Agape大爱

General Information一般资料

Agape is a Greek word translated in the New Testament of the Bible as "love" or "charity."爱德是一个希腊词翻译的“圣经”新约“爱”或“慈善”。Agape is ranked by Christian moral theologians with faith and hope as a basic virtue, and Saint Paul called it the greatest of the virtues.爱佳倍的排名是由基督教作为一项基本美德的信仰和希望的道德神学家,和圣保禄把它称为最伟大的美德。

The name agape was given, also, to an early Christian love feast, an evening communal meal held in connection with the Lord's Supper.的名称,同时,爱德是早期基督教爱的盛宴,一个晚上共同主的晚餐用餐举行。Its origin is found in the chaburah, a fellowship meal of late Judaism.它的起源是在chaburah,后期犹太教奖学金餐。If, as is probable, the chaburah was observed by Jesus and his disciples, its adoption by the young Christian church was entirely natural.如果是可能的,chaburah是由耶稣和他的弟子观察到,它通过由年轻的基督教教堂是完全自然的。At the agape, food brought by the people was solemnly blessed in advance of the repast.在爱德,食品所带来的祝福的人郑重地在就餐前。The Eucharist (consecration of bread and wine) either preceded or followed the agape.圣体(面包和酒奉献)的前面或后面的Agape。About the beginning of the 2nd century the Eucharist was detached from the communal meal and transferred to the early morning.关于第二世纪初的圣体圣事是脱离的公共餐,并转移到清晨。The agape lingered in some Christian communities until the 3rd century.直到第三世纪的Agape徘徊在一些基督教社区。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息来源
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects

我们2300 宗教科目名单
E-mail电子邮件

Love / Agape爱/爱加倍

Advanced Information先进的信息

Asked which is the greatest commandment, Jesus replied, "You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind. This is the great and first commandment. And a second is like it, You shall love your neighbor as yourself. On these two commandments depend all the law and prophets" (Matt. 22:37-40; cf. Mark 12:2-31; Luke 10:26-27).当被问及这是最大的诫命,耶稣回答说,“你应爱主你的神与所有的心脏,并与你的灵魂,与所有你的心,这是伟大的第一条诫命。,第二是喜欢它,要爱人如己这两条诫命,你的邻居,取决于所有的法律和先知“(太22:37-40;比照马克12:2-31,路加福音10:26-27)。 According to Mark 12:31 Jesus stated that there is no other command greater than these two commands.据马克12时31分耶稣说,有没有其他比这两个命令的命令。Hence, love is of preeminent importance in the Bible.因此,爱是“圣经”中最杰出的重要性。

Biblical Terms圣经条款

OT旧约

There are many Hebrew words to express the concept of love.有很多希伯来语言语来表达的爱情观。By far the most prominent one (used over two hundred times) is the verb aheb, denoting both divine and human love as well as love toward inanimate objects such as food (Gen. 27:4), wisdom (Prov. 4:6), sleep (Prov. 20:13), agriculture (II Chr. 26:10), and the good (Amos 5:15).到目前为止,最突出的一个(超过两百倍)的动词aheb,表示神和人的爱情,以及向无生命的物体,如食品爱(创27:4),智慧(箴言4时06分)睡眠(箴20:13),农业(二CHR。26:10),以及好(阿摩司书5:15)。 The noun ahaba (used about thirty times) is used primarily of human love, as seen in its frequent use in Song of Solomon, although it is also used of divine love (Isa. 63:9; Jer. 31:3; Hos. 11:4; Zeph. 3:17).名词ahaba(约三十多次使用),主要用于对人类的爱,在所罗门之歌“中的频繁使用,虽然它也是神圣的爱(以赛亚书63:9;耶31:3;居者有其屋计划。 11时04分; Zeph 3时17分)。Another frequently used word (over forty times), the noun dod, has the sexual sense of a man being addressed as "lover" or "beloved"; it is frequently used in the Song of Solomon (eg, 1:13, 14, 16; 2:3).另一个经常使用的字(超过四十次),名词国防部,作为“情人”或“亲爱的”解决一个人的性意识,它经常在雅歌(例如,1:13,14, 16; 2:3)。Finally, there is the often used noun, hesed, which is translated most of the time as "mercy" in the AV, "steadfast love" in the RSV, "lovingkindness" in the NASB, and "love" in the NIV, all of which have the idea of loyal covenantal love.最后,还有一个常用的名词,hesed,这是翻译的大部分时间为“慈悲”在AV的“坚定的爱”中的RSV,“慈爱”在NASB,并在“为证:”爱“,所有其中有忠诚圣约爱的想法。

NT新台币

There are several words for love in the Greek language, but only two are used with any frequency in the NT.有几个单词在希腊语的爱,但只有两个是用于与任何频率在NT。Although not prominent in prebiblical Greek, the verb agapao/noun agape is the most common NT word for love.虽然没有突出prebiblical希腊的动词agapao /名词爱德是最常见的NT爱字。This verb/noun combination is the most frequently used in the LXX in translating aheb/ahabah.这动词/名词组合是最经常使用的lxx翻译aheb / ahabah。Basically it is a self-giving love that is not merited.基本上它是一个自我奉献的爱,是不值得的。The second most frequently used word for love in the NT is the verb phileo.最常用的爱在NT的第二个字是动词phileo。 It is the most common word for love in prebiblical Greek, but it is not often used in the LXX.这是最常见的prebiblical希腊爱字,但它是不是经常使用的lxx。Although this word overlaps with agapao/agape, it is a love with affection in connection with friendship.虽然这个词的重叠与agapao /爱德,它是一个爱亲情与友谊。Its derivatives such as philos, friend (used twenty-nine times), and philia, friendship (used only in James 4:4), support this connotation.如PHILOS,朋友(二十九个次),血友病,友谊(仅用于詹姆斯4:4)及其衍生物,支持这一内涵。It is a love that is warm and merited.它是一种爱,是温暖的,值得的。Two common Greek words for love are never used in the NT: storge, having the idea of family love or affection, as borne out by the negative adjective astorgos used only in Rom.两种常见的希腊字为爱从来没有用在NT:storge,家人的爱或感情的想法,仅用于ROM的负面形容词astorgos承担。 1:31 and II Tim. 1点31分和第二添。3:3; and eros, expressing a possessive love and used mainly of physical love. 3时03分;和爱欲,表达了占有欲的爱,主要用于物理的爱。In contrast to agape, "eros has two principal characteristics: it is a love of the worthy and it is a love that desires to possess. Agape is in contrast at both points: it is not a love of the worthy, and it is not a love that desires to possess. On the contrary, it is a love given quite irrespective of merit, and it is a love that seeks to give" (Leon Morris, Testaments of Love, p. 128).对比爱德,“爱神有两个主要特点:它是一个值得重视的爱,它是一种爱,渴望拥有阿加佩在这两点对比的是:它不是一个值得重视的爱,它是不渴望拥有一份爱心。相反,它是相当的优点,不论一个爱,它是一种爱,旨在给“(莱昂莫里斯,爱圣经,第128页)。 Although eros does not always have a bad connotation, certainly agapao/agape is far more lofty in that it seeks the highest good in the one loved, even though that one may be undeserving, and hence its prominence in the Bible can be understood.虽然爱神并不总是有一个坏的内涵,当然agapao /爱德是更崇高的,它的目的之一爱的最高利益,即使可能不配,并因此在“圣经”它的重要性是可以理解的。

Love of God神的爱

The Attribute of Love爱的属性

God in his very essence is described as being not only holy (Lev. 11:44-45; 19:2; I Pet. 1:16), spirit (John 4:24), light (I John 1:5), and a consuming fire (Deut. 4:24; Heb. 12:29); God is also love (I John 4:8, 16).上帝在他的本质是被描述不仅圣洁(利未记11:44-45; 19时02分,我宠物1点16),精神(约翰福音4:24),光(约翰一书1:5),烈火(申命记4:24;希伯来书12时29分);神也爱(约翰一书4:8,16)。 God does not need to attain nor attempt to maintain love; it is the very substance and nature of God.神并不需要达到或企图保持爱,它的实质和神的本性。Bultmann rightly states: "The sentence cannot be reversed to read, 'Love is God.'布特曼正确地指出:“阅读的句子不能扭转,”爱是上帝。“In that case, 'love' would be presupposed as a universal human possibility, from which a knowledge of the nature of God could be derived" (The Johannine Epistles, p. 66).在这种情况下,将“爱”的先决条件作为一种普遍的人类的可能性,神的性质的知识,从中可以派生出来的“(约翰书信,第66页)。 It is from this very essence of God's being that the activity of love springs.它是从这个神的本质,爱温泉的活动。

The Activity of Love爱的活动

This comes from God's nature of love.这是来自上帝的热爱大自然。"To say, 'God is love' implies that all His activity is loving activity. If He creates, He creates in love; if He rules, He rules in love; if He judges, He judges in love" (CH Dodd, The Johannine Epistles, p. 110). “的说法,”上帝是爱“意味着他的活动是爱心活动,如果他创造,他创造的爱;,如果他的规则,爱他的规则,如果他的判断,他爱的法官”(CH多德,约翰书信,第110页)。

(1) Love within the Godhead.(1)内的神性的爱。For man to understand love, he must perceive its activity within the Godhead.为人类理解的爱,他必须看到在神性的活动。 Many verses speak of the Father's love for the Son; however, only John 14:31 explicitly states that Jesus loved the Father.许多经文讲的父亲对儿子的爱,但是,只有约翰14时31分明确指出耶稣所爱的父亲。Certainly other passages imply Jesus' love for the Father.当然,其他段落暗示耶稣的爱父的心。Love is demonstrated by the keeping of commandments (John 14:31; cf. vss. 15, 21, 23).爱情是表现在保持诫命(约翰14时31;比照VSS 15,21,23)。Christ alone has seen the Father (John 3:11, 32; 6:46) and known him (Matt. 11:27; Luke 10:22; John 7:29; 8:55; 10:15).唯独基督就是看见了父(约3时11分,32; 6:46)和他(太11点27分,卢克10时22分,约翰7时29分,8点55; 10时15)。They are united to one another (John 10:30, 38; 14:10-11, 20; 17:21-23).他们是美国另一个(约翰福音10:30,38; 14:10-11,20; 17:21-23)。Although there are no verses that speak explicitly of the Holy Spirit's love for the other two persons of the Trinity, it is implied in John 16:13-15, where Jesus says that the Spirit will not speak from himself, as Jesus did not speak from himself (John 12:49; 14:10), but will speak and disclose what he hears from Christ and the Father.虽然没有发言明确圣灵的三位一体的其他两个人的爱的诗句,它是隐含在约翰福音16:13-15,耶稣说的精神不会从自己说话,因为耶稣没有说话从自己(约翰福音十二时49; 14:10),但会发言,并透露他听到从基督与父。There is, therefore, a demonstration of love within the Godhead.因此,有内神的爱的示范。

(2) Love toward man.(2)爱走向男子。In the OT the expression of God's love for man is indicated in four ways.在旧约中神对人的爱的表达表明在四个方面。First, the simple statement of God's love for man is given in a few places (eg, Deut. 10:18; 33:3; I Kings 10:9; Isa. 43:4; 63:9; Jer. 31:3; Hos. 14:4; Zeph. 3:17).首先,神对人的爱简单的声明是在少数地方(例如,申命记10点18; 33:3;我国王10时09;,ISA 43:4; 63:9;耶31:3。居屋14:4; Zeph 3:17)。Second, there is God's electing love for the nation of Israel (eg, Deut. 4:37; 7:6-8; 10:15; Hos. 3:1; 11:1, 4; Mal. 1:2).二是有上帝的选举以色列民族的爱(例如,申命记4时37; 7:6-8; 10点15;居者有其屋计划3点01分,11时01分,4,“仲裁示范法”第1点02分)。Third, there is the covenant love, which is a loyal or steadfast love (hesed; eg, Exod. 20:6; Deut. 5:10; 7:9, 12; I Kings 8:23; II Chr. 6:14; Neh. 1:5; 9:32; Ps. 89:28; Dan. 9:4).第三,是该公约的爱,这是一个忠诚的或坚定的爱情(hesed;例如,出埃及记20:6;申5:10; 7:9,12;列王记上8:23;二CHR 6:14。 。NEH 1:5; 9:32;诗89:28;丹9:4)。This love is readily seen in Ps.这种爱是很容易看到PS。106:45: "And he remembered his covenant for their sake, and relented according to the greatness of his loving kindness."106:45:“他想起了他为他们着想公约,根据他的慈爱的伟大和停歇。”God's covenant with Israel gives assurance of his love toward them (Isa. 54:10).神与以色列的盟约为保证他的爱,对他们(以赛亚书54:10)。Finally, there are a few references that speak specifically of God's love toward individuals (eg, Solomon in II Sam. 12:24 and Neh. 13:26; Ezra in Ezra 7:28; Cyrus [?] in Isa. 48:14).最后,还有一个很少提到特别讲神对个人的爱(例如,所罗门在二,三12时24分和13时26 NEH。以斯拉在以斯拉7时28分; [?]。赛勒斯在伊萨48:14 )。Although the OT references to God's love toward man are not many, there are a sufficient number from various portions of the OT to adequately confirm it.虽然OT走向神的爱的人不是很多,有足够数量从旧约的各个部分,充分证实。

The NT is replete with references of God's love for man.NT是充满了神的男人爱的引用。A central passage demonstrating this is I John 4:10: "In this is love, not that we loved God, but that he loved us and sent his Son to be the propitiation for our sins."证明这是一个中央通道约翰一书4时10分:“这是爱的,不是我们爱上帝,但他爱我们,差他的儿子为我们的罪作了挽回祭。” The demonstration of God's love for man is seen in each of the persons of the Trinity.神的男人爱的示范,是三位一体的每个人。 Those who keep Christ's commandments evidence their love for him and they are loved by the Father (John 14:21, 23; 16:27).那些保持基督的诫命证据为他自己的爱情,和他们的父亲(约翰福音14:21,23岁; 16:27)亲人。As the Father loves Christ, so also he loves the believer (John 17:23).由于父亲爱基督,所以他也爱的信徒(约翰福音17:23)。The love of the Father for the believer is assured (Eph. 6:23; II Thess. 2:16; I John 3:1).父为信徒的爱是有保证的“(以弗所书6时23分;帖撒罗尼迦后书2点16分第二;约翰3点01分)。When God is mentioned, it almost invariably refers to the Father.当神提到,几乎无一例外地是指父。This is emphasized when some gift or blessing given to the believer is also mentioned, because the gift is usually his Son (eg, John 3:16; Rom. 5:8; I John 4:9-10, 16) or the Holy Spirit (Rom. 5:5).这是时也提到一些礼物或祝福给信徒的礼物,因为通常是他的儿子(例如,约翰福音3:16;罗马书5时08分;约翰一书4:9-10,16)或罗马教廷强调精神(罗马书5:5)。 There are many references to Christ's love for man.基督爱的人有许多参考。While on earth Christ loved Lazarus, Mary, and Martha (John 11:3, 5, 36).而地球上的基督亲人拉撒路,玛丽和玛莎(约翰11时03分,5,36)。There is his love for John the apostle (John 13:23; 19:26; 20:2; 21:7, 20) and for the disciples as a group (John 13:34; 14:21; 15:9, 12).有他的爱,使徒约翰(约翰13时23分,19时26; 20时02分,21时07分,20)和作为一个群体的门徒(约翰福音13:34; 14时21分,15时09分,12 )。Christ's death is the evidence of his love for the believer (II Cor. 5:14; Gal. 2:20; Eph. 5:2; I Tim. 1:14-15; I John 3:16).基督的死是对他的爱的信徒的证据(二,肺心病5时14分;。加仑2点20分;弗5时02分,我添1:14-15;我约翰福音3:16)。 In his ascension there is an assurance of his love for believers individually (Rom. 8:35, 37; Eph. 6:23) as well as the church as a body (Eph. 5:25).在那里他的升天是他对信徒的爱的保证,个别(罗马书8时35分,37;弗六时23分),以及作为一个团体的教会(弗5:25)。 Finally, the Holy Spirit's love for the believer is mentioned in Rom.最后,圣灵为信徒的爱中提到ROM。15:30.15:30。

In conclusion, the love of God toward man is seen throughout the Bible.总之,爱是神向人看到整个“圣经”。It is a love that is unselfish and unmerited.这是一个爱是无私的,不配得。The epitome of this is seen in God's love for sinners who were his enemies and deserved nothing except his wrath, but instead he sent Christ to die for them in order that they might become the sons of God (Rom. 5:6-11; II Cor. 5:14-21).本的缩影,是在上帝的罪人,谁是他的敌人和当之无愧的,除了他的愤怒没有的爱,但相反,他发送的,以基督为他们死,他们可能成为神的儿子(罗5:6-11;二肺心病。5:14-21)。 It is God's love that serves as a basis for man's love.这是上帝的爱,作为一个男人的爱的基础上。

Love of Men男性的爱

With the entrance of sin man has become a hater and enemy of God (Rom. 1:30; 5:10; John 15:18, 24-25).随着罪进入人已成为一个仇敌和敌人神(罗马书1:30; 5:10;约15点18分,24日至25日)。But because God initiated his love by sending his Son, believers are exhorted, on the basis of God's own love, to love one another (I John 4:10-11, 19).而是因为上帝派遣他的儿子开始他的爱,信徒们告诫,神自己的爱的基础上,彼此相爱(约翰一书4:10-11,19)。The source of this love is God (I John 4:7-9) and not man.这种爱的来源是上帝(约翰一书4:7-9),而不是人。This is substantiated in Gal.这是在GAL属实。5:22, where it is seen as the fruit of the Holy Spirit.5:22,这是圣灵的果子。The words immediately following love, "joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, meekness, self-control", further describe the character of love rather than other fruit of the Spirit, for the "fruit" and the verb are singular and the context is about love (cf. VSS. 5, 13, 14).字立即下面的爱,喜乐,和平,忍耐,仁慈,良善,信实,温柔,自我控制“,进一步描述了爱的字符,而不是其他水果的”水果“和动词的精神,是奇异上下文是关于爱情(参见VSS的5,13,14)。 This is further confirmed when one analyzes the love chapter (I Cor. 13) and notices that the words used to describe love are the same or similar words as used in Gal.这进一步证实,当一个分析爱章(我肺心病。13)和通知,用来形容爱情的词是相同或相似的词,在GAL。5:22-23 (many times the noun form in Gal. 5 is the verb form in I Cor. 13). 5:22-23(多次在GAL的名词形式。动词形式是在我肺心病。13)。In these passages love is described as being unselfish and sacrificial with no condition of expecting the same in return.在这些通道的爱是没有预期回报相同的条件下,无私和牺牲。It is love that is given and not deserved.这是爱是给予,而不是实至名归。God's love is so, and man having experienced God's love is to exhibit this in two directions, namely, toward God and toward man.神的爱是如此,人经历神的爱,是表现在两个方向,即对神和走向的人,这。This is what is commanded in the Bible (Matt. 22: 37-40; Mark 12:29-31; Luke 10:26-27).这是在“圣经”是什么命令(太22:37-40;马克12:29-31,路加福音10:26-27)。

Love Toward God对神的爱

In the OT God commands man to love God with his whole being (Deut. 6:5; 10:12; 11:1, 13, 22; 13:3; 30:6, 16; Josh. 22:5; 23:11; Ps. 31:23), and there are a few explicit references indicating man's love for God (I Kings 3:3; Pss. 5:11; 18:1; 91:14; 116:1; Isa. 56:6).在旧约中上帝命令的人爱他整个人的神(申命记6时05分,10时12分,11时01分,13,22,13时03分; 30:6,16;乔什22时05分; 23。 11,PS 31:23),并有几个明确提及,说明男人的爱,对神(我国王3时03; PSS 5时11分,18时01分; 91:14; 116:1;伊萨56。 6)。In the NT outside of Jesus' quoting the OT command to love God (Matt. 22:37; Mark 12:30, 33; Luke 10:27) there are no explicit commands for man to love God (possibly I Cor. 16:22; II Thess. 3:5).在耶稣引用旧约的命令爱神NT外(马太22时37分; 33;马可福音12:30,路加福音10点27分)有明确的命令,没有人爱的神(可能是我肺心病16。 22;二帖前3:5)。Only a few passages are concerned with man's response of love toward God (John 21:15-17; I Pet. 1:8; I John 5:2; cf. I John 4:20-21).只有少数段落是关注人的响应,对神的爱(约翰21:15-17;彼前1:8;约翰一书5时02分;比照约翰一书4:20-21)。。 The references to man's love toward God are comparatively few possibly because it would seem normal for man to love God, who has done so much for him, and because man has experienced God's love.相对较少,可能是因为它似乎正常人爱上帝,谁做了他这么多的人对神的爱,因为人经历神的爱。However, the command to love God is important because it shows that God is approachable and desires the dynamic relationship involved in love.然而,爱神的命令是非常重要的,因为它表明,上帝是平易近人和欲望的动态关系,在爱。

Love Toward Man爱走向文

The two greatest commandments indicate that man is to love his fellow man as well as God.这两个最大的诫命表明,人是爱他的人以及上帝。Although there are not many verses that speak of man's love for God, the Scriptures abound with statements of man's love toward his fellows.虽然不多,但许多人对上帝的爱说话的诗句,“圣经”比比皆是,男人的爱对他的同伴的陈述。 This is seen in four ways.这是在四个方面。

(1) Love for neighbor.(1)爱的邻居。The command to love one's neighbor is stated often, first in Lev.爱一个人的邻居的命令往往是说,首先在列弗。19:18, which is then quoted several times in the NT (Matt. 5:43; 19:19; 22:39; Mark 12:31, 33; Rom. 13:9; Gal. 5:14; James 2:8). 19点18,然后引述多次在NT(马太福音5时43分,19时19分,22时39马克12时31分,33;罗马书13时09分;半乳糖5点14;詹姆斯2。 8)。Paul states that love for the neighbor is the fulfillment of the law (Rom. 13:8, 10).保罗爱邻居是履行法律(罗马书13时08分,10)。In giving the command to love one's neighbor, Jesus made it clear in the parable of the good Samaritan that one's neighbors are more than those who are acquaintances or of the same nationality (Luke 10:27-37).在耶稣的命令,爱一个人的邻居,讲明在好撒玛利亚人的比喻,一个人的邻居们比那些都是熟人或同一国籍(路加福音10:27-37)。 This is in keeping with the OT for Moses enjoined the Israelites to love the stranger or alien (Deut. 10:19).这是在保持与OT摩西嘱咐以色列人爱陌生人或外国人(申命记10:19)。Man is to be concerned with other men as God is concerned with man.人是要与其他有关男性作为神与人有关。The command is to love the neighbor to the degree that one loves himself.该命令是爱的程度,一个爱自己的邻居。Since man is basically selfish and is concerned about himself, he should have that same degree of concern for his neighbor.因为人基本上是自私的,是关于他自己的问题,他应该有他的邻居,同等程度的关注。

(2) Love for one's fellow believer.(2)热爱自己的同胞的信徒。In Gal.在GAL。6:10 Paul exhorts the believers to do good to all men and especially to those who are of the household of faith.6点10保罗劝勉信徒要做好所有的人,特别是那些家庭信仰。The believer should love his neighbor, whoever that might be, but he must have a real and deep concern and love for those who are fellow believers.信徒应该爱他的邻居,可能无论是谁,但他必须有一个真正的,深为关切和那些信徒的爱。In the OT this is seen in Lev.这是在旧约列弗。19:17-18, where the neighbor is the fellow countryman of the covenanted nation Israel or one who was of the same faith.19:17-18,那里的邻居是以色列国的契诺或一个同样的信念的同胞。In the NT, there is to be a definite love between believers.在NT中,有一个信徒之间的明确爱。Jesus gave a new commandment: that the believers were to love one another as he had loved them (John 13:34-35; 15:12, 17; cf. I John 3:23; 5:2; II John 5).耶稣给了一个新的诫命:信徒彼此相爱,因为他爱他们(约翰福音13:34-35; 15时12分,17;比照我约翰3点23; 5:2; II约翰5)。The command to love one another was not new, but to love one another as Christ had loved them was a new command.彼此相爱的命令是不是新的,但彼此相爱,如同基督爱他们是一个新的命令。This is further elaborated in I John.这是进一步阐述了在约翰。One who loves his brother abides in light (2:10) and God abides in him (4:12).一个人爱他(4:12)在光他的兄弟信守(2:10),神遵守。In fact, one who does not love his brother cannot love God (4:20).事实上,谁不爱他的弟弟不能爱上帝(4:20)。The source of love is God (4:7), and because of God's love one should love his brother (3:11; 4:11).爱的源泉,是神(4:7),因为神的爱,应该爱他的兄弟(3:11; 4:11)。

Outside the Johannine literature there is the same command to love the brother in the faith (Eph. 5:2; I Thess. 4:9; 5:13; I Tim. 4:12; Heb. 10:24; 13:1; I Pet. 2:17).外约翰文学是相同的命令,在信仰的兄弟爱(弗5:2;,我帖前4点09分,5时13;我添四点12分;希伯来书10时24分; 13时01分;彼前2:17)。This was to be done fervently (Rom. 12:10; I Pet. 1:22; 4:8) and with forbearance (Eph. 4:2), serving one another (Gal. 5:13).这是要做热切(罗马书12时10的,我宠物1点22; 4:8)和忍耐(弗4:2),服务(加拉太书5:13)。Paul loved the believers (I Cor. 16:24; II Cor. 2:4; 11:11; 12:15) and was happy when he heard of the saints' love for one another (Eph. 1:15; Col. 1:4; II Thess. 1:3; Philem. 5; cf. Heb. 6:10).保罗爱的信徒(我肺心病16时24分;二,肺心病2时04分; 11时11分,12时15分),并很高兴,当他听到彼此的圣人“爱(弗1点15分;上校1:4;第二帖前1:3; Philem 5;比照希伯来书6:10)。。Hence one sees that love for the brother was a dominant theme in the early church.因此,人们看到,为哥哥的爱是在早期教会中占主导地位的主题。It was evidence to the world that they were truly the disciples of Christ (John 13:35).这是世界的证据,他们是真正的基督的门徒(约翰福音13:35)。

(3) Love for family.(3)对家庭的爱。The Scriptures have a few commands and ample illustrations of love within the family.圣经有几个命令在家庭和充足的爱插图。 Husbands are commanded to love their wives (Col. 3:19) as Christ loves the church (Eph. 5:25-33; cf. Eccles. 9:9; Hos. 3:1).吩咐丈夫是爱自己的妻子(西3:19),正如基督爱教会(弗5:25-33;比照埃克尔斯9时09分;。居者有其屋计划3:1)。 The love of the husband for the wife is seen in several accounts (Gen. 24:67; 29:18, 20, 30; II Chr. 11:21; Song of S. 4:10; 7:6).丈夫对妻子的爱是看到几个账户(创24:67; 29:18,20,30;二CHR 11点21分;宋S. 4时10分,7时06分)。Only one time are wives commanded to love their husbands (Titus 2:4) and in only Song of S. is it mentioned (1:7; 3:1-4; 7:12).只有一次妻子吩咐要热爱自己的丈夫(多2:4)和S的唯一的歌曲是它提到(1:7; 3:1-4; 7:12)。Certainly the wife's submission to the husband is evidence of her love for him (Eph. 5:22-24; I Pet. 3:1-6).当然提交给妻子的丈夫是她对他的爱的证据(弗5:22-24;彼前3:1-6。)。Also, only once is there a command for parents to love their children, specifically for young wives to love their children (Titus 2:4), but there are several illustrations of such love in the OT (Gen. 22:2; 25:28; 37:3; 44:20; Exod. 21:5).此外,只有一次是有一个命令父母爱自己的孩子,专门为年轻的妻子爱自己的孩子(多2:4),但也有几个插图,这样的爱在旧约(创22时02分; 25: 28; 37:3; 44:20;出埃及记21:5)。Interestingly, there is no command or example of children loving their parents.有趣的是,没有任何命令或爱他们的父母的儿童的例子。 However, there is the oft-repeated command for children to honor and obey their parents, which would be evidence of their love for their parents (eg, Exod. 20:12; Deut. 5:16; Prov. 1:8; Matt. 19:19; Mark 10:19; Luke 18:20; Eph. 6:1; Col. 3:20).然而,有儿童经常重复的命令,荣誉和服从他们的父母,这将是他们的爱(例如,为他们的父母出埃及记的证据20点12分;申五时16分;。省1:8;马特19点19分,马克10时19分,卢克18时20分;弗6:1;上校3点20分)。 In conclusion, although not much is spoken about love within the natural family, it can be assumed that this love would be expected; anyone who does not take care of his family is considered a denier of the faith and worse than an unbeliever (I Tim. 5:8).总之,虽然没有多少发言,爱自然家庭内,它可以假设,这种爱将,人谁不照顾他的家人被认为是一种信仰的细旦和差比一个异教徒(我添5:8)。

(4) Love for enemies.(4)爱敌人。Jesus commanded his followers to love their enemies (Matt. 5:43-48; Luke 6:27-35).耶稣吩咐他的追随者,要热爱自己的敌人(马太福音5:43-48,路加福音6:27-35)。This love is demonstrated by blessing those who curse them, praying for those who mistreat them, and giving generously to them.这种爱是祝福那些诅咒他们,那些虐待他们祈祷,并给予慷慨地向他们展示。This shows that love is more than friendship based on mutual admiration; it is an act of charity toward one who is hostile and has shown no lovableness.这说明,爱情是比对相互倾慕为基础的友谊,它是朝谁是敌对的慈善行为,并没有表现出lovableness。 Jesus reminded the disciples that it is natural to love those who love them, but to love their enemies is a real act of charity; it is to be a mark of his disciples as opposed to those who are sinners or Gentiles.耶稣提醒门徒,这是很自然的爱那些爱他们,但爱自己的敌人,是一个真正的慈善行为,它是他的弟子的标记,而不是那些罪人或外邦人。 An example of this love is seen in God's love and kindness toward evil men by sending them sun and rain as he does for those who love him.通过发送他们日晒雨淋,因为他为那些爱他,这种爱的一个例子是在上帝的爱和对邪恶的人善良。 The NT epistles reiterate that rather than seeking revenge, believers are to love those who hate and persecute them (Rom. 12:14, 17-21; I Thess. 5:15; I Pet. 3:9).新台币书信重申,而不是寻求报复,信徒要爱那些仇恨和迫害他们(罗马书12时14分,17日至21日;帖前5时15分;我宠物3时09分)。

Conclusion结论

God in his very essence is love, hence love is expressed toward the underserving.上帝在他的本质是爱,所以爱是朝underserving表示。John 3:16 states this unforgettably: though man has repudiated him God loves the world, and the extent of his love was the sacrifice of his own Son, Jesus Christ, who was willing to lay down his life.约翰福音3:16国这个令人难忘:虽然男子已推翻他的神爱世界,和他的爱的程度是牺牲自己的儿子,耶稣基督,谁愿意放下他的生活。 On the basis of God's love the believer is enjoined to love God, who is deserving, and to love his fellow man and even his enemy, who are underserving.信徒在神的爱的基础上责成爱上帝,谁是值得的,爱他的人,甚至他的敌人,谁是underserving的。 God's love is not only basic but it continually extends to the underserving and unloving, as seen in his continuing love for the wayward believer in both the OT and NT.神的爱不仅是基本的,但它一直延伸到的underserving和没有爱心,他继续爱任性的信徒在OT和NT。Thus there is a deep loyalty in God's love toward the undeserving, and this is the basis of God's command for man's love.因此,在对的不值得,这是上帝的命令男人的爱的基础上,忠于神的爱。Therefore, God's love is seeking the highest good in the one loved, and man is enjoined to seek the highest good or the will of God in the one loved.因此,上帝的爱是在心爱的人寻求最高的善,而人是责成寻求最高的善或心爱的人在神的旨意。

HW Hoehner硬件Hoehner
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
C. Brown, W. Gunther, and H.-G.C.布朗,W ·冈瑟,H.-G.Link, NIDNTT, II, 538-51; MC D'Arcy, The Mind and Heart of Love; VP Furnish, The Love Command in the NT; VR Good, IDB, III, 164-68; W. Harrelson, "The Idea of Agape in the NT," JR 31:169-82; G. Johnston, IDB, III, 168-78; W. Klassen, IDB Supplement, 557-58; H. Montefiore, "Thou Shalt Love Thy Neighbor as Thyself," NovT 5:157-70; L. Morris, Testaments of Love; A. Nygren, Agape and Eros; G. Outka, Agape: An Ethical Analysis; FH Palmer, NBC, 752-54; J. Piper, Love Your Enemies; G. Quell and E. Stauffer, TDNT, I, 21-55; OJF Seitz, "Love Your Enemies," NTS 16: 39-54; MH Shepherd, Jr., IDB, I, 53-54; NH Snaith, The Distinctive Ideas of the OT; C. Spicq, Agape in the NT, 3 vols.; G. Stahlin, TDNT, IX, 113-71; BB Warfield, "The Terminology of Love in the NT," PTR 16:1-45, 153-203; DD Williams, The Spirit and the Forms of Love.环线,NIDNTT,二,538-51; MC德,达西的思想和爱心;副总裁装饰,爱在NT命令; VR的好,美洲开发银行,三,164-68; W.哈雷尔森,“我们的想法在NT阿加佩,“JR 31:169-82; G ·约翰斯顿,美洲开发银行,三,168-78,W ·克拉森,美洲开发银行补编,557-58; H.蒙蒂菲奥里,”你要爱你的邻居如己, “NovT 5:157-70; L.莫里斯,爱的圣经; A. Nygren,爱德和爱; G. Outka,阿加佩:一个伦理分析;跳频帕尔默,NBC 752-54; J.吹笛,爱你的敌人G.平息E.斯托弗,TDNT,我,21-55; OJF塞茨,“爱你的敌人,”新界南总区16:39-54; MH牧羊犬,小,美洲开发银行,我,53-54;新罕布什尔州斯奈思旧约的独特思路; C. Spicq,在NT阿加佩,3卷; G. Stahlin,TDNT,九,113-71; BB沃菲尔德,“爱在NT的术语,”PTR 16时01分 - 45,153-203; DD威廉姆斯的精神和爱的形式。


Love Feast爱的盛宴

Advanced Information先进的信息

In the NT在NT

The brotherly love between Christians which was enjoined by Jesus (John 13:34; Gr. agape) found its expression in three practical ways.这是由耶稣(约翰13点34,GR爱德)责成基督徒之间的兄弟之爱,发现在三个实际的方式表达。 It was commonly exercised in almsgiving; hence on twenty-six occasions agape is translated in the AV "charity."在施舍,人们普遍行使,因此,在二十六个多次爱德是在AV译为“慈善。”In church gatherings and in Christian greetings it was displayed played by the kiss (I Pet. 5:14; see also Rom. 16:16; I Cor. 16:20; II Cor. 13:12; I Thess. 5:26).在教会聚会和基督教的问候,它是显示吻(彼前五点14起;也见罗16:16;林前十六时二十;二,肺心病13点12分,我帖撒罗尼迦前书5时26分。 )。And gradually the term came to be applied to a common meal shared by believers.并逐步将长期来被应用到信徒共用一个共同用餐。Although these meals are called agapai only in Jude 12 and possibly II Pet.虽然这些饭菜被称为agapai只有在裘德12可能二宠物。 2:13, where there is a variant reading of agapais for apatais ("deceivings"), there is a considerable amount of other evidence for their existence in the early church. 2:13,那里有一个agapais变种阅读apatais(“deceivings”),有相当数量的其他证据,他们在早期教会的存在。

In Acts 2:42-47 there is an account of the early form of "communism" practiced by the believers, which includes breaking bread from house to house and eating their meat (Gr. trophe) with gladness and singleness of heart.徒2:42-47有一个帐户实行“共产主义”的信徒,其中包括打破面包挨家挨户喜乐和心脏专一吃他们的肉(希腊语trophe)的早期形式。 The first phrase may refer to the administration of the Lord's Supper, but the second obviously indicates a full meal.前半句可能是指主的晚餐的管理,但第二个明显表明吃得过饱。Similar "communistic" behavior is mentioned in Acts 4:32.类似的“共产主义”的行为是在使徒4时32分提及。By the time of Acts 6:1ff.由使徒行传6:1 FF时。the increase of disciples in the Jerusalem church led to the appointment of the seven to serve tables, which presumably refers to the responsibility for arranging the common meals.弟子在耶路撒冷教会的增加导致的七个任命为表,这大概是指安排共同进餐的责任。RL Cole (Love-Feasts, A History of the Christian Agape) suggests that this number was selected in order that each one might be responsible for a different day of the week. RL科尔(爱的节日,基督教爱德的历史)表明,这个数字是为了每个人可能负责一个星期的不同一天。This arrangement arose from the complaint of the hellenists that their windows were being neglected, and so would indicate that already these common meals were being held for charitable purposes, as was indeed the custom later.这种安排的投诉,他们的窗户被忽视hellenists的出现,并表示这些共同进餐已经为慈善目的而举行,确实是自定义后。

When Paul was at Troas (Acts 20:6-12) there took place on the first day of the week both a "breaking of bread" and a full meal (which idea is contained in the verb geusamenos, used here for eating, cf. Acts 10:10).当保罗在特罗亚(徒20:6-12),在那里参加了一周的第一天都“擘饼”,全餐(想法是包含在动词geusamenos,这里用于吃,比照徒10:10)。 Both here and in 2:42 it is difficult to determine whether the phrase "breaking of bread" denotes a common meal or is a more restricted reference to the Lord's Supper: whenever these words occur together in the Gospels they describe the action of Jesus (Matt. 26:26; Mark 14:22; Luke 22:19; 24:30, 35).都在这里,并在2时42分,这是难以确定是否那句“破面包”表示共同用餐或主的晚餐是一个更内参:这些话时,一起发生在他们的福音描述耶稣的行动( 。马特26:26;马克14时22分,卢克22点19; 24:30,35)。Certainly by the time of Paul's writing to the Corinthians (ca. AD 55) it is evident that that church observed the practice of meeting together for a common meal before partaking of the Lord's Supper (I Cor. 11:17-34).当然,保罗写信给哥林多前书(约公元55)的时间,这是显而易见的,教会观察会议之前,为了一个共同的餐主的晚餐(我肺心病。11:17-34)单打独斗的做法。 This custom, however, does not appear to have been observed always in the spirit of agape, for the apostle complains that some make it an excuse for gluttony, while others go without: in vs. 21 to idion deipnon may refer to the fact that they refused to pool their food, or that from such a pool each took as much as possible for himself.然而,这种习俗,并没有出现已观察总是在爱德的精神,为使徒抱怨一些暴食的借口,而其他没有在主场迎战21 idion deipnon可能提及这样一个事实,他们拒绝池他们的食物,或从每一个池为自己尽可能。At all events the situation described here is possible only in the context of a meal more substantial than, and preceding, the bread and wine of the Lord's Supper.所有事件的情况,这里描述的是只有在较大幅度的比一顿饭的情况下可能和前面的,主的晚餐的面包和酒。

Various theories have been put forward suggesting that the agape was a development from pagan guilds or Jewish common meals, or that it was necessitated by the common desire to avoid meats offered to idols.已提出了各种理论的Agape是从异教的行业协会或犹太共同进餐的发展,这是必要的共同愿望,以避免肉类提供的偶像。 From the fact that most early Christian paintings found in the catacombs depicting the agape show seven persons partaking, Cole argues that the custom developed from the incident on the shore of Tiberias, where Jesus shared the breakfast meal with seven of his disciples (John 21), and that the conversation with Peter on that occasion supplied the title of agape for this meal.从事实的墓穴中发现的最早期的基督教绘画描绘的Agape显示七人的意旨,科尔认为,自定义,从岸边的太巴列,耶稣与他的弟子七(约21)一顿早餐的事件那次谈话与彼得提供的爱德这顿饭的标题。 It is equally possible that the meal may have arisen from a desire to perpetuate the table fellowship which the apostles had enjoyed during their Lord's earthly life, and that later, as the church grew and communal living became impossible, the common meal was continued before the Lord's Supper in an effort to place the receiving of that sacrament in its historical context.这同样可能,这顿饭可能有延续的表奖学金的使徒享有在他们的主的尘世生活,和,后来,作为教会的增长和公共生活成为不可能的愿望出现,的共同餐是继续前主的晚餐在努力的地方在它的历史背景,圣餐接收。 The fact that the Johannine account points to the giving of the new commandment of mutual agape at that meal (John 13:34) would be sufficient reason for the application of that name to the rite.事实上,约翰帐户的相互爱德的新诫命,餐(约13:34)充足的理由是该名称的应用程序的仪式。

In Church History在教会历史

Ignatius (Smyr. 8:2) refers to the agape, as does the Didache (x.1 and xi.9), the latter suggesting that it still preceded the Eucharist.伊格内修斯(Smyr. 8:2),是指的Agape,一样的十二使徒遗训(X.1及xi.9),后者表明它仍然圣体之前。By the time of Tertullian (Apology xxxix; De Jejuniis xvii; De Corona Militis iii) the Eucharist was celebrated early and the agape later at a separate service, and this may be the practice referred to by Pliny in his letter to Trajan (Epistles x.96), though his information is not altogether clear.德尔图良(道歉XXXIX; Jejuniis十七;电晕Militis三)圣体的庆祝早期的Agape后来在一个单独的服务,这可能是由普林尼提到的做法,在他的信,以图拉真(书信x 0.96),虽然他的信息是不完全清楚。Clement of Alexandria (Paedagogos ii. 1 and Stromata iii.2) gives evidence also of the separation of the two observances.克莱门特的亚历山德里亚(Paedagogos II 1和Stromata III.2)提供的证据也分离的两个纪念活动。Chrysostom (Homily xxvii on I Cor. 11:17) agrees with the order mentioned by Tertullian, but while he calls the agape "a custom most beautiful and beneficial; for it was a supporter of love, a solace of poverty, and a discipline of humility," he does add that by his day it had become corrupt.金口(我肺心病。讲道XXVII十一时17分)同意由戴尔都良提到的顺序,但同时他呼吁纯爱“一个自定义的最美丽的和有益的,因为它是爱的支持者,一个贫穷的慰藉,和一门学科谦逊,“他补充说,他的一天,它已成为腐败。 In times of persecution the custom grew up of celebrating agapai in prison with condemned martyrs on the eve of their execution (see the Passion of Perpetua and Felicitas xvii.1, and Lucian De Morte Peregrini xii), whence developed the practice of holding commemorative agapai on the anniversaries of their deaths, and these gave rise to the feasts and vigils which are observed today.在受迫害的时候,自定义增长的谴责其执行(Perpetua和Felicitas xvii.1的激情,卢西恩德莫提Peregrini十二)前夕烈士狱中庆祝agapai,何处举行纪念agapai开发的实践他们的死亡纪念日,这些引起了今天观察到节日和守夜。 Agapai also took place on the occasion of weddings (Gregory of Nazianzus Epistles i.14) and funerals (Apostolic Constitutions viii.42). Agapai也参加了婚礼(格雷戈里的nazianzus书信.14)和葬礼(八.42使徒宪法)之际。

During the fourth century the agape became increasingly the object of disfavor, apparently because of disorders at the celebration and also because problems were raised by the expanding membership of the church, and an increasing emphasis was being placed on the Eucharist.在第四世纪的Agape日益失宠的对象,显然是因为在庆典上的障碍,也因为所提出的问题是教会的成员范围扩大,并越来越重视被放置在圣体圣事。 Augustine mentions its disuse (Ep. ad Aurelium xxii.4; see also Confessions vi.2), and Canons 27 and 28 of the Council of Laodicea (363) restricted the abuses.奥古斯丁提到的废用性(插曲广告Aurelium xxii.4,也见的自白VI.2),和大炮27日和安理会的老底嘉(363)28限制的滥用。The Third Council of Carthage (393) and the Second Council of Orleans (541) reiterated this legislation, which prohibited feasting in churches, and the Trullan Council of 692 decreed that honey and milk were not to be offered on the altar (Canon 57), and that those who held love feasts in churches should be excommunicated (Canon 74).迦太基(393)和第二届理事会的新奥尔良(541)第三届理事会重申了这一立法,禁止在教堂灯红酒绿和692 Trullan理事会规定,蜂蜜和牛奶没有在祭坛上提供的(佳能57) ,那些在教堂举行了爱的节日应该被逐出教会(佳能74)。

There is evidence that bread and wine (Didache), vegetables and salt (Acts of Paul and Thecla xxv), fish (catacomb paintings), meat, poultry, cheese, milk, and honey (Augustine, contra Faustum xx.20), and pultes, "a pottage" (Augustine), were consumed on different occasions at the agape.有证据表明,面包和葡萄酒(十二使徒遗训),蔬菜和盐(使徒保罗和Thecla XXV),(地下墓穴绘画)的鱼,肉,家禽,奶酪,牛奶,蜂蜜(奥古斯丁禁忌Faustum xx.20),和pultes,“浓汤”(奥古斯丁),在不同的场合消耗的Agape。

In Modern Times近代

In the Eastern Church the rite has persisted, and is still observed in sections of the Orthodox Church, where it precedes the Eucharist, and in the Church of St. Thomas in India.在东方教会的仪式一直坚持,并仍是观察的东正教教堂,圣体前,部分在教会圣托马斯在印度。From the Eastern Church it was continued through the Church of Bohemia to John Hus and the Unitas Fratrum, whence it was adopted by the Moravians.从东部教会继续通过波希米亚教会约翰胡斯和联合文学Fratrum,何处它是由摩拉维亚通过。From them John Wesley introduced the practice within Methodism (see references in his Journal), and it is occasionally observed today in Methodist churches.约翰卫斯理从他们介绍了内卫理公会的做法(见他的日记中引用),它是偶尔观察今天在循道卫理教会。In the Anglican Prayer Book of 1662 the only survival is probably the collection of alms for the poor during the Communion service, but the practice of the sovereign's distribution of Maundy money is a relic of the agape, and in this connection it is interesting that the epistle appointed for Maundy Thursday is I Cor.的唯一生存的,1662英国国教祈祷书是可能收集施舍穷人的圣餐服务期间,但君主的濯足钱分配的做法的Agape的遗物,并在这方面,它是有趣的,在濯足节委任的书信是我肺心病。 11:17-34.11:17-34。A modern attempt to revive the custom can be seen in the increasing practice of holding a "parish breakfast" following the early Communion service, and experiments at using the agape as an opportunity for interdenominational fellowship are described by Frank Baker in Methodism and the Love-Feast.一个现代的,以图重振自定义可以看出,在早期的共融服务“教区早餐”,和教派之间的奖学金机会的Agape实验是由弗兰克贝克在理宗介绍增加实践和爱盛宴。

DH Wheaton卫生署惠顿
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

See also LORD'S SUPPER.也见主的晚餐。

Bibliography 参考书目
D. Leclerq in Dictionnaire d'archelogie Chretienne; JF Keating, The Agape and the Eucharist in the Early Church; P. Battifol, Etudes d'histoire et de theologie positive; JC Lambert, Sacraments in the NT.D. Leclerq辞典D' archelogie Chretienne; JF基廷的Agape和初期教会的圣体圣事; P. Battifol,练习曲历史与神学正面; JC兰伯特,在NT圣礼。


Lovingkindness慈爱

General Information一般资料

The translation of the Hebrew word hesed in the AV and ASV.希伯来文翻译hesed在AV和ASV。 The AV also followed the equivalent given in the Latin translation (misericordia), which is preceded by the usage of the LXX ("mercy"). AV接收机也跟着在拉丁语翻译(misericordia),这是由前面的lxx(“慈悲”)的用法相当于。Modern versions render hesed by "steadfast love," "unfailing love," "lovingkindness," and "love" (cf. RSV, NIV).“坚定的爱”,“至死不渝的爱情”,“慈爱”和“爱”(参RSV,NIV)的现代版呈现hesed。The word hesed is found approximately 250 times in the Hebrew OT, and of these there are 125 instances in the Psalms.hesed这个词是在希伯来文旧约发现了大约250倍,其中有125实例中的诗篇。

The nature of the God of Israel is love.以色列的神的本质是爱。Even when Israel has sinned, they are assured that Yahweh is full of lovingkindness (Exod. 34:6; Num. 14:18; Joel 2:13; Ps. 86:5, 15), on which basis he can and does forgive the sin of his repentant people.即使以色列犯了罪,他们放心,耶和华是充满慈爱(出埃及记34:6;数14点18分,乔尔2:13;诗篇86:5,15),在此基础上,他可以不原谅他悔改的人的罪。 The assurance of lovingkindness is given in the legal framework of the covenant.慈爱的保证是在该公约的法律框架。 God's love is a distinctive love.神的爱是一个与众不同的爱。Yahweh has promised to be loyal to Abraham and his descendants (Deut. 7:12).耶和华已承诺忠于亚伯拉罕和他的后代(申命记7:12)。The relation between lovingkindness as an expression of commitment (loyalty) and truth ('emet) expressing faithfullness is so close that the words occur next to each other some sixteen times: hesed we'emet (Pss. 25:10; 89:14; cf. vs. 25 with 'emuna, "faithfulness").之间关系的承诺(忠诚度)和真理(“EMET)表示faithfullness的表达慈爱是如此接近,发生的话,彼此相邻的约16倍:hesed we'emet(Pss. 25:10,89:14;比照与25“emuna,”忠诚“)。The God of the covenant shows his convenantal faithfulness by his loving commitment to his people, regardless of their responsiveness or righteousness (Deut. 7: 7-8).该公约的上帝表明他他爱他的人的承诺convenantal的忠诚,不管他们的响应或义(申命记7:7-8)。As such, lovingkindness can be a synonym for covenant (Deut. 7:9, 12).因此,慈爱,可以为公约的代名词(申命记7:9,12)。 The blessings are generally described as the divine benefits (Deut. 7:13-16).一般描述为神圣的好处(申命记7:13-16)祝福。 Hence, lovingkindness is not a mere relational term; it is active.因此,慈爱不是一个单纯的关系长期,它是积极的。The God who loves showers his benefits on his covenant people.神爱阵雨在他的“盟约”的人,他的好处。He is active ('asa) in his love (Ps. 18:50; Deut. 5:10).他是活跃在他的爱(“ASA)(诗篇18时50申5:10)。His lovingkindness also finds expression in righteousness.他的慈爱也发现在正义的表达。Righteousness as a correlative to lovingkindness guarantees the ultimate triumph and reward of God's people, and also contains a warning that Yahweh does not tolerate sin, even though he may forbear for a long time.义作为一个慈爱的相关保证最终的胜利和奖励上帝的子民,也包含一个警告耶和华不容忍罪,即使他可能很长一段时间隐忍。The quality of lovingkindness is also assured by its durability.慈爱的质量也是保证其耐用性。It is from generation to generation (Exod. 34:7).它是由一代又一代(出34:7)。Twenty-six times we are told that "his lovingkindness is forever" (cf. Pss. 106:1; 107:1; 118: 1-4; 136).第二十六条次告诉我们,“他的慈爱永远”(参见PSS 106:1; 107:1; 118:1-4; 136)。He remembers his love, even when he for a period has withdrawn it in order to discipline (Ps. 98:3).他记得他的爱,即使一段时间,他已撤回以学科(诗篇98:3)。

On the other hand, the God who is love also expects his people to be sanctified by demonstrating lovingkindness to their covenant God and to their fellow men.另一方面,上帝是谁的爱也希望他的人民展示其“公约”神和他们的男同胞的慈爱圣洁。The call for a commitment of love to God finds expression in Deut.呼吁上帝的爱的承诺,认为在deut的表达。6:5, and was repeated by our Lord (Matt. 22:37).6:5和重复我们的主(太22:37)。Man's response to God's lovingkindness is love.人的回应上帝的慈爱是爱。On a horizontal plane the believer is called upon to show both lovingkindness (as David did, II Sam. 9:1, 3, 7) and love (Lev. 19:18, cf. Matt. 22:39).在一个水平面信徒的呼吁显示慈爱(像大卫那样,二,三。9:1,3,7)和爱情(利未记19点18,比照马特。22点39分)。 In man's response to lovingkindness and all that it entails, he shows that he belongs to the Heavenly Father (Matt. 5:44-48).在人的慈爱和所有它需要的反应,他表明,他是属于天父(太5:44-48)。

WA Van GemerenWA范Gemeren
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
NH Snaith, The Distinctive Ideas of the OT; LJ Kuyper, "Grace and Truth," RR 16:1-16; N. Glueck, Hesed in the Bible; KD Sakenfeld, The Meaning of Hesed in the Hebrew Bible.NH斯奈思,旧约的独特思路; LJ Kuyper,“恩典与真理”,RR 16:1-16; N. Glueck,在“圣经”Hesed; KD Sakenfeld,Hesed在希伯来文圣经的意义。


Lovingkindness慈爱

Advanced Information先进的信息

Lovingkindness is the translation of the Hebrew word hesed in the AV and ASV.慈爱是在AV和ASV hesed希伯来文翻译。The AV also followed the equivalent given in the Latin translation (misericordia), which is preceded by the usage of the LXX ("mercy"). AV接收机也跟着在拉丁语翻译(misericordia),这是由前面的lxx(“慈悲”)的用法相当于。Modern versions render hesed by "steadfast love," "unfailing love," "lovingkindness," and "love" (cf. RSV, NIV).“坚定的爱”,“至死不渝的爱情”,“慈爱”和“爱”(参RSV,NIV)的现代版呈现hesed。The word hesed is found approximately 250 times in the Hebrew OT, and of these there are 125 instances in the Psalms.hesed这个词是在希伯来文旧约发现了大约250倍,其中有125实例中的诗篇。

The nature of the God of Israel is love.以色列的神的本质是爱。Even when Israel has sinned, they are assured that Yahweh is full of lovingkindness (Exod. 34:6; Num. 14:18; Joel 2:13; Ps. 86:5, 15), on which basis he can and does forgive the sin of his repentant people.即使以色列犯了罪,他们放心,耶和华是充满慈爱(出埃及记34:6;数14点18分,乔尔2点13; PS 86:5,15),在此基础上,他可以不原谅他悔改的人的罪。The assurance of lovingkindness is given in the legal framework of the covenant.慈爱的保证是在该公约的法律框架。 God's love is a distinctive love.神的爱是一个与众不同的爱。Yahweh has promised to be loyal to Abraham and his descendants (Deut. 7:12).耶和华已承诺忠于亚伯拉罕和他的后代(申命记7:12)。The relation between lovingkindness as an expression of commitment (loyalty) and truth ('emet) expressing faithfullness is so close that the words occur next to each other some sixteen times: hesed we'emet (Pss. 25:10; 89:14; cf. vs. 25 with 'emuna, "faithfulness").之间关系的承诺(忠诚度)和真理(“EMET)表示faithfullness的表达慈爱是如此接近,发生的话,彼此相邻的约16倍:hesed we'emet(Pss. 25:10,89:14;比照与25“emuna,”忠诚“)。The God of the covenant shows his convenantal faithfulness by his loving commitment to his people, regardless of their responsiveness or righteousness (Deut. 7: 7-8).该公约的上帝表明他他爱他的人的承诺convenantal的忠诚,不管他们的响应或义(申命记7:7-8)。As such, lovingkindness can be a synonym for covenant (Deut. 7:9, 12).因此,慈爱,可以为公约的代名词(申命记7:9,12)。 The blessings are generally described as the divine benefits (Deut. 7:13-16).一般描述为神圣的好处(申命记7:13-16)祝福。 Hence, lovingkindness is not a mere relational term; it is active.因此,慈爱不是一个单纯的关系长期,它是积极的。The God who loves showers his benefits on his covenant people.神爱阵雨在他的“盟约”的人,他的好处。He is active ('asa) in his love (Ps. 18:50; Deut. 5:10).他是活跃在他的爱(“ASA)(诗篇18时50申5:10)。His lovingkindness also finds expression in righteousness.他的慈爱也发现在正义的表达。Righteousness as a correlative to lovingkindness guarantees the ultimate triumph and reward of God's people, and also contains a warning that Yahweh does not tolerate sin, even though he may forbear for a long time.义作为一个慈爱的相关保证最终的胜利和奖励上帝的子民,也包含一个警告耶和华不容忍罪,即使他可能很长一段时间隐忍。The quality of lovingkindness is also assured by its durability.慈爱的质量也是保证其耐用性。It is from generation to generation (Exod. 34:7).它是由一代又一代(出34:7)。Twenty-six times we are told that "his lovingkindness is forever" (cf. Pss. 106:1; 107:1; 118: 1-4; 136).第二十六条次告诉我们,“他的慈爱永远”(参见PSS 106:1; 107:1; 118:1-4; 136)。He remembers his love, even when he for a period has withdrawn it in order to discipline (Ps. 98:3).他记得他的爱,即使一段时间,他已撤回以学科(诗篇98:3)。

On the other hand, the God who is love also expects his people to be sanctified by demonstrating lovingkindness to their covenant God and to their fellow men.另一方面,上帝是谁的爱也希望他的人民展示其“公约”神和他们的男同胞的慈爱圣洁。The call for a commitment of love to God finds expression in Deut.呼吁上帝的爱的承诺,认为在deut的表达。6:5, and was repeated by our Lord (Matt. 22:37).6:5和重复我们的主(太22:37)。Man's response to God's lovingkindness is love.人的回应上帝的慈爱是爱。On a horizontal plane the believer is called upon to show both lovingkindness (as David did, II Sam. 9:1, 3, 7) and love (Lev. 19:18, cf. Matt. 22:39).在一个水平面信徒的呼吁显示慈爱(像大卫那样,二,三。9:1,3,7)和爱情(利未记19点18,比照马特。22点39分)。 In man's response to lovingkindness and all that it entails, he shows that he belongs to the Heavenly Father (Matt. 5:44-48).在人的慈爱和所有它需要的反应,他表明,他是属于天父(太5:44-48)。

WA Van GemerenWA范Gemeren
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
NH Snaith, The Distinctive Ideas of the OT; LJ Kuyper, "Grace and Truth," RR 16:1-16; N. Glueck, Hesed in the Bible; KD Sakenfeld, The Meaning of Hesed in the Hebrew Bible.NH斯奈思,旧约的独特思路; LJ Kuyper,“恩典与真理”,RR 16:1-16; N. Glueck,在“圣经”Hesed; KD Sakenfeld,Hesed在希伯来文圣经的意义。


Agape阿加佩

Catholic Information天主教信息

The celebration of funeral feasts in honour of the dead dates back almost to the beginnings of the worship of the departed - that is, to the very earliest times.在纪念死者的葬礼节日庆祝活动的历史可以追溯到几乎崇拜的离去的开端 - 也就是说,最早的时候。The dead, in the region beyond the tomb, were thought to derive both pleasure and advantage from these offerings.死了,超出了墓地区,被认为从中获得乐趣和从这些产品的优势。The same conviction explains the existence of funeral furniture for the use of the dead.同样的信念解释存在使用死者的葬礼家具。Arms, vessels, and clothes, as things not subject to decay, did not need to be renewed, but food did; hence feasts at stated seasons.,船只,武器和衣服,作为不受腐朽的东西,没有需要更新,但食品,因此在表示季节的节日。But the body of the departed gained no relief from offerings made to his shade unless these were accompanied fly the obligatory rites.但离去的身体从他的树荫的产品,除非这些伴随着飞的强制性仪式没有获得救济。Yet the funeral feast was not merely a commemoration; it was a true communion, and the food brought by the guests was really meant for the use of the departed.然而葬礼盛宴不仅仅是一个纪念;这是一个真正的共融,由客人带来的食物是真正使用的离去意味着。The milk and wine were poured out on the earth around the tomb, while the solid food has passed in to the corpse through a hole in the tomb.牛奶和酒倒在地球上各地的墓,而固体食物的尸体通过一个洞墓。The use of the funeral feast was almost universal in the Græco-Roman world.在希腊 - 罗马世界的几乎普遍使用的葬礼盛宴。Many ancient authors may be cited as witnesses to the practice in classical lands.许多古代作家可引作为证人在古典土地的做法。 Among the Jews, averse by taste and reason to all foreign customs, we find what amounts to a funeral banquet, if not the rite itself; the Jewish colonies of the Dispersion, less impervious to surrounding influences, adopted the practice of fraternal banquets.在犹太人中间,规避品味和理由向所有外国海关,我们发现什么葬礼宴会,仪式本身;犹太殖民地分散,不受周围的影响较小,通过实践兄弟宴会。 If we study the texts relative to the Supper, the last solemn meal taken by Our Lord with His disciples, we shall find that it was the Passover Supper, with the changes wrought by time on the primitive ritual, since it took place in the evening, and the guests reclined at the table.如果我们研究文本相对的晚餐,我们与他的弟子的主所采取的最后庄严的餐,我们会发现,这是逾越节晚餐,与造成时间上的原始仪式的变化,因为它发生在晚上进行,并在表趄的客人。 As the liturgical mea1 draws to a close, the Host introduces a new rite, and bids those present repeat it when He shall have ceased to be with them.由于礼仪mea1接近尾声,主持人介绍了一种新的仪式,和出价在场的人时,他将不再是与他们重复。This done, they sing the customary hymn and withdraw.这样做,他们唱的习惯赞歌,并撤回。Such is the meal that Our Lord would have renewed, but it is plain that He did not command the repetition of the Passover Supper during the year, since it could have no meaning except on the Feast itself.这就是我们的主会重新餐,但它是纯的,他没有命令在今年的逾越节晚餐的重复,除盛宴本身没有任何意义,因为它可能有。 Now the first chapters of the Acts of the Apostles state that the repast of the Breaking of Bread took place very often, perhaps daily.现在使徒状态的行为,擘饼的就餐发生,很多时候,也许是每天的第一章。That which was repeated was, therefore, not the liturgical feast of the Jewish ritual, but the event introduced by Our Lord into this feast when, after the drinking of the fourth cup, He instituted the Breaking of Bread, the Eucharist.重复,因此,犹太教仪式的礼仪盛宴,但我们的主引入到这场盛宴的事件时,喝第四杯后,他提起的破面包,圣体。 To what degree this new rite, repeated by the faithful, departed from the rite and formulæ of the Passover Supper, we have no means, at the present time, of determining.为了什么程度,忠实的重复,从这个新的成年礼仪式和公式的逾越节晚餐离去,我们也没办法,在目前的时间,确定。 It is probable, however, that, in repeating the Eucharist, it was deemed fit to preserve certain portions of the Passover Supper, as much out of respect for what had taken place in the Cœnaculum as from the impossibility of breaking roughly with the Jewish Passover rite, so intimately linked by the circumstances with the Eucharistic one.这是可能的,但是,在重复的圣体,它被认为是适合保存的逾越节晚餐的某些部分,如尊重,在Cœnaculum采取了什么地方不可能打破犹太人的逾越节近仪式,如此密切的联系的情况下与圣体圣事之一。

This, at its origin, is clearly marked as funerary in its intention, a fact attested by the most ancient testimonies that have come down to us.事实证明,在它的起源,这显然是打算陪葬标记,已回落到我们的最古老的证词。Our Lord, in instituting the Eucharist, used these words: "As often as you shall eat this Bread and drink this chalice, you shall show forth the Lord's Death".我们的主,在建立圣体圣事,用这些话:“您可以经常吃这饼,喝这圣杯,你应当出示提出主的死”。Nothing could be clearer.没有什么比这更清楚。Our Lord chose the means generally used in His time, namely: the funeral banquet, to bind together those who remained faithful to the memory of Him who had gone.我们的主在他的时间选择的手段普遍使用,即:葬礼的宴会上,结合在一起,那些仍然忠于他已经的。We must, however, be on our guard against associating the thought of sadness with the Eucharistic Supper, regarded in this light.,但是,我们必须警惕在与圣体圣事的晚餐“,认为从这个角度,对关联悲伤的思想。If the memory of the Master's Passion made the commemoration of these last hours in any measure sad, the glorious thought of the Resurrection gave this meeting of the brethren its joyous aspect.如果主的激情记忆纪念这最后几个小时中的任何措施伤心,复活的光辉思想,给弟兄们欢乐方面本次会议。The Christian assembly was held in the evening, and was continued far into the night.基督教大会是在晚上举行,并远远持续到深夜。The supper, preaching, common prayer, the breaking of the bread, took up several hours; the meeting began on Saturday and ended on Sunday, thus passing from the commemoration of the sad hours to that of the triumphant moment of the Resurrection and the Eucharistic feast in very truth "showed forth the Lord's Death", as it will until He come". Our Lord's command was understood and obeyed.晚饭,说教,共同祈祷,打破面包,花了几个小时,会议开始在周六和周日落幕,从而从伤心小时的纪念复活的胜利时刻传递和圣体圣事非常真实的盛宴“显示列主的死”,因为它会直到他来了。“理解和服从我们的主的命令。

Certain texts refer to the meetings of the faithful in early times.某些文本是指,在早期的信徒们,会议。Two, from the Epistle of St. Paul to the Corinthians (1 Corinthians 11:18, 20-22, 33, 34), allow us to draw the following conclusions: The brethren were at liberty to eat before going to the meeting; all present must be in a fit condition to celebrate the Supper of the Lord, though they must not eat of the funeral supper until all were present.二,从圣保禄的书信,哥林多前书(1哥林多前书11时十八分,20日至22日,33,34),使我们能够得出以下结论:弟兄们在自由会议之前吃;所有目前必须在一个合适的条件下,以庆祝主的晚餐,虽然他们不能吃,直到所有的人出席葬礼的晚餐。 We know, from two texts of the first century, that these meetings did not long remain within becoming bounds.我们知道,从两个文本的第一个世纪,这些会议并没有成为范围内长期存在。The agape, as we shall see, was destined, during the few centuries that it lasted, to fall, from time to time, into abuses.的Agape,正如我们将看到的,是注定,在持续下降,不时为滥用,几个世纪。The faithful, united in bodies, guilds, corporations or "collegia", admitted coarse, intemperate men among them, who degraded the character of the assemblies.忠实,联合国机构,行业协会,企业或“collegia”,承认粗,其中过激的男子,谁降级的程序集的字符。 These Christian "collegia" seem to have differed but little from those of the pagans, in respect, at all events, of the obligations imposed by the rules of incorporation.这些基督教“collegia”似乎有不同于那些异教徒,但很少,在尊重,在所有事件中,纳入的规则所规定的义务。 There is no evidence available to show that the collegia from the first undertook the burial of deceased members; but it seems probable that they did so at an early period.没有任何证据表明,从第一collegia承诺埋葬死者成员,但似乎有可能,使他们在初期。The establishment of such colleges gave the Christians an opportunity of meeting in much the same way as the pagans did - subject always to the many obstacles which the law imposed.等高校建立了基督徒会议的机会,在几乎相同的方式,像异教徒一样 - 总是受到的法律所规定的的许多障碍。Little feasts were held, to which each of the guests contributed his share, and the supper with which the meeting ended might very well be allowed by the authorities as a funerary one.小宴举行,每个客人的贡献他的份额,并与该会议结束晚餐很可能是由当局允许作为随葬品之一。In reality, however, for all faithful worthy of the name, it was a liturgical assembly.然而,在现实中,所有名副其实的忠实,它是一个礼仪大会。The texts, which it would take too long to quote, do not allow us to assert that all these meetings ended with a celebration of the Eucharist.文本,它会采取太长引用,不要让我们可以断言,所有这些会议庆祝圣体结束。 In such matters sweeping generalizations should be avoided.在这类问题,应避免一概而论。At the outset it must be stated that no text affirms that the funeral supper of the Christian colleges must always and everywhere be identified with the agape, nor does any text tell us that the agape was always and everywhere connected with the celebration of the Eucharist.首先必须指出,没有文字,肯定基督教学院的葬礼晚饭,必须时时处处与爱德确定,也没有任何文字告诉我们的Agape是时时处处庆祝圣体连接。 But subject to these reservations, we may gather that under certain circumstances the agape and the Eucharist appear to form parts of a single liturgical function.但这些保留,我们可能会聚集在某些情况下出现的Agape和圣体形成的一个单一的礼仪功能的部件。The meal, as understood by the Christians, was a real supper, which followed the Communion; and an important monument, a fresco of the second century preserved in the cemetery of St. Priscilla, at Rome, shows us a company of the faithful supping and communicating.基督徒的理解,这顿饭,是一个真正的晚餐,随后共融;和一个重要的历史遗迹,圣梁美芬的墓地,在罗马,在保留了第二个世纪的壁画,向我们展示了公司的忠实supping和沟通。 The guests recline on a couch which serves as a seat, but, if they are in the attitude of those who are at supper, the meal appears as finished.座位的沙发上的客人放倒,但是,如果他们在那些吃晚饭时的态度是,豆粕作为成品。They have reached the moment of the Eucharistic communion, symbolized in the fresco by the mystical fish and the chalice.他们已经达到了圣体圣事共融的时刻,在壁画象征着神秘的鱼类和圣杯。(See FISH; EUCHARIST; SYMBOLISM.)(见鱼;圣体圣事;的象征。)

Tertullian has described at length (Apolog., vii-ix) these Christian suppers, the mystery of which puzzled the Pagans, and has given a detailed account of the agape, which had been the subject of so much calumny; an account which affords us an insight into the ritual of the agape in Africa in the second century.德尔图良的详细描述(Apolog.,VII - IX),这些基督教晚餐,神秘不解的异教徒,并给予一个详细的Agape,已受了这么多诽谤帐户,这使我们的帐户见识到的爱德在非洲的第二个世纪的仪式。

The introductory prayer.介绍祈祷。

The guests take their places on the couches.客人在沙发上的地方。

A meal, during which they talk on pious subjects.一顿饭,在此期间,他们谈虔诚的科目。

The washing of hands.洗手。

The hall is lit up.大厅是亮了起来。

Singing of psalms and improvised hymns.诗篇和即兴唱赞美诗。

Final prayer and departure.最后的祈祷和离境。

The hour of meeting is not specified, but the use made of torches shows clearly enough that it must have been in the evening or at night.小时的会议没有指定,但足够清楚地表明,它必须在傍晚或夜间使用的火把。The document known as the "Canons of Hippolytus" appears to have been written in the time of Tertullian, but its Roman or Egyptian origin remains in doubt.该文件称为“希波吕托斯大炮”似乎已经在德尔图良的书面,但罗马或埃及仍然有疑问。It contains very precise regulations in regard to the agape, similar to those which may be inferred from other texts.它包含非常精确的法规方面的Agape,这可能是从其他文本推断类似。We gather that the guests are at liberty to eat and drink according to the need of each.我们收集的客人随意吃喝根据需要每个。The agape, as prescribed to the Smyrnæans by St. Ignatius of Antioch, was presided over by the bishop; according to the "Cannons of Hippolytus", catechumens were excluded, a regulation which seems to indicate that the meeting bore a liturgical aspect.的Agape,圣依纳爵的安提阿规定的Smyrnæans,由主教主持;根据“希波吕托斯炮”,慕道者被排除在外,这似乎表明,会议承担了礼仪方面的规例。

An example of the halls in which the faithful met to celebrate the agape may be seen in the vestibule of the Catacomb of Domitilla.忠实会见了庆祝的Agape大厅的一个例子可以看出在Domitilla地下墓穴的前庭。A bench runs round this great hall, on which the guests took their places.长凳上一轮运行人民大会堂,客人带着他们的地方。With this may be compared an inscription found at Cherchel, in Algeria, recording the gift made to the local church of a plot of land and a building intended as a meeting-place for the corporation or guild of the Christians.这可能会比在阿尔及利亚的题词Cherchel发现,记录当地教会的一块土地,并拟作为该法团或公会的基督徒的会场的一个建筑物的礼物。 From the fourth century onward, the agape rapidly lost its original character.从第四世纪开始,爱德迅速失去了它原有的性格。 The political liberty granted to the Church made it possible for the meetings to grow larger, and involved a departure from primitive simplicity.授予教会的政治自由有可能的会议,以越来越大,涉及从古朴的离境。The funeral banquet continued to be practised, but gave rise to flagrant and intolerable abuses.葬礼宴会继续实行,但上升到了明目张胆的和不能容忍的滥用。St. Paulinus of Nola, usually mild and kindly, is forced to admit that the crowd, gathered to honour the feast of a certain martyr, took possession of the basilica and atrium, and there ate the food which had been given out in large quantities.圣Paulinus诺拉,通常是温和,慈祥,是被迫承认的人群,聚集履行一定烈士的盛宴的,占有了教堂和Atrium,有吃了已获得大量的食物。 The Council of Laodicea (363) forbade the clergy and laity who should be present at an agape to make it a means of supply, or to take food away from it, at the same time that it forbade the setting up of tables in the churches.安理会的老底嘉(363)禁止僧侣和俗人,谁应该在一个爱德目前供应的一种手段,或取食物,远离它在同一时间,它禁止表在教会成立。 In the fifth century the agape becomes of infrequent occurrence, and between the sixth and the eighth it disappears altogether from the churches.在第五世纪的Agape成为罕见的发生,第六和第八,从教会完全消失。

One fact in connection with a subject at present so much studied and discussed seems to be established beyond question, namely, that the agape was never a universal institution.目前主体其实这么多的研究和讨论似乎毫无疑问,建立的Agape从来就不是一个具有普遍性的机构。If found in one place, there is not so much as a trace of it in another, nor any reason to suppose that it ever existed there.如果在一个地方发现,有没有这么多,作为一个在另一个跟踪它,也没有任何理由认为它曾经存在过。A feeling of veneration for the dead inspired the funeral banquet, a feeling closely akin to a Christian inspiration.对死者的崇拜感鼓舞的葬礼宴会,一个基督教的启示密切类似的感觉。Death was not looked upon as the end of the whole man, but as the beginning of a new and mysterious span of life.死亡不是看低整个人,但作为一种新的生活和神秘跨度开始。The last meal of Christ with His Apostles pointed to this belief of a life after death, but added to it something new and unparalleled, the Eucharistic communion.基督与他的门徒的最后一餐指出,这种死后生活的信念,但添加到新的东西和无与伦比的,圣体圣事共融。It would be useless to look for analogies between the funeral banquet and the Eucharistic supper, yet it should not be forgotten that the Eucharistic supper was fundamentally a funerary memorial.这将是无用寻找葬礼宴会和圣体的晚餐之间的类比,但它不应该被遗忘的圣体的晚餐基本上是陪葬纪念。

Publication information Written by H. Leclercq.H.勒克莱尔编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Vernon Bremberg.转录由弗农Bremberg。Dedicated to the Cloistered Dominican Nuns at the Monastery of the Infant Jesus, Lufkin, Texas The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. Published 1907.专用的与世隔绝多米尼加修女在修道院的婴儿耶稣,勒夫,得克萨斯州的天主教百科全书,第I卷出版1907。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. Nihil Obstat,1907年3月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

BATIFFOL, Etudes d'histoire et de théologie positive (Paris, 1902), 277-311; FUNK in the Revue d'histoire ecclésiastique (15 January, 1903); KEATIING, The Agape and the Eucharist in the Early Church (London, 1901); LECLERCQ in Dict. BATIFFOL,练习曲历史与神学正面(巴黎,1902年),277-311; D' histoire杂志ecclésiastique FUNK(1月15日,1903年); KEATIING的Agape和初期教会的圣体圣事(伦敦,1901年);勒克莱尔在快译通。d'archéol.D' archéol。 chrét.chrét。et de lit., I, col.ET DE点燃,我山坳。775-848. 775-848。



This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语



Send an e-mail question or comment to us:发送电子邮件的问题或意见给我们:E-mail电子邮件

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at:的, 主要相信网页(和索引科目),是在:
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
http://mb-soft.com/believe/beliecha.html