Authority in the Bible管理局在“圣经”

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Authority is the concept of rightful power.管理局是应有的权力概念。It is used in the Bible with a good deal of elasticity.这是用在“圣经”具有良好的弹性处理。Although the English term itself is not used of God in the OT as it is in the NT (usually for exousia), the assumption permeating both testaments is that God alone is the ultimate authority and he alone the ultimate source of authority for others.虽然英文词本身是没有用神在旧约,因为它在NT(通常为exousia)是,假设渗透都圣经是上帝单是最终的权威,他独自一人的权力为他人的最终来源。

God's Authority上帝的权威

His sovereign, universal, and eternal rule over the entire universe gives evidence of his authority (eg, Exod. 15:18; Job 26:12; Pss. 29:10; 47; 93:1-2; 95:3-5; 103:19; 146:10; 147:5; Isa. 40:12ff.; 50:2).他的主权,普遍性,和永恒的整个宇宙的规则赋予他的权威的证据(例如,出埃及记15点18分;就业26:12; PSS 29:10; 47; 93:1-2; 95:3-5 103:19; 146:10; 147:5;伊萨40:12 FF。50:2)He has fixed by his authority times or epochs (Acts. 1:7) and "does according to his will in the host of heaven and among the inhabitants of the earth" (Dan. 4:34-35).他有固定他的权威时间或时代(Acts. 1:7)和“根据他在主机的天堂和地球居民之间的意志”(但4:34-35)。This authority over man is compared to that of a potter over his clay (Rom. 9:20-23).波特比他的粘土(罗马书9:20-23)相比,这对人的权威。So ultimate is God's authority that all authority among humans comes from God alone (Rom. 13:1).所以最终是上帝的权威,在人与人之间的所有权力,只有上帝(罗马书13:1)。God's authority includes not only the authority of providence and history, but also the demand for submission and accountability from man, expressed, eg, in the garden of Eden, the Ten Commandments, the gospel and its evangelical demands.上帝的权威,不仅普罗维登斯和历史的权威,但也从人的提交和问责制的要求,表达,如在花园的伊甸园,十戒,福音和福音要求,。 Inherent in God's authority is the awesome power to cast the one who does not fear him into hell (Luke 12:5) and the glorious power to forgive sins and declare righteous those in Christ (Rom. 3:21-26).在上帝的权威固有的令人敬畏的力量投一个谁不害怕他入地狱(路加福音12:5)和光荣赦罪的权柄,并宣布正义那些在基督(罗马书3:21-26)。 In the day of God's wrath and mercy, God's rightful authority as Creator (Rev. 4:11) and Redeemer in Christ (Rev. 5:12-13) will be acknowledged in an undisputed way.在上帝的愤怒和怜悯,上帝作为造物主(启示录4:11),并在基督的救赎“(启示录5:12-13)应有的权威之日起将承认一个不争的方式。

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Jesus Christ's Authority耶稣基督的权威

As the God-man, the incarnate Son of God, Jesus Christ manifests his authority in a dual capacity.神人,神的化身的儿子,耶稣基督的双重身份体现在他的权威。On the one hand, his authority is that of one who is the Son of God and is intrinsic to him and not derived.一方面,他的权威,是一个谁是上帝的儿子,是内在的,他不派生。On the other hand, as the incarnate Son, who is the Son of man, he acts in submission and obedience to the Father.另一方面,作为肉身的儿子,谁是人子,他的行为在提交和服从父。So he can say in one and the same breath concerning his plans to lay down his life: "No one has taken it away from me, but I lay it down on my own initiative. I have authority to lay it down, and I have authority to take it up again," and "this commandment I received from my Father" (John 10:18).所以他可以说,在同日而语,关于他的计划,放下他的生活:他说:“没有人已离我而去,但我把它在我的主动,我有权力奠定了,我也。当局采取再次,“和”我从我父亲也接到这条戒律“(约翰福音10:18)。 But because his life as the promised Son of man is one of acting representatively for God on behalf of men as one who is also a man (cf. Dan. 7:13-14), Jesus speaks almost always of his authority in terms of acting for God the Father. ,但因为他的生活作为承诺人的儿子是代表性的男性代表为上帝作为一个谁也一个人(参丹7:13-14)。之一,耶稣说他的权力,几乎总是在为上帝的父亲。 In doing so he exercises all the prerogatives of God eg, forgives sins (Mark 2:5-8), heals (Mark 1:34), exorcises demons (Mark 1:27), controls the power of nature (Luke 8:24-25), raises the dead (Luke 7:11-17; John 11:38-44), teaches with authority (Matt. 7:28-29; cf. his "I say," Matt. 5:21-48), and demands that men submit to his authority both on earth (Luke 14:25-35) and at the judgment (Matt. 7:22-23).他这样做的所有练习如神,赦免罪孽(马可福音2:5-8)的特权,医治(马可福音1:34),exorcises恶魔(马可福音1:27),控制大自然的力量(卢克8时24分-25),引发的死亡(路加福音7:11-17;约翰福音11:38-44),有权威的(太7:28-29教导;比照他的“我说,”马特5:21-48。 ),并要求该男子在地球上(路加福音14:25-35),并在判决(太7:22-23)提交自己的权威。As the obedient Son he acknowledges and follows the word of his Father, the Scriptures, and appeals to them as the final authority (Matt. 4:1-10; 22:23-46; John 10:33-36).作为孝子,他承认并遵循他的父亲,“圣经”,并呼吁的字,他们的最终权力(太4:1-10; 22:23-46;约翰10:33-36)。

By Christ's victory over sin and death in his death and resurrection, the usurped authority of the evil one and his angels is broken (Heb. 2:14-15; I John 3:8; Col. 2:15).基督对他的死亡和复活的罪恶和死亡的胜利,篡夺权力的邪恶和他的使者被打破(希伯来书2:14-15;约翰一书3:8;上校2点15分)。 Thus all authority in heaven and on earth is given to Jesus to exercise in his messianic role (Matt. 28:18-20) until he has completed his task of finally subduing all God's enemies and delivering up the kingdom to God the Father (I Cor. 15:24-28).因此,所有在天堂和地球上的权威是耶稣在他的救世主的角色(太28:18-20)行使,直到他完成他的任务,终于征服了所有上帝的敌人,并提供高达王国父神(我哥林多前书15:24-28)。 In the interim Christ exercises leadership and authority in a providential way over all things for the good of his church (Eph. 1:20-23).在中期基督演习的领导和权威超过所有的东西在他的教会(弗1:20-23)天赐的方式。With a redeeming authority and power that enables as well as commands, he authoritatively demands both evangelization of all the nations and obedience to all his commandments (Matt. 28:19-20; Acts 1:8; Rom. 6:1ff.; 8:1ff.; Phil. 2:12-13).随着补偿的权威和权力,以及为命令,使,他权威需求的所有国家和服从他所有的诫命(太28:19-20的福传徒1:8;罗马书6时01 FF。8 :1FF;菲尔2:12-13)。

The Apostles' Authority使徒们的权力

The authority of God is exercised in the OT not only by various direct means but also through those to whom he gave authority to act in his behalf priests, prophets, judges, and kings.在旧约中,不仅通过各种直接的手段,但也通过那些人,他给了权力的行为代表他的祭司,先知,法官和国王行使神的权威。 In the NT the authority of the Father and especially of Jesus Christ is expressed in a unique way through the apostles, who are by definition the direct and personal ambassadors of Jesus Christ (Matt. 10:1, 40; Mark 3:14; John 17:18; 20:21; Acts 1:1-8; II Cor. 5:20; Gal. 1:1; 2:8), speaking and acting with his authority (Ga. 1:11ff.; 2:7-9).在NT的父亲,尤其是耶稣基督的权威定义是耶稣基督的直接和个人的大使(太10:1,40使徒,通过独特的方式,马克3时14;约翰表示17点18分,20时21分;徒1:1-8;二,肺心病5点20分;加拉太1:1。2:8),说,他授权行事(佐治亚州1时11 FF; 2时07分-9)。They claim to speak authority (Gal. 1:11ff.; 2:7-9).他们声称代表管理局(加拉太书1:11 FF; 2:7-9)。They claim to speak for Christ and under the Spirit's direction in terms of both content and form of expression (I Cor. 2:10-13; I Thess. 2:13), to give the permanent norm for faith (Gal. 1:8; II Thess. 2:15) and conduct (I Cor. 11:2; II Thess. 3:4, 6, 14), as is indicated also by the self-conscious reference to "all the churches" (cf., eg, I Cor. 7:17; 14:34), and even to designate their rulings on a question as "the commandment of the Lord" (I Cor. 14:37).他们声称发言基督和圣灵的指导下,在内容和表现形式方面(林前2:10-13;帖前2:13。),给予永久的信仰规范(加1: 8,二帖前2:15)和行为(我肺心病11时02分;。。二帖前3:4,6,14),表示的自我意识的“所有的教堂”(见例如,我肺心病7时17分; 14:34),甚至指定一个为“主的诫命”的问题其裁决(哥林多前书14:37)。

They establish the order or government of the church so that a shared rule by a group of men, often but not always designated as bishops or elders, is universal in the NT period, as evidenced not only in the meeting at Jerusalem (Acts 15) but also in the various writings and geographical locations (Acts 14:23; I Tim. 3:1ff.; I Pet. 5:1ff.; cf. 1:1; Phil. 1:1; I Thess. 5:12-13; Heb. 13:7, 17; James 5:14).他们为了教会或政府建立,是由一群人共同的规则,但并不总是指定主教或长老,普遍在新台币期间,在耶路撒冷作为证明,不仅在会议(徒15)而且在各种著作和地理位置(使徒14时23分,我添3:1 FF,我宠物5点01法郎;比照1:1;菲尔1:1。。。。帖前5点12 - 13; 17希伯来书13时07分,詹姆斯5时14分)。Alongside this leadership a diaconal ministry is established by the apostles (Acts 6:1-6; Phil. 1:1; I Tim. 3:8-13).除了这个领导diaconal部成立的使徒(使徒行传6:1-6;菲尔1时01分;我添3:8-13)。Not only do they set the order of the church, they also prescribe discipline in Christ's name and with his authority (I Cor. 5:4; II Thess. 3:6).他们不仅设置为了教会,他们还规定在基督的名字和他的权威与纪律(我肺心病5时04分;第二帖撒罗尼迦后书3时06分)。 In so acting they have functioned as the foundation of the church (Eph. 2:20; 3:5; cf. I Cor. 12:28) who have no successors and whose foundational authority has been put permanently in place by their writings, which have conveyed, at Christ's command and in fullment of his promise, the truth he would have the church always teach and obey (cf. John 14:26; 16:13).在如此行事时,他们作为教会的根基(以弗所书2时20分,3时05分;比照,我肺心病12点28分),有没有接班人,其基础机关已到位,他们的著作中永久运作,这转达,在基督的命令,并在他的诺言fullment,真理,他会教会始终教导和服从(参见约翰福音14:26; 16:13)。So they are recognized as authoritative alongside "the rest of the Scripture," ie, the OT (II Pet. 3:15-16).所以他们一起“圣经休息,作为权威的认可”,即,OT(二宠物。3:15-16)。

Various Spheres of Authority管理局的各个领域

The Bible recognizes within its pages various spheres in which God has entrusted authority into the hands of leaders.圣经承认其网页内的各个领域中,上帝已经委托权威的领导人手中。

The Church教会

Christ has given authority to certain men to be leaders (often termed elders or bishops) in his church.基督已经获授权某些人,在他的教会领袖(通常被称为长老或主教)。Their task is to shepherd the church with love and humility as the servants of Christ and his people (I Tim. 3:5; I Pet. 5:1-4).他们的任务是教会作为基督的仆人和他的人民的爱和谦卑(我添3时05分,以牧羊人;彼前5:1-4。)。 A loving submission to their leadership is urged on Christians (I Thess. 5:12-13; Heb. 13:7, 17).提交给他们的领导是一个爱好敦促基督徒(帖前5:12-13。希伯来书13时07分,17)。

Marriage and the Family婚姻与家庭

Women as equals of men in both creation and redemption (cf. I Pet. 3:7; Gal. 3:28) are asked to submit to their own husbands as heads of the home because of the pattern established by God at creation (I Cor. 11:3, 8-9; I Tim. 2:12-15; Eph. 5:22; I Pet. 3:1-6).妇女平等男子在增设及赎回(参彼前3:7。加拉太3:28),是因为由上帝创造(成立于模式要求提交自己的丈夫作为家庭首脑,我8-9肺心病11时03分,我添2:12-15;。弗5时22分;彼前3:1-6)。 Both husbands and wives are asked to offset the effects of sin on this God-ordained authority relationship by their attitude and conduct, ie, the husband exercising headship with love, honor, and without bitterness (Eph. 5:28; Col. 3:19; I Pet. 3:7) and the wives, with respect, as unto the Lord, and with a gentle spirit (Eph. 5:22, 33; I Pet. 3:4).丈夫和妻子都被要求,以抵消他们的态度和行为,即丈夫行使校长与爱,荣誉和无辛酸(以弗所书5时28分罪在这个神命定的权力关系的影响;上校3: 19;彼前3:7)和妻子,尊重,作为献给​​耶和华,并用温和的精神(弗5:22,33;我宠物3时04分)。。Children are commanded to obey their parents (Eph. 6:1-3; Col. 3:20) and to care for them in times of need (I Tim. 5:4).儿童指挥,服从他们的父母(弗6:1-3;上校3时20),并在需要的时候为他们照顾(我添5:4。)。

Civil Government文官政府

Christians are to recognize that God has granted authority in this realm to those who by his providence "exist" (Rom. 13:1; cf. John 19:11).基督徒都承认,神已授予在这一领域的权威,由他的普罗维登斯“存在”(罗马书13时01分;比照约翰19时11分)。 Thus they are called dutifully to subject themselves to civil authorities (I Pet. 2:13-17) who are described as God's servants to prevent evildoers and to encourage good behavior (Rom. 13:1ff.).因此,他们被称为尽职尽责,服从民事当局(我宠物。2:13-17)谁是神的仆人描述,以防止坏人和鼓励良好的行为(罗马书13时01分几段)。 This authority requires not only subjection but also the rendering of various taxes, respect, and honor (Rom. 13:7).该管理局要求不仅服从,但也呈现各种税费,尊重,和荣誉(罗马书13:7)。

Other Authorities in Human Life在人类生活中的其他机关

The NT recognizes human institutions that will exist within human society, among which civil government is the prime example.新台币承认人类将存在于人类社会的机构,其中文官政府是最好的例子。Its word of instruction is that Christians, for the Lord's sake, should submit to every appropriate human institution (I Pet. 2:13).它的指令字是基督徒,对上帝的缘故,应提交每一个合适的人组成的机构(我宠物。2时13)。The word of qualification assumed but not stated in every one of these spheres is found explicitly in Acts 5:29 in reference to the civil and religious sphere; namely, "we must obey God rather than men" (cf.4:19).资格假设的,但不是说在这些领域中的每一个字是在5点29分在参照民间和宗教领域的行为明确,即,“我们必须服从上帝,而不是男人”(cf.4 19)。When the human authority clearly contravenes one's allegiance to God's authority, one is authorized to appeal to God's authority and obey it in contradistinction to that of any human authority.当人类的权威显然违反效忠上帝的权威,一个是授权呼吁上帝的权威和服从任何人的权力对比。 For in that situation the authority structure has so opposed the one who gives it its validity that it forfeits its authority.在这种情况下的权力结构,反对谁给它的有效性,即丧失其权威。

Satan's Authority撒旦的权威

The exercise of power by the evil one and the demons is also regarded as a power or authority, but a usurped one which is only under God's ultimate authority (Luke 4:6; Acts 26:18; Col. 1:13; cf. Job 1).行使权力的邪恶和恶魔也被视为权力或权威,但只有在上帝的最终权力(路加福音4:6;一个篡夺徒26:18;上校1:13;比照。作业1)。 Such angelic beings, who are called powers or authorities, have been disarmed by Christ (Col. 2:15) and have no other final outcome than that of the devil's final doom (Rev. 20:10).这样的天使,那些所谓的权力或权威,基督(歌罗西书2:15),已被解除武装,没有其他比魔鬼的最终灭亡(启20:10)最后的结局。

GW Knight, III毛重骑士,三
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
W. Foerster, TDNT, II, 562-75; O. Betz and C. Blendingen, NIDNTT, II, 606-11; T. Rees, ISBE, I, 333-40; J. Denney, "Of Christ," HDCG; WM McPheeters, "In Religion," HDCG; J. Rea, WBE, I, 179-80; HD McDonald, ZPEB,I, 420-21; JI Packer, IBD; GW Bromiley, ISBE (rev.), I, 364-70; JN Geldenhuys, Supreme Authority; B. Ramm, Patterns of Authority.W ·福斯特,TDNT,二,562-75;澳贝茨和C Blendingen,NIDNTT,二,606-11; T.里斯,ISBE,我,333-40; J.丹尼,“基​​督”,HDCG ;西医McPheeters“,在宗教,”HDCG; J.意图,WBE,我,179-80;高清麦当劳,中原石油勘探局,我,420-21;姬打包机,鸡传染性法氏囊病;毛重罗米立,ISBE(修订版),我364-70; JN Geldenhuys,至高无上的权威; B. Ramm,权威模式。


Authority of the Bible“圣经”的权力

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In its personal reference authority is the right and capacity of an individual to perform what he wills and who, by virtue of his position or office, can command obedience.在其个人参考权威是个人的权利和能力,以执行他的遗嘱,凭借他的位置或办公室,可以命令服从。It has also an application to words spoken or written whose accuracy has been established and whose information can consequently be trusted.它也以口头或书面其精度已建立的信息,因此可以被信任的话的应用程序。

In the NT the Greek word exousia is sometimes translated "right" (NEB), or "power" (AV; eg, Matt. 9:6; John 1:12; 17:2; 19:10), and sometimes "authority" (eg Matt. 7:29; 8:9; 21:23; John 5:27; Acts 9:14).在NT希腊字exousia有时译作“权利”(NEB),或“权力”(AV,例如,马特9时06分;约翰福音1:12; 17时02分,19时10),有时“权威“(如马特7时29分; 8时09分,21时23分,约翰5点27;徒9:14)。What emerges from its various occurrences is that the possession of exousia is of a power held by right.从各种出现的是exousia藏,通过右键举行了权力。In some contexts the emphasis falls on the authority which the possession of power rightfully gives; in other instances it falls on the reality of the power which conditions the right use of authority.在某些情况下,重点落在管理局拥有的权力理所当然;在其他情况下,它属于现实条件下的权力的使用权的权力。

Authority may be bestowed or inherent. When Jesus was asked by what authority he taught and acted (Matt. 21:23-24) the implication was that his authority was external. 可赋予管理局或固有的,当耶稣问他教什么权力和采取行动(太21:23-24)言下之意是,他的权威是外部。His questioners supposed him to be exercising a representative in the declaration that Jesus taught with authority (Matt. 7:29) and "with authority and power" expelled unclean spirits (Luke 4:36) the locus of such authority was in his own being.他的发问应该他行使在声明中代表管理局(太7:29)耶稣教和“的权威和权力”驱逐污鬼(路加福音4时36分)在自己的被这种权力的轨迹。 It was, that is to say, an ontological authority.这是,也就是说,一个本体论的权威。Thus, while the authority for his words and acts was not his own but came from the one who sent him (John 14:10; 17:8), yet these same words and acts had their raison d'etre in his own person because grounded in his filial relationship with God his Father.因此,而他的言论和行为的权力是不是自己的,而是从一个人送他(约翰14时10分,17时08分),但这些相同的言论和行为有其存在的理由在他自己的人由于在他与他的父亲神孝顺的关系接地。

As in the case of Christ in whom both aspects of authority, the bestowed and the inherent, combined, so is it with the Bible.在基督的情况下,在其中两个方面的权威,赋予固有的,合并,因此,它与“圣经”。Because the Bible points beyond itself to God, it has a conferred authority.因为它超越自身的神圣经点,有一个赋予的权力。Yet the Bible has a real authority in itself as the authentic embodiment of God's self-disclosure.然而,“圣经”有一个真正的权威本身作为上帝的自我揭露的真实体现。Liberal theologians refuse the Bible this ontological authority, granting it at most a borrowed authority.自由神学家拒绝圣经本体论权威,给予大部分是借来的权威。Some, like Karl Barth, allow this authority to be bestowed by God while insisting that the Bible itself is essentially a human product.有些人,像卡尔巴特,使这项权力由上帝赐予而坚持圣经本身,本质上是一种人类的产品。Others, eg, Rudolf Bultmann and Paul Tillich, regard the Bible as a fallible collection of religious writings on which the early church arbitarily imposed an authority which evangelical piety has continued to uphold.其他,例如,鲁道夫布特曼和保罗蒂利希,把“圣经”作为一个犯错误的早期教会任意强加一个福音的虔诚继续坚持权威的宗教著作收集。 But by refusing to the Bible an ontological authority, liberal theology uncovers its fundamental inconsistency, thereby pronouncing its own condemnation.但拒绝“圣经”的本体论权威,自由派神学揭示其根本不一致,从而宣告自己的谴责。For insofar as it wishes the acceptance of its own unbiblical speculations, it has to decry the authority of the Bible.,因为它希望接受自己的不符合圣经揣测,谴责“圣经”的权威。Yet insofar as it is concerned to retain the label Christian, it appeals to the Bible as its authoritative source.但是,因为它是有关保留标签基督教,它呼吁对圣经作为其权威性的来源。

An approach to the subject of biblical authority must begin with God himself. For in him all authority is finally located. 必须开始与神自己对圣经权威的主题方法,终于找到对于他的一切权力。And he is his own authority for there is nothing outside him on which his authority is founded.他是他自己的权威,有外他没有他的权威是建立。Thus, in making his promise to Abraham, he pledged his own name since he had no greater by whom to swear (Heb. 6:13).因此,在他的诺言亚伯拉罕,他表示自己的名字,因为他没有更大的由谁来宣誓(希伯来书6:13)。This authority of God is, then, the authority of what God is.这种神的权威,那么,神的权威。But what God is, is made known in his self-disclosure, since only in his revelation can God be known.但神是什么,是在他的自我揭露,因为只有在他的启示,可以被称为神。Revelation is therefore the key to God's authority, so that the two, revelation and authority, may be regarded as two sides of the same reality.因此,启示是上帝的权威的关键,从而使两个,启示性和权威性,可视为相同的现实问题的两个方面。In revelation God declares his authority.神的启示,宣布他的权威。

The prophets of the OT found their certainty in God's revelation. In uttering their message they knew themselves to be declaring God's authoritative will. 旧约先知发现在上帝的启示,他们的肯定。说出他们的消息,他们知道自己要宣告神的权威将。As God's ambassadors they proclaimed what God required of his people.作为神的使者,他们宣布上帝需要他的人。For Christian faith Christ is known as God's final revelation.对于基督教信仰基督被称为上帝的最后启示。In him God's imperial authority is most graciously expressed.神在他的帝国权威是最慷慨表示。Thus is Christ the sum of all that is divinely authoritative for the life of man.因此基督是所有的总和,是对人的生命的神圣权威。 But this progressive unveiling of God, which culminated in Christ, has been given perpetual form in the biblical writings.但已逐步拉开,最终在基督里,这个神在“圣经”的著作永久形式。Scripture consequently participates in God's authority, so that Christ's relation thereto is decisive as vindicating its authority.经文因此参与在上帝的权威,使基督的关系及其平反其权力的决定性因素。

Jesus read "all the Scriptures" of the OT as a prophetic outline of what he came to accomplish; and he took its very language to be the natural, and at the same time the supernatural, expression of his Father's will. 耶稣作为一个他来完成的预言大纲OT读“圣经”;,他的语言自然,并在同一时间超自然的,他的父亲的意志表达。By his attitude to and use of the OT Christ truly validated its divinity.他的态度和使用旧约的基督真正验证它的神威。With the same conviction of its divine authority the NT writers accepted it and quoted it; and in its light they themselves, as the inspired interpreters of the saving significance of Christ's person and work, put their own writings on an equal footing with the OT Scriptures as divinely authoritative.使用了其神圣的权力相同的定罪的新台币作家接受和引用它,和它的光他们自己,在基督的人及工作节能意义的启发口译放的旧约圣经平起平坐自己的著述作为神圣的权威。 In the words of his elect apostles the full measure of God's revelation in Christ was brought to completion so that Paul could declare, "In the sight of God speak we in Christ" (II Cor. 12:19).在他当选的话使徒全面衡量被带到完成,让保罗可以宣布,“在基督里,我们在神面前发言”(二肺心病。12:19)神在基督里的启示。 Thus do the apostles claim an absolute authority for their writings (eg, II Cor. 10:11; 1 Thess. 2:13; 5:27; II Thess. 2:15; 3:14).因此,使徒声称他们的著作的绝对权威(例如,二肺心病10点11分;帖前2:13;,5点27分,第二帖前2:15;,3:14)。

The authority of the Bible is established by its own claims. It is the word of God. “圣经”的权威是建立了自己的主张 。,这是上帝的话。Such declarations as, "Thus says the Lord," or its equivalent, occur so frequently in the OT that it can confidently be asserted that the whole account is dominated by the claim.因此,这样的声明“耶和华说,”或同等学历,如此频繁地出现在旧约,它可以自信地断言,整个帐户索赔为主。The NT writers also refer to these Scriptures as having God for their source.NT作家也指这些经文作为其来源的神。 In the NT itself both Christ and the gospel are spoken of as "the word of God" and so demonstrate the fact that the tie between the two is a vital and necessary one.在NT本身基督和福音谈到为“上帝的话”等证明的事实,两者之间的配合是一个重要和必要的的。Specifically is the gospel in its central content and many aspects, through the action of the Holy Spirit, brought into written form by Christ's appointees as God's authoritative word for the church and in the world.具体来说是通过圣灵的行动,神对教会的权威字,并在世界上所带来基督的委任的书面形式的福音,其核心内容和多方面的。 Both testaments therefore belong together under the one designation, "the word of God."因此,这两个见证下一个称号,属于一起“上帝的话。”As God's word the Bible consequently carries in itself God's authority.作为上帝的话语圣经因此本身在上帝的权威。

It is the scripture of truth. In the OT the Hebrew word 'emet, rendered "truth" in the AV and frequently translated "faithfulness" in the RSV (eg, Deut. 32:4; Ps. 108:4; Hos. 2:20), is constantly predicted of God. 这是在旧约希伯来文EMET呈现“真理”在AV和经常翻译的“忠诚”中的RSV(例如,申命记32:4;的圣经的真理。。诗108:4;居者有其屋计划2。 :20),是不断预言神。God as true is absolutely faithful (cf. Ps. 117:2), and this absolute faithfulness of God assures his complete trustworthiness.作为真正的上帝是绝对忠实(参诗117:2),和这个上帝的绝对忠诚,保证他完整的可信性。This truthfulness of God passes over as an attribute of what God is in himself to characterize all his works (cf. Ps. 57:3) and especially his word.这神的真实性传递自己是神的属性来描述所有他的作品(参诗57:3),特别是他的话。Thus is his word both true and faithful (cf. Ps. 119:89).因此是他的话既真实和忠实(参诗119:89)。The whole OT, then, as "the word of God" is to be designated "the scripture of truth" (Dan. 10:21 AV).整个OT,那么,“上帝的话”是指定的“圣经真理”(但以理书10时21分AV)。It partakes of God's own chracter, of the fundamental truthfulness of him who declares himself to be "not a man, that he should lie" (Num. 23:19; cf. 1 Sam. 15:29; Ps. 89:35).它参与大神的自己chracter,他的根本真实性,宣称自己是“不是一个人,他应该说谎”(民数记23点19分。比照1萨姆15时29分;。诗篇89:35) 。Ps.聚苯乙烯。31:5 declares that the Lord is the God of truth, while Ps.31:5宣称,上帝是检验真理的的上帝,而PS。119:160 affirms his word as the word of truth.119:160申明他的话为真理的道。In both places the same Hebrew term is employed.在这两个地方采用相同的希伯来文。The same truth is thus predicated of God and his word.同样的道理,因此断言上帝和他的字。

In the NT the word aletheia has the same fundamental meaning of genuineness and truthfulness as opposed to what is false and unreliable.在NT字真理有相同的基本含义的真实性和真实性,而不是什么是虚假和不可靠的的。So God is both true (1 John 5:20; John 3:33; 7:28; 8:26; 17:3; 1 Thess. 1:9) and truthful (Rom. 3:7; 15:8, etc.).所以上帝是“真”(约翰一书5:20;约翰3点33分,7点28分,8时26分,17时03分;帖撒罗尼迦前书1时09分)和真实(罗马书3:7; 15时08分,等。)And as God is, so too is his word.作为神,也是他的词。His word is truth (John 17:17).他的话是真理(约翰福音17:17)。The gospel is presented with truthful words (II Cor. 6:7; cf. Col. 15; James 1:18), and the truth of the gospel (Gal. 2:5) is identical with the truth of God (Rom. 3:7).福音是与真实的话(二肺心病6时07分;比照上校15;詹姆斯1时18分),和真理的福音(加拉太书2:5),是与神的真理(罗相同3:7)。

The Bible is, then, the book of God's truth; and such truth is, as the Westminster Catechism says, "infallible truth.",那么,圣经是神的真理的书 ;这样的事实是,作为威斯敏斯特理问答说,“犯错的真理。“As it is wholly trustworthy regarding its truth, so must it be wholly reliable regarding its facts.由于它是完全值得信赖的,关于它的真理,所以它必须是完全可靠的关于其事实。And because it is both, it is our divine authority in all things that pertain to life and godliness.因为它既是,它是我们神圣的权威,所有的事情,涉及到生命和虔敬的。

HD McDonald高清麦当劳
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
R. Abba, The Nature and Authority of the Bible; H. Cunliffe-Jones, The Authority of the of the Bible; H. Cunliffe-Jones, The Authority of the Biblical Revelation; RE Davies, The Problem of Authority in the Continental Reformers; CH Dodd, The Authority of the Bible; PT Forsyth, The Principle of Authority; N. Geldenhuys, Supreme Authority; FJA Hort, The Authority of the Bible; GH Hospers, The Reformed Principle of Authority; RC Johnson, Authority in Protestant Theology; DM Lloyd-Jones, Authority; HD McDonald, Theories of Revelation; L. Oswald, The Truth of the Bible; B. Ramm, Patterns of Authority; A. Richardson and W. Schweitzer, eds., Biblical Authority for Today; J. Rogers, ed., Biblical Authority; JWC Wand, The Authority of the Scriptures; BB Warfield, The Inspiration and Authority of the Bible; RR Williams, Authority in the Apostolic Age.阿巴河,大自然和圣经的权威; H.坎利夫 - 琼斯,圣经的权威; H ·坎利夫 - 琼斯,“圣经”的启示的权威;稀土戴维斯,授权在大陆改革者的问题; CH多德,圣经的权威; PT福塞斯,权威原则; N. Geldenhuys,至高无上的权威; FJA园艺,圣经的权威;生长激素Hospers,权威的改革原则; RC约翰逊,在新教神学管理局DM劳埃德 - 琼斯,管理局;高清麦当劳,理论的启示; L.奥斯瓦德,圣经的真理; B. Ramm,权威模式; A. Richardson和W.施魏策尔,EDS,今日圣经的权威。J罗杰斯版,圣经的权威; JWC魔杖,圣经的权威; BB沃菲尔德,灵感和圣经的权威; RR威廉姆斯,在使徒时代管理局。


Inspiration of the Bible“圣经”的启示

Advanced Information先进的信息

The theological idea of inspiration, like its correlative revelation, presupposes a personal mind and will, in Hebrew terminology, the "living God", acting to communicate with other spirits.灵感的神学思想,喜欢它的相关启示,前提是个人心灵和意志,在希伯来语中的术语,“活着的上帝”,演技与其他烈酒沟通。 The Christian belief in inspiration, not alone in revelation, rests both on explicit biblical assertions and on the pervading mood of the scriptural record.基督教信仰中的灵感,而不是单独的启示,在于明确的圣经断言和圣经记录的普遍心情。

Biblical Terminology圣经术语

Today the English verb and noun "inspire" and "inspiration" bear many meanings.今天的英语动词和名词的“鼓舞”和“灵感”承担许多含义。This diverse connotation is already present in the Latin inspiro and inspiratio of the Vulgate Bible.这种多元的内涵已经是目前在拉丁美洲inspiro和武加大圣经inspiratio。But the technical theological sense of inspiration, largely lost in the secular atmosphere of our time, is clearly asserted by the Scriptures with a special view to the sacred writers and their writings.但技术的神学意义上的灵感,在很大程度上失去了在我们这个时代的世俗的气氛,是明确宣称圣经神圣的作家和他们的著作的一个特殊的视图。 Defined in this sense, inspiration is a supernatural influence of the Holy Spirit upon divinely chosen men in consequence of which their writings become trustworthy and authoritative.在这个意义上的定义,灵感是根据神圣的后果选择男性,他们的著作,其中成为值得信赖和权威的圣灵超自然的影响。

In the AV the noun appears twice: Job 32:8, "But there is a spirit in man; and the inspiration of the Almighty giveth them understanding"; and 11 Tim.在AV的名词出现了两次:作业32:8,“但有一个人的精神;和全能的灵感所赐他们的理解”;和11添。3:16, "All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness." 3:16,“圣经是神所默示的,是学说的盈利责备,改正,在义的指令。”In the former instance both the ASV and the RSV substitute "breath" for "inspiration," an interchange which serves to remind us of the dramatic fact that the Scriptures refer the creation of the universe (Ps. 33:6), the creation of man for fellowship with God (Gen. 2:7), and the production of the sacred writings (11 Tim. 3:16) to the spiration of God.在前者的实例的ASV,RSV的替代“呼吸”,“灵感”,一个交换服务的“圣经”是指宇宙的创造(诗篇33:6),创造了戏剧性的事实提醒我们人与神(创2:7)的奖学金,和神圣的著作(11添。3:16)神spiration生产。 In the latter instance, the ASV renders the text "Every scripture inspired of God is also profitable," a translation abandoned as doubtful by the RSV, "All scripture is inspired by God and profitable."在后一种情况下,ASV呈现文字“每个神所默示的圣经是也有利可图,”翻译为可疑遗弃的RSV,“所有的经文是灵感来自上帝和盈利。”

Biblical Teaching圣经教导

Although the term "inspiration" occurs infrequently in modern versions and paraphrases, the conception itself remains firmly embedded in the scriptural teaching.长期的“灵感”虽然很少发生在现代版本和释义,概念本身仍然牢牢地嵌入在圣经教学。The word theopneustos (11 Tim. 3:16), literally God, "spirated" or breathed out, affirms that the living God is the author of Scripture and that Scripture is the product of his creative breath.字theopneustos(11添。3:16),从字面上神“spirated”或呼出,肯定活着的上帝是圣经的作者,圣经是他的创意气息的产品。 The biblical sense, therefore, rises above the modern tendency to assign the term "inspiration" merely a dynamic or functional significance (largely through a critical dependence on Schleiermacher's artificial disjunction that God communicates life, not truths about himself).圣经的意义,因此,分配的“灵感”仅仅是一个动态或功能意义(主要是通过对施莱尔马赫的人工脱节,上帝传达的生活,而不是自己的真理的关键依赖)上升到高于现代倾向。 Geoffrey W. Bromiley, translator of Karl Barth's Church Dogmatics, points out that whereas Barth emphasizes the "inspiring" of Scripture, that is, its present use by the Holy Spirit toward hearers and readers, the Bible itself begins further back with the very "inspiredness" of the sacred writings.杰弗里W.罗米立,卡尔巴特的教会教义的翻译,指出,而巴特强调“鼓舞人心”的经文,就是目前使用圣灵向听众和读者,圣经本身开始进一步与非常“ inspiredness“神圣的著作。The writings themselves, as an end product, are assertedly God-breathed.自己的著作,作为最终产品,assertedly神呼出。 Precisely this conception of inspired writings, and not simply of inspired men, sets the biblical conception of inspiration pointedly over against pagan representations of inspiration in which heavy stress is placed on the subjective psychological mood and condition of those individuals overmastered by divine afflatus.正是这种灵感的著作的概念,而不是简单地启发男子,集圣经的灵感概念尖锐超过对异教的灵感,在沉重的压力是主观上的心理情绪和神圣的灵感overmastered人士的状况的陈述。

While the Pauline passage already noted lays proximate emphasis on the spiritual value of Scripture, it conditions this unique ministry upon a divine origin, in direct consequence of which the sacred record is profitable (cf. opheleo, "to advantage") for teaching, reproof, correction, and instruction in righteousness.虽然宝莲通道已经注意到注重强调圣经的精神价值的近因,条件后,一个神圣的起源的神圣记录是有利可图的直接后果,这种独特的部(参见opheleo,“优势”),为教学,责备,改正,在义的指令。 The apostle Paul does not hesitate to speak of the sacred Hebrew writings as the veritable "oracles of God" (Rom. 3:2).使徒保罗不犹豫发言的神圣希伯来语著作作为名副其实的“神谕神”(罗马书3:2)。James S. Stewart does not overstate the matter when he asserts that Paul as a Jew and later as a Christian held the high view that "every word" of the OT was "the authentic voice of God" (A Man in Christ, p. 39).詹姆斯S ·斯图尔特不夸大此事时,他声称,保罗作为一个犹太人,后来作为一个基督徒举行的高旧约“的每一个字”是“上帝的真实的声音”(一个在基督里,第的人39)。

Emphasis on the divine origin of Scripture is found also in the Petrine writings.在伯多禄的著作也强调圣经的神圣起源。The "word of prophecy" is declared to be "more sure" than that even of the eyewitnesses of Christ's glory (11 Pet. 1:17ff.).“预言字”被宣布为“确保”甚至比基督的荣耀(11宠物1点17 FF)。目击者。A supernatural quality all its own, therefore, inheres in Scripture.自己的一种超自然的质量,因此,inheres在圣经中。While involving the instrumentality of "holy men," Scripture is affirmed nonetheless to owe its origin not to human but to divine initiative in a series of statements whose proximate emphasis is the reliability of Scripture:虽然涉及的媒介“圣人,”圣经仍然是肯定欠它的起源不是人类,而是在一系列的语句,其​​近因重点是圣经的可靠性的神圣主动:

Jesus' View of Scripture耶稣圣经“查看

If the passages already cited indicate something not only of the nature but of the extent of inspiration ("all scripture"; "the word of prophecy," elsewhere a summary term for the entirety of Scripture), a verse from the Johannine writings indicates something of the intensity of inspiration and at the same time enables us to contemplate Jesus' view of Scripture.如果已经引的经文表明,不仅性质,但的灵感程度(“圣经”,“预言的话,”在别处的经文全部为总结长期)的东西,从约翰著作的诗句表明的东西的灵感和强度的同时,使我们默想耶稣的经文。 In John 10:34-35, Jesus singles out an obscure passage in the Psalms ("ye are gods," Ps. 82:6) to reinforce the point that "the Scripture cannot be broken."耶稣在约翰福音10:34-35,选拔出一个晦涩的诗篇(“你们是神,”PS。82:6)通过加强这一点“圣经不能被打破。” The reference is doubly significant because it also discredits the modern bias against identifying Scripture as the word of God, on the ground that this assertedly dishonors the supreme revelation of God in the incarnate Christ.参考双重意义,因为它也诋毁现代偏见对查明圣经作为上帝的话,地面上的,这assertedly羞辱至高神在肉身的基督启示。 But in John 10:35 Jesus of Nazareth, while speaking of himself as indeed the one "the Father consecrated and sent into the world," nonetheless refers to those in a past dispensation "to whom the word of God came (and scripture cannot be broken)."但在约翰10时35拿撒勒的耶稣,而讲自己确实是一个“奉献和融入世界发送之父”,不过是指那些在过去的豁免“神的话临到人(和圣经不能打破)。“ The unavoidable implication is that the whole of Scripture is of irrefragable authority.不可避免的含义是,整个圣经的irrefragable管理局。

This is the viewpoint also of the Sermon on the Mount reported in Matthew's Gospel: "Think not that I have come to abolish the law and the prophets; I have come not to abolish them but to fulfil them. For truly, I say to you, till heaven and earth pass away, not an iota, not a dot, will pass from the law until all is accomplished. Whoever then relaxes one of the least of these commandments and teaches men so, shall be called least in the kingdom of heaven" (Matt. 5:17-19 RSV).这是观点马太福音报道的山宝训也:“想想不就是我已经来废除的法律和先知;我已经来不以取消它们,但履行这些对于真正的,我说给你,直至天地废去,没有丝毫,而不是一个点,将通过法律,直到全部完成。四条然后放松这诫命中最小的一个,所以教导男性,应被称为天国至少“(马太福音5:17-19,RSV)。 Attempts to turn the repeated declarations, "You have heard that it was said. But I say to you" into a sustained criticism of the Mosaic law have not made their case convincingly against the probability that Jesus' protest is leveled rather against traditional reductions of the actual claim and inner intention of that law.尝试打开的一再声明,“你听到有人说 但我对你说”持续批评成镶嵌法没有对耶稣的抗议被夷为平地,而对传统的概率的情况下令人信服减少的实际要求和该法的内在意图。Indeed, the necessary fulfillment of all that is written is a frequent theme on our Lord's lips (Matt. 26:31; 26:54; Mark 9:12-13; 14:19, 27; John 13:18; 17:12).事实上,履行必要的所有写入频繁的主题是我们的主的嘴唇(太26:31; 26:54;马克9:12-13; 14点19分,27;约翰十三时18分,17点12分)。Whoever searches the Gospel narratives faithfully in view of Jesus' attitude toward the sacred writings will be driven again and again to the conclusion of Reinhold Seeberg: "Jesus himself describes and employs the Old Testament as an infallible authority (eg, Matt. 5:17; Luke 24:44)" (Text-book of the History of Doctrines, I, 82).谁搜查福音叙述耶稣“走向神圣的著作的态度,忠实驱动一再莱因霍尔德Seeberg的结论:”耶稣自己介绍,采用旧约作为一个犯错的权力(例如,马特5:17。路加福音24:44)“(的学说,我,82的历史课本)。

OT View旧约查看

In both speech and writing the OT prophets are marked off by their unswerving assurance that they were spokesmen for the living God.在讲话和写作旧约先知的标记,他们坚定不移的保证,他们是活着的上帝的代言人。They believed that the truths they uttered about the Most High and his works and will, and the commands and exhortations they voiced in his name, derived their origin from him and carried his authority.他们相信的真理,他们说出的最高级和他的作品,将,并命令和嘱托,他们在他的名字表示,他来自其原产地,并进行自己的权威。 The constantly repeated formula "thus saith the Lord" is so characteristic of the prophets as to leave no doubt that they considered themselves chosen agents of the divine self-communication.不断重复的公式“,从而耶和华如此说:”是这样的先知特点离开毫无疑问,他们认为自己选择代理商的神圣自我沟通。 Emil Brunner acknowledges that in "the words of God which the Prophets proclaim as those which they have received directly from God, and have been commissioned to repeat, as they have received them perhaps we find the closest analogy to the meaning of the theory of verbal inspiration" (Revelation and Reason, p. 122).埃米尔布伦纳承认,在“神的话,先知宣布他们已经收到直接来自上帝,并已委托重复,因为他们已经收到了他们 也许我们找到最接近的比喻的意义口头灵感论“(启示录,讲道理,第122页)。Whoever impugns the confidence of the prophets that they were instruments of the one true God in their disclosure of truths about his nature and dealings with man is driven, consistently if not necessarily, to the only possible alternative of their delusion.谁抨击的先知的信心,他们是一个真正的上帝的真理披露有关驱动与男子是他的本质和交易文书,一贯如果不一定,他们妄想的唯一可行的办法。

From this same prophetic tradition it is impossible to detach Moses.从这个相同的预言传统是不可能分离摩西。Himself a prophet, rightly called "the founder of prophetic religion," he mediates the law and the priestly and sacrificial elements of revealed religion in the firm belief that he promulgates the veritable will of Jehovah.自己是先知,正确地称为“先知的宗教的创始人,”他介导的坚定信念,他颁布名副其实的耶和华将在法律和启示宗教的祭司和祭祀元素。 God will be the prophet's mouth (Exod. 4:14ff.); Moses is to be God, as it were, to the prophet (Exod. 7:1).神将先知的口(出4时14 FF);摩西是神,因为它是,先知(出7:1)。

The Old and the New新旧

The NT observations about Scripture apply primarily, of course, to the OT writings, which existed in the form of a unitary canon.约圣经NT意见主要适用,当然,旧约的著作,在一个单一佳能的形式存在。But the apostles extended the traditional claim to divine inspiration.但使徒延长传统声称神的启示。Jesus their Lord had not only validated the conception of a unique and authoritative corpus of sacred writings, but spoke of a further ministry of teaching by the Spirit (John 14:26; 16:13).他们的主耶稣不仅验证了独特的神圣的著作和权威语料库的概念,但进一步的教学部发言的精神(约14:26; 16:13)。 The apostles assert confidently that they thus speak by the Spirit (I Pet. 1:12).使徒们断言,自信,因此他们发言的精神“(彼前1:12)。They ascribe both the form and matter of their teaching to him (I Cor. 2:13).他们赋予他自己的教学的形式和问题(我肺心病。2:13)。They not only assume a divine authority (I Thess. 4:2, 14; II Thess. 3:6, 12), but they make acceptance of their written commands a test of spiritual obedience (I Cor. 14:37).他们不仅承担起一个神圣的权力(帖前4:2,14;二帖前3点06分,12),但他们接受其书面命令精神服从测试(我肺心病14时37分)。。 They even refer to each other's writings with the same regard as for the OT (cf. the identification in I Tim. 5:18 of a passage from Luke's Gospel, "The laborer is worthy of his hire" [Luke 10:7] as Scripture, and the juxtaposition of the Pauline epistles in II Pet. 3:16 with "the other scriptures").他们甚至提到这方面为OT(参见我添识别通过从路加福音5:18到对方的著作,“劳动者是值得他雇用”[路加福音10:7]与“圣经”)经文,并列第二宠物的宝莲书信。3:16。

Historical View历史观

The traditional theory, that the Bible as a whole and in every part is the word of God written, held currency until the rise of modern critical theories a century ago.传统的理论,作为一个整体,并在每一个部分圣经是神的字写的,现代批判理论的兴起,直到一个世纪前的货币举行。W. Sanday, affirming that the high view was the common Christian belief in the middle of the last century, comments that this view is "substantially not very different from that held two centuries after the Birth of Christ," indeed, that "the same attributes" were predicated of the OT before the New (Inspiration, pp. 392-93). W.桑迪,肯定高的观点是在上个世纪中叶的基督教信仰的共同,评论,这种观点是“实质上不是很不同 基督诞生后举行的两个世纪中,”事实上,这“相同的属性”是前提,在新的OT(灵感,第392-93页)。Bromiley notes certain rationalizing tendencies that have arisen on the rim of the high view: the Pharisees' rejection of Jesus of Nazareth as the promised Messiah despite their formal acknowledgment of the divine inspiration of Scripture; the attribution of inspiration to the vowel points and punctuation by seventeenth century Lutheran dogmaticians; and a depreciation (eg, in the Middle Ages) of the role of illumination in the interpretation of Scripture ("The Church Doctrine of Inspiration" in Revelation and the Bible, ed. CFH Henry, pp. 213ff.).罗米立注意到某些合理化的倾向,对RIM高的观点出现了:尽管他们的神的启示的圣经的正式承认“拿撒勒人耶稣所应许的弥赛亚的法利赛人拒绝;元音点归属的灵感和标点符号由十七世纪路德dogmaticians;和折旧的照度在解释圣经中的作用(例如,在中世纪)(“教会教义的启示”的启示,“圣经”,ED CFH亨利,第213ff。。) 。

The Protestant Reformers guarded their view of the Bible from the errors of rationalism and mysticism.新教改革者守卫他们对圣经​​的看法,从理性主义和神秘主义的错误。To prevent Christianity's decline to mere metaphysics they stressed that the Holy Spirit alone gives life.为了防止基督教的下降仅仅是形而上学的,他们强调,只有圣灵赋予了生命。And to prevent decline of the Christian religion to formless mysticism they emphasized the Scriptures as the only trustworthy source of the knowledge of God and his purposes.并防止无形的神秘主义的基督教的下降,他们强调“圣经”作为唯一值得信赖的上帝和他的目的的知识来源。The historic evangelical view affirms that alongside the special divine revelation in saving acts, God's disclosure has taken the form also of truths and words.历史悠久的福音派观点的肯定,沿着特殊的储蓄行为神的启示,上帝的披露已采取的真理和文字的形式也。This revelation is communicated in a restricted canon of trustworthy writings, deeding fallen man an authentic exposition of God and his relations with man.这个启示是传达一个值得信赖的著作限制佳能,正宗的上帝和他与人的关系的论述deeding堕落的人。Scripture itself is viewed as an integral part of God's redemptive activity, a special form of revelation, a unique mode of divine disclosure.圣经本身被视为上帝的救赎活动的重要组成部分,特殊形式的启示,一个神圣的披露的独特模式。In fact, it becomes a decisive factor in God's redemptive activity, interpreting and unifying the whole series of redemptive deeds, and exhibiting their divine meaning and significance.事实上,它成为一个在上帝的救赎活动的决定性因素,解释和统一整个系列的救赎事迹,并表现出其神圣的内涵和意义。

Critical Theories批判理论

The postevolutionary criticism of the Bible carried on by Julius Wellhausen and other modern scholars narrowed the traditional confidence in infallibility by excluding matters of science and history.朱利叶斯豪森进行的“圣经”postevolutionary的批评和其他现代学者缩小传统在犯错误的信心,科学和历史的问题除外。 How much was at stake in a weakening of trust in the historical reliability of Scripture was not at first obvious to those who placed the emphasis on reliability of the Bible in matters of faith and practice.多少削弱信任的股份,在圣经的历史可靠性起初并不明显,那些信仰和实践问题的重点放在“圣经”的可靠性。 For no distinction between historical and doctrinal matters is set up by the NT view of inspiration.历史和理论问题之间的区别对于没有成立的灵感NT视图。No doubt this is due to the fact that the OT history is viewed as the unfolding of God's saving revelation; the historical elements are a central aspect of the revelation.毫无疑问,这是由于旧约的历史,是作为神的拯救启示展开查看事实,历史元素是中央方面的启示。It was soon apparent that scholars who abandoned the trustworthiness of biblical history had furnished an entering wedge for the abandonment of doctrinal elements.它很快显现,学者放弃圣经历史的可信度提供放弃教义元素进入楔形。

Theoretically such an outcome might perhaps have been avoided by an act of will, but in practice it was not.理论上讲,这样的结果也许是可以避免的意志的行为,但在实践中没有。William Newton Clark's The Use of the Scriptures in Theology (1905) yielded biblical theology and ethics to the critics as well as biblical science and history, but reserved the teaching of Jesus Christ as authentic.威廉牛顿克拉克的使用圣经的神学(1905年)取得了圣经神学和道德以及圣经的科学和历史的批评,但保留正宗的耶稣基督的教导。 British scholars went further.英国学者走得更远。Since Jesus' endorsement of creation, the patriarchs, Moses, and the giving of the law involved him in an acceptance of biblical science and history, some influential critics accepted only the theological and moral teaching of Jesus.由于耶稣创造的代言,始祖,摩西,并给予法律涉及他在接受圣经的科学和历史,一些有影响力的评论家只接受耶稣的神学和思想品德课教学。 Contemporaries swiftly erased even this remainder, asserting Jesus' theological fallibility.同时代的迅速抹去本的其余部分,甚至断言耶稣的神学易错。Actual belief in Satan and demons was insufferable to the critical mind, and must therefore invalidate his theological integrity, while the feigned belief in them (as a concession to the times) would invalidate his moral integrity.撒旦和魔鬼的实际信仰的批判性思维,是难以忍受的,因此,必须作废他的神学的完整性,同时假装他们在信仰作为一个时代的让步,将他的道德操守失效。 Yet Jesus had represented his whole ministry as a conquest of Satan and appealed to his exorcism of demons in proof of his supernatural mission.然而,耶稣代表了他的整部作为征服撒旦,并呼吁他驱魔恶魔在证明他的超自然使命。 The critics could infer only his limited knowledge even of theological and moral truths.批评者可以推断出只有他的知识有限,甚至神学和道德的真理。The so-called Chicago school of empirical theologians argued that respect for scientific method in theology disallows any defense whatever of Jesus' absoluteness and infallibility.所谓的芝加哥学校的实证神学家认为,尊重科学的方法在神学不允许任何防御无论耶稣的绝对性和犯错误。 Harry Emerson Fosdick's The Modern Use of the Bible (1924) championed only "abidingly valid" experiences in Jesus' life that could be normatively relived by us.哈里艾默生福斯迪克的现代“圣经”的使用(1924)倡导的“abidingly有效”在耶稣的生活,可以规范我们眼前的经验。 Gerald Birney Smith went another step in Current Christian Thinking (1928); while we may gain inspiration from Jesus, our own experience determines doctrine and a valid outlook on life.杰拉尔德Birney史密斯了当前基督教思想(1928年)的又一步骤,虽然我们可以从耶稣获得灵感,我们自己的经验决定的学说,和对生活的有效前景。

Simultaneously many critical writers sought to discredit the doctrine of an authoritative Scripture as a departure from the view of the biblical writers themselves, or of Jesus of Nazareth before them; or, if admittedly Jesus' view, they sought to dismiss it nonetheless as a theological accommodation, if not an indication of limited knowledge.同时,许多重要的作家试图抹黑一个为自己,或他们面前的拿撒勒人耶稣“圣经”作家的观点出发的权威圣经的教义;或者,如果无可否认耶稣的观点,他们试图解雇但它作为一个神学住宿,如果没有显示有限的知识。 The internal difficulties of such theories were stated with classic precision by Benjamin B. Warfield ("The Real Problem of Inspiration," in The Inspiration and Authority of the Bible).这种理论的内部困难,指出经典精度由Benjamin B.沃菲尔德(“真正的问题的启示”的启示和圣经的权威)。 This attempt to conform the biblical view of inspiration to the looser modern critical notions may now be said to have failed.现在可以说,这符合圣经的灵感,更宽松的现代化的关键概念的尝试已经失败了。The contemporary revolt strikes more deeply.当代起义罢工更加深入人心。It attacks the historic view of revelation as well as of inspiration, affirming in deference to the dialectical philosophy that divine revelation does not assume the form of concepts and words, a premise that runs directly counter to the biblical witness.它的攻​​击历史观点以及灵感的启示,在尊重的辩证哲学肯定,概念和文字的形式,直接违反“圣经”的见证一个前提,就是神的启示不承担。

Whatever must be said for the legitimate rights of criticism, it remains a fact that biblical criticism has met the test of objective scholarship with only qualified success.无论批评的合法权益必须说,它仍然是一个圣经的批评,符合客观奖学金只有合格的成功测试。Higher criticism has shown itself far more efficient in creating a naive faith in the existence of manuscripts for which there is no overt evidence (eg, J, E, P, D, Q, first century nonsupernaturalistic "gospels" and second century supernaturalistic redactions) than in sustaining the Christian community's confidence in the only manuscripts the church has received as a sacred trust.高等教育的批评表明它效率高得多,在创建中存在的手稿,其中有没有明显的证据(例如,J,E,P,D,Q一世纪nonsupernaturalistic“福音”和第二世纪supernaturalistic删节)天真的信仰比维持基督教社区的教会作为一种神圣的信任收到的唯一手稿的信心。 Perhaps the most significant gain in our generation is the new disposition to approach Scripture in terms of primitive witness instead of remote reconstruction.也许我们这一代中最显著的增益是新的处置方法原始证人,而不是远程重建方面的圣经。

While it can shed no additional light on the mode of the Spirit's operation on the chosen writers, biblical criticism may provide a commentary on the nature and extent of that inspiration, and on the range of the trustworthiness of Scripture.虽然它可以揭示圣灵的选择作家的运作模式,没有额外的光,圣经的批评可能提供了灵感的性质和程度上的评论,并上的经文的可信度范围内。 The admittedly biblical view has been assailed in our generation especially by an appeal to such textual phenomena of Scripture as the Synoptic problem and apparent discrepancies in the reporting of events and numbers.无可否认圣经的观点已经被攻击在我们这一代,特别是由于天气问题,并在报告的事件和数字的明显差异,例如文字的经文的现象提出的上诉。 Evangelical scholars have recognized the danger of imputing twentieth century scientific criteria to the biblical writers.福音派学者已经认识到了危险归咎于20世纪的科学准则,以“圣经”的作家。They have noted also that the OT canon so unqualifiedly endorsed by Jesus contains many of the difficulties of the Synoptic problem in the features of the books of Kings and Chronicles.他们还注意到,所以不合格耶稣赞同旧约佳能包含许多的困难,在国王和编年史书的特点天气问题。And they concede the proper role of an inductive study of the actual phenomena of Scripture in detailing the doctrine of inspiration derived from the teaching of the Bible.他们承认归纳圣经的实际现象,详细介绍了从“圣经”的教学中获得灵感的学说研究应有的作用。

CFH Henry CFH亨利
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
K. Barth, The Doctrine of the Word of God; C. Elliott, A Treatise on the Inspiration of the Holy Scriptures; T. Engelder, Scripture Cannot Be Broken; L. Gaussen, Theopneustia: The Plenary Inspiration of the Holy Scriptures; CFH Henry, God, Revelation, and Authority,4 vols., and (ed.), Revelation and the Bible; J. Orr, Revelation and Inspiration; NB Stonehouse and P. Woolley, eds., The Infallible Word; J. Urquhart, The Inspiration and Accuracy of the Holy Scriptures; JF Walvoord, ed., Inspiration and Interpretation; BB Warfield, The Inspiration and Authority of the Bible; JC Wenger, God's Word Written; JI Packer, God Has Spoken; HD McDonald, What the Bible Teaches About the Bible; P. Achtemeier, The Inspiration of Scripture; FE Greenspan, ed., Scripture in Jewish and Christian Tradition.三,关于圣经的启示论艾略特;; T.恩格尔德,经文无法打破L.杉,Theopneustia光,神的话语学说巴特:全会圣经启示; CFH亨利,神,启示,和权威,4卷,(主编),启示和圣经;研究奥尔,启示和灵感; NB斯通豪斯和P.伍利,EDS,犯错的字; J.厄克特,的启示和精度圣经;摩根富林明Walvoord,编,启示和释义。BB沃菲尔德,的启示和圣经管理局; JC温格,上帝的字书面;姬帕克,神有口语;高清麦当劳,圣经关于“圣经”教体育Achtemeier,圣经的启示; FE格林斯潘,编,圣经犹太教和基督教的传统。



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