Agrapha of JesusAgrapha耶稣

General Information一般资料

The Agrapha of Jesus is a term coined by 18th-century German scholar JG Körner for sayings attributed to Jesus Christ that are not contained in the Gospels.耶稣Agrapha是由18世纪德国学者JG克尔纳创造归功于耶稣基督的说法是不是在福音中的一个术语。In 1897 and 1903 valuable papyri containing such sayings were discovered at Oxyrhyncus, in what is now Egypt.宝贵的纸莎草纸,包含这一说法在1897年和1903年被发现的Oxyrhyncus,在什么是现在的埃及。A book of such sayings of Jesus was, in early traditions, attributed to Saint Matthew, one of the 12 apostles.一本书是耶稣的说法,在早期的传统,归因于圣马太,耶稣的12门徒之一。The designation agrapha (Greek, "unwritten things") reflects the view that these sayings represent the survival of an oral tradition that developed independently of the tradition embodied in the written Gospels.指定agrapha(希腊语,“不成文的东西”)反映认为,这些说法代表口头传统,自主开发的书面福音体现了传统的生存。 Most of the sayings are preserved in the Talmud, in the apocryphal Gospel of Thomas, in the writings of the Fathers of the Church, and in various Muslim sources.大多数的格言是保存在塔木德,杜撰的托马斯福音,在教会的教父们的著作,并在各个穆斯林来源。

In addition to sayings preserved in extracanonical sources, there are several that occur within the text of the New Testament but outside the Gospels.此外,以保存在extracanonical来源的熟语,有几个发生在新约文本,但外面的福音。A famous example is the saying "It is more blessed to give than to receive," attributed to Jesus by Saint Paul in a speech reported in Acts 20:35.一个著名的例子是说“这是施比受更为有福”,归因于耶稣圣保罗在使徒20时35分报道讲话。Similarly, in 1 Corinthians 11:24-25, Paul purports to quote Christ's remarks before the Last Supper, using words that are similar but not identical to those of Luke 22:19-20.同样,在哥林多前书11:24-25,保罗声称引述前“最后的晚餐”基督的话,用字,相似但不完全相同路加福音22:19-20。 Paul's quotation in 1 Corinthians is itself quoted in the 4th-century Apostolic Constitutions (8.12), but in the latter work an explanatory comment by Paul ("You are proclaiming the Lord's death until he comes," 1 Corinthians 11:26) is recorded as the words of Jesus ("You are proclaiming my death until I come").保罗在哥林多前书的报价是在第四世纪的使徒宪法(8.12)报价,但解释性评论保罗(“您是宣告主的死,直到他来,”哥林多前书11点26),在后者的工作记录耶稣的话(“你是宣布我的死亡,直到我来”)。 This development suggests one way in which the agrapha may have grown.这一事态发展表明agrapha可能增长的途径之一。

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A third body of agrapha occur as isolated additions to various gospel manuscripts.第三个机构的agrapha发生的各种福音手稿作为孤立的增加。In Luke 6:5, for example, a single manuscript records the following statement made by Jesus to a man found performing work on the Sabbath: "Friend, if you know what you are doing, you are blessed; but if you do not, you are accursed as a breaker of the Law."卢克6时05分,例如,一个单一的手稿记录下面的语句耶稣在安息日执行工作的一个男子:“朋友,如果你知道你在做什么,你是有福,但如果你不这样做,你是诅咒法断路器。“ Here the issue becomes one of textual criticism: Many sayings of Jesus that are generally printed in modern editions of the Bible can be shown on textual grounds to have the character of later additions.这里的问题成为一个考据学:耶稣的许多熟​​语一般都在“圣经”的现代版本中印可以在文本的理由证明有后来增加的字符。 It is a matter of tradition that these sayings are printed in the text of the Bible and are not classified as agrapha.这是一个传统的问题,这些说法都印在“圣经”的文本和不作为agrapha分类。

Agrapha Agrapha

Catholic Information天主教信息

A name first used, in 1776, by JG Körner, for the Sayings of Jesus that have come down to us outside the canonical Gospels.首先使用一个名称,在1776年,由JG克尔纳有所回落以外的典型福音给我们的熟语耶稣的。After Alfred Resch had chosen the expression, as the title for his learned work on these Sayings (1889), its technical meaning was generally accepted.阿尔弗雷德雷希选择了表达后,他了解到这些熟语的工作(1889年)的标题,其技术含义是普遍接受的。We shall consider, first, the limits of the Agrapha; secondly, the criteria of their genuineness; thirdly, the list of those that are probably authentic.首先,我们应当考虑,Agrapha的限制;其次,他们真真切切的标准;第三,那些可能正宗的清单。


The Agrapha must satisfy three conditions:Agrapha必须满足三个条件:

they must be Sayings, not discourses;他们必须熟语,没有话语;

they must be Sayings of Jesus;他们必须熟语的耶稣;

they must not be contained in the canonical Gospels.他们必须不包含在典型福音。

(a) Being mere Sayings, and not discourses, the Agrapha do not embrace the lengthy sections ascribed to Jesus in the "Didascalia" and the "Pistis Sophia." (一)仅仅熟语,而不是话语,Agrapha不拥抱“Didascalia”和耶稣所赋予的冗长的部分“Pistis索菲亚。”These works contain also some brief quotations of alleged words of Jesus, though they may have to be excluded from the Sayings for other reasons.这些作品也包含一些简短的报价据称耶稣的话,尽管他们可能要排除其他原因熟语。Such seems to be the Saying in "Didasc. Syr."这样,似乎在说“Didasc。锡尔河。”II, 8 (ed. Lagarde, p. 14); "A man is unapproved, if he be untempted."二,8(编辑拉嘉德,第14页);“一个人是未经批准的,如果他untempted。”

(b) Being Sayings of Jesus, the Agrapha do not embrace: (1) The Sayings contained in religious romances, such as we find in the apocryphal Gospels, the apocryphal Acts, or the Letter of Christ to Abgar (Eus. Hist. Eccl., I, 13). (二)作为耶稣的熟语,在Agrapha不拥抱:(1)熟语载于宗教的恋情,比如我们在福音的猜测,猜测的行为,或基督的信阿布加尔(Eus.组织胺传道书发现。我,13)。 (2) Scripture passages ascribed to Jesus by a mere oversight.(2)经文段落归功于耶稣由一个单纯的监督。Thus "Didasc. Apost. Syr."因此,“Didasc。Apost。锡尔河。”(ed. Lagarde, p. 11, line 12) assigns to the Lord the words of Prov., xv, 1 (Sept.), "Wrath destroyeth even wise men".(编辑拉嘉德,第11页,第12行)分配给省主的话,十五,1(9月),“怒destroyeth甚至智者”。(3) The expressions attributed to Jesus by the mistake of transcribers.(3)的表达归功于耶稣的誊写错误。The Epistle of Barnabas, iv, 9, reads: "As the son of God says, Let us resist all iniquity, and hold it in hatred."巴拿巴书信,四,9,曰:“神的儿子说,让我们抵制所有的罪孽,并保持它在仇恨。”But this is merely a rendering of a mistake of the Latin scribe who wrote "sicut dicit filius Dei", instead of "sicut decet filios Dei", the true rendering of the Greek òs prépei uìoîs Theoû.但是,这仅仅是一个拉丁隶谁写的“sicut dicit filius业会”的错误,而不是“sicut decet filios业会”,希腊OS prépei uìoîs Theoû真实渲染,渲染。(4) The Sayings attributed to Jesus by mere conjecture.(4)熟语归功于耶稣仅仅是猜想。Resch has put forth the conjecture that the words of Clem.雷希提出了猜想的克莱姆的话。Alex.亚历克斯。Strom.斯特罗姆。I, 8, 41, "These are they who ply their looms and weave nothing, saith the Scripture", refer to a Saying of Jesus, though there is no solid foundation for this belief.我,8,41,“这些都是他们身手织机和织什么,说的圣经”,是指对耶稣说,虽然没有这样的信念坚实的基础。

(c) Coming down to us through channels outside the canonical Gospels, the Agrapha do not comprise: (1) Mere parallel forms, or amplifications, or, again, combinations of Sayings contained in the canonical Gospels. Agrapha(三)通过典型福音以外的渠道向我们走下来,不包括:(1)单纯的平行形式,或扩增,或重新组合的典型福音中的熟语。Thus we find a combination of Matt., vi, 19; x, 9; Luke, xii, 33, in Ephr.因此,我们找到了马特,六,19组合; X,9路加,第十二章,33岁,在Ephr。Syr.锡尔河。。(opp. Græce, ed. Assemani, II, 232): "For I heard the Good Teacher in the divine gospels saying to his disciples, Get you nothing on earth."(opp. Græce,爱德Assemani,二,232。)说:“我听见说,他的弟子的神圣福音的好老师,让你四不像。”(2) Homiletical paragraphs of Jesus, thoughts given by ancient writers.(2)耶稣的Homiletical段落,思想由古代作家。 Thus Hippolytus (Demonstr. adv. Judæos, VII) paraphrases Ps.因此希波吕托斯(Demonstr. ADV。Judæos七)释义诗篇。lxviii (lxix), 26: "Whence he saith, Let their temple, Father, be desolate." LXVIII(lxix),第26条:“自何处他说,让他们的寺庙,父亲,是悲凉。”


The genuineness of the Agrapha may be inferred partly from external and partly from internal evidence.部分来自外部和内部证据部分,可以推断的Agrapha的真实性。

(a) External Evidence.–First determine the independent source or sources by which any Saying in question has been preserved, and then see whether the earliest authority for the Saying is of such date and character than it might reasonably have had access to extra-canonical tradition. (一)外部Evidence.一确定任何问题说一直保留独立的源或来源,然后看到的最早的权威的说法是否如日期和字符,而不是合理的,它可能有获得额外典型的传统。 For Papias and Justin Martyr such access may be admitted, but hardly for a writer of the fourth century.对于帕皮亚和贾斯汀烈士这种机会可能被录取,但几乎没有一个作家的第四个世纪。These are extreme cases; the main difficulty is concerned with the intermediate writers.这些都是极端的情况下,主要的困难是与中间作家关注。

(b) Internal Evidence.–The next question is, whether the Saying under consideration is consistent with the thought and spirit of Jesus as manifested in the canonical gospels.(b)内部Evidence.,接下来的问题是,是否正在考虑说是耶稣的思想和精神表现典型福音是一致的。If a negative conclusion be reached in this investigation, the proof must be completed by finding a fair explanation of the rise of the Saying.如果在本次调查得出否定结论,证明必须完成找到一个公平的解释崛起的说法。


The sources from which the authentic Agrapha may be gathered are: (a) the New Testament and the New Testament manuscripts; (b) the Apocryphal tradition; (c) the patristic citations; and (d) the so-called "Oxyrhynchus Logia" of Jesus.正宗Agrapha可收集的来源是:(一)新旧约和新约圣经手稿;(二)未经证实的传统;(三)教父引用;及(d)所谓的“Oxyrhynchus Logia”耶稣。Agrapha contained in Jewish or Mohammedan sources may be curious, but they are hardly authentic.所载Agrapha犹太人或穆罕默德来源可能是好奇,但他们很难作准。Since the criticism of the Agrapha is in most cases difficult, and often unsatisfactory, frequent disagreement in the critical results must be expected as a matter of course.由于批评Agrapha在大多数情况下是困难的,往往不尽人意,经常在关键的结果的分歧必须预期作为理所当然。The following Agrapha are probably genuine sayings of Jesus.以下Agrapha可能是耶稣真正的熟语。

(a) In the New Testament and the New Testament manuscripts: In Codices D and Phi, and in some versions of Matt., xx, 28, "But ye seek from the small to increase, and from the greater to be less." (一)在新约圣经和新约圣经手稿:D和披抄本,并在一些版本马特,XX,28,“但你们是寻找小增加,从更大的要少。”In Codex D of Luke, vi, 4: "On the same day, seeing one working on the Sabbath, he said to him: Man, if thou knowest what thou doest, blessed art thou; but if thou knowest not, thou art accursed and a transgressor of the Law."食品法典委员会的卢克,六,4 ð:“在同一天,看到一个在安息日工作,他对他说:人,如果你knowest什么你的旨意,你是有福的,但如果你却不知道,你的艺术诅咒和犯错“。” In Acts, xx, 35, "Remember the word of the Lord Jesus, how he said: It is a more blessed thing to give, rather than to receive."在使徒行传,35,XX,“记住主耶稣,他是怎么说的话:这是一个更为有福的事,而不是给接收。”

(b) In apocryphal tradition: In the Gospel according to the Hebrews (Jerome, Ezech., xviii, 7): "In the Gospel which the Nazarenes are accustomed to read, that according to the Hebrews, there is put among the greatest crimes he who shall have grieved the spirit of his brother." (b)在未经证实的传统:在福音根据希伯来人(杰罗姆Ezech,十八,7。):“在习惯于阅读,根据希伯来人,之间存在的最大的罪行,其中的拿撒勒福音他应悲痛的精神,他的弟弟。“ In the same Gospel (Jerome, Eph., v, 3 sq.): "In the Hebrew Gospel too we read of the Lord saying to the disciples: And never, said he, rejoice, except when you have looked upon your brother in love."在相同的福音(杰罗姆,以弗所,V,3平方米):“在希伯来福音太我们读到主的弟子说:”从来没有说他,飘柔,除非当你有你的兄弟后看着,爱“。 In Apostolic Church-Order, 26: "For he said to us before, when he was teaching: That which is weak shall be saved through that which is strong."在使徒教会阶,26:“对于他对我们说,以前,当他在教学中:”这是弱,应通过保存,这是强大。“In "Acta Philippi", 34: "For the Lord said to me: Except ye make the lower into the upper and the left into the right, ye shall not enter into my kingdom."在“文献腓”,34:“因为耶和华对我说:除叶较低的上,左成的权利,你们不得进入我的王国。”

(c) In patristic citations: Justin Martyr, Dial.(c)在教父引文:贾斯汀烈士,拨号。47: "Wherefore also our Lord Jesus Christ said, In whatsoever things I apprehend you, in those I shall judge you."47:“哪,也是我们的主耶稣基督说,在任何事情我逮捕你,我会判断你的。”Clement of Alexandria, Strom.克莱门特的亚历山德里亚,神池。I, 24, 158: "For ask, he says for the great things, and the small shall be added to you."我,24,158:“有关要求,他说,伟大的事情,和小应加给你。”Clement of Alexandria, Strom.克莱门特的亚历山德里亚,神池。I, 28, 177: "Rightly therefore the Scripture also in its desire to make us such dialecticians, exhorts us: Be approved moneychangers, disapproving some things, but holding fast that which is good."我,28,177:“按着正因此,在它的愿望,使我们这样的辩圣经也劝告我们:批准的货币兑换,反对的一些事情,但持有之快,这是很好的。” Clement of Alexandria, Strom.克莱门特的亚历山德里亚,神池。V, 10, 64: "For not grudgingly, he saith, did the Lord declare in a certain gospel: My mystery is for me and for the sons of my house."五,10,64:“不勉强,他说:,主宣布在一定的福音:我神秘的对我和我家的儿子。” Origen, Homil.奥利,Homil。 in Jer., XX, 3: "But the Saviour himself saith: He who is near me is near the fire; he who is far from me, is far from the kingdom."在哲,XX,3:“但救世主自己仰:他靠近我是近火;他却远离我,是远从王国”。

(d) In the Oxyrhynchus Logia: The first Logion is part of Luke, vi, 42; of the fourth, only the word "poverty" is left; the eighth, too, is badly mutilated. (d)在Oxyrhynchus Logia:第一名言是卢克,六,42岁的一部分;第四,只有“贫穷”一词是左;第八,也血肉模糊。The text of the other Logia is in a more satisfactory condition.其他Logia的文字是在一个较为理想的条件。Second Logion: "Jesus saith, Except you fast to the world, you shall in no wise find the kingdom of God."名言二:“耶稣说除了你,快速向世界,你会发现在任何明智的神的国度。”Third Logion: "Jesus saith, I stood in the midst of the world, and in the flesh was I seen of them, and I found all men drunken, and none found I athirst among them, and my soul grieved over the sons of men, because they are blind in their heart, and see not."第三名言:“耶稣说,我站在世界中,并在肉体是我看到他们,我发现所有的男子醉酒,并没有发现我athirst其中,我的灵魂世人悲痛因为他们是在他们的心脏盲目,看到没有。“ Fifth Logion: "Jesus saith, Wherever there are two, they are not without God; and wherever there is one alone, I say I am with him. Raise the stone and there thou shalt find me; cleave the wood, and there am I."第五名言:“耶稣说,只要有两个,他们是不是没有上帝;,只要有一单,我说我跟他抬起石头,你要找到我;切割的木材,并有我。 “。 Sixth Logion: "Jesus saith, A prophet is not acceptable in his own country, neither doth a physician work cures upon them that know him."第六名言:“耶稣说,先知不能接受在自己的国家,既不doth医师的工作时,知道他的治愈。” Seventh Logion: "Jesus saith, A city built upon the top of a hill and stablished can neither fall nor be hid."第七名言:“耶稣说,后一个小山和stablished顶部建一个城市既不能下降,也不能藏。”Eighth Logion: "Jesus saith, Thou hearest with one ear . . ."第八名言:“耶稣说:”你一只耳朵hearest。“Resch's contention that seventy-five Agrapha are probably genuine Sayings of Jesus harmonizes with the assumption that all spring from the same source, but does not commend itself to the judgment of other scholars.雷希的争夺,七十五个Agrapha可能是真正的熟语耶稣的协调与假设所有来自同一来源的春天,但不赞赏其他学者的判断。

Publication information Written by AJ Maas.AJ马斯编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by WGKofron.转录WGKofron。With thanks to St. Mary's Church, Akron, Ohio The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. Published 1907.与感谢圣玛丽教堂,俄亥俄州阿克伦城天主教百科全书,第I卷出版1907。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. Nihil Obstat,1907年3月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约


ROPES in HAST., Dict.在服务队的绳索,快译通。of the Bible (New York, 1905); Sprüche Jesu, Texte und Untersuch., XIV, 2 (Leipzig, 1896); RESCH, Agrapha, Texte und Untersuch., VI (Leipzig, 1889); GRENFELL and HUNT, LOGIA IESOU, (Egypt Expl. Fund, London, 1897); LOCK AND S ANDAY, Sayings of Jesus (Oxford, 1897); NESTLER, NT supplementum (Leipzig, 1896).“圣经”(纽约,1905年); Sprüche Jesu,Texte和Untersuch,第十四条,2(莱比锡,1896年);雷希,Agrapha,Texte Untersuch,六(莱比锡,1889年);格伦费尔和亨特,LOGIA IESOU, (埃及勘探基金,伦敦,1897年);锁定和S ANDAY,熟语的耶稣(牛津,1897年);内斯特勒,NT supplementum(莱比锡,1896年)。Complete bibliographies will be found in most of the foregoing works.完整的书目将被发现在大多数上述作品。

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