翰1时13分),成为拥有精神的儿童神(彼前1:14;约翰福音4章2;罗8:15-21;加仑5:1;希伯来书2时15分),目前的保护,安慰,用品(路加福音12:27-32;约翰14:18;林前3:21-23;林后1:4),父爱chastisements(希伯来书12:5-11),和未来的光荣继承(罗8:17,23;詹姆斯2。: 5;腓3:21)。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)

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Adoption (Religious)通过(宗教)

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A relatively infrequent term in the Scriptures, "adoption" is of theological importance, for it relates to how Israel and the Christian may be "sons" and "heirs" of God although they are not uniquely or by nature so, as in the case of Christ.在圣经中的一个长期相对较少,“领养”是神学的重要性,因为它涉及到如何以色列和基督教可能是“儿子”和“继承人”神的,虽然他们不是唯一的或自然的情况下,基督。

In the OT在旧约

The term "adoption" does not appear in the OT.“收养”一词没有出现在旧约。There are no provisions for adoption in Israelite law, and the examples which do occur come from outside the Israelite culture (Eliezer, Gen. 15:1-4; Moses, Exod. 2:10; Genubath, 1 Kings 11:20; Esther, Esth. 2:7, 15).有没有通过以色列人的法律规定,发生以外的以色列人文化(创15:1-4埃利泽的例子;摩西,Exod 2点10分; Genubath,1国王11时20分;以斯帖Esth 2:7,15)。For the Israelites polygamy and levirate marriage were the more common solutions to infertility.为以色列人一夫多妻制,娶寡嫂制不孕较为常见的解决方案。Yet adoption was not unknown in their literature (cf. Prov. 17:2; 19:10; 29:21, which may all refer to adoption of slaves), and it may have been the means by which children fathered by a master on a slave mother inherited property (Gen. 16:1-4; 21:1-10; 30:1-13).然而,通过在他们的文学未知(参箴17时02分,19点10分,29:21,这可能都是指通过奴隶),它可能已经意味着儿童由主的父亲对一个奴隶的母亲继承的财产(创16:1-4; 21:1-10; 30:1-13)。Outside of Israel adoption was common enough to be regulated in the law codes of Babylon (eg, Hammurabi's Code, sect. 185-86), Nuzi, and Ugarit.以色列通过外是共同的,足以在巴比伦(例如,“汉穆拉比的代码,。185-86节),Nuzi,乌加里特法典规定。 Not infrequently these refer to the adoption of a slave as an heir.并不罕见,这是指通过一个奴隶作为继承人。

For Israel as a whole there was a consciousness of having been chosen by God as his "son" (Hos. 11:1; Isa. 1:2; Jer. 3:19).对于以色列作为一个整体,是一个被上帝选择了他的“儿子”(11时01分;伊萨Hos. 1:2;。耶3点19分)的意识。Since Israel had no myth of descent from the gods as the surrounding cultures did, adoption was the obvious category into which this act, as well as the deliverance from slavery in Egypt, would fit, as Paul indicates in Rom.由于以色列没有从神血统的神话周围的文化一样,通过明显的类别到这一行为,以及从埃及的奴役,解脱适合,如保罗在罗马书表示。 9:4.9时04分。Likewise the kings succeeding David were God's "son" (II Sam. 7:14; I Chr. 28:6; Ps. 89:19).同样,接替大卫国王是神的“儿子”(二山姆7点14分;我CHR 28:6;诗89:19)。Ps.聚苯乙烯。2:7, eg, uses "You are my son," which is probably the adoption formula used in the enthronement ceremony of each successive Davidic ruler. 2:7,例如,使用“你是我的儿子,”这可能是通过公式用于在每个连续的大卫统治者的坐床典礼。Together these ideas laid the basis for later NT usage of adoption imagery.这些想法后新台币通过图像的使用奠定了基础。

In the NT在NT

In the NT the term "adoption" (huiothesia) is strictly a Pauline idea, occurring only in Rom.在NT的“收养”(huiothesia)是严格意义上的宝莲的想法,只发生在ROM。8:15, 23; 9:4; Gal. 8:15,23日9时04分;半乳糖。4:5; and Eph.4:5;和弗。 1:5.1:5。While John and Peter prefer the picture of regeneration to portray the Christian sonship, Paul has characteristically chosen a legal image (as in justification), perhaps due to his contact with the Roman world.尽管约翰和彼得希望再生的画面描绘的基督教sonship,保罗的特点选择一个合法的图像(理由),或许是由于他与罗马世界的联系。

In Greek and Roman society adoption was, at least among the upper classes, a relatively common practice.在希腊和罗马社会通过的,至少在上层阶级,一个比较普遍的做法。Unlike the oriental cultures in which slaves were sometimes adopted, these people normally limited adoption to free citizens.不同的是其中的奴隶有时通过的东方文化,这些人通常仅限于通过自由公民。But, at least in Roman law, the citizen so adopted became a virtual slave, for he came under the paternal authority of his adoptive father.但是,至少在罗马法中,通过公民成为一个虚拟的奴隶,因为他下,他的养父父权。Adoption conferred rights, but it came with a list of duties as well.通过赋予的权利,但它的职责以及清单。

Paul combines several of these pictures in his thought.保罗在他的思想相结合的这些图片的几个。While Gal.而GAL。4 begins with a picture of the law enslaving the heirs until a given date (eg, majority or the death of the father), there is a shift in vs. 4 to the adoption image in which one who was truly a slave (not a minor as in vss. 1-3) becomes a son and thus an heir through redemption. 4开始与奴役,直到某​​一特定日期(例如,大多数或父亲死亡)的继承人的法律的图片,有一个比4通过形象的转变中,谁是真正的奴隶(不是VSS 1-3未成年人)变成了一个儿子,从而通过赎回的继承人。The former slave, empowered by the Spirit, now uses the address of a son, "Abba! Father!"圣灵的能力,前奴隶,现在使用的一个儿子的地址,“阿爸!父啊!”

The reason for adoption is given in Eph.通过的原因是在弗。1:5: God's love.1:5:神的爱。 It was not due to his nature or merit that the Christian was adopted (and thus receives the Spirit and the inheritance, Eph. 1:14-15), but to God's will acting through Christ.这是不是因为他的性质或择优,基督教是通过(从而得到精神和继承,弗。1:14-15),但神的旨意借着基督行事。 Adoption is a free grant to undeserving people solely from God's grace.收养是一个免费的授予不值得人们只从神的恩典。

As in Galatians and Ephesians, adoption is connected to the Spirit in Romans as well.至于在加拉太书和以弗所书,通过连接,以及在罗马的精神。It is those who are "led by the Spirit" who are sons, who have received the "spirit of sonship," not that of slavery (Rom. 8:14-15).正是这些“领导精神”谁是儿子,谁收到“sonship精神,”不是,奴役(罗8:14-15)。 Again the Spirit produces the cry "Abba!"同样的精神产生一声“阿爸!”and indicates by his presence the reality of the coming inheritance.并表示他的存在继承未来的现实。

Adoption, however, is not entirely a past event.然而,并非完全过去的事件。The legal declaration may have been made, and the Spirit may have been given as a down payment, but the consummation of the adoption awaits the future, for the adoption of sons includes "the redemption of our bodies" (Rom. 8:23).法律声明可能已经作出,并可能已被圣灵作为首付,但通过完善有待通过儿子的未来,包括“我们的身体赎回”(罗马书8时23分) 。Thus adoption is something hoped for as well as something already possessed.因此,通过希望的东西,以及一些已经拥有。

Adoption, then, is deliverance from the past (similar to regeneration and justification), a status and way of life in the present (walking by the Spirit, sanctification), and a hope for the future (salvation, resurrection).通过,那么,从过去类似的再生和理由,地位和生活方式在目前的(走圣灵成圣),和对未来的希望(救赎,复活)是解脱。 It describes the process of becoming a son of God (cf. John 1:12; 1 John 3:1-2) and receiving an inheritance from God (cf. Col. 3:24).它描述了成为神的儿子(参见约翰福音1:12;约翰一书3:1-2)的过程中,继承和接收从神(参上校3:24)。

PH Davids PH值戴维斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
JI Cook, "The Concept of Adoption in the Theology of Paul," in Saved by Hope, ed.姬库克,“保罗神学的概念,通过”希望,编辑保存。JI Cook; F. Lyall, "Roman Law in the Writings of Paul, Adoption," JBL 88:458-66; LH Marshall, The Challenge of NT Ethics; W. v. Martitz and E. Schweizer, TDNT, VIII, 397-99; WH Rossell, "New Testament Adoption, Graeco-Roman or Semitic?"姬库克; F.莱尔,“罗马在保罗的著作,通过”,“JBL 88:458-66; LH的马歇尔,挑战新台币道德; W.诉Martitz和E.施韦策,TDNT,第八条,397 -99; WH罗塞尔,“新约全书采用,希腊罗马或犹太人的吗?”JBL 71:233-34; DJ Theron, "Adoption' in the Pauline Corpus," EvQ 28:6-14; J. van Seters, "The Problem of Childlessness in Near Eastern Law and the Patriarchs of Israel," JBL 87:401-8.JBL 71:233-34; DJ塞隆,“通过在宝莲语料库”,“EVQ 28:6-14; J.面包车Seters,”无子女的问题,在近东“和以色列的始祖,”极限87: 401-8。

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