Apologetics护教学

General Information一般资料

Apologetics is the branch of theology concerned with the intellectual defense of Christian truth.护是有关神学与基督教真理的知识产权防御分支。The Greek word apologia means "defense" and was originally defined as a defendant's reply to the speech of the prosecution in a court of law.希腊字辩解的意思是“防御”,最初是作为被告的答复检察机关在法庭上的讲话中定义的。The title of apologist was initially applied to a series of early Christian writers who, in the first few centuries AD, addressed their "apologies" to the Roman emperor or to the educated public.最初被应用到一个人,在几个世纪的第一个广告,解决他们的“道歉”罗马皇帝或受过教育的公众的一系列早期的基督教作家的卫道士称号。 These writers were attempting to show that Christianity was both philosophically and morally superior to paganism (the worship of nature).这些作家们试图表明,基督教在哲学上和道义上优于异教(自然崇拜)。These early apologists included Aristides, Athenagoras, Saint Justin Martyr, Minucius Felix, Tatian, and Tertullian.这些早期的辩护士包括阿里斯蒂德,哥拉,圣贾斯汀烈士,米诺西乌费利克斯,塔蒂安,和戴尔都良。

History历史

In later ages, apologists became most conspicuous when the Christian faith was under attack.在后世,成为最显眼的基督教信仰受到攻击时的辩护士。For instance, Saint Augustine wrote his City of God (413-426) partly in reply to the accusation that disaster had befallen Rome because the pagan gods were abandoned in favor of belief in the Christian God.例如,圣奥古斯丁写了他的赞成信仰基督教的上帝遗弃的城市,因为异教神(413-426),部分在答复灾难降临到罗马的指控。 Similarly, 13th-century Italian theologian Saint Thomas Aquinas wrote his Summa contra gentiles (1261-1264; On the Truth of the Catholic Faith, 1956) as a defense against the theories proposed by ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, which had been newly introduced into the West by Muslim philosophers.同样,13世纪的意大利神学家圣托马斯阿奎那写道,他以最禁忌外邦人(1261年至1264年;在信仰天主教的真相,1956年)对古希腊哲学家亚里士多德提出的理论,一直到新推出的国防西穆斯林哲学家。

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During periods when Christianity was supported by the state and unbelief was a crime, as was generally the case in Europe from the High Middle Ages to the end of the 17th century, there was little need for apologetic work.在支持由国家和不信基督教时的时段,是一种犯罪,作为一般从高中世纪到17世纪末,欧洲的情况,没有什么必要歉疚工作。 During those times, the term apology was usually used in a secondary sense; apologetics were not as much a defense against non-Christian thought as they were a defense against rival Christian interpretations.在那个时代,长期的道歉通常是在次要的意义上使用;护不一样对非基督教思想辩护,因为他们对对手基督教解释辩护。 Examples are 16th-century German theologian Melanchthon's Apology for the Augsburg Confession (1531) and the apologetic works of Saint Robert Bellarmine, who wrote against what he referred to as Protestant heretics.例子是16世纪的德国神学家梅兰希顿的奥格斯堡自白(1531)和圣罗伯特贝拉明,谁反对他被称为新教异端写致歉工程道歉。

With the breakup of the traditional Christian worldview in the 18th century (see Age of Enlightenment), the need for the defense of the Christian faith against the trend toward logic and rationalism became urgent, and a number of apologetic works appeared.随着在18世纪传统的基督教的世界观(启蒙时代),需要捍卫基督教信仰对逻辑和理性主义走向的趋势解体成为紧迫性,并出现一些歉疚工程。 Of these works, among the most influential were English bishop Joseph Butler's Analogy of Religion (1736) and English theologian William Paley's Evidences of Christianity (1794).这些作品,其中最​​有影响力的的英国主教约瑟夫巴特勒的比喻宗教(1736年)和基督教(1794)英国神学家威廉佩利的证据。 Throughout the 19th century and up to the present the stream of apologetic works has continued.在整个19世纪,到现在的歉疚工程流仍在继续。

Recent Schools of Thought最近学校的思想

Many of the more recent apologists aim to show that the Christian faith is not at odds with modern science and philosophy.更近的辩护士,许多旨在表明,基督教信仰与现代科学和哲学的赔率。They argue that that a true understanding of the development of modern thought, as well as the further progress of it, is actually dependent on Christian insights.他们认为,一个真正理解现代思想的发展,以及它的进一步的进展,实际上是依赖于基督教的见解。Current theological writing often has an apologetic overtone because Christian theologians are usually aware of the challenges presented to the faith by contemporary science, psychology, sociology, and philosophy.当前神学写作往往有一个歉意的泛音,因为基督教神学家通常是了解当代科学,心理学,社会学和哲学信仰的挑战。 However, a recent school of theologians, led by Swiss Protestant Karl Barth, holds that apologetics is not the proper business of the theologian.然而,神学家最近的学校,由瑞士新教卡尔巴特领导,认为护是不是神学家的正当业务。This school claims that apologetics is inherently defensive and therefore seems to allow nonbelievers to set the agenda in a dialogue about Christian beliefs.这所学校声称,护本质上是防御性的,因此,似乎让怀疑论者在有关基督教信仰的对话议程设置。These philosophers argue that the best apologetic is simply a clear statement of belief.这些哲学家认为,最好的歉意仅仅是一个信仰的明确声明。


Apologetics护教学

Advanced Information先进的信息

The English word comes from a Greek root meaning "to defend, to make reply, to give an meaning "to defend, to make reply, to give an answer, to legally defend oneself." In NT times an apologia was a formal courtroom defense of something (II Tim. 4:16). As a subdivision of Christian theology apologetics is a systematic, argumentative discourse in defense of the divine origin and the authority of the Christian faith. Peter commanded Christians to be ready to give a reason for the hope they have (I Pet. 3:15). Broadly defined, apologetics has always been a part of evangelism.英语单词来自一个希腊词根,意思是“保卫,作出答复,给一个意思是”保卫,作出答复,给出一个答案,从法律上为自己辩护。“在NT时代,一个辩解是一个正式的法庭辩护(二添。4:16)。东西作为一个基督教神学的护的细分是一个系统工程,在捍卫神圣的起源和基督教信仰的权威议论的话语。彼得吩咐基督徒要准备给一个原因希望他们(彼前3:15)。广义的定义,护一直传福音的一部分。

Christianity is a world view that asserts some very precise things, eg, that the cosmos is not eternal and self-explanatory, that a Creator exists, that he chose a people and revealed himself to them and worked miracles among them, and that he incarnated himself in a particular Jew at a precise time in history.基督教是一种世界观,声称一些非常精确的事情,如,宇宙不是永恒的,不言自明的,造物主的存在,他选择了一个人,透露自己对他们之间他们曾创造奇迹,他化身自己在一个精确的时间在历史上特别是犹太人。 All of these claims need to be substantiated.所有这些索赔需要得到证实。This involves apologetics.这涉及到护。The only way to get apologetics out of the faith is to drop its truth claims.获得护的信念,唯一的办法是放弃真理。

Throughout Christian history apologetics has adopted various styles.护整个基督教历史已采取了不同的风格。One could divide them into two broad classes: the subjective and the objective.人们可以分为两大类:主观和客观的。

The Subjective School主观学校

This includes such great thinkers as Luther, Pascal, Lessing, Kierkegaard, Brunner, and Barth.这包括马丁路德,帕斯卡尔,莱辛,克尔凯郭尔,布伦纳和巴特等伟大的思想家。They usually express doubt that the unbeliever can be "argued into belief."他们通常表示怀疑,不信可以到信仰的主张。“They stress instead the unique personal experience of grace, the inward, subjective encounter with God.他们强调个人的经验,而不是独特的宽限期,向内,主观与神相遇。Such thinkers seldom stand in awe of human wisdom, but on the contrary usually reject traditional philosphy and classical logic, stressing the transrational and the paradoxical.这样的思想家很少站在人类智慧的敬畏,但相反,通常拒绝传统philosphy和经典逻辑,强调transrational和似是而非的。 They have little use for natural theology and theistic proofs, primarily because they feel that sin has blinded the eyes of man so that his reason cannot function properly.他们很少使用自然神学和有神论的证明,主要是因为他们觉得罪蒙蔽人的眼睛,使他的原因不能正常运行。In Luther's famous metaphor, reason is a whore.在路德的著名比喻,原因是妓女。

Thinkers of the subjective school have a keen appreciation of the problem of verification.主观学校的思想家都敏锐的核查问题表示赞赏。Lessing spoke for most of them when he pointed out that "accidental truths of history can never become the proof of necessary truths of reason."莱辛其中大部分发言时,他指出,,“历史的偶然真理永远不能成为必要的真理的原因的证据。”The problem of going from contingent (ie, possibly false) facts of history to deep, inward, religious certainty has been called "Lessing's ditch."队伍(即可能是假的)事实的历史深沉,内向,宗教确定性的问题被称为“莱辛的沟。”

Kierkegaard complained that historical truth is incommensurable with an eternal, passionate decision.克尔凯郭尔抱怨,历史真相是一个永恒的,充满激情的决定不可通约。The passage from history to religious certainty is a "leap" from one dimension to another kind of reality.通过从历史,宗教肯定是一个“飞跃”从一维到另一种现实。He said that all apologetics has the intent of merely making Christianity plausible.他说,所有护只是基督教可信的意图。 But such proofs are vain because "to defend anything is always to discredit it."但是,这种证明是徒劳的,因为“捍卫任何事情总是抹黑。”

Yet, for all his anti-intellectualism, Kierkegaard still had a kind of apologetic for Christianity, a defense developed strangely out of the very absurdity of the Christian affirmation.然而,他所有的反智,克尔凯郭尔仍然有基督教,开发出非常荒谬的基督教肯定奇怪的一个防御的歉意。The very fact that some people have believed that God appeared on earth in the humble figure of a man is so astounding that in provides an occasion for others to share the faith.张女士有些人相信上帝在地球上出现在一个人的谦卑数字是惊人的,在提供了一个机会,为他人分享信仰。No other movement has ever suggested we base the eternal happiness of human beings on their relationship to an event occurring in history.没有其他运动曾经建议我们基地它们之间的关系在历史上发生的事件对人类永恒的幸福。Kierkegaard therefore feels that such an idea "did not arise in the heart of any man."克尔凯郭尔因此认为,这样的想法,“没有出现在任何人的心脏。”

Even Pascal, who discounted the metaphysical proofs for God and preferred the "reasons of the heart," eventually came around with an interesting defense of the Christian faith.即使是帕斯卡,贴现为上帝的形而上学的证明,首选的“心脏的原因,”最终也与基督教信仰的一个有趣的防御。In his Pensees he recommended the biblical religion because it had a profound view of man's nature.在他的Pensees,他建议“圣经”的宗教,因为它有一个人的本性的深刻看法。Most religions and philosophies either ratify man's foolish pride or condemn him to despair.大多数宗教和哲学批准人的愚蠢的骄傲或谴责他绝望。Only Christianity establishes man's true greatness with the doctrine of the image of God, while at the same time accounting for his present evil tendencies with the doctrine of the fall.只有基督教建立人与真正的伟大的神的形象学说,而在同时会计主义的秋天,他目前与恶的倾向。

And we are told that, in spite of his energetic Nein!告诉我们,尽管他精力充沛Nein!there is an apologetic slumbering beneath the millions of words in Karl Barth's Church Dogmatics.卡尔巴特的教会教义的数百万字的下方有一个沉睡已久的歉意。

The Objective School我们的目标学校

This places the problem of verification clearly in the realm of objective fact.这地方的核查问题,显然在客观事实的境界。It emphasizes external realities, theistic proofs, miracles, prophecies, the Bible, and the person of Jesus Christ.它强调外部的现实,有神论的证明,奇迹,预言,“圣经”,和耶稣基督的人。However, a crucial distinction exists between two schools within the objectivist camp.然而,一个关键的区别之间存在的客观阵营内部的两个学校。

The Natural Theology School自然神学学校

Of all the groups this takes the most cheerful view of human reason.所有组的,这需要人类理性的最欢快的观点。It includes such thinkers as Thomas Aquinas, Joseph Butler, FR Tennant, and William Pelye.它包括这样的思想家托马斯阿奎那,约瑟夫巴特勒,阻燃坦,和威廉Pelye。Behind all these thinkers is an empirical tradition in philosophy that can be traced back to Aristotle.所有这些思想家的背后是一个传统,可以追溯到亚里士多德的哲学中的实证。Such thinkers believe in original sin, but they seldom question the basic competency of reason in philosophy.这样的思想家认为原罪,但他们很少问题的基本能力,在哲学上的原因。Perhaps reason was weakened by the fall but certainly not severely crippled.也许原因是削弱了下降,但肯定不会严重致残。

Aquinas sought for a common ground between philosophy and religion by insisting that God's existence could be demonstrated by reason but was also revealed in the Scriptures.阿奎那寻求哲学和宗教之间的共同点,坚持上帝的存在可以证明的原因,但也是在“圣经”显示。He employed three versions of the cosmological argument and the teleological argument in his proofs for God.他雇了三个版本的宇宙论论证和他对上帝的证明目的论的说法。

In his Analogy of Religion (1736), Butler used the basic Thomistic approach but toned it down a bit with his emphasis on probability, "the very guide of life."在他的宗教类比(1736年),巴特勒使用Thomistic的基本方法,但有点淡化他强调基于概率,“生活的指南。” He thus developed an epistemology very close to the pragmatic attitude of the scientist.因此,他非常接近,以务实的态度的科学家开发了一种认识论。Butler argued that geometrical clarity has little place in the moral and religious spheres.巴特勒认为,几何清晰度在道德和宗教领域的小地方。If a person is offended by an emphasis on probability, let him simply reflect on the fact that most of life is based on it.如果一个人是得罪概率强调,让他仅仅反映,大部分的生活是基于它的事实。Man seldom deals with absolute, demonstrative truths.男人很少涉及绝对的,示范的真理。

Apologists of this school often have a naive, simplistic approach to the evidence for Christianity.这所学校的辩护士,往往有一个天真的,简单的方法基督教的证据。They feel that a simple, straightforward presentation of the facts (miracles, prophecies) will suffice to persuade the unbeliever.他们认为,一个简单的事实的简单介绍(奇迹,预言)将足以说服不信。

The Revelation School启示学校

This includes such giants of the faith as Augustine, Calvin, Abraham Kuyper, and EJ Carnell.这包括奥古斯丁,加尔文,亚伯拉罕Kuyper,和EJ Carnell等巨头的信念。These thinkers usually admit that objective evidence (mircales, proofs of God, prophecies) is important in the apologetic task, but they insist that unregenerate man cannot be converted by mere exposure to proofs because sin has seriously weakened human reason.这些思想家通常承认的客观证据(mircales,证明神,预言)在致歉的任务是重要的,但他们坚持认为unregenerate人不能单纯曝光证明的转换,因为罪已严重削弱人的理性。 It will take a special act of the Holy Spirit to allow the evidence to be effective.这将需要圣灵的特别法允许的证据是有效的。

One should not conclude from this that the revelation school considers the external evidence worthless.人们不应该由此得出结论的启示学校认为毫无价值的外部证据。On the contrary, the work of the Spirit presupposes the external Bible and the historical Jesus Christ.相反,工作的精神的前提条件是外部圣经和耶稣基督的历史。If faith is largely a creation of the Holy Spirit, it still remains true that you could not have the faith apart from the facts.如果信仰主要是圣灵的创造,它仍然是真正的,你不能有诚意,除了事实。In sum, the Holy Spirit is the sufficient cause of belief while the facts are a necessary cause of belief.总之,圣灵是足够的信仰原因,而事实是必要的​​事业的信念。

The revelation school, therefore, borrows valuable insights from both the subjective school and the natural theology school.启示学校,因此,无论从主观学校和自然神学学校借用宝贵的见解。From one they acquire a distrust of unregenerated reason, from the other a proper appreciation of the role of concrete facts in the Christian faith.从他们获得unregenerated理由不信任,从一个具体的事实,在基督教信仰中的作用的适当升值。As Luther said, "Prior to faith and a knowledge of God, reason is darkness, but in believers it is an excellent instrument. Just as all gifts and instruments of nature are evil in godless men, so they are good in believers."正如马丁路德说,“信仰和神的知识之前,原因是黑暗的,但在信徒中,它是一个很好的工具,正如所有礼品和文书的性质是在无神的男子邪恶的,所以他们在信徒的好。”

Oddly, both objectivist schools tend to use the same body of evidence when they do apologetics; they just differ on how and when the proofs persuade the unbeliever.奇怪的是,无论是客观的学校往往使用同一机构的证据时,他们做护,他们只是不同如何证明时,说服不信。Through the centuries Christian apologists of the objectivist school have used a variety of material: (1) Theistic proofs, the ontological, cosmological, teleological, and moral arguments.通过几个世纪的基督教辩护士的客观学校使用的各种材料:(1)有神论的证明,本体论,宇宙论,目的论,道德的争论。 (2) OT prophecies, predictions about the Jewish Messiah that are fulfilled in Christ, such as Isa. (2)旧约预言,有关犹太人的弥赛亚,是基督履行,如ISA的预言。9:6; Mic.9:6;麦克风。5:1-3; and Zech. 5:1-3;和撒加利亚。9:9-10. 9:9-10。(3) Biblical miracles, signs of the power of God which occur in great clusters in the Scripture, the two biggest centering around the Exodus and the coming of Christ.(3)圣经的奇迹,神的力量,伟大的集群,在圣经中,围绕两个最大的出埃及记和基督的来临发生的迹象。(4) The person of Christ, the unparalleled personality and character of Christ, illustrated by his demonstrations of love and concern for all kinds of people, especially the outcasts.(4)基督,基督的无与伦比的个性和性格的人,说明他的爱和关​​心的人,尤其是弃儿各种示威活动。(5) The teachings of Christ, the unparalleled doctrines, the beautiful sayings and parables of Jesus. (5)基督的教诲,无与伦比的教义,美丽的说法和耶稣的比喻。(6) The resurrection of Christ, the greatest miracle of all Scripture, the capstone for the entire building of apologetics.(6)基督的复活,所有圣经的最伟大的奇迹,为整个建筑的护顶峰。(7) the history of Christianity, the benign influence of the Christian faith on the human race. (7)基督教历史上,基督教信仰对人类的良性影响。

AJ Hoover欧塞尔胡佛
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
FF Bruce, The Apostolic Defense of the Gospel; A. Dulles, A History of Apologetics; JH Newman, Apologia pro Vita Sua; W. Paley, A View of the Evidences of Christianity; B. Pascal, Pensees; B. Ramm, Varieties of Christian Apologetics; JKS Reid, Christian Apologetics; AR Vidler, Twentieth Century Defenders of the Faith; O. Zockler, Geschichte der Apologie des Christentums.法郎布鲁斯,福音的使徒防御; A.杜勒斯国际机场,一护的历史; JH纽曼辩解亲维塔苏阿; W.佩利,基督教的证据; B.帕斯卡,Pensees; B. Ramm,品种基督教护; JKS的里德,基督教护; AR维德勒,二十世纪的信仰的捍卫者; O. Zockler,历史DER Apologie Christentums。


Apologetics护教学

Catholic Information天主教信息

A theological science which has for its purpose the explanation and defence of the Christian religion.一个神学的科学,其目的基督教的解释和辩护。

Apologetics means, broadly speaking, a form of apology.护手段,从广义上讲,一个形式的道歉。 The term is derived from the Latin adjective, apologeticus, which, in turn has its origin in the Greek adjective, apologetikos, the substantive being apologia, "apology", "defence".一词源于拉丁文的形容词,apologeticus,其原产地在希腊的形容词,这反过来,apologetikos,实质性的辩解,“道歉”,“国防”。 As an equivalent of the plural form, the variant, "Apologetic", is now and then found in recent writings, suggested probably by the corresponding French and German words, which are always in the singular.相当于一个复数形式的变种,“护教”,然后在最近的著作中发现,建议可能是由相应的法语和德语的话,它总是在奇异。 But the plural form,但复数形式,

"Apologetics", is far more common and will doubtless prevail, being in harmony with other words similarly formed, as ethics, statistics, homiletics. “护”,是更为常见,无疑会占上风,同样形成了以职业道德,统计,homiletics,换句话说和谐。In defining apologetics as a form of apology, we understand the latter word in its primary sense, as a verbal defence against a verbal attack, a disproving of a false accusation, or a justification of an action or line of conduct wrongly made the object of censure.定义为道歉的形式护,我们理解其主要意义上的后一个词,作为口头对口头攻击,诬告驳斥,或一项行动或行的行为的理由国防错误对象责难。 Such, for example, is the Apology of Socrates, such the Apologia of John Henry Newman.这样,例如,苏格拉底,纽曼辩解道歉。This is the only sense attaching to the term as used by the ancient Greeks and Romans, or by the French and Germans of the present day.这是只可意会,古希腊人和罗马人,或由法国和德国人至今使用的附加长期。

Quite different is the meaning now conveyed by our English word, "apology", namely, an explanation of an action acknowledged to be open to blame.相当不同的是现在我们的英语单词,“道歉”,即一个动作的解释承认开放归咎于所传达的意义。The same idea is expressed almost exclusively by the verb, "apologize", and generally by the adjective, "apologetic".同样的想法几乎完全由动词表示“道歉”,一般由形容词,“歉意”。For this reason, the adoption of the word, "Apologetics", in the sense of a scientific vindication of the Christian religion is not altogether a happy one.出于这个原因,通过在一个基督教科学平反意义上的字,“护”,并不完全是一个幸福的一个。Some scholars prefer such terms as "Christian Evidences", the "Defence of the Christian Religion".有些学者喜欢“基督教的证据”,“基督教的辩护”等条款。"Apologetics" and "Apology" are not altogether interchangeable terms.“护”和“道歉”不完全互换。The latter is the generic term, the former the specific.后者是通用的术语,前者的具体。Any kind of accusation, whether personal, social, political, or religious, may call forth a corresponding apology.任何一种指责,无论是个人,社会,政治,宗教或,可致电提出了相应的道歉。It is only apologies of the Christian religion that fall within the scope of apologetics.这是那年秋天的基督教护范围内的只有道歉。Nor is it all such.也不是所有此类。There is scarcely a dogma, scarcely a ritual or disciplinary institution of the Church that has not been subjected to hostile criticism, and hence, as occasion required, been vindicated by proper apologetics.几乎没有一个教条,尚未受到敌对批评教会的机构几乎没有一个仪式或纪律处分,并因此,作为场合的需要,通过适当的护平反。 But besides these forms of apology, there are the answers that have been called forth by attacks of various kinds upon the credentials of the Christian religion, apologies written to vindicate now this, now that ground of the Christian, Catholic faith, that has been called in question or held up to disbelief and ridicule.但是,除了这些形式的道歉,有各种攻击提出后,基督教的凭据,书面平反现在这个道歉,现在,基督教,天主教信仰的地面,被称为被称为答案问题或持有怀疑和嘲笑。

Now it is out of such apologies for the foundations of Christian belief that the science of apologetics has taken form.现在是基督教信仰的基础,已初步形成科学的护道歉。Apologetics is the Christian Apology par excellence, combining in one well-rounded system the arguments and considerations of permanent value that have found expression in the various single apologies.护是基督教道歉出类拔萃,在一个成熟的系统相结合的论点和永久价值的考虑,已发现的各种单道歉表达。 The latter, being answers to specific attacks, were necessarily conditioned by the occasions that called them forth.后者,特定攻击的答案,一定场合表示,他们提出的条件。They were personal, controversial, partial vindications of the Christian position.他们个人的,有争议的部分vindications,基督教立场。In them the refutation of specific charges was the prominent element.在他们的具体收费标准的驳斥是突出的元素。Apologetics, on the other hand, is the comprehensive, scientific vindication of the grounds of Christian, Catholic belief, in which the calm, impersonal presentation of underlying principles is of paramount importance, the refutation of objections being added by way of corollary.护,另一方面,是全面的,科学的平反基督教的理由,信仰天主教,其中最重要的是冷静,基本原则的人情味介绍,驳斥反对被添加推论的方式。 It addresses itself not to the hostile opponent for the purpose of refutation, but rather to the inquiring mind by way of information.它本身并不驳斥目的的敌对对手,但而信息的方式的探究精神。Its aim is to give a scientific presentation of the claims which Christ's revealed religion has on the assent of every rational mind; it seeks to lead the inquirer after truth to recognize, first, the reasonableness and trustworthiness of the Christian revelation as realized in the Catholic Church, and secondly, the corresponding obligation of accepting it.其目的是给予一个的声称这基督的揭示宗教赞同每一个理性的头脑已经科学演示;它旨在引领询问者真理的承认,第一,是否合理,并在基督教的启示守信作为在天主教实现教会,其次,接受相应的义务。 While not compelling faith -- for the certitude it offers is not absolute, but moral -- it shows that the credentials of the Christian religion amply suffice to vindicate the act of faith as a rational act, and to discredit the estrangement of the sceptic and unbeliever as unwarranted and culpable.虽然不引人注目的信念 - 它提供的确定性是不是绝对的,但道德 - ,它表明,基督教充分足够的凭据,以维护信仰的行为,作为一个理性的行为和诋毁的怀疑论者的隔阂和异教徒作为不必要的和应受惩处。Its last word is the answer to the question: Why should I be a Catholic?它的最后一个字是​​这个问题的答案:为什么我应该是一个天主教?Apologetics thus leads up to Catholic faith, to the acceptance of the Catholic Church as the divinely authorized organ for preserving and rendering efficacious the saving truths revealed by Christ.护由此引出了天主教信仰,天主教接受神所授权的机关为维护和渲染有效节省基督所揭示的真理。This is the great fundamental dogma on which all other dogmas rest.这是伟大的基本教条上的所有其他的教条休息。Hence apologetics also goes by the name of "fundamental theology".因此,护“基本神学”的名称。Apologetics is generally viewed as one branch of dogmatic science, the other and chief branch being dogmatic theology proper.护通常被视为教条式的科学的一个分支,其他和教条式的神学适当的行政分支。It is well to note, however, that in point of view and method also they are quite distinct.这是需要注意的,然而,观点和方法来看也相当明显。Dogmatic theology, like moral theology, addresses itself primarily to those who are already Catholic.的教条式的神学像道德神学,地址,主要提供给那些那些已经天主教。It presupposes faith.它的前提信心。Apologetics, on the other hand, in theory at least, simply leads up to faith.护,另一方面,至少在理论上,只会导致信仰。 The former begins where the latter ends.前开始,后者的结束。Apologetics is pre-eminently a positive, historical discipline, whereas dogmatic theology is rather philosophic and deductive, using as its premises data of divine and ecclesiastical authority -- the contents of revelation and their interpretation by the Church.护前突出一个积极的,历史学科,而教条式的神学,哲学和演绎,作为使用其处所神和教会的权威数据 - 启示的内容和他们教会的解释。It is only in exploring and in treating dogmatically the elements of natural religion, the sources of its authoritative data, that dogmatic theology comes in touch with apologetics.它只有在探索和教条式地对待自然宗教,其权威的数据来源的元素,即教条式的神学护触摸。

As has been pointed out, the object of apologetics is to give a scientific answer to the question, Why should I be Catholic?正如已经指出的那样,护对象的问题给予科学的回答,我为什么要天主教?Now this question involves two others which are also fundamental.现在这个问题涉及到两个人,也根本。The one is: Why should I be a Christian rather than an adherent of the Jewish religion, or the Mohammedan, or the Zoroastrian, or of some other religious system setting up a rival claim to be revealed?一个是:“我为什么要一个,而不是犹太宗教的追随者,或伊斯兰教,或拜火教,或其他一些宗教制度,设立一个对手声称透露的基督教? The other, still more fundamental, question is: Why should I profess any religion at all?其他的,更根本的,问题是:为什么我应该在所有信奉任何宗教?Thus the science of apologetics easily falls into three great divisions:因此,科学的辩护可以分为三大部门:

First, the study of religion in general and the grounds of theistic belief;首先,在一般的研究宗教和信仰有神论的理由;

second, the study of revealed religion and the grounds of Christian belief;第二,研究发现宗教和基督教信仰的理由;

third, the study of the true Church of Christ and the grounds of Catholic belief.第三,学习基督的真教会和天主教信仰的理由。

In the first of these divisions, the apologist inquirers into the nature of religion, its universality, and man's natural capacity to acquire religious ideas.在这些部门之首,到宗教的本质,它的普遍性,和人的自然能力的辩护士探究收购的宗教思想。In connection with this the modern study of the religious philosophy of uncultured peoples has to be taken into consideration, and the various theories concerning the origin of religion present themselves for critical discussion.与此有关的未培养人民的宗教哲学的现代研究来加以考虑,和关于宗教的起源的各种理论,目前关键的讨论自己。 This leads to the examination of the grounds of theistic belief, including the important questions of这导致的有神论信仰的理由考试,其中包括重要的问题

the existence of a divine Personality, the Creator and Conserver of the world, exercising a special providence over man;存在一个神圣的人格,世界的创造者和Conserver行使对人的特殊普罗维登斯,;

man's freedom of will and his corresponding religious and moral responsibility in virtue of his dependence on God;人的自由意志和他相应的宗教和道德责任,凭借他对神的依赖;

the immortality of the human soul, and the future life with its attendant rewards and punishments.人类灵魂的不朽,和伴随而来的奖惩未来的生活。

Coupled with these questions is the refutation of monism, determinism, and other anti-theistic theories.加上这些问题是一元论的驳斥,确定性,以及其他反有神论的理论。Religious philosophy and apologetics here march hand in hand.宗教哲学和护三月携手共进。

The second division, on revealed religion, is even more comprehensive.第二分部,发现宗教,更是全面。After treating the notion, possibility, and moral necessity of a divine revelation, and its discernibility through various internal and external criteria, the apologist proceeds to establish the fact of revelation.处理后通过各种内部和外部条件的概念,可能性,道德的必要性和一个神圣的启示,其差别,辩护士收益建立的启示的事实。 Three distinct, progressive stages of revelation are set forth: Primitive Revelation, Mosaic Revelation, and Christian Revelation.载三个不同的,渐进的启示阶段:原始的启示,镶嵌的启示,和基督教的启示。The chief sources on which he has to rely in establishing this triple fact of revelation are the Sacred Scriptures.他还要靠建立这三重启示事实的主要来源是圣经。But if he is logical, he must prescind from their inspiration and treat them provisionally as human historical documents.但如果他是合乎逻辑的的,他必须prescind从他们的灵感和对待他们暂时作为人类历史文件。Here he must depend on the critical study of the Old and New Testaments by impartial scriptural scholars, and build on the accredited results of their researches touching the authenticity and trustworthiness of the sacred books purporting to be historical.在这里,他必须依靠公正的圣经学者的旧约和新约的批判性研究,并认可他们触摸神圣的书籍,看来是历史的真实性和可信度的研究结果的基础上。 It is only by anticipation that an argument for the fact of primitive revelation can be based on the ground that it is taught in the inspired book of Genesis, and that it is implied in the supernatural state of our first parents.它是通过预测,只有原始的启示的事实论据基础上的,它是在灵感的成因书教的地面,这是隐含在我们的第一个父母的超自然状态。 In the absence of anything like contemporary documents, the apologist has to lay chief stress on the high antecedent probability of primitive revelation, and show how a revelation of limited, but sufficient scope for primitive man is compatible with a very crude stage of material and æsthetic culture, and hence is not discredited by the sound results of prehistoric arch ology.像当代的文件的任何情况下,辩护士打下原始的启示前因概率高的行政压力,并显示一个很简陋的材料和审美的阶段,如何对有限的启示,但原始人有足够的范围兼容文化,因此是不无颜史前拱地质声音效果。 Closely connected with this question is the scientific study of the origin and antiquity of man, and the unity of the human species; and, as still larger subjects bearing on the historic value of the sacred Book of Origins, the compatibility with Scripture of the modern sciences of biology, astronomy, and geology.这个问题密切相关的是人的起源和古代科学的研究,和人类团结的;,仍有较大的科目上的圣书的起源的历史价值,圣经与现代的兼容性轴承科学,生物学,天文学,地质学。 In like manner the apologist has to content himself with showing the fact of Mosaic revelation to be highly probable.在喜欢的方式的辩护士内容显示马赛克启示的事实,极有可能自己。The difficulty, in the present condition of Old Testament criticism, of recognizing more than a small portion of the Pentateuch as documentary evidence contemporary with Moses, makes it incumbent on the apologist to proceed with caution lest, in attempting to prove too much, he may bring into discredit what is decidedly tenable apart from dogmatic considerations.在旧约批评目前的状况困难,认识的pentateuch作为书面证据与摩西当代的一个小部分,使得现任辩护士进行谨慎,以免在试图证明太多,他可能把抹黑什么除了教条式的考虑是决然站不住脚。 However, there is sufficient evidence allowed by all but the most radical critics to establish the fact that Moses was the providential instrument for delivering the Hebrew people from Egyptian bondage, and for teaching them a system of religious legislation that in lofty monotheism and ethical worth is far superior to the beliefs and customs of the surrounding nations, thus affording a strong presumption in favour of its claim to be revealed.然而,有足够的证据,但最激进的批评允许建立的事实摩西是希伯来人从埃及的奴役提供天赐仪器,并教他们的宗教立法体系,在崇高的一神教和道德价值是远远优于周边国家的信仰和习俗,从而给予赞成其声称要揭示的一个强有力的推论。 This presumption gains strength and clearness in the light of Messianic prophecy, which shines with ever increasing volume and brightness through the history of the Jewish religion till it illumines the personality of our Divine Lord.在弥赛亚的预言,通过犹太宗教的历史与不断增加的数量和亮度眼前一亮,直到它照亮了我们神圣的主的个性,这种推定收益的强度和清晰度。 In the study of Mosaic revelation, biblical archæology is of no small service to the apologist.在马赛克启示的研究,圣经考古学是不小的服务的辩护士。

When the apologist comes to the subject of Christian revelation, he finds himself on much firmer ground.当卫道士受基督教的启示,他发现自己更坚定的地面。Starting with the generally recognized results of New Testament criticism, he is enabled to show that the synoptic Gospels, on the one hand, and the undisputed Epistles of St. Paul, on the other, offer two independent, yet mutually corroborative, masses of evidence concerning the person and work of Jesus.他开始与新旧约批评的普遍认可的结果,是使显示,天气福音,一方面,而另一方面,圣保罗无可争议的书信,提供两个独立的,但相互佐证,证据群众关于耶稣的人,工作。 As this evidence embodies the unimpeachable testimony of thoroughly reliable eye-witnesses and their associates, it presents a portraiture of Jesus that is truly historical.由于这方面的证据,体现了彻底可靠的目击证人及其同伙的无可指责的见证,它提出了一个耶稣的肖像,是真正的历史。 After showing from the records that Jesus taught, now implicitly, now explicitly, that he was the long expected Messiah, the Son of God sent by His Heavenly Father to enlighten and save mankind, and to found the new kingdom of justice, Apologetics proceeds to set forth the grounds for believing in these claims:显示,耶稣教导,现在含蓄,现在明确了,他早就预料到的弥赛亚,是神的儿子,由他的天父派开导和拯救人类,并找到了新的司法王国的记录后,护收益所列的理由相信这些说法:

the surpassing beauty of His moral character, stamping Him as the unique, perfect man;他的品德超越的美,冲压作为他的独特,完美的人;

the lofty excellence of His moral and religious teaching, which has no parallel elsewhere, and which answers the highest aspirations of the human soul;崇高卓越,他的道德和宗教教学,其他地方有没有平行,并回答了人类灵魂的最高愿望;

His miracles wrought during His public mission;在他的公众使命造成他的奇迹;

the transcendent miracle of His resurrection, which He foretold as well;超越的奇迹,他的复活,以及他的预言;

the wonderful regeneration of society through His undying personal influence.美妙的再生,通过他的不朽的个人影响力的社会。

Then, by way of supplementary proof, the apologist institutes an impartial comparison of Christianity with the various rival religious systems of the world -- Brahminism, Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Confucianism, Taoism, Mohammedanism -- and shows how in the person of its founder, in its moral and religious ideal and influence, the Christian religion is immeasurably superior to all others, and alone has a claim to our assent as the absolute, divinely-revealed religion.然后,通过补充证据,辩护士机构基督教世界的宗教系统与各竞争对手比较公正的方式 - 婆罗门教,祆教,佛教,儒教,道教,伊斯兰教 - 并展示了如何在其创办人,在道德和宗教的理想和影响力,基督教是没法比优于所有其他的,仅作为绝对的,神圣的启示宗教要求我们同意。Here, too, in the survey of Buddhism, the specious objection, not uncommon today, that Buddhist ideas and legends have contributed to the formation of the Gospels, calls for a summary refutation.在这里,在今天的佛教,似是而非的反对意见,并不少见调查,佛教思想和传说作出了贡献形成的福音,呼吁一个总结驳斥。

Beyond the fact of Christian revelation the Protestant apologist does not proceed.除了基督教的启示其实新教辩护士无法继续进行。But the Catholic rightly insists that the scope of apologetics should not end here.但天主教正确地坚持认为,护范围,不应该在这里结束。Both the New Testament records and those of the sub-Apostolic age bear witness that Christianity was meant to be something more than a religious philosophy of life, more than a mere system of individual belief and practice, and that it cannot be separated historically from a concrete form of social organization.无论是新约圣经的记录的子,使徒年龄承担的见证,基督教是意味着多一个生命的宗教哲学,超过一个个人的信仰和实践的仅仅是系统的东西,并认为不能分开历史上从社会组织的具体形式。 Hence Catholic apologetics adds, as a necessary sequel to the established fact of Christian revelation, the demonstration of the true Church of Christ and its identity with the Roman Catholic Church.因此,天主教护补充说,基督教的启示,基督真正的教会与罗马天主教会的身份示范既定事实作为一个必要的续集。From the records of the Apostles and their immediate successors is set forth the institution of the Church as a true, unequal society, endowed with the supreme authority of its Founder, and commissioned in His name to teach and sanctify mankind; possessing the essential features of visibility, indefectibility, and infallibility; characterized by the distinctive marks of unity, holiness, catholicity, and apostolicity.从使徒和他们的继任的记录是载作为一个真正的,不平等的社会,拥有至高无上的权威,其创始人,教会机构,并委托他的名字来教和圣人类拥有的本质特征的知名度,indefectibility,和犯错误的特点是团结,圣洁,大公和使徒的特殊标志。 These notes of the true Church of Christ are then applied as criteria to the various rival Christian denominations of the present day, with the result that they are found fully exemplified in the Roman Catholic Church alone.然后,基督的真教会这些说明适用至今的各种对手的基督教教派的标准,与他们发现的结果充分体现在罗马天主教会单独。With the supplementary exposition of the primacy and infallibility of the Pope, and of the rule of faith, the work of apologetics is brought to its fitting close.护工作的首要地位和教皇犯错误,和信仰法治的补充论述,是装修接近。It is true that some apologists see fit to treat also of inspiration and the analysis of the act of faith.诚然,一些辩护士的灵感和信仰的行为分析认为合适的治疗也。But, strictly speaking, these are not apologetic subjects.但是,严格来说,这些都是没有歉疚的科目。While they may logically be included in the prolegomena of dogmatic theology, they rather belong, the one to the province of Scripture-study, the other to the tract of moral theology dealing with the theological virtues.虽然他们可能在逻辑上是教条式的神学绪论,而属于一个圣经研究的省,其他处理与神学美德的道德神学道。

The history of apologetic literature involves the survey of the varied attacks that have been made against the grounds of Christian, Catholic belief.歉疚文学的历史,涉及的调查,已对基督教,天主教信仰的理由作出不同的攻击。It may be marked off into four great divisions.它可以显着分为四个大部门。

The first division is the period from the beginning of Christianity to the downfall of the Roman Empire (AD 476).第一师开始从基督教的罗马帝国(公元476年)的垮台期间。It is chiefly characterized by the twofold struggle of Christianity with Judaism and with paganism.它的主要特点是与犹太教和基督教与异教的双重斗争。

The second division is coextensive with the Middle Ages, from AD 476 to the Reformation.德乙coextensive中世纪,从公元476年至宗教改革。In this period we find Christianity in conflict with the Mohammedan religion and philosophy.在此期间,我们发现在基督教与伊斯兰教的宗教和哲学冲突。

The third division takes in the period from the beginning of the Reformation to the rise of rationalism in England in the middle of the seventeenth century.第三部门的改革开始在英国兴起的理性主义,在十七世纪中叶期间。It is the period of struggle between Catholicism and Protestantism.这是天主教和新教之间的斗争时期。

The fourth division embraces the period of rationalism, from the middle of the seventeenth century down to the present day.第四分部涵盖的理性时期,从十七世纪至今的中间。Here we find Christianity in conflict with Deism, Pantheism, Materialism, Agnosticism, and Naturalism.在这里我们发现基督教自然神论,泛神论,唯物论,不可知论,与自然的冲突。

FIRST PERIOD第一期

(A) Apologies in Answer to the Opposition of Judaism(一)在回答犹太教反对党道歉

It lay in the nature of things that Christianity should meet with strong Jewish opposition.它奠定了事物的本质,基督教应该满足具有较强的犹太人反对。In dispensing with circumcision and other works of the law, Christianity had incurred the imputation of running counter to God's immutable will.在免除割礼和其他法律的作品,基督教已招致的背道而驰神的不可改变将归集。Again, Christ's humble and obscure life, ending in the ignominious death on the cross, was the very opposite of what the Jews expected of their Messiah.同样,基督的谦逊和晦涩的生活,在十字架上的不光彩的死亡结束,预计他们的弥赛亚犹太人相反。Their judgment seemed to be confirmed by the fact that Christianity attracted but an insignificant portion of the Jewish people, and spread with greatest vigour among the despised Gentiles.他们的判断似乎是由基督教吸引,但犹太人民的极小部分,最鄙视外邦人之间的活力传播证实。To justify the claims of Christianity before the Jews, the early apologists had to give an answer to these difficulties.为了证明基督教之前,犹太人索赔,初辩护士不得不放弃回答这些困难。Of these apologies the most important is the "Dialogue with Trypho the Jew" composed by Justin Martyr about 155-160.这些道歉的最重要的是由贾斯汀烈士约155-160组成的“与Trypho犹太人的对话”。He vindicates the new religion against the objections of the learned Jew, arguing with great cogency that it is the perfection of the Old Law, and showing by an imposing array of Old Testament passages that the Hebrew prophets point to Jesus as the Messiah and the incarnate Son of God.他证明了新的宗教对学习犹太人的反对,争论很大的说服力,这是旧法的完善,并显示旧约段落气势阵列的希伯来先知指向耶稣为弥赛亚的化身上帝的儿子。 He insists also that it is in Christianity that the destiny of the Hebrew religion to become the religion of the world is to find its realization, and hence it is the followers of Christ, and not the unbelieving Jews, that are the true children of Israel.他还坚持它在基督教成为世界宗教的希伯来宗教的命运是要找到它的实现,因此它是基督的追随者,而不是不信的犹太人,以色列真正的儿童。 By his elaborate argument from Messianic prophecy, Justin won the grateful recognition of later apologists.他弥赛亚的预言精心参数,贾斯汀获得的感谢后来辩护士承认。Similar apologies were composed by Tertullian, "Against the Jews" (Adversus Jud os, about 200), and by St. Cyprian, "Three Books of Evidences against the Jews" (about 250).类似的道歉是组成由戴尔都良,“反对犹太人”(Adversus犹OS,约200),和圣塞浦路斯(约250)“三书”对犹太人的证据。

(B) Apologies in Answer to Pagan Opposition(b)回答异教徒反对道歉

Of far more serious moment to the early Christian Church was the bitter opposition it met from paganism.更为严重的时刻,早期的基督教堂会见了从异教的激烈反对。The polytheistic religion of the Roman Empire, venerated for its antiquity, was intertwined with every fibre of the body politic.多神教的宗教,其古代罗马帝国的崇敬,是每一个政治体的纤维交织在一起。Its providential influence was a matter of firm belief.其天赐的影响是一个坚定的信念问题。It was associated with the highest culture, and had the sanction of the greatest poets and sages of Greece and Rome.与最高的文化,希腊和罗马最伟大的诗人和圣贤的制裁。Its splendid temples and stately ritual gave it a grace and dignity that captivated the popular imagination.辉煌的寺庙和庄严的仪式,给它征服了大众的想象一个优雅和尊严。On the other hand, Christian monotheism was an innovation.另一方面,基督教一神论是一种创新。It made no imposing display of liturgy.它没有强加显示的礼仪。Its disciples were, for the most part, persons of humble birth and station.它的弟子们,最卑微的出生和车站的人。Its sacred literature had little attraction for the fastidious reader accustomed to the elegant diction of the classic authors.其神圣的文学经典作家的习惯典雅的文辞挑剔的读者的吸引力不大。And so the popular mind viewed it with misgivings, or despised it as an ignorant superstition.等流行的心中认为它与疑虑,或鄙视它作为一个无知的迷信。But opposition did not end here.但是反对派并没有在这里结束。The uncompromising attitude of the new religion towards pagan rites was decried as the greatest impiety.新的宗教对异教仪式的不妥协的态度是谴责作为最大的不虔诚。The Christians were branded as atheists, and as they held aloof from the public functions also, which were invariably associated with these false rites, they were accused of being enemies of the State.基督徒被命名为无神论者,并为他们举行的公共职能,也无不与这些虚假的仪式关联的清高,他们被指控是国家的敌人。 The Christian custom of worshipping in secret assembly seemed to add force to this charge, for secret societies were forbidden by Roman law.基督教崇拜在秘密集会的习俗似乎添加武力这项收费,秘密社团被禁止罗马法。Nor were calumnies wanting.也不是诽谤希望。The popular imagination easily distorted the vaguely-known Agape and Eucharistic Sacrifice into abominable rites marked by feasting on infant flesh and by indiscriminate lust.大众的想象中容易被扭曲隐约阿加佩和圣体献祭到灯红酒绿婴儿肉和不分青红皂白的欲望显着恶劣的仪式。The outcome was that the people and authorities took alarm at the rapidly spreading Church and sought to repress it by force.其结果是,人民和当局采取了教会在迅速蔓延的警报,并试图以武力镇压。To vindicate the Christian cause against these attacks of paganism, many apologies were written.平反这些攻击对异教的基督教事业中,很多道歉的书面。Some, notably the "Apology" of Justin Martyr (150), the "Plea for the Christians", by Athenagoras (177), and the "Apologetic" of Tertullian (197), were addressed to emperors for the express purpose of securing for the Christians immunity from persecution.一些,特别是贾斯汀烈士“道歉”(150),“呼吁基督徒”,哥拉(177),和“护教”特土良(197),给皇帝为确保为目的从迫害基督徒的免疫力。 Others were composed to convince the pagans of the folly of polytheism and of the saving truth of Christianity.另一些人组成的说服多神教和基督教的拯救真理的愚蠢的异教徒。Such were: Tatian, "Discourse to the Greeks" (160), Theophilus, "Three Books to Autolychus" (180), the "Epistle to Diognetus" (about 190), the "Octavius" of Minucius Felix (192), Origen, "True Discourse against Celsus" (248), Lactantius, Institutes (312), and St. Augustine, "City of God" (414-426).分别为:塔蒂安,“话语希腊人”(160),西奥菲勒斯,“三本书​​来Autolychus”(180),“书信Diognetus”(约190),米诺西乌费利克斯“屋大维”(192),奥利“真正的话语对塞尔苏斯”(248),拉克唐修,研究院(312),和圣奥古斯丁“上帝之城”(414-426)。 In these apologies the argument from Old Testament prophecy has a more prominent place than that from miracles.从旧约的预言在这些道歉的说法有一个更加突出的位置,比从奇迹。But the one on which most stress is laid is that of the transcendent excellence of Christianity.但最看重的是奠定了超然卓越的基督教。Though not clearly marked out, a twofold line of thought runs through this argument: Christianity is light, whereas paganism is darkness; Christianity is power, whereas paganism is weakness.虽然没有明确标示出,一种思想的双重线贯穿这种说法:基督教是光,而异教黑暗;基督教就是力量,而异教是弱点。 Enlarging on these ideas, the apologists contrast the logical coherence of the religious tenets of Christianity, and its lofty ethical teaching, with the follies and inconsistencies of polytheism, the low ethical principles of its philosophers, and the indecencies of its mythology and of some of its rites.扩大对这些想法,基督教的宗教信条的逻辑连贯性的辩护士对比,其崇高的道德教学,与多神教的愚蠢和不一致,其哲学家的低道德原则,和神话indecencies和一些其仪式。 They likewise show that the Christian religion alone has the power to transform man from a slave of sin into a spiritual freeman.他们同样表明,仅基督教电源改造成一种精神弗里曼人的罪的奴仆。They compare what they once were as pagans with what they now are as Christians.他们比较什么,他们曾经与他们现在作为基督徒的异教徒。They draw a telling contrast between the loose morality of pagan society and the exemplary lives of Christians, whose devotion to their religious principles is stronger than death itself.他们绘制之间松散的异教社会道德和基督徒,奉献给他们的宗教原则,比死亡本身强的模范生活的生动对比。

SECOND PERIOD.第二阶段。CHRISTIANITY IN CONFLICT WITH MOHAMMEDAN RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHY基督教在与伊斯兰教宗教和哲学的冲突

The one dangerous rival with which Christianity had to contend in the Middle Ages was the Mohammedan religion.一个危险的对手与基督教相抗衡,在中世纪是伊斯兰教的宗教。Within a century of its birth, it had torn from Christendom some of its fairest lands, and extended like a huge crescent from Spain over Northern Africa, Egypt, Palestine, Arabia, Persia, and Syria, to the eastern part of Asia Minor.在其诞生的一个世纪,从基督教撕裂它的一些最公平的土地,并想从西班牙巨大的新月形过北非,埃及,巴勒斯坦,阿拉伯,波斯和叙利亚,小亚细亚东部扩展。 The danger which this fanatic religion offered to Christian faith, in countries where the two religions came in contact, was not to be treated lightly.提供基督教信仰,在接触了两个宗教的国家,这种狂热的宗教,是不可等闲视之的危险。And so we find a series of apologies written to uphold the truth of Christianity in the face of Moslem errors.因此,我们发现了一系列的书面道歉,以基督教在面对穆斯林的错误,坚持真理。Perhaps the earliest was the "Discussion between a Saracen and a Christian" composed by St. John Damascene (about 750).也许最早是由圣约翰大马士革(约750)组成的“撒拉逊和基督徒之间的讨论”。In this apology he vindicates the dogma of the Incarnation against the rigid and fatalistic conception of God taught by Mohammed.在此道歉,他证明了对神刚性和宿命论的穆罕默德教的概念的化身的教条。He also demonstrates the superiority of the religion of Christ, pointing out the grave defects in Mohammed's life and teaching, and showing the Koran to be in its best parts but a feeble imitation of the Sacred Scriptures.他还演示了基督宗教的优越性,指出穆罕默德的生活和教学中的严重缺陷,并显示“古兰经”将在其最好的部分,但一个圣经的微弱模仿。 Other apologies of a similar kind were composed by Peter the Venerable in the twelfth, and by Raymond of Martini in the thirteenth century.其他类似的道歉是由彼得在第十二尊者,在13世纪的马天尼雷蒙德。Hardly less dangerous to the Christian faith was the rationalistic philosophy of Islamism.几乎同样危险的基督教信仰伊斯兰教的理性主义哲学。The Arabian conquerors had learned from the Syrians the arts and sciences of the Greek world.叙利亚人希腊世界的艺术和科学学会了从阿拉伯征服者。They became especially proficient in medicine, mathematics, and philosophy, for the study of which they erected in every part of their domain schools and libraries.他们成为精通,特别是在医学,数学,哲学,研究它们在其域的学校和图书馆的每一个部分竖立。In the twelfth century Moorish Spain had nineteen colleges, and their renown attracted hundreds of Christian scholars from every part of Europe.在12世纪,摩尔人的西班牙19高校,他们的名声吸引了数以百计的基督教学者,从欧洲的每一个部分。Herein lay a grave menace to Christian orthodoxy, for the philosophy of Aristotle as taught in these schools had become thoroughly tinctured with Arabian pantheism and rationalism.此中奠定了严重的威胁正统基督教亚里士多德在这些学校任教的哲学,已经成为彻底阿拉伯泛神论和理性tinctured。 The peculiar tenet of the celebrated Moorish philosopher Averroes was much in vogue, namely: that philosophy and religion are two independent spheres of thought, so that what is true in the one may be false in the other.摩尔著名的哲学家阿威罗伊奇特的宗旨是非常盛行,即:哲学和宗教是两个独立的思想领域,使一个真正的是什么,可能会在其他虚假。 Again, it was commonly taught that faith is for the masses who cannot think for themselves, but philosophy is a higher form of knowledge which noble minds should seek to acquire.再次,它是常用教信仰是谁也不能为自己着想,为群众,但哲学是高尚的头脑应该寻求收购一个较高的知识形式。Among the fundamental dogmas denied by the Arabian philosophers were creation, providence, and immortality.在阿拉伯哲学家否认的根本教条创造,普罗维登斯,和不朽。To vindicate Christianity against Mohammedan rationalism, St. Thomas composed (1261-64) his philosophical "Summa contra Gentiles", in four books.平反基督教对伊斯兰教的理性主义,圣托马斯组成(1261年至1264年)他的哲学“禁忌大全外邦人”,在四本书。In this great apology the respective claims of reason and faith are carefully distinguished and harmonized, and a systematic demonstration of the grounds of faith is built up with arguments of reason and authority such as appealed directly to the minds of that day.在这个伟大的道歉,理性和信仰各自的索赔仔细辨别和统一,并呼吁,如直接的那一天的头脑,理性和权威的论点是建立一个系统的示范信仰的理由。 In treating of God, providence, creation and the future life, St. Thomas refutes the chief errors of the Arabian, Jewish, and Greek philosophers, and shows that the genuine teaching of Aristotle confirms the great truths of religion.在治疗的上帝,上帝,创造和对未来的生活,圣托马斯驳斥阿拉伯,犹太和希腊哲学家的行政错误,并表明,真正的教学亚里士多德证实了宗教的伟大真理。 Three apologies composed in much the same spirit, but belonging to a later age, may be mentioned here.三道歉组成大致相同的精神,但属于以后的时代,可能是这里所说的。The one is the fine work of Louis Vivés, "De Veritate Fidei Christianæ Libri V" (about 1530).一个是路易比韦斯做工精细,“德Veritate Fidei Christianæ Libri V”型(约1530)。 After treating the principles of natural theology, the Incarnation, and Redemption, he gives two dialogues, one between a Christian and a Jew, the other between a Christian and a Mohammaden, in which he shows the superiority of the Christian religion.处理后的自然神学,化身,赎回的原则,他给两个对话,一个基督徒和犹太人之间,一个基督徒和一个Mohammaden,他在其中显示了基督教的优越性。 Similar to this is the apology of the celebrated Dutch theologian Grotius, "De Veritate Religionis Christianæ" (1627).与此相似的是荷兰著名的神学家格老秀斯的道歉,“德Veritate Religionis Christianæ”(1627年)。It is in six books.它是在六本书。An able treatise on natural theology is followed by a demonstration of the truth of Christianity based on the life and miracles of Jesus, the holiness of His teaching, and the wonderful propagation of His religion.其次是基督教的耶稣,他的教学的圣洁,美妙的传播他的宗教生活和奇迹的真理的演示能够对自然神学论文。 In proving the authenticity and trustworthiness of the Sacred Scriptures, Grotius appeals largely to internal evidence.在证明圣经的真实性和可信度,格劳秀斯呼吁主要是内部的证据。The latter part of the work is devoted to a refutation of paganism, Judaism, and Mohammedanism.后者的工作的一部分是专门驳斥异教,犹太教和伊斯兰教。An apology on somewhat similar lines is that of the Huguenot, Philip deMornay, "De la vérité de la religion chrétienne" (1579).有点类似线路道歉是胡格诺派,菲利普deMornay,“DE LA真理报DE LA宗教chrétienne”(1579)。It is the first apology of note that was written in a modern tongue.它是先道歉的注意事项,在现代的舌头。

THIRD PERIOD.第三个时期。CATHOLICISM IN CONFLICT WITH PROTESTANTISM天主教与新教的冲突

The outbreak of Protestantism in the beginning of the sixteenth century, and its rejection of many of the fundamental features of Catholicism, called forth a mass of controversial apologetic literature.新教在十六世纪初的爆发,并拒绝许多天主教的基本特征,提出了一个有争议的歉意文学的质量。It was not, of course, the first time that the principles of Catholic belief had been questioned with reference to Christian orthodoxy.当然,这不是第一次,已与天主教信仰的原则教会的质疑。In the early ages of the Church heretical sects, assuming the right to profess allegiance and fidelity to the spirit of Christ, had given occasion to St. Irenæus "On Heresies", Tertullian "On Prescription against Heretics," St. Vincent of Lér ins, in his "Commonitory", to insist on unity with the Catholic Church, and, for the purpose of confuting the heretical errors of private interpretation, to appeal to an authoritative rule of faith.在教会邪教的早期年龄,假设权利信奉基督的精神,效忠和忠诚,给了机会,圣irenæus“关于异端”,良“对异教徒处方,”圣文森特LER插件,在他的“Commonitory”,坚持与天主教会的团结,为confuting私人解释邪教错误的目的,呼吁信仰的权威规则。 In like manner, the rise of heretical sects in the three centuries preceding the Reformation led to an accentuation of the fundamental principles of Catholicism, notably in Moneta's "Summa contra Catharos et Waldenses" (about 1225), and Torquemada's "Summa de Ecclesiâ" (1450).在喜欢的方式,邪教兴起的三个宗教改革之前的几百年带领一个天主教的根本原则加重,特别是在莫尼塔的“大全禁忌Catharos等瓦勒度派”(约1225),和托尔克马达的“大全DE Ecclesia的”,( 1450)。So to a far greater extent, in the outpouring from many sources of Protestant ideas, it became the duty of the hour to defend the true nature of the Church of Christ, to vindicate its authority, its divinely authorized hierarchy under the primacy of the Pope, its visibility, unity, perpetuity, and infallibility, along with other doctrines and practices branded as superstitious.所以要大得多的程度上,从许多来源的新教思想的流露,它成为小时的责任,以捍卫基督的教会的真正性质,下,以维护其权威性,其神圣授权的层次结构的教皇至上的,其知名度,团结,永久和犯错误,以及与其他学说和迷信品牌的做法。

In the first heat of this gigantic controversy the writings on both sides were sharply polemic, abounding in personal recriminations.在这个巨大的争议先热双方的著作尖锐论战,丰富个人的指责。 But towards the close of the century there developed a tendency to treat the controverted questions more in the manner of a calm, systematic apology.但对本世纪即将结束,有开发一种倾向,以更加冷静,系统化的道歉的方式对待controverted问题。Two works belonging to this time are especially noteworthy.两个属于这个时候的作品尤为引人注目。One is the "Disputations de controversiis Christianæ Fidei" (1581-92), by Robert Bellarmin, a monumental work of vast erudition, rich in apologetic material.一类是“Disputations controversiis Christianæ Fidei”(1581年至1592年),由罗伯特Bellarmin,广大博学的巨著,丰富的歉意材料。The other is the "Principiorum Fidei Doctrinalium Demonstratio" (1579), by Robert Stapleton, whom Döllinger pronounced to be the prince of controversialists.另一种是“Principiorum Fidei Doctrinalium Demonstratio”(1579),由罗伯特芮,其中多林格明显controversialists王子。Though not so erudite, it is more profound than the work of Bellarmin.虽然不是那么博学,这是比Bellarmin工作更深刻。 Another excellent work of this period is that of Martin Becan, "De Ecclesiâ Christi" (1633).这一时期的另一个出色的工作,马丁Becan,“德Ecclesia的基督”(1633)。

FOURTH PERIOD.第四个时期。CHRISTIANITY IN CONFLICT WITH RATIONALISM基督教在与理性主义的冲突

(A) From the Middle of the Seventeenth to the Nineteenth Century(一)从中间第十七到十九世纪

Rationalism -- the setting up of the human reason as the source and measure of all knowable truth -- is, of course, not confined to any one period of human history.理性 - 所有可知的真理的来源和测量人类理性的设立 - 当然,并不局限于人类历史上任何一个时期。It has existed from the earliest days of philosophy.它从哲学的最早的日子里已经存在。But in Christian society it did not become a notable factor till the middle of the seventeenth century, when it asserted itself chiefly in the form of Deism.但在基督教社会,它没有成为一个显着的因素,直到十七世纪中叶,当它声称本身主要是自然神论形式。It was associated, and even to a large extent identified with the rapidly growing movement towards greater intellectual freedom which, stimulated by fruitful scientific inquiry, found itself seriously hampered by the narrow views of inspiration and of historic Bible-interpretation which then prevailed.这是相关的,甚至走向更大的智力自由,富有成果的科学探究刺激的运动迅速增长在很大程度上确定,严重阻碍了灵感和历史悠久的圣经解释,然后盛行狭隘的观点。 The Bible had been set up as an infallible source of knowledge not only in matters of religion, but of history, chronology, and physical science.作为一个犯错的知识,不仅在宗教事务源已成立了“圣经”,但历史,年表和物理科学。The result was a reaction against the very essentials of Christianity.其结果是对基督教的反应非常要领。Deism became the intellectual fashion of the day, leading in many cases to downright atheism.自然神论成为一天的知性时尚,在很多情况下导致彻头彻尾的无神论。Starting with the principle that no religious doctrine is of value that cannot be proved by experience or by philosophical reflection, the Deists admitted the existence of a God external to the world, but denied every form of divine intervention, and accordingly rejected revelation, inspiration, miracles, and prophecy.的自然神论者没有宗教的教义是价值,可以不被通过经验或哲学思考证明的原则出发,承认存在着一个上帝的外部世界,但否认一切形式神助,并据此拒绝启示,灵感,奇迹和预言。 Together with unbelievers of a still more pronounced type, they assailed the historic value of the Bible, decrying its miraculous narratives as fraud and superstition.不信的一个更加突出的类型,他们一起抨击“圣经”的历史价值,谴责其奇迹般的欺诈和迷信的叙述。The movement started in England, and in the eighteenth century spread to France and Germany.运动始于英国,并蔓延到法国和德国在18世纪。Its baneful influence was deep and far-reaching, for it found zealous exponents in some of the leading philosophers and men of letters -- Hobbes, Locke, Hume, Voltaire, Rousseau, d'Alembert, Diderot, Lessing, Herder, and others.其恶劣影响是深刻而深远的,它发现在一些领先的哲学家和文学家热心指数 - 霍布斯,洛克,休谟,伏尔泰,卢梭,达朗贝尔,狄德罗,莱辛,赫尔德,及其他。But able apologists were not lacking to champion the Christian cause.但能够辩护士并不缺乏冠军的基督教事业。England produced several that won lasting honour for their scholarly defence of fundamental Christian truths -- Lardner, author of the "Credibility of the Gospel History", in twelve volumes (1741-55); Butler, likewise famous for his "Analogy of Religion Natural and Revealed to the Constitution of Nature" (1736); Campbell, who in his "Dissertation on Miracles" (1766) gave a masterly answer to Hume's arguments against miracles; and Paley, whose "Evidences of Christianity" (1794) and "Natural Theology" (1802) are among the classics of English theological literature.英国生产的几个赢得了他们的学术防御基本的基督教真理持久的荣誉 - 拉德纳,十二卷(1741年至1755年)的“福音历史的公信力”的作者,巴特勒为他的“宗教类比自然,同样著名的和揭示的自然宪法“(1736年);坎贝尔,谁在他的”论文上的奇迹“(1766)给了一个巧妙的回答对奇迹休谟的论点和佩利,他的”基督教的证据“(1794)和”自然神学“(1802)之间的神学英语文学的经典。 On the continent, the work of defence was carried on by such men as Bishop Huet, who published his "Démonstration Evangélique" in 1679; Leibnitz, whose "Théodicée" (1684), with its valuable introduction on the conformity of faith with reason, had a great influence for good; the Benedictine Abbot Gerbert, who gave a comprehensive Christian apology in his "Demonstratio Veræ Religionis Ver que Ecclesiæ Contra Quasvis Falsas" (1760); and the Abbé Bergier, whose "Traité historique et dogmatique de la vraie religion", in twelve volumes (1780), showed ability and erudition.在大陆,防御工作是由主教HUET,他出版了他的“示范Evangélique”在1679年这样的男人;莱布尼茨,其“Théodicée”(1684年)符合信仰的宝贵的介绍与原因,有一个良好的影响很大;,本笃方丈格伯特,谁给了一个全面的基督教道歉在他的“Demonstratio Veræ Religionis版阙​​,该书魂斗罗Quasvis Falsas”(1760年)和阿贝Bergier,其“条约历史等dogmatique DE LA vraie宗教“,12卷(1780年),显示能力和博学。

(B) The Nineteenth Century(二)十九世纪

In the last century the conflict of Christianity with rationalism was in part lightened and in part complicated by the marvelous development of scientific and historic inquiry.在上个世纪的理性主义与基督教的冲突是减轻部分和部分复杂的科学和历史查询奇妙发展。Lost languages, like the Egyptian and the Babylonian, were recovered, and thereby rich and valuable records of the past -- many of them unearthed by laborious and costly excavation -- were made to tell their story.失落的语言,如埃及和巴比伦,被收回,从而丰富和宝贵的记录,过去的 - 其中许多费力又昂贵的考古发掘出土的 - 讲述自己的故事。Much of this bore on the relations of the ancient Hebrew people with the surrounding nations and, while in some instances creating new difficulties, for the most part helped to corroborate the truth of the Bible history.这在很大程度上孔古代希伯来人与周边国家的关系,而在一些实例,创建新的困难,大部分有助于证实“圣经”的历史真相。 Out of these researches have grown a number of valuable and interesting apologetic studies on Old Testament history: Schrader, "Cuneiform Inscriptions and the Old Testament" (London, 1872); Hengstenberg's "Egypt and the Books of Moses" (London, 1845); Harper, "The Bible and Modern Discoveries" (London, 1891); McCurdy, "History, Prophecy, and the Monuments" (London-New York, 1894-1900); Pinches, "The Old Testament in the Light of the Historic Records of Assyria and Babylonia" (London-New York, 1902); Abbé Gainet, "La bible sans la bible, ou l'histoire de l'ancien testament par les seuls témoignages profanes" (Bar-le-Duc, 1871); Vigouroux, "La bible et les découvertes modernes" (Paris, 1889).出于这些研究已成长一个旧约圣经的历史上有价值的和有趣的歉意研究数:施拉德,“楔形文字铭文和旧约”(伦敦,1872);韩斯坦堡的“埃及和图书摩西”(伦敦,1845);哈珀,“圣经”和现代的发现“(伦敦,1891年);麦柯迪,”历史,预言,和古迹“(伦敦,纽约,1894年至1900年);捏,”旧约中的历史记录亚述和巴比伦“(伦敦,纽约,1902年);阿贝Gainet,”香格里拉圣经SANS LA圣经,OU L'历史DE L' ancien遗书PAR LES seuls témoignages亵渎“(酒吧乐德,1871年); Vigouroux ,“香格里拉圣经ET LES découvertes现代”(巴黎,1889年)。On the other hand, Biblical chronology, as then understood, and the literal historic interpretation of the Book of Genesis were thrown into confusion by the advancing sciences -- astronomy, with its grand nebular hypothesis; biology, with its even more fruitful theory of evolution; geology, and prehistoric arch ology.另一方面,圣经年表,然后理解,字面解释创世记的历史,陷入了混乱推进科学 - 天文,其宏伟的星云假说;甚至更加丰硕的进化论生物学, ;地质学和史前拱易学。Rationalists eagerly laid hold of these scientific data, and sought to turn them to the discredit of the Bible and likewise of the Christian religion.理性热切奠定掌握这些科学数据,并试图把他们的“圣经”的声誉,同样的基督教。But able apologies were forthcoming to essay a conciliation of science and religion.但能够道歉是即将举行的科学和宗教的调解作文。Among them were: Dr. (afterwards Cardinal) Wiseman, "Twelve Lectures on the Connection between Science and Revealed Religion" (London, 1847), which, though antiquated in parts, is still valuable reading; Reusch, "Nature and the Bible" (London, 1876).其中包括:博士(事后红衣主教)怀斯曼,“十二讲座科学之间的连接和启示宗教”(伦敦,1847年),其中,虽然在部分过时,仍然是有价值的阅读; Reusch,“自然与”圣经“ (伦敦,1876年)。Others more modern and up to date are: Duilhé de Saint-Projet, "Apologie scientifique de la foi chrétienne" (Paris, 1885); Abbé Guibert, "In the beginning" (New York, 1904), one of the best Catholic treatises on the subject; and more recent still, A. de Lapparent, "Science et apologétique" (Paris, 1905).其他更现代和最新的是:德圣PROJET Duilhé,“Apologie科学研究DE LA FOI chrétienne”(巴黎,1885年);阿贝吉伯特,“一开始”(纽约,1904年),天主教的最佳论文之一关于这个问题的;和更近的的是,A. Lapparent,“科学与apologétique”(巴黎,1905年)。A more delicate form of scientific inquiry for Christian belief was the application of the principles of historic criticism to the books of Holy Scripture.更细腻的科学探究基督教信仰的形式,是应用历史批评圣经书籍的原则。Not a few Christian scholars looked with grave misgivings on the progress made in this legitimate department of human research, the results of which called for a reconstruction of many traditional views of Scripture.一些基督教学者看着严重的疑虑,在这个人类研究的合法部门所取得的进展,其结果称为重建了许多圣经的传统观点。 Rationalists found here a congenital field of study, which seemed to promise the undermining of Scripture-authority.理性在这里找到一个先天性的研究领域,这似乎承诺圣经权威的破坏。Hence it was but natural that the encroachments of Biblical criticism on conservative theology should be disputed inch by inch.因此,它是自然的,保守的神学的圣经批评侵犯应由英寸争议英寸。On the whole, the outcome of the long and spirited contest has been to the advantage of Christianity.从总体上看,长和昂扬的比赛结果一直到基督教的优势。It is true that the Pentateuch, so long attributed to Moses, is now held by the vast majority of non-Catholic, and by an increasing number of Catholic, scholars to be a compilation of four independent sources put together in final shape soon after the Captivity.这是事实,只要归因于摩西,摩西五是现在绝大多数的非天主教举行,由天主教的数量不断增加,学者将四个独立的消息来源汇编放在一起,在最后的形状后不久圈养。 But the antiquity of much of the contents of these sources has been firmly established, as well as the strong presumption that the kernel of the Pentateuchal legislation is of Mosaic institution.但这些来源的内容很多古代已牢固确立,以及强有力的推论,内核的Pentateuchal立法马赛克机构。 This has been shown by Kirkpatrick in his "Divine Library of the Old Testament" (London-New York, 1901), by Driver in his "Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament" (New York, 1897), and by Abbé Lagrange, in his "Méthode historique de l'Ancien Testament" (Paris, 1903; tr. London, 1905).这已被证明由柯克帕特里克在他的“神圣的图书馆旧约”(伦敦,纽约,1901年)在他的“旧约的文学”(纽约,1897年)的驱动程序,和神甫拉格朗日在他的“梭历史DE L' Ancien约”(巴黎,1903年。TR伦敦,1905年)。In the New Testament the results of Biblical criticism are still more assuring.在新约圣经批评的结果仍然更多的保证。 The attempt of the Tübingen school to throw the Gospels far into the second century, and to see in most of the Epistles of St. Paul the work of a much later hand, has been absolutely discredited.蒂宾根学校的尝试抛出远到的第二个世纪的福音,并在圣保禄的书信更晚的手工作,已完全扫地。The synoptic Gospels are now generally recognized, even by advanced critics, to belong to the years 65-85, resting on still earlier written and oral sources, and the Gospel of St. John is brought with certainty down to at least AD 110, that is, within a very few years of the death of St. John.天气福音,现在普遍承认,即使是通过先进的批评,属于年65-85,搁在更早的书面和口头的来源,以及福音的圣约翰是肯定带来AD至少110, ,圣约翰死亡的一个非常几年内。The three Epistles of St. John are recognized as genuine, the pastoral letters being now the chief object of dispute.圣约翰三个书信被确认为真正的牧函,现在的行政争议的对象。Closely connected with the theory of the Tübingen School, was the attempt of the rationalist Strauss to explain away the miraculous element in the Gospels as the mythical fancies of an age much later than that of Jesus.蒂宾根大学学院的理论密切相关的,是理性主义施特劳斯试图解释神话望梅止渴的年龄要晚得多,比耶稣在福音的神奇元素。 Strauss's views, embodied in his "Life of Jesus" (1835), were ably refuted, together with the false assertions and inductionsof the Tübingen School by such Catholic scholars as Kuhn, Hug, Sepp, Döllinger, and by the Protestant critics, Ewald, Meyer, Wieseler, Tholuck, Luthardt, and others.施特劳斯的意见,体现在他的“生命的耶稣”(1835年),巧妙地驳斥了共同的虚假的断言和inductionsof由库恩,拥抱,布拉特,多林格,如天主教学者和的新教批评,埃瓦尔德的蒂宾根大学学院,迈耶,Wieseler,Tholuck,Luthardt,以及其他国家。 The outcome of Strauss's "Life of Jesus," and of Renan's vain attempt to improve on it by giving it a legendary form (Vie de Jésus, 1863), has been a number of scholarly biographies of our blessed Lord: by Fouard, "Christ the Son of God" (New York, 1891); Didon, "Jesus Christ" (New York, 1891); Edersheim, "Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah" (New York, 1896), and others.在赫南的徒劳的尝试,以它提高,使它一个传奇的形式(VIE DE耶稣,1863)施特劳斯的“生命的耶稣,”结果,得到了一个我们祝福主的学术传记数:由Fouard,“基督神的儿子“(纽约,1891年); DIDON,”耶稣基督“(纽约,1891年);爱德生,”生活和时代的耶稣弥赛亚“(纽约,1896年),和其他人。

Another field of study which grew up chiefly in the last century, and has had an influence in shaping the science of apologetics, is the study of religions.另一个研究领域的增长,主要是在上个世纪,并已影响,在塑造护科学,是对宗教的研究。The study of the great religious systems of the pagan world, and their comparison with Christianity, furnished material for a number of specious arguments against the independent and supernatural origin of the Christian religion.异教世界的伟大的宗教系统,和他们的家具材料,为一些似是而非的论调反对基督教的独立和超自然的起源与基督教的比较研究。 So, too, the study of the origin of religion in the light of the religious philosophy of uncultured peoples has been exploited against Christian (theistic belief) on the unwarranted ground that Christianity is but a refinement, through a long process of evolution, of a crude primitive religion originating in ghost-worship.因此,在未培养人民的宗教哲学,宗教起源的研究,已被剥削(有神论信仰)对基督教基督教是一个细化的无理地,通过一个漫长的演变过程,一个原油原产于鬼崇拜的原始宗教。 Among those who have distinguished themselves in this branch of apologetics are Döllinger, whose "Heidenthum und Judenthum" (1857), tr.在那些有杰出护的这个分支多林格,其“Heidenthum和Judenthum”(1857年),TR。"Gentile and Jew in the Court of the Temple" (London, 1865-67), is a mine of information on the comparative merits of revealed religion and the paganism of the Roman world; Abbé de Broglie, author of the suggestive volume, "Problèmes et conclusions de l'histoire des religions" (Paris, 1886); Hardwick, Christ and other Masters" (London, 1875). Another factor in the growth of apologetics during the last century was the rise of numerous systems of philosophy that, in the teaching of such men as Kant, Fichte, Hegel, Schelling, Comte, and Spencer, were openly or covertly in opposition to Christian belief. To counteract these systems, Pope Leo XIII revived throughout the Catholic world the teaching of Thomistic philosophy. The many works written to vindicate Christian Theism against Pantheism, Materialism, Positivism, and Evolutionary Monism have been of great service to apologetics. Not all these philosophic apologies, indeed, are scholastic. They represent several modern schools of thought. France has furnished a number of able apologetic thinkers who lay chief stress on the subjective element in man, who point to the needs and aspirations of the soul, and to the corresponding fitness of Christianity, and of Christianity alone, to satisfy them. This line of thought has been worked out in various ways by the lately deceased Ollé-Laprune, author of "La certitude morale" (Paris, 1880), and "Le prix de la vie" (Paris, 1892); by Fonsegrive, "Le catholicisme et la vie de l'esprit" (Paris, 1899); and, in "L'action" (Paris, 1893), by Blondel, the founder of the so-called "Immanence School" the principles of which are embodied in the spiritual writings of Father Tyrrell, "Lex Orandi" (London, 1903), "Lex Credendi" (London, 1906). The continued opposition between Catholicism and Protestantism in the last century resulted in the production of a number of noteworthy apologetic writings: Möhler, "Symbolism", published in Germany in 1832, which has gone through many editions in English; Balmes, "Protestantism and Catholicity Compared in their Effects on the Civilization of Europe", a Spanish work published in English in 1840 (Baltimore); the works of the three illustrious English cardinals, Wiseman, Newman, and Manning, most of whose writings have a bearing on apologetics. “外邦人和犹太人在法院寺”(伦敦,1865年至1867年),是启示宗教和异教罗马世界的比较优势的信息地雷;神甫德布罗意,暗示卷的作者,“ PROBLEMES ET结论DE L'历史DES宗教“(巴黎,1886年);哈德威克,基督和其他大师”(伦敦,1875年)在上个世纪在护增长的另一个因素是众多系统的哲学的兴起,在康德,费希特,黑格尔,谢林,孔德,斯宾塞等人的教学中,公开或秘密反对基督教信仰,为了对付这些系统,教皇利奥十三世恢复整个天主教世界Thomistic哲学教学。书面平反反对泛神论基督教有神论,唯物主义,实证和进化的一元论的许多作品已被伟大的服务,以护。事实上,并非所有这些哲学道歉,是在学术上,他们代表的思想现代学校。法国已经提供了一些能够歉疚的思想家们打下点的灵魂的需要和愿望,在人的主观因素,以及相应的健身基督教,基督教单独的行政压力,以满足他们的这一思路已制定出在最近死者的欧莱Laprune,作者的“香格里拉确定性士气”(巴黎,1880年),“乐大奖赛DE LA争夺”(巴黎,1892年)的各种方法; Fonsegrive,“乐catholicisme等生活的升” ESPRIT“(巴黎,1899年),”欧莱雅行动“(巴黎,1893年)由布隆代尔,所谓的创始人,”内在学校“,这是在父亲泰瑞尔的精神著作中体现的原则, “莱克斯Orandi”(伦敦,1903年),“莱克斯Credendi”(伦敦,1906年)在上个世纪的天主教和新教之间继续反对导致生产了一些值得注意的歉意著作:Möhler,“象征”出版,三个杰出的英语工程于1832年在德国,通过了许多版本的英语; Balmes酒店,“基督教和共通性欧洲文明相比在他们的影响”,西班牙在1840年以英文出版(巴尔的摩);枢机主教,怀斯曼,纽曼和曼宁,最其著作有护轴承。

It is out of all these varied and extensive studies that apologetics has taken form.正是出于所有这些不同的研究和广泛的护已初步形成。The vastness of the field makes it extremely difficult for any one writer to do it full justice.浩瀚的领域,使任何一个作家做充分的正义非常困难。In fact a complete, comprehensive apology of uniform excellence still remains to be written.事实上,一个完整,统一的卓越全面的道歉仍然被写入。

Publication information Written by Charles F. Aiken.由查尔斯F艾肯书面的公开信息。Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.转录由道格拉斯J.波特。Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. Published 1907.献给耶稣基督的圣心天主教百科全书,第I卷出版1907年。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. Nihil Obstat,1907年3月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

In addition to the works already mentioned, the more general treatises on apologetics are as follows:除了工程已经提到,上护更一般的论文如下:

CATHOLIC WORKS.天主教务。SCHANZ, A Christian Apology (New York, 1891) 3 vols.SCHANZ,基督徒道歉(纽约,1891年)3卷。An improved edition of the original, Apologie des Christentums, was published in Freiburg (1895) and an augmented edition was in preparation in 1906.改良版,原,Apologie DES Christentums发表在弗赖堡(1895年)和增强版,准备于1906年。PICARD, Christianity or Agnosticism?, tr.皮卡德,基督教或不可知论,TR。from the French by MACLEOD (London, 1899); DEVIVIER, Christian Apologetics, edited and augmented by SASIA (San Jos, 1903) 2 vols.; ed.从法国乐(伦敦,1899年); DEVIVIER,基督教护教学,编辑和增强SASIA(圣何塞,1903年)2卷;版。in one vol.在一个卷。by the Most Rev. SG Messmer, DD (New York, 1903); FRAYSSINOUS, A Defence of Christianity, tr.由最神光梅斯梅牧师,DD(纽约,1903年); FRAYSSINOUS,基督教,TR国防的。from the French by JONES (London, 1836); HETTINGER, Natural Religion (New York, 1890); Revealed Religion (New York, 1895), both being adaptations by HS BOWDEN of HETTINGER'S German Apologie des Christentums (Freiburg, 1895-98) 5 vols.; HETTINGER, Fundamental-Theologie (Freiburg, 1888); GUTBERLET, Lehrbuch der Apologetik (M nster, 1895) 3 vols.; SCHELL, Apologie des Christentums (Paderborn, 1902-5) 2 vols.; WEISS, Apologie des Christentums vom Standpunkte der Sitte und Kultur (Freiburg, 1888-9), 5 vols., French tr.琼斯(伦敦,1836年)法国; HETTINGER,自然宗教(纽约,1890年);启示宗教(纽约,1895年),由房协HETTINGER的德国Apologie DES Christentums鲍登都被适应化修改(弗赖堡,1895年至1898年) 5卷; HETTINGER,基本的神学(弗赖堡,1888年); GUTBERLET Lehrbuch DER Apologetik“(男nster,1895年)3卷。夏伟,Apologie DES Christentums(帕德博恩,1902-5)2卷;魏斯,Apologie DES。 Christentums VOM Standpunkte DER Sitte和Kultur(弗赖堡,1888-9),5卷,法国TR。Apologie du christianisme au point de vue des m urs et de la civilisation (Paris, 1894); BOUGAUD, Le christianisme et les temps pr sents (Paris, 1891) 5 vols.; LABEYRIE, La science de la foi (La Chapelle-Montligeon, 1903); EGGER, Encheiridion Theologi Dogmatic Generalis (Brixen, 1893); OTTIGER, Theologia Fundamentalis (Freiburg, 1897); TANQUERY, Synopsis Theologi Fundamentalis (New York, 1896).科学辩护christianisme凹点DE VUE DES米URS ET DE LA文明(巴黎,1894年); BOUGAUD,乐christianisme ET LES临时工公关sents(巴黎,1891年)5卷; LABEYRIE,LA DE LA FOI(拉沙佩勒- Montligeon ,1903年); EGGER,Encheiridion Theologi教条主义Generalis(Brixen,1893年); OTTIGER,Theologia Fundamentalis(弗赖堡,1897年); TANQUERY,简介Theologi Fundamentalis(纽约,1896年)。 Periodicals valuable for apologetic study are: The American Catholic Quarterly; American Ecclesiastical Review; New York Review; Catholic World; Dublin Review; Irish Ecclesiastical Record; Irish Theological Quarterly; Month; Tablet; Revue Apolog tique (Brussels); Revue pratique apolog tique (Paris); Revue des questions scientifiques; Mus on; La science catholique; Annales de philosophie chrétienne; Etudes religieuses; Revue Thomiste, Revue du clerg fran ais; Revue d'histoire et de litt rature religieuse; Revue biblique; Theologische Quartalschrift (Tübingen); Stimmen aus Maria-Laach.期刊歉疚研究有价值的是:美国天主教季度,美国传教士审查;纽约书评;天主教世界;都柏林审查;爱尔兰教会记录;爱尔兰神学季刊;一个月;片; Apolog tique杂志(布鲁塞尔);无疫通行证apolog tique杂志(巴黎)杂志的问题,科学实验;亩;香格里拉科学天主教;纪事哲学chrétienne;练习曲religieuses; Thomiste歌剧团,歌剧团杜clerg弗兰AIS;杂志历史利特rature religieuse;杂志biblique; Theologische Quartalschrift(蒂宾根) ; Stimmen AUS玛丽亚 - Laach。

PROTESTANT WORKS.新教务。BRUCE, Apologetics (New York, 1892); FISHER, The Grounds of Theistic and Christian Belief (New York, 1902); FAIRBAIRN, The Philosophy of the Christian Religion (New York, 1902); MAIR, Studies in theChristian Evidences (Edinburgh, 1894); LUTHARDT, The Fundamental Truths of Christianity (Edinburgh, 1882); SCHULTZ, Outlines of Christian Apologetics (New York, 1905); ROW, Christian Evidences Viewed in Relation to Modern Thought (London, 1888); IDEM, A Manual of Christian Evidences (New York, 1896); ILLINGWORTH, Reason and Revelation (New York, 1903).布鲁斯,护(纽约,1892年);稳,有神论和基督教信仰(纽约,1902年)的理由;费尔贝恩,基督教(纽约,1902年)哲学; MAIR,在theChristian证据研究(爱丁堡, 1894年); LUTHARDT,基督教的基本真理(爱丁堡,1882年);舒尔茨,概述基督教护教学(纽约,1905年);列,基督教与现代思想“(伦敦,1888年)来看证据;同上,大量的手工基督教的证据(纽约,1896年);伊林沃思,原因及启示(纽约,1903年)。 Many excellent apologetic treatises are to be found in the long series of Bampton Lectures, also in the Gifford, Hulsean, Baird, and Croal Lectures.许多优秀的歉意论文被发现也吉福德Hulsean,贝尔德和Croal讲座,在长期的班普顿讲座系列。



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