Biblical Archaeology圣经考古学

General Information一般资料

The term biblical archaeology refers to archaeological investigations that serve to clarify, enlighten, and enhance the biblical record.长期的圣经考古学是指考古调查,为澄清,开导,并加强圣经的记载。Its development, from the 19th century, has been largely tied to the history of research and excavation in ancient Palestine.从19世纪,它的发展,已经在很大程度上束缚的研究和挖掘古代巴勒斯坦的历史。

The American clergyman and biblical scholar Edward Robinson played a fundamental role in recognizing that an acquaintance with the Holy Land was essential to an understanding of biblical literature.美国牧师和圣经学者爱德华罗宾逊起到了根本性的作用,在认识到,一个熟人与圣地圣经文学的理解是必不可少的。 After traveling in Sinai and Palestine, he published Biblical Researches in Palestine (1841), which inspired many other scholars to follow his lead.在西奈半岛和巴勒斯坦旅行后,他出版了“圣经”在巴勒斯坦(1841年),这激发了许多其他学者跟随他的带领的研究。The British founded the Palestine Exploration Fund (PEF) in 1865, and in 1867 the first PEF expedition was sent to Jerusalem to search for specific biblical sites, among them the location of Solomon's temple.英国于1865年创立巴勒斯坦勘探基金(PEF),并于1867年第一PEF远征被送往耶路撒冷来搜索特定的圣经网站,其中,所罗门圣殿的位置。

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Pioneering excavations were undertaken in 1890 by Flinders Petrie at Tell el-Hesi, 26 km (16 mi) east of Gaza.开展创业发掘弗林德斯皮特里告诉EL - HESI,加沙以东26公里(16英里),于1890年。His development of a relative scale of dating based on changes in pottery at successive levels of excavation was of immense importance for biblical archaeology, since sites in Palestine have yielded relatively few historical monuments or records.他陶器连续开挖水平的变化为基础的相对规模的约会的发展是巨大的圣经考古学的重要性,因为在巴勒斯坦的土地已经取得了相对较少的历史古迹或记录。 A notable exception is the site of Qumran on the Dead Sea, where the first of the important Hebrew and Aramaic manuscripts known as the Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered (1947).一个值得注意的例外是死海网站库姆兰的重要希伯来语和阿拉姆被称为死海古卷手稿被发现(1947年)。

By the early 1900s, American, German, and French archaeological teams also began excavations in Palestine, directed primarily toward those cities mentioned in the Bible.到20世纪初,美国,德国和法国的考古队也开始在巴勒斯坦的发掘,主要直接指向“圣经”中提到的那些城市。Pre-World War I excavations included work at Gezer, Jericho, Megiddo, Ta'anach, Samaria, and Beth-shemesh.第一次世界大战前我发掘包括基色,杰里科,米吉多,Ta'anach,撒马利亚,和伯示麦的工作。William Foxwell Albright directed the American School of Oriental Research in Jerusalem (founded 1910) in 1920-29 and 1933-36.威廉Foxwell奥尔布赖特指示在耶路撒冷(成立于1910年)在1920年至1929年和1933年至1936年美国东方研究学院。 His excavations at Tell Beit Mirsim (1926-32), supplied the framework for establishing the chronology of ancient Palestine based on ceramic typology, which is still used today with only minor changes.他告诉拜特哈Mirsim(1926年至1932年),发掘提供的框架,为建立巴勒斯坦古代陶瓷的类型,这仍然是今天只有轻微的变化年表。 The Palestine Department of Antiquities, established in 1918, played a major role in archaeological research until the state of Israel was formed in 1948.巴勒斯坦文物部,成立于1918年,考古研究中起到了主要作用,直到以色列国成立于1948年。Since then, Israeli archaeologists have conducted several important excavations, including Yigael Yadin's work at Hazor (1955-58 and 1968-70) and at MASADA (1963-65), Yohanon Aharoni and Ruth Amiran's work at Arad (1962-67), and Yigal Shiloh's finds at the City of David in Jerusalem (1978-85).从那时起,以色列考古学家已经进行了几个重要的发掘,包括Yigael也丁的夏琐(1955年至1958年和1968年至19​​70年)和工作在马萨达(1963-65),Yohanon Aharoni和露丝Amiran的阿拉德(1962-67)的工作,并人Yigal希洛的认定在耶路撒冷大卫城(1978-85)。

Although biblical archaeology concentrates on excavating and interpreting biblical sites, archaeological material of either the pre- or post-biblical era is often uncovered as well.虽然圣经考古学集中挖掘和解释圣经的网站,无论是前或后圣经时代的考古材料以及往往是发现。 For example, the excavations of the American archaeologist James Pritchard at Gibeon, in addition to revealing the rock-cut water system mentioned in 2 Samuel, produced important pottery from a Bronze Age cemetery.例如,美国考古学家詹姆斯普里查德在基遍的发掘,除了揭示岩石在2塞缪尔提到的切水系统,重要的陶器制作从青铜时代墓地。 Excavation at the important biblical site of Jericho has revealed little of significance dating from later than the 2d millennium BC.在杰里科的重要圣经网站开挖揭示了追溯到比2D公元前3000年晚些时候意义不大。Its remains from 6 millennia earlier, however, show a large walled city that is the oldest known settlement in the world.然而,从早前的6千年它仍然显示一个大型的有围墙的城市,在世界上已知的最古老的结算。

An important function of biblical archaeology has been to describe a setting in which the stories of the Old and New Testaments achieve a new and vivid meaning.圣经考古学的一个重要功能已经描述了设置在旧约和新约的故事达到一个新的和生动的意义。Inevitably, however, more problems have been discovered than have been resolved.不可避免的,但是,更多的问题已被发现比已得到解决。 The question of the nature and date of the Exodus and the manner of the conquest of Palestine by the Israelites is still open to debate, despite the large number of excavated sites.以色列人征服巴勒斯坦的流亡和方式的性质和日期的问题仍然是开放的辩论,尽管大量的出土地点。Since the Israelites left no characteristic artifacts during the early years of their settlement, it is virtually impossible to determine whether the destruction of a site in the 13th century BC was the work of the Israelites or the Egyptians.由于以色列人在其结算早年离开无特征的文物,几乎是不可能的,以确定是否在公元前13世纪的网站的破坏是以色列人或埃及人的工作。 Sometimes the archaeological evidence seems to contradict the biblical record.有时考古证据似乎违背了圣经的记录。Thus, although the city of Ai is recorded as having been captured by Joshua, no remains dating from the appropriate period were found during its excavation, which suggests that the site was unoccupied at the time of the supposed conquest.因此,虽然艾城录得视为已被抓获约书亚,没有仍然可以追溯到适当时期被发现在其开挖,这表明该网站是在空置的时间,应该征服。

Jonathan N. Tubb乔纳森北路Tubb

Bibliography: Dever, William G., Archaeology and Biblical Studies (1974); Kenyon, Kathleen M., Archaeology in the Holy Land, 4th ed.参考书目:娱乐狂热,威廉G,考古学与圣经研究(1974);凯尼恩,凯瑟琳M.,在考古学的圣地,第4版。(1979); Negev, Avrahem, ed., Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land (1974; repr. 1980); Millard, AR, Treasures from Bible Times (1985); Paul, Shalom, and Dever, William, eds., Biblical Archaeology (1973); Thomas, Winton D., Archaeology and Old Testament Study (1967); Wright, G. Ernest, Biblical Archaeology, rev. (1979年);内盖夫,Avrahem,海关,考古百科全书的圣地(1974年再版1980年);米勒德,AR,从圣经时代(1985)珍宝保罗,沙洛姆和娱乐狂热,威廉,EDS,圣经考古学(1973);托马斯,考古学和旧约研究(1967),通泰D.赖特,G.欧内斯特,圣经考古学,REV。 ed.编辑。(1963).(1963年)。



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