Ahmadiyyah, Qadiyani,Qadiyanis, Ahmadi, Ahmadis 艾哈迈迪

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Ahmadiyyah is a missionary-oriented sect of Indian origin, founded in Qadiyan by Miraz Ghulam Ahmad (1839-1908).Ahmadiyyah是起源于印度的传教士面向的教派,在Qadiyan Miraz古拉姆艾哈迈德(1839年至1908年)成立。The sect believes its founder to be the madhi, the Christian Messiah, an avatar of the Hindu god Krishna, and a reappearance of Muhammad.该教派认为它的创始人是马齐,基督教的弥赛亚,头像的印度教神克里希纳,穆罕默德再现。 The sect believes that Jesus did not die in Jerusalem but feigned death and resurrection, and escaped to India where he died at the age of 120.该教派认为耶稣没有死在耶路撒冷,但假装的死亡和复活,并逃往印度,他在120岁去世。

Although Ahmadiyyah departs from mainstream Sunni Islamic doctrines in terms of its belief in the special status of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, they follow most of the main duties of Islam such as prayer, fasting, pilgrimage and almsgiving, as well as the basic Sunni interpretations of Islamic theology.虽然Ahmadiyyah其特殊地位米尔扎古拉姆艾哈迈德的信念,从主流的逊尼派伊斯兰的教义出发,他们最遵循伊斯兰教的主要职责,如祈祷,斋戒,朝圣和施舍,以及逊尼派伊斯兰的基本解释神学。 Of the two branches of Ahmadiyyah in existence today, the minority Lahore branch, is considered to be within mainstream Sunni theology. Ahmadiyyah今天存在的两个分支,少数拉合尔分支,被认为是主流的逊尼派神学内。The majority Qadiyanis are, however, not considered to be part of Islam by orthodox Muslims.然而,多数Qadiyanis不被视为正统的穆斯林伊斯兰教的一部分。

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History历史

The founder of the Ahmadiyyah sect, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, was born into the leading family of the small town of Qadiyan in the Punjab, India in about 1839. Ahmadiyyah节的创始人,古拉姆艾哈迈德,米尔扎出生到领先的家庭约1839 Qadiyan在印度旁遮普省小城镇。He received a good traditional education, learning how to meditate and acquired a deep knowledge of religion.他收到了良好的的传统教育,学习如何打坐,并获得了深厚的宗教知识。On 4 March 1889 he announced that he received a special revelation from God and gathered a small group of disciples around him.1889年3月4日,他宣布,他收到来自神的特殊启示,围着他的弟子小组。Opposition from the Muslim community began two years later when he announced that he was the Messiah and the Mahdi (a figure whose arrival is believed by some Muslims to herald the end of the world).从穆斯林社会的反对开始两年后,当他宣布,他是弥赛亚和马赫迪(这个数字的到来是由一些穆斯林相信,预示着世界的尽头)。 In 1896 he gave a sermon called al-Hutbat al-Ilhamiyyah which he claimed to be unique because it was divinely inspired in pure Arabic.1896年,他给了AL - Hutbat AL - Ilhamiyyah说教,他自称是独一无二的,因为它是神在纯阿拉伯语启发。After this sermon he came to be referred to by his followers as a prophet, a title which he regarded as honorary since he did not claim to bring a new revelation or new law.这样讲道后,他来到被称为作为一个先知,一个标题,他被视为荣誉,因为他并没有声称带来了新的启示或新的法律他的追随者。 However, in spite of his denial of doctrinal innovation in 1900 he claimed that he was the Second Advent of Jesus and an avatar of Krishna.然而,尽管他拒绝理论创新,在1900年,他声称他是耶稣的第二次降临和奎师那的化身。

On the death of the founder in 1908, a successor called Mawlawi Nur ad-Din was elected by the community.论的创始人,于1908年去世,继任者称为Mawlawi罗布泊广告DIN是由社区选举。In 1914 a schism occurred over whether or not Ghulam Ahmad had claimed to be a prophet (nabi) and if so how he saw his prophetic role.发生在1914年分裂与否古拉姆艾哈迈德自称是先知(先知),如果因此如何,他看到他的预言作用。 The secessionists, led by one of Ghulam Ahmad's sons, rejected the prophetic claims of Ghulam Ahmad, regarding him only as a reformer (mujaddid), and established their centre in Lahore (in modern day Pakistan).古拉姆艾哈迈德的一个儿子的带领下,分裂主义,拒绝古拉姆艾哈迈德的预言声称,他只是作为一个改革者(mujaddid),并在拉合尔建立的中心(在现今的巴基斯坦)。 The majority, however, remained at Qadiyan and continued to recognise Ghulam Ahmad as a prophet.多数,但是,在Qadiyan保持和继续认识到作为一个先知古拉姆艾哈迈德。Following the partition of India and Pakistan, the Qadiyanis, as the majority group came to be known, moved their headquarters to Rabwah in what was then West Pakistan.继印度和巴基斯坦的分区,Qadiyanis,多数群体被称为移动总部设在当时的西巴基斯坦Rabwah。They remain both highly organised and very wealthy, due largely to the monthly dues received from their members.他们保持高度的组织和非常富有,这主要是由于其成员收到每月的会费。

The Lahore group, which is known as the Ahmadis and is considerably smaller than the Qadiyanis, has sought to win converts to Islam rather than its own particular sect.拉合尔组,这是被称为阿赫马迪,大大低于Qadiyanis小,力求以赢得皈依伊斯兰教,而不是其自己特定的教派。The Lahore group was also much more involved with the Indian Muslim struggle against the British presence in India.拉合尔组也更参与反对英国在印度的存在与印度穆斯林的斗争。

Both groups are noted for their missionary work, particularly in the West and in Africa.两组指出他们的传教工作,特别是在西方和非洲。Within Muslim countries, however, strong opposition remains to the Qadiyani group because of its separatist identity and its claim that Ghulam Ahmad was a prophet.然而,在穆斯林国家的强烈反对仍然Qadiyani组由于其分裂的身份和其声称古拉姆艾哈迈德是一位先知。

Symbols符号

The sects' members are identified through their wearing a red cowl and a red veil.该教派的成员确定通过他们身穿红色的整流罩和一个红色的面纱。The Qadiyanis also employ a red banner.Qadiyanis也采用了红色横幅。

Adherents遗民

The Qadiyanis currently have a presence in many countries, including most western countries. Qadiyanis目前已在许多国家,包括大部分西方国家的存在。Their worldwide numbers are estimated as high as 10 million (Harris et al 1994, 79).其全球数量估计高达10万美元(Harris等人,1994年,79)。

Headquarters / Main Centre总部/主要中心

The Qadiyanis have their headquarters in Rabwah in Pakistan; the Ahmadis have their headquarters in Lahore in Pakistan.Qadiyanis已在巴基斯坦的总部设在Rabwah;阿赫马迪在巴基斯坦的总部设在拉合尔。

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