The Roman Breviary, Roman Catholic Breviary罗马天主教的 breviary

General Information一般资料

Prayer before Divine Service礼拜前祷告

Open thou, O Lord, my mouth to bless thy holy Name; cleanse also my heart from all vain, evil, and wandering thoughts; enlighten my understanding; enkindle my affections; that I may say this Office worthily, with attention and devotion, and so be meet to be heard in the presence of thy divine Majesty.打开你,主啊,我的嘴,祝福你的圣名,清洗所有徒劳的,邪恶的,徘徊的想法也从我的心脏,开导我的理解,enkindle我的感情,我可能会说,这个办公室抱负的关注和奉献,并所以要满足你神圣陛下在场的聆讯。 Through Christ our Lord.借着基督我们的主。Amen.阿门。

O Lord, in union with that divine intention wherewith thou thyself on earth didst render thy praises to God, I desire to offer this my Office of prayer unto thee耶和华,在神的意图wherewith你在地球复活,使你的赞美神你自己的联盟​​,我的愿望提供祢祈祷我的办公室


The Roman Breviary, Roman Catholic Breviary罗马的祈祷书,罗马天主教祈祷书

Catholic Information天主教信息

This subject may be divided, for convenience of treatment, as follows:这个题目可分为,为方便治疗,如下:

I. DEFINITION;一,定义;
II.二。CONTENTS;内容;
III.三。THE HOURS;小时;
IV.四。COMPONENT PARTS OF THE OFFICE;办公室的组成部分;
V. HISTORY OF THE BREVIARY;五,历史的祈祷书;
VI.六。REFORMS.改革。

I. DEFINITION一,定义

This word breviary (Lat. Breviarium ), signifies in its primary acceptation an abridgment, or a compendium.这个词的祈祷(Lat. Breviarium),标志着小学词义删节,或简。 It is often employed in this sense by Christian authors, eg Breviarium fidei, Breviarium in psalmos, Breviarium canonum, Breviarium regularum. In litugical language Breviary has a special meaning, indicating a book furnishing the regulations for the celebration of Mass or the canonical Office, and may be met with under the titles Breviarium Ecclesiastici Ordinis , or Breviarium Ecclesiæ Rominsæ (Romanæ). In the ninth century Alcuin uses the word to designate an office abridged or simplified for the use of the laity.它往往是受雇于在这个意义上,基督教作家, 例如Breviarium fidei,在psalmos Breviarium,Breviarium canonum,Breviarium regularum litugical语言祈祷书具有特殊的意义,表明了一本书提供大规模的庆祝活动或规范办公室的规定,并可能会见Breviarium Ecclesiastici Ordinis的标题下,或Breviarium,该书Rominsæ(Romanæ)在第九世纪阿尔昆使用这个词来指定一个办公室删节或简化使用的俗人。 Prudentius of Troyes, about the same period, composed a Breviarium Psalterii (v. inf. V. HISTORY). Prudentius特鲁瓦,大约在同一时期,组成一个Breviarium Psalterii(五INF。五,历史) 。In an ancient inventory occurs Breviarium Antiphonarii , meaning "Extracts from the Antiphonary".发生在一个古老的库存Breviarium Antiphonarii,意思是“从Antiphonary提取物” 。In the "Vita Aldrici" occurs "sicut in plenariis et breviariis Ecclesi æ ejusdem continentur".在“维塔Aldrici”出现“在plenariis等breviariis Ecclesi Æ ejusdem continentur sicut”。Again, in the inventories in the catalogues, such notes as these may be met with: "Sunt et duo cursinarii et tres benedictionales Libri; ex his unus habet obsequium mortuorum et unus Breviarius", or, "Præter Breviarium quoddam quod usque ad festivitatem S. Joannis Baptistæ retinebunt", etc. Monte Cassino about AD 1100 obtained a book entitled "Incipit Breviarium sive Ordo Officiorum per totam anni decursionem"再次,在目录的清单,因为这些笔记可能会见:“必须遵守等二人cursinarii等特雷斯benedictionales Libri,当然他的联合国大学habet obsequium mortuorum等联合国大学Breviarius”,或“Præter Breviarium quoddam狴usque广告festivitatem小号Joannis Baptistæ retinebunt“等蒙特卡西诺约公元1100年获得一本书,题为”Incipit Breviarium sive奥Officiorum每totam安妮decursionem“

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From such references, and from others of a like nature, Quesnel gathers that by the word Breviarium was at first designated a book furnishing the rubrics, a sort of Ordo. The title Breviary , as we employ it -- that is, a book containing the entire canonical office -- appears to date from the eleventh century.从这种提法,并从其他类似性质的,克内尔集 Breviarium起初指定一书中提供的评鉴指标奥排序标题祈祷书,我们聘请 -这是一本书,它包含整个规范办公室 - 出现日期从11世纪。

St. Gregory VII having, indeed, abridged the order of prayers, and having simplified the Liturgy as performed at the Roman Court, this abridgment received the name of Breviary , which was suitable, since, according to the etymology of the word, it was an abridgment.这个删节圣格雷戈里七,事实上,删节为了祈祷,并简化了礼仪,如在罗马法院执行,收到了祈祷书的名字,这是合适的,因为,根据这个词的词源,它是一个删节。 The name has been extended to books which contain in one volume, or at least in one work, liturgical books of different kinds, such as the Psalter, the Antiphonary, the Responsoriary, the Lectionary, etc. In this connection it may be pointed out that in this sense the word, as it is used nowadays, is illogical; it should be named a Plenarium rather than a Breviarium , since, liturgically speaking, the word Plenarium exactly designates such books as contain several different compilations united under one cover.这个名字已经扩展到包含在一个卷的书籍,或至少在一个工作,在这方面的不同种类,如诗篇,Antiphonary,Responsoriary,Lectionary等礼仪书籍可能会指出,这个词,在这个意义上说,因为它是采用了时下,是不合逻辑的,它应该被命名为一个,而不是一个Breviarium Plenarium,因为,liturgically来说,这个词Plenarium完全指定这类书籍,包括美国的封面下的几个不同的汇编。 This is pointed out, however, simply to make still clearer the meaning and origin of the word; and section V will furnish a more detailed explanation of the formation of the Breviary.然而,这是指出,简单地做出更清晰的意义和一词的由来;第五节将提供一个更详细的解释,形成的祈祷书。

II.二。CONTENTS目录

The Roman Breviary, which with rare exceptions (certain religious orders, the Ambrosian and Mozarabic Rites, etc.) is used at this day throughout the Latin Church, is divided into four parts according to the seasons of the year: Winter, Spring, Summer, and Autumn.罗马祈祷书,这是罕见的例外(某些宗教命令,安布罗和莫扎拉布素歌礼记等)用于整个拉丁教会在这一天,是根据今年的赛季分为四个部分:冬,春,夏季春秋。 It is constructed of the following elements: (a) the Psalter; (b) the Proper of the Season; (c) Proper of the Saints; (d) the Common; (e) certain special Offices.它是构建以下内容:(一)诗篇;(二)本赛季正确的;(三)适当的圣人;(四)常见;(五)某些特殊处。

(a) The Psalter(一)的psalter

The Psalter is the most ancient and the most venerable portion of the Breviary.诗篇是最古老和最古老的部分的祈祷书。It consists of 150 psalms, divided in a particular way, to be described later.它由150诗篇一种特殊的方式划分,稍后会做介绍。 These psalms formed the groundwork of the Liturgy of the Jews for twelve centuries before Christ, and He certainly made use of these formularies for His prayers, and quoted them on several occasions.这些诗篇形成了犹太人的礼仪12世纪基督之前的基础,他肯定使用这些处方为他祈祷,并多次引述。The Apostles followed His example, and handed down to the Christian Churches the inheritance of the Psalter as the chief form of Christian prayer.使徒们跟随他的榜样,和传世基督教教会为主要形式的基督教祈祷的psalter的继承。The Church has carefully preserved them during the lapse of centuries and has never sought to replace them by any other formularies.教会小心翼翼地维护他们在时隔百年,也从未试图取代任何其他的处方。Attempts have been made from time to time to compose Christian psalms, such as the Gloria in excelsis , the Te Deum , the Lumen Hilare , the Te Decet Laus , and a few others; but those which the Church has retained and adopted are singularly few in number.从时间,以时间来撰写基督教的诗篇,如在excelsis凯莱德Deum,管腔Hilare,TE Decet劳什 ,和其他几个人已经作出努力,但保留,并通过教会的奇异数在数量上。The rhythmic hymns date from a period later than the fourth and fifth centuries, and at best hold a purely secondary place in the scheme of the Office.有节奏的赞美诗日期从一个期限比第四和第五世纪以后,最好持有一个纯粹的次要地位,在该办公室的计划。Thus the Book of Psalms forms the groundwork of Catholic prayer; the lessons which fill so important a place in this prayer are not, after all, prayer properly so called; and the antiphons, responsories, versicles, etc., are but psalms utilized in a particular manner.因此诗篇形式天主教祈祷的基础;的教训,填补在这个祷告如此重要的地方都没有,毕竟,所谓正确的祈祷; antiphons,responsories,versicles,等等,但诗篇利用以特殊方式。

In the Breviary, however, the Psalter is divided according to a special plan.然而,在祈祷书,诗篇分为专项规划。In the earliest period the use of the Book of Psalms in the Office was doubtless exactly similar to that which prevailed amongst the Jews.在最早的时间内,在办公室的诗篇图书的使用无疑是完全类似,其中包括犹太人普遍存在。The president of the choir chose a particular psalm at his own will.合唱团的主席,在他自己的意志选择了一个特定的诗篇。Some psalms, such as xxi, seem specially appropriate to the Passion.一些诗篇,如XXI,似乎特别适合的激情。Another was adapted to the Resurrection, a third suited the Ascension, while others again are specially referable to the Office of the Dead.另一个是适应的复活,第三个适合的阿森松岛,而其他人又是专门乃死者的办公室。Some psalms provide morning prayers, others those for night.一些诗篇提供晨祷,其他那些夜间。But the choice was left in the hands of the bishop or president of the choir.但选择留在合唱团的主教或总裁手中。Later, probably from the fourth century, certain psalms began to be grouped together, to respond to the divers requirements of the Liturgy.后来,可能是从第四世纪,某些诗篇开始组合在一起,以应对的礼仪要求的潜水员。

Another cause led to these groupings and arrangements of the Psalter. Some monks were in the habit of reciting daily the whole of the 150 psalms.另一个原因导致的psalter这些集团和安排。 一些僧侣在整个150诗篇每天背诵的习惯 But this form of devotion, apart from lessons and other formularies, occupied so much time that they began to spread the recitation of the entire Psalter over a whole week. 但这种奉献的形式,除了从经验教训和其他处方,占据了这么多时间,他们开始遍布整个诗篇朗诵了整整一个星期By this method each day was divided into hours, and each hour had its own portion of the Psalter. From this arrangement arose the idea of dividing the Psalter according to specially devised rules. 通过这种方法,每一天分成几个小时,每个小时有其自己的psalter部分。出现这样的安排,根据专门设计的规则划分的psalter的想法。 St. Benedict was one of the earliest to set himself to this task, in the sixth century.圣本笃是最早给自己定下这个任务之一,在第六世纪。In his Rule he gives minute directions how, at that period, the psalms were to be distributed at the disposition of the abbot; and he himself drew up such an arangement.在他的统治,他给如何,在此期间,诗篇分布在处置方丈分钟的方向,而他自己制定了这样的安排。Certain psalms were set apart for the night offices, others for Lauds, others for Prime, Terce, Sext, and None, others for Vespers and Compline.除了夜间办事处,其他赞扬他人为总理,Terce,SEXT,和“无”,晚祷和Compline其他某些诗篇。

It is a subject of discussion amongst liturgists whether this Benedictine division of the psalms is anterior or posterior to the Roman Psalter.这是一个主题的讨论,其中包括liturgists这是否诗篇的本笃会司前路或后路罗马诗篇。Although it may not be possible to prove the point definitely, still it would seem that the Roman arrangement is the older of the two, because that drawn up by St. Benedict shows more skill, and would thus seem to be in the nature of a reform of the Roman division.虽然它可能无法证明这一点肯定,它仍然似乎,罗马的安排是两个年纪大了,因为由圣本笃显示更多的技能,因此似乎是在一个性质改革的罗马分裂。 In any case, the Roman arrangement of the Psalter reaches back to a hoary antiquity, at least to the seventh or eight century, since when it has not undergone any alteration.在任何情况下,罗马安排的psalter达到一个苍老的古风,至少在第七,八世纪时,它并没有经过任何改动,因为。 The following is its disposition.以下是其配置。

Psalms i-cviii are recited at Matins, twelve a day; but Sunday Matins have six more psalms divided between the three nocturns.诗篇我cviii背诵在晨祷,每天十二,但周日晨祷有六个诗篇分为三个nocturns之间。Thus:因此:

The psalms omitted in this series, namely, iv, v, xxi-xxv, xlii, l, liii, lxii, lxiv, lxvi, lxxix-xcii, and xciv, are, on account of their special aptitude, reserved for Lauds, Prime, and Compline.在这一系列的诗篇省略,即四,五,二十一世纪,XXV,XLII,L,LIII,LXII,LXIV,LXVI,LXXIX xcii,并XCIV,其特殊的性向,为总理的赞扬,保留Compline。

The series, from Ps.PS系列。cix to Ps.CIX聚苯乙烯。Cxlvii inclusively, are used at Vespers, five each day, except Psalms cxvii, cxviii, and cxlii, reserved for other hours.Cxlvii(含),用于在晚祷,五每天,除了诗篇cxvii cxviii,和cxlii保留其他时间。 The last three, cxlviii, cxlix, and cl, which are specially called the psalms of praise (Laudes), because of the word Laudate which forms their leitmotiv, are always used in the morning Office, which thus gets its name of Lauds.过去三年,cxlviii,cxlix,CL,这是专门称为诗篇赞美(Laudes),因为这个词Laudate形式其主旨,总是在早晨办公室,从而得到它的名字的赞扬。

A glance at the above tables will show that, broadly speaking, the Roman Church did not attempt to make any skilful selection of the psalms for daily recitation.瞄了一眼在上述表将显示,从广义上讲,罗马天主教会没有试图作出任何娴熟的选择每天背诵的诗篇。She took them in order as they came, except a very few set apart for Lauds, Prime, and Compline, and selected Ps.她为了,因为他们来了,除了极少数除了赞扬,总理,并Compline,所选诗篇。cxviii for the day hours. cxviii为小时。Other Liturgies, as the Ambrosian, the Mozarabic, and the Benedictine, or monastic, have Psalters drawn up on wholly different lines; but the respective merits of these systems need not be here discussed.其他礼仪安布罗,莫扎拉布素歌,本笃,或寺院,有完全不同的线条Psalters;但这些系统各自的优点,不需要在这里讨论。 The order of the ferial Psalter is not followed for the festivals of the year or for the feasts of saints; but the psalms are selected according to their suitableness to the various occasions.平日诗篇不遵守秩序是今年的节日或为圣人的节日,但诗篇是根据他们suitableness在各种场合。

The history of the text of this Psalter is interesting.这诗篇的文字的历史很有趣。The most ancient Psalter used in Rome and in Italy was the "Psalterium Vetus", of the Itala version, which seems to have been introduced into the Liturgy by Pope St. Damasus (d. 384).在罗马和意大利最古老的诗篇“Psalterium Vetus”,伊泰莱版本,这似乎已被介绍到礼仪,由罗马教皇圣达玛斯(卒于384)。He it was who first ordered the revision of the Itala by St. Jerome, in AD 383.他是谁首先下令修订伊泰莱圣杰罗姆在公元383年,。On this account it has been called the "Psalterium Romanum", and it was used in Italy and elsewhere till the ninth century and later.在这个帐户上,它被称为“Psalterium Romanum”,它被用来在意大利和其他地方直到第九世纪以后。It is still in use in St. Peter's at Rome, and many of the texts of our Breviary and Missal still show some variants (Invitatory an Ps. xciv, the antiphons of the Psalter and the responsories of the Proper of the Season, Introits, Graduals, Offertories, and Communions).它仍然是在圣彼得在罗马,我们的祈祷书和Missal文本的许多人仍表现出一定的变种(Invitatory一个PS。XCIV,诗篇和正确的季节,Introits responsories antiphons, Graduals,Offertories和圣餐)。The Roman Psalter also influences the Mozarabic Liturgy, and was used in England in the eighth century.罗马诗篇也影响了莫扎拉布素歌礼仪,并在第八世纪在英国。But in Gaul and in other countries north of the Alps, another recension entered into competition with the "Psalterium Romanum" under the somewhat misleading title of the "Psalterium Gallicanum"; for this text contained nothing distinctively Gallican, being simply a later correction of the Psalter made by St. Jerome in Palestine, in AD 392.但在高卢和其他国家的阿尔卑斯山以北,校订“Psalterium Romanum”下“Psalterium Gallicanum”的标题有点误导的竞争进入到另一个;载有这段文字没有鲜明的高卢,只是一个被后来修正诗篇圣杰罗姆在巴勒斯坦,在公元392。 This recension diverged more completely than the earlier one form the Itala; and in preparing it St. Jerome had laid Origen's Hexapla under contribution.这校订分歧完全比早期的一种形式的伊泰莱和圣杰罗姆在准备奠定了奥利的Hexapla下贡献。It would seem that St. Gregory of Tours, in the sixth century, introduced this translation into Gaul, or at any rate he was specially instrumental in spreading its use; for it was this Psalter that was employed in the Divine psalmody celebrated at the much honoured and frequented tomb of St. Martin of Tours.这似乎圣格雷戈里的旅行团,在第六世纪,介绍这个翻译成高卢,或无论如何,他是专门在传播其使用的工具,因为它是这是在受雇于在很多庆祝神唱赞美诗的诗篇荣幸和经常光顾的圣马丁旅游墓。 From that time this text commenced its "triumphal march across Europe".这段文字从那个时候开始其“整个欧洲的凯旋进行曲”。Walafrid Starbo states that the churches of Germany were using it in the eighth century: -- "Galli et Germanorum aliqui secundum emendationem quam Hieronymus pater de LXX composuit Psalterium cantant".Walafrid Starbo国德国教会在第八世纪: - “嘉丽等Germanorum aliqui孔型emendationem华富海欧纳莫斯佩特的LXX composuit Psalterium cantant”。About the same time England gave up the "Psalterium Romanum" for the "Gallicanum".大约在同一时间,英国放弃了“Gallicanum”的“Psalterium Romanum”。The Anglo-Saxon Psalter already referred to was corected and altered in the ninth and tenth century, to make it accord with the "Gallicanum".盎格鲁撒克逊诗篇已经提到的是corected和改变在第九和​​第十世纪,它符合“Gallicanum”。 Ireland seems to have followed the Gallican version since the seventh century, as may be gathered from the famous Antiphonary of Bangor.爱尔兰似乎有遵循自第七世纪的高卢版本,可以从著名的班戈Antiphonary收集。 It even penetrated into Italy after the ninth century, thanks to the Frankish influence, and there enjoyed a considerable vogue.它甚至渗透到了意大利后,在第九世纪,由于法兰克的影响,并享有相当的时尚。After the Council of Trent, St. Pius V extended the use of the "Psalterium Gallicanum" to the whole Church, St. Peter's in Rome alone still keeping to the ancient Roman Psalter.安理会的遄达后,圣皮乌斯V延长使用“Psalterium Gallicanum”全教会,在罗马的圣彼得独自仍保持古罗马诗篇。The Ambrosian Church of Milan has also its own recension of the Psalter, a version founded, in the middle of the fourth century, on the Greek.安布罗教会米兰也其自己的psalter校订,成立一个版本,在第四世纪中叶,在希腊。

(b) The Proper of Season(b)在适当的季节

This portion of the Breviary contains the Office of the different liturgical seasons.这部分的祈祷书包含了不同的礼仪季节的办公室。As is well known, these periods are now thus arranged: Advent, Christmastide, Septuagesima, Lent, Holy Week, paschal time, and the time after Pentecost.众所周知,这些时期因此安排:降临,Christmastide,Septuages​​ima,四旬期,圣周,逾越节的时间,和五旬节之后的时间。 But ony by slow degrees did this division of the liturgical year develop its present form.但慢度ony这一年的礼仪师,发展其目前的形式。It must be traced through its various stages.它必须通过其各个阶段跟踪。It may indeed be said that originally there was no such thing as a liturgical year.它可能确实是说,原本没有这样的事情作为礼仪的一年。Sunday, the day above all of the Eucharistic celebration, is at once the commemoration of the Passion, Death, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ; men spoke of the "Pasch of the Crucifixion", of the "Pasch of the Ressurection" -- pascha staurosimon; pascha anastasimon ; every Sunday was a renewal of the paschal festival.星期日,以上所有的圣体圣事的庆祝的日子,是一次纪念的受难,死亡和复活耶稣基督;男人说话的“复活Pasch”, 受难Pasch” -逾越节staurosimon;复活节anastasimon,每个星期天是一个重建的逾越节节。 It was only natural that on the actual anniversary the feast shouldbe kept with peculiar solemnity, for it was the foremost Christian feast, and the centre of the liturgical year.这是理所当然的,实际周年盛宴shouldbe保持特有的严肃性,因为它是最重要的基督教节日,和中心的礼仪一年。Easter drew in it is train Pentecost, which was fixed as the fiftieth day after the Resurrection; it was the festival commemorating the Descent of the Holy Ghost on the Apostles.复活节提请列车圣灵降临节,复活后50天,这是固定的,它是节日,纪念圣灵使徒的后裔。These fifty days made up an unbroken festival, a Jubilee, a time of joy during which there was no fasting and when penitential exercises were suspended.这50天作出了一个完整的节日,银禧,一个欢乐的时间,在这期间没有空腹和悔罪演习时暂停。These two feasts thus linked together are mentioned by ecclesiastical writers from the second century onwards.这种联系在了一起这两个节日都提到从第二世纪起,教会作家。

Just as Easter was followed by fifty days of rejoicing, so it had its period of preparation by prayer and fasting, from which arose the season of Lent, which, after various changes, commenced finally forty days before Easter, whence its name of Quadragesima. The other rallying-point of the liturgical year is the feast of Christmas, the earliest observance of which is of very remote antiquity (the third century at least).正如复活节之后50天的大喜,祈祷和禁食的准备期,从中产生的四旬期,各种变化后,终于开始复活节前40天,何处其名称Quadragesima。其他的礼仪年的凝聚点圣诞大餐,最早的遵守这些是非常远古(至少三世纪)。 Like Easter, Christmas had its time of preparation, called Advent, lasting nowadays four weeks.复活节,圣诞节一样有它的准备时间,所谓的问世,持久时下四个星期。The remainder of the year had to fit in between these two feasts.今年的其余部分,以适应这两个节日之间。From Christmas to Lent two currents may be observed : into one fell the feasts of the Epiphany and the Purification, and six Sundays after the Epiphany, constituting Christmastide. The remaining weeks after these Sundays fall under the influence of Lent and, under the name of Septuagesima, create a sort of introduction to it, since these three weeks, Septuagesima, Sexagesima, and Quinquagesima, really belong to Lent by reason of their character of preparation and penance.从圣诞节借两个电流可观察一个下跌后顿悟的顿悟净化节日和六个星期日,构成Christmastide剩下的几个星期后,这些星期日下跌的影响下四旬期的名义下, Septuagesima,创建一个排序介绍,这三个星期以来,Septuagesima,Sexagesima Quinquagesima,真正属于他们准备和苦修的字符的原因四旬期。

The long period between Pentecost and Advent, from May to December, still remains to be dealt with.五旬节降临,从5月至12月期间,仍然要处理。A certain number of Sundays cluster round special great festivals, as those of St. John the Baptist (24 June), the holy Apostles Peter and Paul (29 June), St. Lawrence (10 August), and St. Michael (29 September).一定数量的星期日集群一轮特殊的伟大节日,圣若翰(6月24日),圣使徒彼得和保罗(6月29日),圣劳伦斯(8月10日),以及圣迈克尔(9月29日)。 At later date these days, which did not fit very conveniently into the general scheme, tended to disappear, and were absorbed into the common time after Pentecost, made up of twenty-four Sundays, thereby uniting Pentecost with Advent; and thus the cycle of the liturgical year is completed.日后这些天,不适合的总体方案,非常方便,趋于消失,并吸收五旬节之后的共同,由二十四星期日,从而团结与五旬节降临,从而循环礼仪年完成。

The Proper of the Season contains, therefore, the Office of all the Sundays and festivals belonging to it, with special lessons, extracts from the Gospels, and frequently also proper antiphons, responsories, and psalms, adapted to the peculiar character of these different periods.本赛季的正确包含,因此,这些属于它的所有的星期日和节日,具有特殊的经验教训,从福音中提取,也经常适当的antiphons,responsories,和诗篇,适应特殊性质的办公室不同时期。 It is in the composition of this Liturgy that the Roman Church has displayed her gifts of critical judgment, liturgical taste, and theological acumen.它是在显示罗马教会的重要判断,礼仪的味道,和神学敏锐性她的礼物,这个礼仪的组成。The difference in the character of these periods may be studied in such works as Dom Guéranger's "Liturgical Year".在这些时期的性格差异可能是研究大教堂Guéranger的“礼仪年”等作品。

(c) Proper of the Saints(三)适当的圣人

Following on the Proper of the Season comes in the Breviary the Proper of the Saints, that is to say, that part which contains the lessons, psalms, antiphons, and other liturgical formularies for the feasts of the saints.对本赛季的正确以下的祈祷书正确的圣徒,也就是说,该部分包含的教训,诗篇,antiphons,和其他圣人的节日礼仪处方。 In reality this Proper commemorates a very large number of saints who find mention in the ecclesiastical Calendar; this, however, meed not be given here, as it can easily be consulted.在现实中适当纪念一个非常大的数字,发现提到在教会日历的圣人;这一点,但是,MEED没有得到这里,因为它可以很容易地进行协商。 But it may be noted that the greater number of the days of the year -- at least nine-tenths - are appropriated to special feasts; and the question has therefore been seriously debated, every time a movement for the reform of the Breviary has arisen, as to how to save the Divine Office from being overwhelmed by these feasts, and as to how to restore to the ferial Office its rightful ascendancy.但它可能会注意到,今年的日子较多 - 至少有十分之九 - 拨特殊的节日;的问题,因此受到了严重的辩论,每次出现的祈祷书的改革运动至于如何保存神圣的办公室被这些节日不堪重负,如何恢复到平日的办公室其应有的优势。 This is not the place for the discussion of such a problem; but it may be said that this invasion of the Proper of the Season has reached such proportions imperceptilbly.这是不是这样一个问题的讨论;,但可以说,这在本赛季正确的入侵,已经达到了这样的地步imperceptilbly。 It was not always thus; in the beginning, up to the seventh, and even up to ninth, century, the feasts of saints observed in the Breviary were not numerous, as may be proved by comparing modern Calendars with such ancient ones as may be seen in "An Ancient Syrian Martyrology", "Le calendrier de Philocalus", "Martyrologium Hieronymianum", "Kalendarium Carthaginense".它并不总是因此,在开始时,到第七,甚至上升到第九世纪,观察圣人的祈祷书的节日并不多,可能是通过比较现代这种古老的日历可证明看到“一个古老的叙利亚Martyrology”,“乐calendrier DE Philocalus”,“Martyrologium Hieronymianum”,“Kalendarium Carthaginense”。 These Calendars contain little more than the following list, beyond the great festivals of the Church:这些日历中含有比下面的列表,超越教会的伟大的节日:

(d) The Common(四)共同

Under this designation come all the lessons, Gospels, antiphons, responsories, and versicles which are not reserved to a special occasion, but may be employed for a whole group of saints.在此指定所有的经验教训,福音,antiphons,responsories,不保留一个特殊的场合,但可能被聘用为整个集团的圣人versicles。 These Commons are those of Apostles, Evangelists, Martyrs, Confessors Pontiffs, Confessors non-Pontiffs, Abbots, Virgins, and Holy Women.这些风景是那些非教宗使徒,福音,烈士陵园,忏悔教宗,忏悔,方丈,处女,和圣洁的妇女。 To these may be added the Offices of the Dedication of the Churches, and of the Blessed Virgin.这些可能教会的奉献精神的办事处,和圣母。The Office of the Dead occupies a place apart.除了死者的办公室占据了一席之地。It is most difficult to fix the origin of these Offices.这是最困难的解决这些办事处的起源。The most ancient seem to belong to the ninth, the eighth, and even the seventh century, and through special formularies may even date still further back.最古老的似乎属于第八,第九,甚至第七世纪,并通过特殊的处方,甚至可能进一步回日期。To give one example, the antiphons of the Common of Martyrs in paschal time, "Sancti tui, Domine, florebunt sicut lilium, et sicut odor balsami erunt ante te", "Lux perpetua lucebit sanctis tuis, Domine et Aeternitas temporum", are taken from the Fourth Book of Esdras (apocryphal), which was rejected almost everywhere about the end of the fourth century; these verses, therefore, must probably have been borrowed at a period anterior to that date.举一个例子,在逾越节的时间烈士共同antiphons,“Sancti TUI,Domine,florebunt sicut百合,等sicut气味balsami erunt事前TE”,“力士perpetua lucebit sanctis tuis,Domine等Aeternitas temporum”,采取埃斯德拉斯(猜测),几乎随处可见被否决的第四个世纪结束的第四本书,这些经文,因此,必须可能被借用在该日期前一个时期。 Probably, also, in the very beginning, the most ancient of these Common Offices were Proper Offices, and in some of them special features supporting this supposition may be noticed.也或许,在一开始,这些常见的办事处最古老适当的办事处,并在其中一些特殊的功能,支持这一假设可能会注意到。Thus, the Common of Apostles is apparently referable to the Office of Sts.因此,常见的是使徒显然乃STS办公室。 Peter and Paul and must bave been adapted later for all the Apostles.彼得和保罗的,必须bave被改编后,所有的使徒。Such versicles as the following in the Common of Martyrs: "Volo, Pater, ut ubi ego sum, illic sit et minister meus", "Si quis mihi ministraverit, honorificabit illum Pater meus", seem to point to a martyr-deacon ( diakonos , minister), and may perhaps specially refer to St. Lawrence, on account of the allusion to the words of his Acts: "Quo, sacerdos sancte, sine ministro properas?"如以下的烈士共同versicles:“Volo,佩特,UT UBI自我总结,illic坐下等部长meus”,“泗quis mihi ministraverit,honorificabit ILLUM佩特meus”,似乎指向一个烈士的执事(diakonos部长),也许特别是指圣劳伦​​斯河,帐户的典故,他的行为的话:“?现状,sacerdos sancte,正弦ministro properas”Also, the numerous allusions to a crown or a palm in these same antiphons refer without doubt to the holy martyrs, Stephen, Lawrence, and Vincent, whose names are synonyms for the crown and laurel of victory.此外,毫无疑问,这些相同antiphons的一顶王冠或手掌众多的典故是指是圣洁的烈士,斯蒂芬劳伦斯,和文森特,其名称为冠,月桂胜利的同义词。 The details necessary for the proof of this hypothesis could only be given in a fuller treatise than this; suffice it to say that from the literary standpoint, as from that of archæology or liturgy, these Offices of the Common contain gems of great artistic beauty, and are of very great interest.只能给予必要的细节,为证明这一假说比这更充分的论述,我只想说,从文学的角度来看,从考古或礼仪,这些办事处共同包含的伟大的艺术之美的宝石,是很大的兴趣。

(e) Special Offices(e)特别办事处

The Office of the Blessed Virgin, also very ancient in some of its parts, is of great dogmatic importance; but students of this subject are referred to the Rev. EL Taunton's "The Little Office of Our Lady".圣母的办公室,也很古老,它的某些部分,是伟大的教条式的重要性,但这个问题的学生被称为牧师EL陶顿的“我们的夫人的小办公室”。

The Office of Dead is, without a shadow of doubt, one of the most venerable and ancient portions of the Breviary, and deserves a lengthy study to itself.办公室的死是没有疑问的阴影,祈祷书的最古老的古代部分之一,值得一个漫长的研究本身。The Breviaries also contain Offices proper to each diocese, and certain special Offices of modern origin, which, consequently, need not here detain us. Breviaries也包含适当处各教​​区,现代的起源和某些特殊的办公室,其中,因此,不需要在这里扣留我们。

III.三。THE HOURS时时刻刻

The prayer of the Breviary is meant to be used daily; each day has its own Office; in fact it would be correct to say that each hour of the day has its own office, for, liturgically, the day is divided into hours founded on the ancient Roman divisions of the day, of three hours apiece -- Prime, Terce, Sext, None, and Vespers, and the night Vigils.祈祷的祈祷书是每天使用,每一天都有自己的办公室,事实上,它会正确地说,每天的每个小时有自己的办公室,为liturgically,这一天是分为建立在小时每三个小时,一天古罗马部门 - 总理,Terce,SEXT,无,和晚祷,和晚上守夜。In conformity with this arrangement, the Office is portioned out into the prayers of the night vigils, that is to say Matins and Lauds.按照这项安排,办公室是分份到晚上守夜,也就是说晨祷和赞扬祈祷。Matins itself is subdivided into three nocturns, to correspond with the three watches of the night: nine o'clock at night, midnight, and three o'clock in the morning. The office of Lauds was supposed to be recited at dawn. The day offices corresponded more or less to the following hours: Prime to 6 AM, Terce to 9 AM, Sext to midday, None to 3 PM, Vespers to 6 PM It is necessary to note the words more or less , for these hours were regulated by the solar system, and therefore the length of the periods varied with the season.晨祷本身分为三个nocturns,以符合三个手表的夜晚:。晚上9时许,午夜,凌晨3时许赞扬办公室应该是在黎明背诵这一天办事处对应或多或少地时间如下: 总理到6日上午,Terce上午9时,SEXT到中午,没有晚祷时至下午3时,到下午6点要注意的话或多或少 ,这几个小时内,受太阳能系统,因此,随季节变化的时期长度。

The office of Compline, which falls somewhat outside the above division, and whose origin dates later than the general arrangement, was recited at nightfall.入夜Compline,有所下降外上述分工,其起源日期不迟于一般安排,办公室是背诵。Nor does this division of the hours go back to the first Christian period.这也不小时的分工回到第一个基督教时期。So far as can be ascertained, there was no other public or official prayer in the earliest days, outside the Eucharistic service, except the night watches, or vigils, which consisted of the chanting of psalms and of readings from Holy Scripture, the Law, and the Prophets, the Gospels and Epistles, and a homily.到目前为止能够确定的,有没有其他的公共或官方的祈祷在最早的天,圣体圣事服务外,除夜间手表,或守夜,其中包括诵诗篇和圣经,法读数,先知,福音和书信,讲道。 The offices of Matins and Lauds thus represent, most probably, these watches.因此,晨祷并赞扬办事处代表,最有可能的是,这些手表。 It would seem that beyond this there was nothing but private prayer; and at the dawn of Christianity the prayers were said in the Temple, as we read in the Acts of the Apostles.这似乎是超出了这个没有什么,但私人祈祷;和基督教的曙光祈祷说,在寺庙,正如我们在使徒行传读。The hours equivalent to Terce, Sext, None, and Vespers were already known to the Jews as times of prayer and were merely adopted by the Christians.小时相当于Terce,SEXT,无,和晚祷已知的犹太人祈祷的时候,只是基督徒通过。At first meant for private prayer, they became in time the hours of public prayer, especially when the Church was enriched with ascetics, virgins, and monks, by their vocation consecrated to prayer.起初私人祈祷的意思,他们成为在公开祈祷的时间,尤其是当堂丰富的修道者,处女,和僧侣奉献祈祷他们的职业。From that time, ie from the end of the third century, the monastic idea exercised a preponderant influence on the arrangement and formation of the canonical Office.从那时起,即从第三世纪的结束,寺院的主意行使规范办公室的安排,并形成优势的影响。It is possible to give a fairly exact account of the establishment of these Offices in the second half of th fourth century by means of a document of surpassing importance for the history we are now considering: the "Peregrinatio ad Loca Sancta", written about AD 388, by Etheria, a Spanish abbess.它可以给一个相当确切的帐户,这些办事处的成立,在第四世纪的第一个超越历史的重要性文件,我们现正考虑下半年:“Peregrinatio广告罗卡Sancta”,大约在公元书面388,由Etheria,西班牙女修道院院长。 This narrative is specifically a description of the Liturgy followed in the Church of Jerusalem at that date.这种叙述是专门于该日在耶路撒冷教会的礼仪的描述。

The Offices of Prime and Compline were devised later, Prime at the end of the fourth century, while Compline is usually attributed to St. Benedict in the sixth century; but it must be acknowledged that, although he may have given it its special form for the West, there existed before his time a prayer for the close of the day corresponding to it.总理和Compline办公室制定后,总理在第四世纪结束,而Compline通常归因于圣本笃在第六世纪,但必须承认,虽然他可能给它的一种特殊形式为西,存在对应的一天结束之前,他祈祷。

IV.四。COMPONENT PARTS OF THE OFFICE办公室的组成部分

Each of the hours of the Office in the Roman Liturgy is composed of the same elements: psalms (and now and then canticles), antiphons, responsories, hymns, lessons, versicles, little chapters, and collects (prayers).在罗马礼仪办公室的每个小时,是由相同的元素:诗篇(现在再canticle的),antiphons,responsories,赞美诗,教训,versicles,小章节,并收集(​​祈祷)。

A few words must be said about each of these elements from the particular point of view of the Breviary.从特定点的祈祷书的每个元素必须说几句话。

(a) Psalms and Canticles(一)诗篇和canticle的

Nothing need here be added to what has already been said in section II concerning the psalms, except that they are used in the Breviary sometimes in order of sequence, as in the ferial Offices of Matins and Vespers, sometimes by special selection, independently of the order of the Psalter, as in Lauds, Prime, Compline, and, in general, in the Offices of the Saints and other feasts.这里没有什么需要添加到已经在第二节说的诗篇,但他们有时在祈祷书顺序,在晨祷和晚祷平日办事处,由特别选拔有时,独立的的psalter秩序,在赞扬总理,Compline,在一般情况下,在圣人和其他节日办事处。 Another point of notice in the composition of the Roman Office is that it allows of the inclusion of a certain number of canticles, or songs, drawn from other portions of Holy Writ than the Psalter, but put on the same footing as the psalms.通知的另一点是在罗马办公室的组成,它允许一定数量的canticle的,或来自令状神圣的psalter比其他部分的歌曲,列入,但同样的基础上的诗篇。 These are: the Canticle of Moses after the passage of the Red Sea (Exodus, xv); the Canticle of Moses before his death (Deut., xxxii); the Prayer of Anne the mother of Samuel (I Kings, ii); the Prayer of Jonas (Jon., ii); the Canticle of Habacuc (Habacuc, iii); the Canticle of Ezechias (Is., xxxviii); The Benedicite (Dan., iii, lii); lastly, the three canticles drawn from the New Testament: the Magnificat, the Benedictus, and the Nunc dimittis.它们是:摩西红海(出埃及记“,XV)通过后的颂歌,颂歌在他的死亡之前摩西(申命记三十二);撒母耳的母亲(王二)安妮的祈祷; (Jon.二)若祈祷的颂歌Habacuc(Habacuc三);颂歌埃泽希亚(以赛亚书,XXXVIII); Benedicite(但以理书,三,LII);最后,从三个canticle的绘制新约:尊,Benedictus,NUNC dimittis。

This list of canticles coincides more or less with those used in the Greek church.恰逢此canticle的清单与希腊教会使用的或多或少。St. Benedict admits these canticles into his Psalter, specifically stating that he borrows them from the Church of Rome, and thus providing a further argument for the priority of the Roman Office over the monastic.圣本笃承认这些canticle的到他的诗篇,特别指出,他借用他们从罗马教会,从而在寺院的罗马办公室的优先次序提供进一步的论据。

(b) Antiphons(二)Antiphons

The antiphons which are read nowadays in the Breviary are abridged formularies which almost always serve to introduce a psalm or canticle.时下祈祷书是读antiphons删节处方,这几乎总是为引入诗篇或颂歌。They consist sometimes of a verse taken from a psalm, sometimes of a sentence selected from the Gospels or Holy Scripture, eg "Euge, serve bone, in modico fidelis, intra in gaudium Domini tui"; occasionally they consist of phrases not culled from the Bible, but modelled on its style, ie they are the invention of a liturgical author, for example: "Veni, Sponsa Christi,accipe coronam, quam tibi Dominus præparavit in æternum".他们组成有时采取从诗篇一首诗,有时从福音或圣经,如“Euge,服务modico菲德利斯,在gaudium多米尼TUI内骨”,选定一个句子;他们偶尔从宰杀的短语组成圣经,但其风格为蓝本,也就是说,它们是一个礼仪作者的发明,例如:“Veni,Sponsa基督,accipe coronam,华富提比Dominus æternum præparavit”。Originally, the meaning of the word, and the function fulfilled by the antiphon, was not what it is now.原来,这个词的含义,和安提履行的功能,是不是现在。Although it is difficult to determine precisely the origin and purport of the term, it seems that it is derived from antiphona ( antiphone ) or from the adjective antiphonos , and that it signified a chant by alternate choirs.虽然很难准确地确定一词的起源和旨趣,似乎这是从antiphona(antiphone)或从形容词antiphonos派生,它标志着由副合唱团诵。 The singers or the faithful were divided into two choirs; the first choir intoned the first verse of a psalm, the second continued with the second verse, the first followed with the third verse, and so on to the end of the psalm.第二个歌手或忠实分为两个合唱团的第一个合唱团第一首诗歌吟诵的一个诗篇,继续第二段,第三段第一,等诗篇结束。The antiphoned chant is thus recitation by two choirs alternately. antiphoned诵是背诵两个合唱团交替。This term has given rise to technical discussions which cannot here be entered into.这个术语已经引起不能在这里订立的技术讨论。

(c) Responsory(三)唱和

Responsory, whose composition is almost the same as that of the antiphon -- verse of a psalm, sentence out of Holy Scripture or of ecclesiastical authorship -- nevertheless differs from it entirely as to the nature of its use in recitation or chant.唱和,其组成几乎是相同的安提的 - 句圣经或教会作者诗句的诗 - 不过它完全不同于其在朗诵或吟诵使用性质。The precentor sang or recited a psalm; the choir or the faithful replied, or repeated either one of the verses or simply the last words of the precentor.领唱人唱,或背诵的诗篇;合唱团或忠实的回答,或重复一方的诗句或简单的领唱的最后一句话。This form, like the antiphon, had already been in use amongst the Jews, and appears even in the construction of certain psalms, as in cxxxv, "Laudate Dominum quoniam bonus", where the refrain, "Quoniam in æternum misericordia ejus", which recurs in each verse, certainly corresponds to a responsory.像安提,这种形式,已经在犹太人之中,并出现甚至在某些诗篇建设cxxxv,“Laudate Dominum quoniam奖金”,不要,“æternum misericordia ejus Quoniam”,这在每个诗的再次出现,肯定对应一个唱和。

(d) Hymns (四)赞美诗

The term hymn has a less definite meaning than those of antiphon or responsory , and in the primitive liturgies its use is somewhat uncertain.长期的赞歌安提唱和的一个不太明确的含义,并在原始礼仪,它的使用是有点不确定。 In the Roman Breviary, at each hour either of the day or of the night there is a little poem in verses of different measures, usually very short.在罗马的祈祷书,无论是白天还是夜间在每个小时有一点点诗在不同的措施,经文,通常很短。This is the hymn.这是赞歌。 These compositions were originally very numerous.这些作品原本非常多。Traces of hymns may be discerned in the New Testament, eg, in St. Paul's Epistles.在新约,如赞美诗的痕迹可看出端倪,在圣保罗的书信。In the fourth and fifth centuries hymnology received a great impetus.在第四和第五世纪hymnology收到了巨大的动力。 Prudentius, Synesius, St. Gregory of Nazianzus, St. Hilary, and St. Ambrose composed a great many. Prudentius,Synesius,圣格雷戈里的nazianzus,圣的书籍,和圣刘汉铨组成一个伟大的多。But it was above all in the Middle Ages that this style of composition most developed, and collections of them were made, filling several volumes.但它是首先在中世纪,这种风格的组成最发达的,他们的集合,填补几卷。 The Roman Breviary contains but a moderate number of hymns, forming a real anthology.罗马祈祷书,但包含一个温和的赞美诗,形成一个真正的文集。Some of them are masterpieces of art.其中有些是艺术杰作。It was at a comparatively late date (about the twelfth century) that the Roman Liturgy admitted hymns into its Breviary.它是在一个相对较晚的日期(约十二世纪),罗马礼仪承认其祈祷书的圣歌。In its primitive austerity it had hitherto rejected them, without, however, condemning their employment in other liturgies.在其原始的紧缩一直拒绝了他们,如果没有,不过,在其他礼仪谴责他们的就业。

(e) Lessons(五)经验

By this term is meant the choice of readings or of extracts in the Breviary, taken either from Holy Writ or from the Acts of the Saints, or from the Fathers of the Church.这个词是选择的读数或提取物中的祈祷书,从圣令状或圣徒的行为,或从教会的神父。Their use is in accordance with the ancient Jewish custom, which, in the services of the Synagogues, enjoined that after the chanting of psalms, the Law and the Prophets should be read.他们的使用是按照古犹太人的习俗,在犹太教堂的服务,责成诵的诗篇,律法和先知后应予以。The primitive Church partly adopted this service of the Synagogue, and thus brought into being the service of the night watches.原始教会部分采用这种服务的犹太教堂,并由此带来了夜间手表服务。But the course of readings was altered; after a lesson from the Old Testament, the Epistles of the Apostles or their Acts or the Gospels were read.但读数的过程中被篡改,从旧约的教训后,被读取的使徒或他们的行为或福音书信。Some Churches somewhat extended this usage; for it is certain that the letters of St. Clement of Rome, of St. Ignatius, and of Barnabas, and the "Pastor" of Hermas were read.一些教会有所延长这种用法;可以肯定的是,圣克莱门特的罗马圣依纳爵,和巴拿巴的字母和“牧师”黑马阅读。Some Churches, indeed, less well instructed, allowed books not wholly orthodox, like the Gospel of Peter, to be read.一些教堂,确实不太好指示,允许书籍并不能完全正统像彼得的福音,要读。In time lists were made out to fixwhat books might be read.时间列出fixwhat书籍可能被读取。Muratori's "Canon" and, still better, the "Decrees of Gelasius" may be studied from this point of view with profit.穆拉托里的“佳能”,并得更好,“法令,格拉西”可能是这点与利润的角度研究。Later on men were not content to confine themselves to the reading of the holy books; certain Churches wished to read the Acts of the Martyrs.后来对男性没有的内容只限于自己读的圣书;某些教会希望阅读烈士的行为。 The Church of Africa, which possessed Acts of great value, signalized itself in this respect.非洲教会,拥有巨大的价值行为,灯号本身在这方面。Others followed its example.其他人跟着它的榜样。When the Divine Office was more developed, probably under monastic influence, it became customary to read, after Holy Writ, the commentaries of the Fathers and of other ecclesiastical writers on the passage of the Bible just previously heard.当神圣的办公室较发达,大概在寺院的影响下,它成为习惯阅读圣经后,只是以前听说过的父亲和其他教会作家通过“圣经”上的评论。 This innovation, which probably began in the sixth, or even in the fifth, century, brought into the Divine Office the works of St. Augustine, St. Hilary, St. Athanasius, Origen, and others.这种创新,可能在第六届开始,甚至在第五世纪,进入神圣的办公室带来了圣奥古斯丁,圣希拉里,圣athanasius,奥利,和其他人的作品。 To these, later, were added those of St. Isidore, St. Gregory the Great, the Venerable Bede, and so on.后,对这些被添加圣伊西多尔,圣格雷戈里大,老贝代,依此类推。This new developmentof the Office gave rise to the compilation of special books.这个新developmentof的办公室给人们带来的特殊书籍汇编。In primitive times the Book of Psalms and the books of the Old Testament sufficed for the Office.在原始时代,旧约诗篇和书籍的书足够的办公室。Later, books were compiled giving extracts from the Old and New Testaments (Lectionary, Gospel, and Epistle Books) for each day and each feast.后来,图书编译提供从旧约和新约的每一天,每一个盛宴(Lectionary,福音,书信,书籍)的提取物。Then followed books of homilies (Homiliaries) -- collections of sermons or of commentaries of the Fathers for use in the Office.然后书的颂歌(Homiliaries) - 布道或在办公室使用的父亲的评论集。All these books should be studied, for they form the constituent elements which later combined into the Breviary.应研究所有这些书,它们形成了后来结合的祈祷书的构成要素。

Further, as regards these lessons, it is well to notice that, as in the case of the psalmody, two lines of selection were followed.此外,至于这些经验教训,这是非常注意的是,在唱赞美诗的情况下,两行选择随访。The first, that of the order of ferial Offices, ensures the reading of the Scripture, from Genesis to the Apocalypse, in sequence; the second, that of the order for feasts of the saints and festivals, breaks in upon this orderly series of readings and substitutes for them a chapter or a portion of a chapter specially applicable to the feast which is being celebrated.第一,平日里处的顺序,确保阅读圣经,从创世记到启示,在序列;第二,是圣人和节日的节日,在休息后,这个读数的有序系列的顺序其中一章或一章中,特别适用于正在庆祝的盛宴的部分替代。

The following is the table of lessons from the Bible.以下是从“圣经”的教训表。In its essential features, it goes back to a very venerable antiquity:在它的本质特征,它可以追溯到一个非常古老的古代:

(f) Versicles and Little Chapters(F)Versicles和小章节

The Capitulum , or Little Chapter, is really a very short lesson which takes the place of lessons in those hours which have no special ones assigned to them.头状花序 ,或小章,是真正需要的时间分配给他们任何特殊的地方的经验教训,在很短的教训。These are: Lauds, Prime, Terce, Sext, None, Vespers, and Compline.它们是:赞扬,总理,Terce,SEXT,没有,晚祷,并Compline。 By reason of their brevity and of their unimportance, they are much less complicated than the longer ones, and no more need here be said about them.其简洁和他们不重要的原因,他们都远远低于较长的复杂,更需要在这里对他们说。 The Versicles belong to the psalmody, like responsories and antiphons; usually they are taken from a psalm, and belong to the category of liturgical acclamations or shouts of joy. Versicles所属的唱赞美诗,像responsories和antiphons,他们通常采取从诗篇,以及属于类礼仪欢呼或喜悦的叫骂声。 They are usually employed after lessons and little chapters, and often take the place of responsories; they are, in fact, brief responsories.他们通常受聘后的经验教训和小章节,而且往往采取responsories地方,他们在事实上,简短responsories,。 The ferial Preces and the Litanies probably belong to the category of versicles.平日Preces和Litanies可能属于的versicles类别。

(g) Collects(七)收集

Collects, also called prayers, are not psalmodic prayers; they are of a completely different character.收集,祈祷,也叫不psalmodic祈祷,他们是一个完全不同的性质。Their place in the Breviary changes little; they come towards the end of the Office, after the psalmody, the lessons, little chapters, and versicles, but preceded by the Dominus vobiscum , and they gather up in a compendious form the supplications of the faithful.其发生的祈祷书变化不大,他们对办公室结束后唱赞美诗,教训,小章节,并versicles,但前面的Dominus vobiscum,他们聚集在一个简明的形式忠实的 ​​恳求。Their historical origin is as follows: During the earliest period, the president of the assembly, usually the bishop, was entrusted with the task of pronouncing, after the psalmody, chants, and litanies, a prayer in the name of all the faithful; he therefore addressed himself directly to God.他们的历史渊源如下:在最早的时间内,大会主席,通常主教,委托宣判的任务,唱赞美诗,圣歌,和litanies后,在所有信徒的名称祈祷;因此,解决自己直接向上帝。 At first this prayer was an improvisation.起初,这祈祷是即兴。The oldest examples are to be found in the Didache ton Apostolon and in the Epistle of St. Clement of Rome, and in certain Epistles of St. Cyprian.要在十二使徒遗训吨Apostolon在圣克莱门特的罗马书信,并在一定的书信圣塞浦路斯发现最古老的例子。 In time, towards the fourth century, collections of prayers were made for those who were not adepts in the art of improvisation; these were the earliest forerunners of Sacramentaries and Orationals, which later occupied so important a place in the history of the Liturgy.迈向第四世纪,随着时间的推移,那些没有即兴的艺术行家祈祷的集合,这些Sacramentaries和Orationals最早的先行者,后来占据如此重要的地方在历史的礼仪。 The Leonine, Gelasian, and Gregorian Sacramentaries form the chief sources whence are drawn the collects of our Breviary.Leonine,Gelasian,和公历Sacramentaries的主要来源何处,是吸引我们的祈祷书收集。 It may be observed that they are of great theological importance, and usually sum up the main idea dominating a feast; hence, in them the significance of a festival is to be sought.它可以观察到,他们是伟大的神学的重要性,通常总结的主要思想主导的盛宴,因此,他们在节日的意义是寻求。

V. HISTORY OF THE BREVIARY五,历史的祈祷书

In the preceding paragraphs, a certain portion of the history of the Breviary, as a choir book at least, has been given.在前面的段落,一个历史的祈祷书的某些部分,作为合唱团的书至少,已发出。At first, there was no choir book, properly so called; the Bible alone sufficed for all needs, for therein were the psalms for recitation and the books which furnished the various lessons.起初,有没有所谓正确的合唱团的书,仅“圣经”满足所有需要,对其中背诵诗篇和提供的各种经验教训的书籍。It is of course most probable that the Psalter is the most ancient choir book; it was published apart to fulfil this special function, but with divisions -- marks to indicate the portions to be read; and at the end were copied out the canticles recited in the Office like the psalms, and sometimes, following each psalm, came one or more prayers.这当然是最有可能的诗篇是最古老的合唱团书;发表除了履行这一特殊功能,但与部门 - 标记,表明要读取的部分,并在年底被复制canticle的背诵像诗篇办公室,有时后,每一个诗篇,来到一个或多个祈祷。A study of manuscript Psalters, which has not as yet been methodically undertaken, would be extremely useful for the Liturgy.手稿Psalters,没有尚未有条不紊地进行,研究将是非常有用的礼仪。Then, little by little, as the canonical Office was evolved, books were drawn up to meet the wants of the day -- Antiphonaries, Collectaria, etc. In the twelfth century John Beleth, a liturgical author, enumerates the books needed for the due performance of the canonical Office, namely: -- the Antiphonary, the Old and New Testaments, the Passionary (Acts of the Martyrs), the Legendary (Legends of the Saints), the Homiliary, or collection of homilies on the Gospels, the Sermologus , or collection of sermons, and the treatises of the Fathers.然后,一点一点,作为典型的办公室演变,书籍绘制,以满足一天的希望 - Antiphonaries,Collectaria等,在十二世纪的约翰Beleth,礼仪作者,列举了由于所需的书籍性能规范的办公室,即: - Antiphonary,旧约和新约,Passionary(烈士的行为),传奇(圣徒的传奇),Homiliary,或收集的福音讲道 ,Sermologus布道,并收集了父亲的论文。In addition to these should be mentioned the Psalterium, Collectarium for the prayers, the Martyrology, etc. Thus, for the recitation of the canonical Office, quite a library was required.除了这些,应提到Psalterium,Collectarium的祈祷,Martyrology,等于是,背诵规范办公室,很需要一个​​图书馆。 Some simplification became imperative, and the pressure of circumstances brought about a condensation of these various books into one.一些简化成了当务之急,和压力的情况下带来的各种书籍凝结成一个。This is the origin of the Breviary.这是祈祷书的起源。The word and the thing it represents appeared -- confusedly, it might be -- at the end of the eighth century.字和它所代表的东西出现 - 稀里糊涂的,它可能是 - 在第八世纪结束。Alcuin is the author of an abridgment of the Office for the laity -- a few psalms for each day with a prayer after each psalm, on an ancient plan, and some other prayers; but without including lessons or homilies.阿尔昆是俗人办公室删节的作者 - 每一天的少数诗篇与祈祷后,每个诗篇,在一个古老的计划,以及其他一些祈祷,但不包括教训或颂歌。It might rather be called a Euchology than a Breviary.而它可能被称为一个比一个祈祷书Euchology。About the same time Prudentius, Bishop of Troyes, inspired by a similar motive, drew up a Breviarium Psalterii. But we must come down to the eleventh century to meet with a Breviary properly so called.大约在同一时间Prudentius,特鲁瓦主教,由一个类似的动机的启发,制定了一个Breviarium Psalterii,但我们必须回落至十一世纪,以满足所谓正确的祈祷书。The most ancient manuscript known as containing within one volume the whole of the canonical Office dates from the year 1099; it comes from Monte Cassino, and at the present time belongs to the Mazarin Library.被称为一个卷内包含整个从1099年度的规范办公室日期的最古老的手稿,它来自蒙特卡西诺,在目前属于马萨林图书馆。 It contains, in addition to other matter which does not concern the present inquiry, the Psalter, canticles, litanies, hymnary, collects, blessings for the lessons, little chapters, antiphons, responsories, and lessons for certain Offices.据载,除了其他事项不涉及本次调查的psalter,canticle的,litanies,hymnary,收集,祝福的教训,小章节,antiphons,responsories,以及某些办事处的经验教训。 Another manuscript, contemporary with the preceding, and also coming from Monte Cassino, contains Propers of the Season and of the Saints, thus serving to complete the first-mentioned one.另一个手稿,当代与前面的,也从蒙特卡西诺,包含Propers的季节和圣徒,从而为完成第一次提到了一个。Other examples of the Breviary exist dating from the twelfth century, still rare and all Benedictine.其他例子的祈祷书存在的历史可以追溯到12世纪,尚不多见,所有的本笃。The history of these origins of the Breviary is still somewhat obscure; and the efforts at research must continue tentatively till a critical study of these manuscript Breviaries has been made on the lines of such workers as Delisle, Ebner, or Ehrensperger, on the Sacramentaries and Missals.这些祈祷书起源的历史,仍然有些模糊;并在研究的努力必须继续暂定到的这些手稿Breviaries的关键研究已迪莱尔,埃布,或Ehrensperger这些工人的Sacramentaries,并Missals。

It was under Innocent III (1198-1216) that the use of Breviaries began to spread outside Benedictine circles.这是根据诺森三世(1198年至1216年),使用Breviaries以外的本笃会各界开始蔓延。At Rome, no longer solely for the Roman Basilicas, but still for the Roman Court alone, Breviaria were drawn up, which, from their source, are called Breviaria de Camerâ , or Breviaria secundum usum Romanæ Curiæ. Texts of this period (beginning of thirteenth century) speak of "Missalia, Breviaria, cæterosque libros in quibus Officium Ecclesiasticum continetur", and Raoul de Tongres specifically refers to this Roman Breviary.在罗马,不再仅仅为罗马大教堂,但仍仅罗马法院,Breviaria制订,其中,从源头,被称为Breviaria的相机 ,或Breviaria孔型usum Romanæ友。文本的这一时期(初13世纪)“Missalia,Breviaria,cæterosque quibus Officium Ecclesiasticum continetur libros”的发言,并拉乌尔格尔具体是指这个罗马祈祷书。 But this use of the Breviary was still limited, and wa a kind of privilege reserved for the Roman Court.但本祈祷书的使用仍然有限,WA罗马法院保留的特权。A special cause was needed to give the use of this Breviary a greater extension.一个特殊原因需要使用本祈祷书更大的扩展。 The Order of Friars Minor, or Franciscans, lately founded, undertook the task of popularizing it.方济会,或方济秩序,最近成立后,进行普法的任务。It was not a sedentary order vowed to stability, like those of the Benedictines or Cistercians,or like the Regular Canons, but was an active, missionary, preaching order.这不是像本笃熙的,或像正常的大炮,发誓久坐秩序的稳定​​,但一个积极的,传道,说教秩序。It therefore needed an abridged Office, convenient to handle and contained in a single volume small enough to be carried about by the Friars on their journeys.因此,它需要一个简化的办公室,方便处理,并在一个单一的体积足够小,可以进行行程的修士中。This order adopted the Breviarium Curiæ with certain modifications which really constitute, as it were, a second edition of this Breviary.为了通过Breviarium友真正构成一定的修改,因为它是一本祈祷书的第二版。It is sometimes called the Breviary of Gregory IX because it was authorized by that pontiff.它有时被称为格雷戈里九的祈祷书,因为它是由教皇授权。One of the chief modifications effected by the Friars Minor was the substitution of the Gallican version of the Psalter for the Roman.由方济会影响行政的修改之一是替代的诗篇罗马高卢版本。The cause was won; this eminently popular and active order spread the use of this Breviary everywhere. Antiphonaries, Psalters, Legendaries, and Responsoraries disappeared by degrees before the advance of the single book which replaced them all. Still more, by a kind of jus postliminii -- a right of resumption -- the Church of Rome, under Nicholas III (1277-80), adopted the Breviary of the Friars not merely for the Curia, but also for the Basilicas; and, as an inevitable consequence, this Breviary was bound, sooner or later, to become that of the Universal Church.原因是韩元,这个突出的流行和活跃秩序到处传播使用本祈祷书Antiphonaries,Psalters,Legendaries和Responsoraries消失之前,单书取代所有之前的程度依然较多, 一种 强制postliminii -恢复权利-根据尼古拉斯三世(1277年至1280年),罗马教会,不只是通过教廷,也为在大教堂的修士的祈祷书,并作为一个不可避免的后果,本祈祷书约束,迟早要成为普世教会。

VI.六。REFORMS OF THE BREVIARY改革的祈祷书

In the preceding sections, the history of the ecclesiatical Office has been unfolded from its inception.在前面的章节,ecclesiatical办公室的历史已经从成立之初展开。If this history could be put into few words, though neccesarily forming an incomplete statement, it might be said that from the first to the fifth century it was in formation; from the fifth to the eleventh century it was in process of development and expansion; and during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries the Breviary properly so called was emerging into being. ,如果这样的历史可分为几句话,虽然不一定形成一个不完整的的语句,它可能会说,从第一至第五世纪,它在形成;从第五至十一世纪的发展和扩张的过程中;在第十二届和第十三届世纪的所谓正确的祈祷书是新兴应运而生。 From then till now (that is, from the fourteenth century onwards) might be termed the period of reform.从那时起至今(即,从14世纪起)可能被称为改革的时期。The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries represent for the Liturgy, as for the greater number of other ecclesiastical institutions, a period of decline, for it is the time of schisms, and in that one word everything harmful is summed up.第十四和第十五世纪代表的礼仪,为其他教会机构的数量,一个衰落期,因为这是分裂的时间,并在总结了一个词一切有害。The few documents that are available for the liturgical history of that time attest this, as, for example, the "Gesta Benedicti XIII" and the "XV Ordo Romanus".的几个文件,当时的礼仪历史证明了这一点,因为,例如,“Gesta Benedicti第十三”和“第15届奥罗马努斯”。Disorder and abuses crept into the Liturgy as into everything else.蹑手蹑脚地到礼仪到一切障碍和虐待。

Dom Bäumer, in his "Histoire du bréviaire", repeatedly points out that it is impossible to separate the history of the Liturgy from the occurrences that make up the general history of the Church, and that the phases through which the general history takes us are reflected in the evolution of the Liturgy.DOM BAUMER,在他的“Histoire杜bréviaire”,一再指出,这是不可能分开的礼仪历史的发生,使教会的一般历史,和一般的历史阶段,通过它把我们反映在礼仪的演变。 It is not surprising, therefore, that the sojourn of the popes at Avignon and the Great Schism have exerted their baneful influence on the history of the Liturgy. ,因此,逗留的教皇在阿维尼翁和大分裂的礼仪历史上施加的恶劣影响,这并不奇怪。And the reaction is still being felt.和反应仍在震感。Raoul de Tongres, who died early in the fifteenth century, was even at that early period a critic and a reformer; in his famous work "De observantiâ Canonum" he agitated for some settlement of liturgical rules.拉乌尔 - 格尔,谁死在15世纪初期,甚至在一个批评家和改革者,初期,在他的著名作品“德observantiâ Canonum”,他为解决一些礼仪规则激动。The "XV Ordo Romanus" already referred to, the work of Amelius, sacristan to Urban V and librarian to Gregory XI, breathes the same idea. “第十五奥罗马努斯”已经提到,Amelius,sacristan工作,市V和馆员格雷戈里十一,呼吸同样的想法。The abuses pointed out by the different authors of the time may be reduced to the following:可减少滥用的时间不同的作者指出以下几点:

The Humanism of the Renaissance, which had its ardent champions even in the Church -- as Bembo, Sadoletus, etc., to say nothing of certain popes -- caused the idea of a special reform of the Breviary, in the direction of greater literary purity and prefection, to be entertained in certain quarters.文艺复兴时期的人文,甚至在教会热心冠军 - 本博,Sadoletus,等,没有说一定教皇 - 造成一个特殊的祈祷书改革的想法,在更大的文艺方向纯度和prefection,在某些方面受理。 Strange schemes were propounded, little in consonance with the spirit of the Church. propounded奇怪的计划,很少在教会的精神相一致。A Florentine canon, Marsiglio Ficino, and Peter Pomponatius, for instance, suggested that the clergy should read the classical authors instead of the Breviary.佛罗伦萨佳能,Marsiglio菲奇诺,和彼得Pomponatius,例如,认为神职人员应该阅读古典作家,而不是祈祷书。 Others, though not going so far as this, thought the diction of the Breviary barbaric, and wanted to translate it into Ciceronian Latin.其他人,虽然不会到目前为止,还以为文辞的祈祷书野蛮,并希望转化为Ciceronian拉丁美洲。The corrections suggested included such astounding phrases as the following: the forgiveness of sins becomes "superosque manesque placare"; the Begetting of the Word was to be "Minerva Jovis capite orta"; the Holy Ghost was "Aura Zephyri coelestis", etc. These attempts failed; nevertheless, at a later date, under Urban VIII, similar Humanist tendencies came again to the surface and this time asserted their power by an emendation of the hymns.更正建议包括以下惊人的警语:赦罪的成为“superosque manesque placare”的Word Begetting是“密涅瓦Jovis capite奥尔塔”圣灵“灵气Zephyri coelestis”等,这些尝试失败,然而,在稍后的日期根据城市第八,类似的人文主义倾向再次来到表面,这个时候宣称他们的力量的赞美诗校正。 Amongst such attempts may be mentioned that of Ferreri.这样的尝试当中,可能会提到的Ferreri,。He was the Bishop of Guarda Alfieri in the Kingdom of Naples, a Humanist, and wrote under the auspices and patronage of Leo X. He began with the hymns.他在那不勒斯,一个以人为本王国的瓜尔达Alfieri主教的主持下,利奥十光顾他的赞美诗开始写。His work, which has been preserved, is interesting and contains some very beautiful pieces, polished in style.有趣的是他的工作,一直保存,并包含一些非常漂亮的作品,在风格上打磨。A good number of them have, unfortunately, nothing more of the spirit of poetry in them than harmony and rhythm; they are wanting in inspiration and above all in the warmth of piety; nearly all are strewn with Pagan names and allusions, representing Christian verities, as "Triforme Numen Olympi" for the Trinity, "Natus Eumolpho Lyricenque Sappho . . . Thracius Orpheus", referring to the Blessed Virgin, etc. Ferreri also busied himself with a revision of the Breviary, but nothing was published, and now no trace of the materials he collected is forthcoming.不幸的是,其中的一个好一些,没有更多的和谐和节奏的诗歌在他们的精神比的,他们希望在高于一切的灵感和在温暖的虔诚,几乎所有与异教的名称和典故散落,代表基督教的真理,作为“Triforme纽曼Olympi”三位一体“​​,Natus Eumolpho Lyricenque萨福。Thracius奥菲斯”,指的是圣母等Ferreri也忙于自己与祈祷书的修订,但没有公布,现在还没有他收集的材料跟踪即将出版。

Another attempt at reform, much better known, and having results of far-reaching importance, was that of Quignonez, Cardinal of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme, who was entrusted by Clement VII with the task of completing the work begun by Ferreri.另一种改革的尝试,但更广为人知,意义深远的结果,Quignonez,枢机主教的圣十字教堂在Gerusalemme,克莱门特七世的委托,完成Ferreri开始工作任务。 He was a Franciscan, and had been successfully employed on various commissions.他是方济各会和各委员会已成功聘用。 His revision was the most original that has ever been attempted, and liturgical experts, like Guéranger, Edmund Bishop, and Bäumer, have studied his labours in detail.他的修订是最原始的,曾经尝试过,Guéranger,埃德蒙主教,BAUMER,礼仪专家,详细研究了他的劳动。 Only the principal points of his scheme can be mentioned here.可这里所说的只有他的计划的主要点。Considered theoretically, it cannot be denied that his Breviary is drawn up on easy, convenient, and logical lines, and, on the whole is felicitously arranged.理论上认为,它不能否认,他的祈祷书是简单,方便,和逻辑行,总体上是felicitously安排。But in the light of tradition and of liturgical principles the only possible verdict in that Quignonez' Breviary, being constructed on a priori principles, violating most of the liturgical rules, must be codemned.但在传统和礼仪原则,Quignonez“祈祷书,正在兴建中的先验原则,违反了大部分的礼仪规则,只有在可能的判决,必须codemned。 The author starts with the theory, contrary to all tradition, that an essential difference exists between the public celebration of the Office and its private recitation.笔者开始的理论,所有的传统相反,公众庆祝的办公室和私人背诵存在本质区别。For private recitation, therfore, all such portions as antiphons, responsories, versicles, little chapters, even hymns may be eliminated, as, according to Quignonez, these are meant solely for choir use.私人背诵,therfore,所有这些部分作为antiphons,responsories,versicles,小章节,甚至赞美诗可能被淘汰,因为,根据Quignonez,这些是专为合唱团使用。 According to his arrangement, the entire Psalter was to be recited once a week -- an excellent idea, in consonance with primitive practice; but it was applied too rigidly and narrowly, for no attention was paid to the suitability of certain psalms to special feasts.根据他的安排,整个诗篇是背诵每周一次 - 在与原始的实践相适应的一个极好的主意,但它过于硬性和狭义没有引起重视,是支付给某些诗篇的适用性的特殊节日。Feasts were never to change the order of the psalms, which were to be recited successively from i to cl.节日从来没有改变的诗篇,这是从我到CL先后背诵顺序。

Every hour had three psalms; and in consequence of this severe regularity, there disappeared the deep and historical motive which gave to each hour its own characteristics.每隔一小时有三个诗篇;在这严重的规律性后果,有消失的深入和历史的动机,给每个小时其自身的特点。 The legends of the saints and the hymns underwent drastic, but designed, revision.传说中的圣人和赞美诗经历了激烈的的,但设计,修订。Another principle, which would be deserving of all praise had it not been applied too rigorously, was that the entire Scriptures should be read through every year.的另一项原则,这将是值得所有赞美它没有被过于严格,是整个圣经每年应通过读。Quignonez' Breviary, as might be expected, met both with enthusiastic approval and with determined opposition.Quignonez“祈祷书,可以预料,会见了以热烈的批准和决定的反对。Its success may be judged from the number of editions through which it passed.通过它传递的版本数量,可以判断它的成功。 The Sorbonne criticized it severely, and other experts declared against Quignonez and attacked his work mercilessly.索邦大学的严厉批评,和其他专家宣布反对Quignonez和无情地攻击他的工作。In the end, opposition proved the stronger, and even popes rejected it.反对到底,证明强,甚至教皇拒绝了。Moreover, it was supplanted by other revisions made on more orthodox liturgical lines, less ambitious in scope, and more in accordance with tradition.此外,它是更正统的礼仪行,不那么雄心勃勃的范围,并按照传统的其他版本所取代。The newly founded Congregation of Theatines applied itself to this task with energy and enthusiasm.新成立的Theatines众应用这项任务的精力和热情。Caraffa, one of its founders, took a share in the work, and when he became pope under the name of Paul IV (1555-59), he continued his labours, but died before seeing their completion, and it was thus reserved to others to bring them to a successful issue. Caraffa,它的创始人之一,参加了一个共享的工作,当他成为教皇保罗四世(1555年至1559年)的名称下,他继续他的劳动力,但之前看到他们完成死亡,并因此,它是保留给他人给他们带来成功的问题。

The Council of Trent, which effected reforms in so many directions, also took up the idea of revising the Breviary; a commission was appointed concerning whose deliberations we have not much information, but it began to make definite inquiries about the subject entrusted to it.影响这么多的方向改革,安理会的遄达,也参加了修改祈祷书的想法,被任命了一个委员会关于其审议,我们并没有太多的信息,但它开始委托给它的有关问题作出明确查询。 The council separated before these preliminaries could be concluded; so it was decided to leave the task of editing a new Breviary in the pope's own hands.会分离这些预赛之前,可以得出结论,因此决定离开编辑在教皇的自己手中的新祈祷书任务。The commission appointed by the council was not dissolved, and continued its investigations.由理事会任命的委员会被解散,并继续调查。St. Pius V, at the beginning of his pontificate (1566), appointed new members to it and otherwise stimulated its activity, with the result that a Breviary appeared in 1568, prefaced by the famous Bull, "Quod a nobis".圣皮乌斯五,教皇在他的开始(1566),任命新的成员,否则刺激其活性,结果,1568年出现的祈祷书,由著名的牛市开头,“狴nobis”。 The commission had adopted wise and reasonable principles: not to invent a new Breviary and a new Liturgy; to stand by tradition; to keep all that was worth keeping, but at the same time to correct the multitude of errors which had crept into the Breviaries and to weigh just demands and complaints.委员会通过了明智和合理的原则:不发明一个新的祈祷书和一个新的礼仪;站在传统;保持所有值得保留,但在同一时间,以纠正许多错误,蹑手蹑脚到Breviaries和权衡的正当要求和投诉。 Following these lines, they corrected the lessons, or legends, of the saints and revised the Calendar; and while respecting ancient liturgical formularies such as the collects, they introduced needful changes in certain details.这些线之后,他们修正的经验教训,或传说,圣人和经修订的“日历”,并同时尊重的收集,如古代的礼仪处方,他们介绍,在某些细节的needful变化。 More intimate accounts of this revision should be studied at length in the approved authorities on the history of the Breviary.此次修订更亲密的帐户应在长度研究,在历史的祈祷书上的批准机关。Here it will be enough to give a short sketch of the chief points affecting this Breviary, as it is substantially the same as that used at this date.在这里,这将是足以让小品的影响本祈祷书的主要点,因为它实质上在此日期所使用的相同。The celebrated Bull of approval, "Quod a nobis" (9 July, 1568), which prefaced it, explains the reasons which had weighed with Rome in putting forth an official text of public prayer, and gives an account of the labours which had been undertaken to ensure its correction; it withdrew the papal approbation from all Breviaries which could not show a prescriptive right of at least two centuries of existence.著名的通报,批准“狴一个nobis”(7月9日,1568),其中开头,说明原因,并提出公开祈祷的正式文本与罗马权衡给出了一个帐户已被劳动承诺,以确保其改正;退出所有Breviaries无法显示指令性权利的存在至少有两个世纪的罗马教皇的认可。 Any Church which had not such an ancient Breviary was bound to adopt that of Rome.任何教会没有这样一个古老的祈祷书是必然采取的罗马。The new Calendar was freed from a large number of feasts, so that the ferial Office was once more accorded a chance of occupying a less obscure position than of late it had.新的日历被释放了大量的节日,使平日办公室再次给予机会占领了比晚了不起眼的位置。At the same time the real foundation of the Breviary -- the Psalter -- was respected, the principal alterations made being in the lessons.在同一时间的祈祷书的现实基础 - 诗篇 - 尊重,主要改建的教训。The legnends of the saints were carefully revised, as also the homilies.圣人legnends进行了认真修改,也讲道。 The work was one not only of critical revision, but also of discriminating conservatism, and was received with general approval.这项工作是一个关键的修订不仅,但也歧视保守主义,并收到普遍的认可。The greater number of the Churches of Italy, France, Spain, Germany, England, and, generally, all the Catholic States, accepted this Breviary, saving only certain districts, as Milan and Toledo, where ancient Rites were retained.意大利,法国,西班牙,德国,英格兰,而且,一般来说,所有的天主教国家,教会更多的接受了这个祈祷书,只保存某些地区,米兰和托莱多,在那里保留了古代礼仪。

This Pian Breviary (Breviarium Pianum), while still remaining the official prayer book of the Universal Church, has undergone certain slight alterations in the course of time, and these must here be noted, but without reference to the new feasts of saints which have been added to the Calendar century by century, even though they occupy a not inconsiderable space in the ecclesiastical disposition of the year.片祈祷书 (Breviarium Pianum),普世教会的同时,仍保持官方的祈祷书,在时间的过程中已经发生了一定的轻微改变,而这些必须在这里指出,但没有参考已圣人的新节日添加到日历世纪的世纪,尽管他们占据一个不可小视的空间,在今年的教会处置。 The chiefest and most important changes were made under Sixtus V. At first the text of the versions of the Bible used in the Liturgy was altered.根据Sixtus五chiefest和最重要的变化,起初的礼仪中使用的“圣经”版本的文本改变。As soon as the revision of the Vulgate undertaken during this pontificate was completed, the new text replaced the old one in all official books, particularly in the Breviary and the Missal.正如尽快修改在此期间教皇完成进行的武加大,新的文本在所有正式的书籍,尤其是在祈祷书的Missal取代旧。Sixtus V instituted a new Congregation -- that of Rites -- 1588, charging it with a study of the reforms contemplated in the Pian Breviary, which had then been in use more than twenty years. Sixtus V设立一个新的毕业典礼 - 礼记 - 1588,充电片的祈祷书,在使用超过20年,当时被拟改革的研究。To him is due the honour of this revision of the Breviary, although till lately it had been ascribed to Clement VIII (1592-1605).他是因修订本的祈祷书的荣誉,但直到最近,它已被归因于克莱门特八(​​1592年至1605年)。 Although the first suggestion came from Sixtus V, nevertheless it was only under Clement VIII that the work was really vigorously pushed forward and brought to a conclusion.虽然第一次的建议Sixtus V了,不过这只是克莱门特八下,这项工作是真正大力推进,并带来了一个结论。The revising committee had as its members such men as Baronius, Bellarmine, and Gavanti.修改委员会Baronius,贝拉明,Gavanti其成员这样的男人。The first-named especially played a most important part in this revision, and the report which he drew up has recently been published.名列首位,特别是发挥在本次修订的一个最重要的部分,他提请的报告,最近已经出版。 The emendations bore especially on the rubrics: to the Common of Saints was added that of Holy Women not Virgins; the rite of certain feasts was altered; and some new feasts were added. emendations孔,尤其是在评鉴指标:是不是处女圣洁的妇女加入圣徒共同改变某些节日的仪式,并增加一些新的节日。The Bull of Clement VIII, "Cum in Ecclesiâ", enjoining the observance of these alterations, is dated 10 May, 1602.克莱门特八,牛市“暨Ecclesia的”,责令遵守这些改变,是5月10日,1602。

Further changes were made by Urban VIII (1623-44).乌尔班八世(1623年至1644年)作了进一步的修改。 The commission appointed by him was content to correct the lessons and some of the homilies, in the sense of making the text correspond more closely with the oldest manuscripts.由他任命的委员会的内容,以正确的经验教训,一些颂歌,使文字更紧密地符合最古老的手稿的意义。There would therefore be no call to treat of this revision under Urban VIII at greater length but for the fact that, outside the work of this commission, he effected a still more important reform, over which even now discussion has not ceased to make itself heard.因此没有调用根据城市第八的调整将在更大的长度,但事实上,本委员会的工作外,他的影响更为重要的改革,甚至现在讨论并未停止,使自己的声音。 It affected the hymns.它影响的赞美诗。Urban VIII, being himself Humanist, and no mean poet, as witness the hymns of St. Martin and of St. Elizabeth of Portugal, which are of his own composition, desired that the Breviary hymns which it must be admitted are sometimes trivial in style and irregular in their prosody, should be corrected according to grammatical rules and put into true metre.城市第八,自己以人为本,并没有意味着诗人,圣马丁和葡萄牙的圣伊丽莎白,自己组成的需要,作为证人的赞美诗,祈祷书的赞美诗,它必须承认有时琐碎的风格和他们的韵律的不规则的,应予以纠正根据语法规则,并投入真正的米。 To this end he called in the aid of certain Jesuits of distinguished literary attainments.为此,他呼吁在某些杰出的文学造诣的耶稣会士的援助。The corrections made by these purists were so numerous -- 952 in all -- as to make a profound alteration in the character of some of the hymns.这些较真的更正,如此众多的 - 952 - 使在一些赞美诗的性格的深刻改变。Although some of them without doubt gained in literary style, nevertheless, to the regret of many, they also lost something of their old charm of simplicity and fervour.虽然其中一些毫无疑问,在获得文学风格,然而,许多的遗憾,他们也失去了其简单性和热情的老魅力的东西。

At the present date [1907], this revision is condemned, out of respect for ancient texts; and surprise may be expressed at the temerity that dared to meddle with the Latinity of a Prudentius, a Sedulius, a Sidonius Apollinaris, a Venantius Fortunatus, an Ambrose, a Paulinus of Aquileia, which, though perhaps lacking the purity of the Golden Age, has, nevertheless, its own peculiar charm.在目前的日期[1907],谴责本次修订,是出于对古代典籍的尊重;可不敢冒然插手一个Prudentius Latinity,Sedulius,Sidonius Apollinaris,Venantius Fortunatus表示惊讶,刘汉铨,一个Aquileia Paulinus,这,虽然可能缺乏纯度的黄金时代,然而,其自身特有的魅力。Even the more barbarous Latinity of a Rhabanus Maurus is not without its archaic interest and value.即使是一个Rhabanus毛鲁斯更野蛮的Latinity也不是没有其过时的利益和价值。Moreover, the revisers were ill-advised inasmuch as they adopted a via media; they stopped half-way.此外,审校是不明智的,因为他们采取了通过媒体,他们停止了中途。If, as it is freely admitted, the Roman Breviary contains many hymns of inferior poetic worth, and whose sentiment is perhaps commonplace, then there is no reason why they should not be eliminated altogether, and replaced by new ones.如果坦率地承认,因为它是,罗马祈祷书包含了许多赞美诗下诗意的价值,并且其情绪也许是司空见惯的,那么有没有为什么他们不应该被完全取消,并更换新的理由。 Many of the older ones, however, were worthy of being preserved just as they stood; and, in the light of the progress made in philology, it is certain that some of the corrections in prosody made under Urban VIII convict their authors of ignorance of certain rhythmic rules, whose existence, it is only right to say, came to be known later.然而,许多上了年纪的,值得被保留下来,就像他们站在;,在语言学方面取得的进展,可以肯定的是,韵律根据城市第八改正一些无知作者定罪一定节奏的规则,其存在,这是唯一正确的说,来到被称为。 However it may be, these corrections have been retained till the present time.但它可能是被保留下来,直到目前,这些更正。 A comparison of the older with the modern text of the hymns may be consulted in Daniel, "Thesaurus Hymnologicus", (Halle, 1841).上了年纪的赞美诗与现代文比较,可查阅在丹尼尔的“词库Hymnologicus”,(哈雷,1841年)。

Nothing further was done under the successors of Urban VIII, except that new Offices were added from time to time, and that thus the ferial Office began again to lose ground.没有进一步根据城市第八的接班人,除了不时添加新的办公室,和,因此,平日的办公室再次开始攻城略地。We must come down to the pontificate of Benedict XIV, in the second half of the eighteenth century, to meet with another attempt at reform; but before doing so, reference must be made to efforts inaugurated in France during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, whose history has been learnedly elucidated in detail by Dom Guéranger in vol.要回落到教皇本笃十四,在下半年的18世纪,以满足与其他改革的尝试,但这样做之前,必须作出努力,在十七,十八世纪在法国开幕,其历史已经learnedly鉴定大教堂Guéranger卷详细。 II of his "Institutions liturgiques", devoted in great part to an account of this struggle.二,他的“机构liturgiques”中的很大一部分投入到这场斗争的帐户,。The Roman Breviary, revised by Pius IV, had been received in France without opposition.罗马祈祷书,碧岳四修订,已收到在法国没有反对。Under Louis XIV, however, attempts at revision were made, inspired by a spirit of resistance and antagonism to the Roman Court.然而,在路易十四,在修订的尝试,灵感来自罗马法院的阻力和对抗的精神。They took form amongst the two parties which made open profession of Gallicanism and Jansenism.他们把Gallicanism和詹森开放专业两党之间的形式。The supporters of this reform, several of whom were men of learning and culture, were aided by the historical and critical works which at that time were being poured forth in France, so that in these projects for the reform of the Breviary, side by side with rash suggestions, there were many which were both useful and well judged.这项改革的支持者,其中一些人的学习和文化的人,被资助的历史和批判的作品,这在当时被浇在法国提出的,因此,在改革的祈祷书,并排这些项目皮疹的建议,有很多都是有用的,以及判断。 One of the first schemes was that of the Paris Breviary, mooted in 1670 and pursued under the patronage of Archbishops Hardouin de Péréfixe and de Harlay.第一个计划之一,是巴黎祈祷书,于1670年提出大主教Hardouin DE Péréfixe的载客量和DE Harlay下追求。The Breviary called after de Harlay appeared in 1680.DE Harlay后所谓的祈祷书出现于1680年。 The corrections it embodied affected in particular the legends of the saints and the homilies, but numerous other parts were also touched.它特别体现在影响更正的圣人的颂歌,但许多其他地区的传说也被感动了。The details and the examination of them may best be studied in Dom Guéranger's pages.在大教堂Guéranger的网页,其中的细节和考试,最好进行研究。Although it might have seemed that the Breviary had by then been sufficiently emended, in the following century another Archbishop of Paris, Monseigneur de Vintimille, had another Breviary drawn up, which was published in 1736, and remained in use till the middle of last century.虽然它可能似乎祈祷书已得到充分emended的,在下一世纪的另一个巴黎大主教,大人Vintimille,已制定了另一个祈祷书,这是在1736年出版,并仍然在使用,直到上个世纪中叶。 It partly embodied what is called the "liturgical Utopia of Quignonez".部分,它体现的是所谓“Quignonez礼仪乌托邦”。Its source, however, was not above suspicion, for some of those who had laboured at its production were Jansenists.然而,它的来源,没有上述怀疑,那些在其生产吃力一些詹森。This reform, while not wanting in sound ideals, was carried out, however, regardless of liturgical traditions.这项改革,而不是要在健全的理想,进行了,但是,无论礼仪传统。

What had been going on in Paris had its counterpart in other dioceses of France, where new Breviaries were were introduced, for the most part inspired by the ideas which had dominated those of de Harlay and of Vintimille.已在巴黎,在法国,在新的Breviaries引入其他教区的对口,大部分DE Harlay和Vintimille为主的思想的启发。A reaction against these broke out in France between 1830 and 1840, having for its leader a Benedictine monk, Dom Guéranger, Abbot of Solesmes and an eminent liturgist, who, in his "Institutions liturgiques", arraigned the new Breviaries, exposed the mistakes underlying their construction, and proved that their authors had acted without warrant.对这些反应发生在法国,1830年和1840年之间,及其领导人本笃会僧侣,DOM Guéranger,住持索莱姆和一位杰出的liturgist的人,在他的“机构liturgiques”,提审新Breviaries,暴露的错误底层他们的建设,事实证明,它们的作者有没有手令的情况下采取行动。 His onslaught met with immediate success for in twenty years the greater number of the dioceses gave up their Gallican Breviaries and adopted once more the Roman Liturgy.他的冲击会见教区放弃了自己的高卢Breviaries和罗马礼仪再次通过与在20年的直接的成功。The exact figures are as follows: in 1791 eighty dioceses had rejected the Roman Liturgy and had fashioned special liturgies for themselves; in 1875 Orléans, the last French diocese which had retained its ownliturgy re-entered Roman liturgical unity.确切的数字如下:八十教区在1791年拒绝了罗马的仪式,并为自己塑造的特殊礼仪; 1875年奥尔良,法国的最后保留了其ownliturgy重新进入罗马礼仪团结的教区。

While France, during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, was letting herself be carried away in the reform of her Breviaries by Gallican and Jansenist leanings, other countries were following in her wake.而法国,在十七,十八世纪,是让自己被她Breviaries gallican和詹森主义倾向的改革,其他国家则在她的身后。In Italy, Scipio Ricci, Bishop of Pistoia, an ardent Jansenist, drew up a new Breviary, and certain districts of Germany adopted the same course, with the result that Breviaries modelled on those of France appeared at Trier, Cologne, Aachen, Mnnster, and Mainz; and it was long before Germany returned to liturgical unity.皮斯托亚,殷切的詹森主义,主教西皮奥利玛窦,在意大利,制定了一个新的祈祷书,和德国的某些地区采用相同的结果当然,仿照法国的Breviaries出现在特里尔,科隆,亚琛,Mnnster美因茨;是很久以前德国返回礼仪团结。

While the Jansenists and Gallicans were creating a new Liturgy, Prosper Lambertini, one of the most learned men in Rome, who became pope under the name of Benedict XIV, determined to copy the example of some of his predecessors, and to carry out a further reform of the Breviary.虽然詹森和Gallicans创建一个新的礼仪,亨通蓝波提尼,在罗马教皇本笃十四名下,谁成为了最有学问的人之一,决心要复制他的一些前辈的例子,并进行进一步改革的祈祷书。 A congregation was instituted for the special purpose; its papers, for long unedited, have of late years been gone through by MM.一众被设立为特殊用途,长期未经编辑的文件,晚年一直走的MM。Roskovány and Chaillot, each of whom has published considerable portions of them. Roskovány和夏佑,每个人已经出版了其中的相当部分。The first meeting of the congregation was in 1741, and the discussions which took place then and later are of interest from the liturgist's point of view, but need not detain us.众的第一次会议于1741年,以及之后的讨论中发生的利益liturgist的观点,但不必扣留我们。Although this project of reform came to nothing, nevertheless the work accomplished by the congregation was of real value and reflects credit on its members, some of whom, like Giorgi, were eminent liturgists.虽然这个项目的改革石沉大海,不过众所完成的工作是真正的价值,并反映其成员的信贷,其中一些人Giorgi一样,是杰出的liturgists。 Future workers in this department of learning will have to take account of their collections.未来的工人将在本部门的学习,利用自己的藏品帐户。After the death of Benedict XIV (4 May, 1758) the labours of this congregation were suspended and were never again seriously resumed.经过本笃十四(1758年)5月4日,这个教会的劳作被停职,并从来没有再次认真恢复死刑。 Since Benedict XIV's time changes in the Breviary have been very few, and of minor importance, and can be outlined in a few words.由于本笃十四的时间变化的祈祷书已经很少,和轻微的重要性,并可以在概述了几句。Under Pius VI the question of a reform of the Breviary was brought up once more.在庇护六世的改革的祈祷书问题再次长大。By that pontiff's orders a scheme was drawn up and presented to the Congregation of Rites, but it was found impossible to overcome the difficulties which surrounded an undertaking of this kind.,教皇的订单计划制订,并提交给众礼记,但它被发现无法克服的困难,包围这种承诺。In 1856 Pius IX appointed a commission to examine the question: is the reform of the Breviary opportune?庇护九世于1856年任命了一个委员会来审查这个问题:是改革的祈祷书的时机?But again only preliminary matters engaged their attention.但同样只是初步的事项从事他们的注意力。Amongst the Acts of the Vatican Council a series of propositions are to be found, whose object was the simplification or correction of the Breviary, but the inquiry never got beyond that stage.梵蒂冈理事会的行为当中都可以找到一系列的命题,其对象是简化或修正的祈祷书,但从来没有超越这个阶段的调查。Finally, under Leo XIII, a commission was appointed, at the close of 1902, whose duties were a study of historico-liturgical questions.最后,根据利奥十三世,被任命了一个委员会,在1902年结束,其职责是研究的历史,礼仪的问题。Its province is a wider one, comprising not only the Breviary, but also the Missal, the Pontifical, and the Ritual.它的省是更广泛的,包括不仅是祈祷书,但也Missal,罗马教皇,和仪式。It has, further, to supervise future liturgical edittions, and thus to see that they conform as closely as possible with historical data.,进一步监督未来的礼仪edittions,从而看到它们符合作为密切与历史数据尽可能。 This commission, though attached to the Congregation of Rites, is nevertheless autonomous.本委员会,虽然众礼记,仍然是自主的。It consisted at first of five members under the presidency of Monsignor Duchesne, namely: Mgr.它包括的主持下,即主教Duchesne 5名成员组成,第一:经理。Wilpert, Father Ehrle, SJ, Father Roberti, Mgr.Wilpert Ehrle,SJ,父亲,父亲Roberti,经理。Umberto Benigni, Mgr.翁尼尼,经理。Mercati, and a few consultors. Mercati,和几个consultors。What the results of their labours may be is not yet known.他们的劳动成果可能还不知道。

This sketch of the reforms of the Breviary proves, however, the desire of the Church to eliminate the blemishes which disfigure this book.素描本的祈祷书的改革证明,但是,教会的愿望,消除变丑这本书的瑕疵。All these efforts have not been sterile; some of these revisions mark real progress; and it may be hoped that the present commission will effect certain improvements which the progress of historical studies and criticism have made the more needful.所有这些努力没有得到无菌;其中一些修订,标志着真正的进步;也可能是希望,本委员会将影响的历史研究和批评的进步做出了更needful一定的改进。


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FERNAND CABROL费尔南CABROL
Transcribed by Marcial David转录由马歇尔大卫

The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume II (1907)天主教百科全书,第二卷(1907年)
Imprimatur.认可。John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York约翰米farley,大主教纽约



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