Book of Common Prayer共同祈祷书

General Information一般资料

The Book of Common Prayer (in full, the Book of Common Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments and Other Rites and Ceremonies of the Church) is the official prayer book of the Church of England and of Anglican churches in other countries, including the Episcopal church in the United States.共同祈祷书(完整的,书的共同祈祷和管理圣礼和其他仪式和教会仪式)是英格兰和在其他国家,包括圣公会教堂的圣公会教堂的教会官方的祈祷书在美国。 The first complete version of the Book of Common Prayer appeared in 1549 at the time of the Reformation, during the reign of Edward VI; its use was made compulsory by Parliament.在时间的改革,共同祈祷书的第一个完整的版本出现在1549年,爱德华六世在位期间,它的使用是由议会义务教育。 It followed other church reforms and was the result of the work begun during the reign of Edward's father, Henry VIII, under the direction of Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley.它跟随其他教会改革,并在爱德华的父亲,亨利八世统治下的托马斯克兰麦和尼古拉斯里德利方向开始的工作的结果。Their aim was to produce a book in the vernacular that would be a unified and simplified equivalent of the Roman Catholic liturgical books.他们的目的是产生一本书在白话,这将是一个罗马天主教礼仪书籍统一和简化等效。 Used with the Bible and an authorized hymnal, it provided all of the formularies for Anglican worship, from morning and evening prayers and the liturgy of Holy Communion to the rites for the sacraments and visitation of the sick.与“圣经”和授权的赞美诗使用,它提供了所有圣公会崇拜的处方,从早上和傍晚的​​祈祷和圣餐礼仪,圣礼和探视生病的仪式。 An Ordinal (ordination service) was added in 1550.序数(协调服务)是于1550年加入。

A revised version of the Book of Common Prayer, sometimes called the Second Prayer Book of Edward VI, appeared in 1552, and its use, too, was made compulsory by Parliament. This version differed radically from the earlier one. The structure of the Holy Communion service was changed, many ceremonies were eliminated, and the vestments worn by the clergy were simplified.一个共同祈祷书,有时也被称为爱德华六世的第二祈祷书,修订后的版本出现于1552年,太多,它的使用,是由议会义务教育。,这个版本不同于较早的一个根本。教廷结构共融服务的改变,许多仪式被淘汰,简化和僧侣所穿的法衣。 Eight months after its appearance, it was suppressed by Queen Mary I, who reintroduced Latin as the language to be used in services in the Church of England. 8个月后,它的外观,它是由玛丽我,重新为英国教会要在服务中使用的语言拉丁压制。

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After Queen Elizabeth I ascended the throne in 1558, the Book of Common Prayer was amended, and the prayer book, which in the new version tended toward Roman Catholicism, was restored to use; further amendments in a Roman Catholic direction were made in 1604, during the reign of James I. During the Commonwealth the Book of Common Prayer was suppressed, but in 1662, following the restoration of the monarchy, its use was again made compulsory.伊丽莎白女王之后,我登上宝座,在1558年共同祈祷书进行了修订,并在新版本中往往对罗马天主教的祈祷书,恢复使用;于1604年在罗马天主教的方向进一步修订,在英联邦詹姆士一世统治期间的共同祈祷书被抑制,但于1662年,复辟帝制后,它的使用再次被强制。 Because the amendments made in the 1662 version were also in a Roman Catholic direction, many Puritans defected from the established church.因为在1662版本中所作的修订,在罗马天主教的方向,许多清教徒叛逃从成立的教会。Only minor amendments were made in the Book of Common Prayer after 1662 in England.只有轻微的修订,在共同祈祷书,后在英国1662。The formation of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the US in 1783 necessitated a revised prayer book for American use.在1783年在美国新教圣公会教会的形成,需要修订的祈祷书为美国使用。It was ratified in 1789; further revisions were made in 1892, 1928, and 1979.它被批准于1789年,在1892年,1928年和1979年作出进一步的修订。It is basically the same book used by other members of the Anglican communion.它基本上是由英国圣公会的其他成员使用同一本书。


Book of Common Prayer本书的共同祈祷

Advanced Information先进的信息

Historically there have been three books which have borne this title in the Church of England, though the title has also been applied to books in other provinces of the Anglican Communion that have been largely derived from these three.历史上有过三个承担在英国教会的这个称号,虽然标题也被应用在英国圣公会已经在很大程度上由这三个派生的其他省份书籍的书籍。

In 1549 the English Parliament passed an Act of Uniformity requiring the clergy to use from the Feast of Pentecost in that year "the Booke of the Common Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments and other Rites and Ceremonies of the Church after the Use of the Church of England."在1549年,英国议会通过了一项要求神职人员在这一年,从圣灵降临节节“教会使用后的共同祈祷和政府的圣礼和其他仪式和教会仪式Booke均匀法英格兰。“ This revised and reformed handbook of worship was largely the work of the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer, and in his Preface, Cranmer explained that it was to provide common prayer in two senses of the word.这种崇拜的修订和改革手册主要是坎特伯雷大主教托马斯克兰默的工作,并在序言中,克兰默解释说,它是在两个单词的感官提供的共同祈祷。 From that time the worship of the Church of England, hitherto almost entirely in Latin, was to be in the common tongue ("suche language as they mighte understande and have profite by hearying the same"), and a common usage in every diocese (previously there had been several different uses).从当时英国教会的崇拜,迄今几乎完全是在拉丁美洲,在共同的舌头(“suche语言 因为他们mighte understande有hearying相同profite”),和一个常见的​​用法每个教区(过去曾有过几种不同的用途)。

In conducting worship the clergy had previously needed the missal (for the Mass), breviary (for daily offices), manual (for the occasional offices), and pontifical (for episcopal services).进行崇拜的神职人员以前需要missal(地下),祈祷书(每日办事处),手动(偶尔办事处),和罗马教皇(主教服务)。 The new book containd all of these except the ordinal (for daily services), which was published separately in 1550 and revised and bound up in the editions of 1552 and 1662.新书containd所有这些,除了序号(日常服务),这是在1550年分别出版和修订,并在1552和1662版本。 In addition it included a calendar and lectionary and the litany, together with Coverdale's translation of the Psalter.此外,它包含一个日历和lectionary和长篇累牍,连同Coverdale的翻译的psalter。

The first prayer book met with little favor.第一祈祷书会见了很少的青睐。Protestants felt that it did not go far enough in its reforms, and in 1551 Martin Bucer published a Censura, or critique, in which he set out in detail the areas where the book obscured clear biblical teaching.新教徒认为,它并没有走在改革远远不够,并在1551年,马丁布策尔发表一个Censura,或批判,他在其中设置详细书遮蔽明确的圣经教导的地方。 Further, those who leaned toward Roman Catholicism (notably Bishop Gardiner of Winchester) claimed that the book still taught the old doctrines of the Mass. In consequence Cranmer produced a second prayer book in 1552 in which the Protestant position was much more clearly adopted.此外,那些靠在对罗马天主教(特别是温彻斯特主教加德纳)声称,这本书仍然教的马萨诸塞州的旧学说克兰默在后果产生于1552年在新教地位更明确通过第二祈祷书。 These books are known as the First and Second Prayer Books of King Edward the Sixth.这些书被称为第一次和第二次的祈祷书国王爱德华第六。

When Mary Tudor ascended the English throne in 1553, this second prayer book was proscribed as she reestablished the teaching and practices of the Church of Rome and leading Protestants were martyred.当玛丽都铎登上英国王位在1553年,本次的祈祷书被禁,为她重建了罗马教会的教学和实践和领先的新教徒殉国。 In 1559 Elizabeth I restored the second book with minor alterations.1559年,伊丽莎白一世恢复小规模改建的第二本书。During the next century with the accession of James I in 1603 and the restoration of Charles II in 1660 the ongoing struggle between extreme Puritans and Episcopalians smoldered continuously, and the Hampton Court (1604) and Savoy (1661) conferences were held in an attempt to resolve the matters at issue.极端的清教徒和圣公会之间正在进行的斗争,于1603年加入詹姆斯一世和查尔斯二世在1660年恢复在下一世纪的smoldered不断,企图汉普顿(1604)和萨瓦省(1661)会议举行解决问题的事项。 In the end relatively few changes were made, and the 1662 Act of Uniformity introduced a third Book of Common Prayer which was basically that of 1552 in its theological emphasis.相对较少的变化,最终,1662法的统一性介绍基本上在其神学重点是对1552的第三本书的共同祈祷。

In 1637 the High Church Archbishop of Canterbury, William Laud, had attempted to impose on the Scottish church a book which was much more akin to that of 1549 in its doctrinal outlook.1637年,高教会大主教坎特伯雷,威廉赞美,曾试图强加了一本书,是在其理论的前景更加类似于1549,苏格兰教堂。 Although he was unsuccessful, his book formed the basis of the Book of Common Prayer adopted by the Scottish Episcopal Church in 1764.虽然他是不成功的,他的著作形成的由苏格兰教会主教在1764年通过的“共同祈祷书的基础。By a strange quirk of history the Protestant Episcopal Church in America drew on this book in compiling its liturgy, and thus today the Anglican Communion embraces provinces of more Catholic or Protestant theological outlook depending on whether their liturgy is ultimately derived from the 1549 or 1552 archetype.在美国新教圣公会教会的历史奇怪的怪癖提请这本书在编制其礼仪,从而今天的英国圣公会包括天主教或新教的神学世界观的省份,这取决于他们的礼仪是从1549或1552的原型最终得出。

In 1872 the Act of Uniformity Amendment Act allowed certain modifications in the way the services of the prayer book were used in the Church of England, permitting certain omissions, mainly on weekdays; hence the act became known as the Shortened Services Act.在1872年统一性修订法“的法令允许在英格兰教会的祈祷书的服务,允许一定的疏漏,主要是平日的某些修改,因此该法案成为被称为缩短服务法”。 However, no amendment of the text was made at this stage.但是在这个阶段,没有文字的修正案。

A revision of the Book of Common Prayer was proposed in the Church of England in 1927, and although it was approved by the church's Convocations and House of Laity of Church Assembly, the book was rejected by Parliament largely because it reintroduced controversial pre-Reformation ideas, particularly in the Communion service.共同祈祷书的修订建议的英格兰在1927年教会虽然它是由教会的召集和教会大会俗人之家批准,这本书是由议会拒绝在很大程度上是因为它重新有争议的学前教育改革思路,尤其是在共融服务。 Since then the Worship and Doctrine Measure of 1974 has given the Church of England greater freedom to control its liturgy, and in consequence the Alternative Service Book was published in 1980 to supplement with modern services, but not to supersede, the Book of Common Prayer.从那时起,1974年的崇拜和Doctrine措施英格兰有更大的自由度来控制其礼仪的教会,和后果的替代服务簿是在1980年出版的,与现代服务业,以补充,而不是取代,共同祈祷书。 Authorization of the latter can still be withdrawn only by Parliament.只能由议会授权后者仍然可以撤回。

DH Wheaton卫生署惠顿
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
GJ Cuming, A History of Anglican Liturgy; CO Buchanan, BT Lloyd, and H. Miller, eds., Anglican Worship Today.GJ康明,一个历史的圣公会礼仪; CO布坎南,BT劳埃德,H.米勒,EDS,圣公会崇拜的今天。


Book of Common Prayer本书的共同祈祷

Catholic Information天主教信息

I. HISTORY一,历史

On 21 January, 1549, the first Act of Uniformity was passed imposing upon the whole realm of England "The Book of the Common Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments and other Rites and Ceremonies of the Church after the Use of the Church of England". 1549年1月21日,统一性第一法案通过后,整个英格兰的境界强加的“共同祈祷和管理圣礼和其他使用后的英国教会的仪式和教会仪式的书”。Before this date (with some recent exceptions) the services had always been conducted in Latin; and though there were various "uses", eg Salisbury, Hereford, Bagor, York, and Lincoln, these were all derived from, and for the most part identical with, the Roman liturgy.在此日期之前(与最近的一些例外),服务一直在拉丁美洲进行;尽管有各种​​各样的“使用”,如梳,赫里福德,Bagor,纽约,和林肯,这些都是来自,和大部分相同,罗马礼仪。 "Altogether some eighteen English uses are known . . . . Without exemption these English Missals are Roman -- they have the Roman Canon to begin with; they have the Roman variables; in short, their structure is identical with that of the Roman Missal" (J. Wickham Legg, 27 February, from a correspondence in "The Guardian", February and March, 1907).“总共约有18个英文使用已知没有豁免英语Missals罗马 - 他们开始与罗马佳能。。他们的罗马变量,总之,它们的结构与罗马Missal相同” (J.韦翰美,2月27日,在“卫报”的信函,二月及三月,1907年)。Though the motive for the introduction of the new liturgy is stated to be the desire for uniformity, simplicity, and the edification of the people, it is clear that this was merely a pretext.虽然引进新的礼仪的动机表示要均匀,简单,和熏陶的人的愿望,很显然,这仅仅是一个借口。The real motive was the removal from the service books of the doctrines rejected by the Protestant Reformers.真正的动机是取消拒绝的教义的新教改革者的服务书籍。Lex orandi, Lex credendi.莱克斯orandi,LEX credendi。The old books clearly contained the Real Presence, the Sacrifice of the Mass, Invocation of the Blessed Virgin and the Saints, Prayer for the Dead, the Seven Sacraments, with Auricular Confession, and a Sacrificing Priesthood.旧书清楚所载的真实存在,牺牲的质量,圣母和圣徒的调用,为死者祈祷,七个圣礼,耳穴供认,和牺牲的圣职。 The Act of Uniformity states that the king by the advice of Somerset and the rest of the Council, "appointed the Archbishop of Canterbury and certain of the most learned and discreet bishops and other learned men of this realm" to draw up the new book.均匀国家法“,王Somerset的意见和安理会其他成员,任命坎特伯雷大主教和最有学问的和谨慎的主教和其他学到这种境界的男人一定的”制订的新著“。 Who these were, besides Cranmer, cannot now be determined.这些除了克兰默,现在不能确定。No list is known earlier than that given in Fullers "Church History", published 1657.没有列表被称为早在福乐“教会历史”,公布了1657。However, "the history of the Prayerbook down to the end of Edward's reign is the biography of Cranmer, for there can be no doubt that almost every line of it is his composition" (Mason, Thomas Cranmer, 139).然而,“算盘的历史,爱德华的统治结束的克兰默的传记,可以毫无疑问,几乎每行是他的成分”(梅森,托马斯克兰麦,139)。 With regard to the authority by which it was composed and issued, Abbot Gasquet and Mr. Bishop have carefully gone over the evidence (Edward VI and the Boo of Common Prayer, ch. x), and they have come to the same conclusion as the Anglican Canon Dixon, who affirms that "the Convocation Of the clergy had nothing to do with the first Act of Uniformity of religion. Laymen made the first English Boo of Common Prayer into a schedule of a penal statute. As little in the work itself which was then imposed upon the realm, had the clergy originally any share" (Hist. of the Ch. of England, III, 5).关于由它组成,并发出的权威,方丈加斯奎特和主教先生已仔细走了过来证据(爱德华六世共同祈祷BOO,CH。),他们得出了同样的结论圣公会佳能迪克森,他申明,“召开的神职人员与第一个统一的宗教法无关。外行制成了刑法​​法规的时间表,共同祈祷的第一个英文嘘。少的工作本身然后强加于境界,神职人员原来任何股份“(Hist.英格兰的CH,三,五)。 The instruction given by royal authority was that the framers of the book should "have as well eye and respect to the most sincere and pure Christian religion taught by scripture as to the usages in the primitive Church."皇家权威的指示,这本书的制定者应该“以及眼和尊重,以最真诚,最纯粹的基督教宗教圣经教导的原始教会的惯例。” How this was carried out will appear when we come to examine the contents of the book.如何,这是开展会出现时,我们就来研究这本书的内容。Meantime we may observe that the Communion Service cannot be classed with any of the old liturgies, but rather resembles the form drawn up by Luther in 1523 and 1526.与此同时,我们可能会观察共融服务不能与任何旧的礼仪归类,而是类似路德的形式,在1523年和1526。Both agree in the elimination of anything denoting offertory or sacrifice in the true sense of the words, "Even if it were not an ascertained fact that during the year when it was in preparation, Cranmer was under the influence of his Lutheran friends, the testimony of the book itself would be sufficient to prove beyond doubt that it was conceived and drawn up after the Lutheran pattern" (Gasquet and Bishop, op. cit., 228; cf. ch. xiii).双方同意在消除任何denoting offertory或在真正意义上的话的牺牲“,即使它不是一个确定的事实,当它准备在今年,克兰默是他的路德朋友的影响下,证词书本身就足以证明,毫无疑问,这是构思和路德模式“(228,加斯奎特和主教,同上。。;比照CH第十三)后制定。 Though there were of course some who welcomed the new service, the imposition of it gave rise to strenuous opposition in most parts of the country.虽然有,当然有些人欢迎的新服务,它的实施产生了强烈反对,在全国大部分地区。 By the time, however, that the Book of 1549 appeared, Cranmer had already adopted views more advanced than those contained in it, and was preparing for further revision.的时间,然而,1549图书的出现,克兰默已经通过的意见超过它包含那些先进,并准备进一步修改。Early in 1550 an act was passed approving of the new ordinal (see ANGLICAN ORDERS) and the altars were removed and tables substituted for them in many places.早在1550法案通过审批新的序号(见圣公会令)和祭坛被拆除,他们在许多地方取代表。In the same year Gardiner, while still a prisoner in the Tower, made use of the words of the Prayer Book to refute Cramner's own work on the Sacrament of the Body and Blood of our Savior.加德纳在同一年,而仍然是在塔的囚犯,使用祈祷书反驳Cramner自己的工作对我们的救主的身体和血的圣礼的话。 About the same time Bucer completed his elaborate "Censura" of the Prayer Book.大约在同一时间,布策尔完成了他精心制作的“Censura”祈祷书。Accordingly in 1552 a second Boo of Common Prayer was published, in which everything in the First Book which had been fixed upon by Gardiner is evidence that the new liturgy did not reject the old beliefs and everything which Bucer had objected to was in the revision carefully swept away and altered.因此1552年发表的共同祈祷的第二嘘,这一切都在第一本书已经加德纳固定证据,新的礼仪没有拒绝老的信念和布策尔曾反对一切修订进行了仔细的一扫而空,并改变。 Before this book could come into general use the old Catholic services were restored by Mary.在这本书可以进入一般使用旧天主教玛丽恢复。After her death the Second Book was imposed by Elizabeth in 1559 with some few, though important, changes.她去世后的第二本书是一些少数,虽然很重要,对1559年由伊丽莎白。

Further changes were made in 1604 and again in 1662, but the Prayer Book as a whole practically remains what it was in 1552.在1604年和1662年作了进一步的修改,但实际上仍然是1552年作为一个整体的祈祷书。"The position which was deliberately abandoned in 1549 and still further departed from in 1552 has never been recovered. The measure of the distance traversed in these new liturgies by those who controlled the English reformation can only be duly estimated on an historical survey of the period in which the ground was lost" (Gasquet find Bishop, op. cit., 307). “这是故意放弃在1549年进一步从1552年离开的立场从来没有收回。走过那些控制英格兰宗教改革在这些新的礼仪距离的测量只能得到应有的估计上一个时期的历史调查在地面失去“(加斯奎特找到主教,同上,307)。

II.二。CONTENTS目录

The Boo of Common Prayer is really a combination of four of our liturgical books: the Breviary, Missal, Pontifical, and Ritual.共同祈祷BOO真的是我们的礼仪书四个结合:祈祷书,Missal,罗马教皇,与仪式。

(1) The New Calendar(1)新的日历

The old Sarum and other calendars in use before the Reformation contained the fast days and the feasts for most of the days in the year.在宗教改革之前使用旧Sarum和其他日历中大部分在今年的日子和快天的节日。Among these were the Purification, Annunciation, Visitation, Assumption, Nativity, and Conception of "the Blessed Mary", a large number of purely Roman saints; and All Souls' Day.在这些被净化,报喜,探视,假设,降生,并构想“的人有福了玛丽”,一个纯粹的罗马圣人大量;和万灵节。Corpus Christi was kept on the Thursday after Trinity Sunday.科珀斯克里斯蒂三位一体礼拜后保存在星期四。The Calendar of the First Prayer Book omitted the fast days altogether and gave only twenty-two saints' days, all being New Testament saints; the only feasts of the Blessed Virgin retained are the Purification and the Annunciation; All Souls' Day is omitted, and there is no office for Corpus Christi.首先祈祷书的日历完全省略了快速的天,只给了二十二个圣人“天,是所有新约圣徒,圣母的唯一节日保留的净化和报喜;万灵节是省略了,并没有科珀斯克里斯蒂市的办公室。 Hardly any change was made in this part in the Second Prayer Book, though the "dog Daies" are characteristically noted.几乎没有任何变化,这部分在二祈祷书,虽然“狗Daies”是典型的注意到。The Calendar of the Third Prayer Book (1559-61) reintroduced the mention of the fast days and a goodly number of feasts; among the latter, the Visitation of the "Blessed Virgin Mary", the Conception and the Nativity of "the Virgin Mary"; but no special offices were appointed for any of these feasts.第三祈祷书(1559年至1561年)的日历重新快速提和的节日秀雅;后者,探视“圣母玛利亚”的概念和“圣母玛利亚的降生“,但没有特别的办事处被任命为这些节日。 "The reason why the names of these Saints-days and Holy-days were resumed into the calendar are various", says Wheatly in "A Rational Illustration of the Book of Comm. Prayer" (Pt. II. Introd.), "some of them being retained upon account of our Courts of Justice. . . . Others are probably kept for the sake of such tradesmen as are wont to celebrate in the memory of their tutelar Saints . . . . And again, it has been the custom to have Wakes or Fairs kept upon these days; so that the people should be left out . . . For these reasons our second reformers under Queen Elizabeth . . . . though convenient to restore the names of them to the Calendar, though not with any regard of being kept holy by the Church". “为什么这些圣徒天圣天的名字恢复到日历的原因是多方面的的,”说Wheatly在“一个理性的商业图书插图。祷告”(“英国议会第二。Introd。)”一些保留后,我们的法院的法官,。。。其他可能为这种匠人为了保持作为习惯,以庆祝他们的保护人的圣徒内存。再次,它已经自定义有唤醒,或保持在这些天的展会,使人民应留给了我们的第二个改革者,根据伊丽莎白女王基于这些原因虽然方便,恢复他们的名字日历,但不与任何方面。。。。保持教会圣洁“。

(2) The Brievary(2)在Brievary

The Sarum Breviary contained the canonical Hours, the Psalms distributed through the week, antiphons, versicles, and responses, and Little Chapters much the same as the modern breviary -- of course without the modifications since introduced by St. Pius V and later pontiffs. Sarum祈祷书所载的规范小时,诗篇通过一周的分布,antiphons,versicles,反应,和小章现代祈祷书一样 - 当然没有因为圣皮乌斯V和后来的教宗介绍了修改。But in 1535 there appeared a new breviary drawn up by Cardinal Quignonez, in which a complete break had been made with the old order of the Office.但在1535年出现了一个新的祈祷书,由枢机Quignonez彻底决裂,其中已与该办公室的旧秩序。The canonical Hours had indeed been retained but the antiphons, versicles, responses, and Little Chapters had been omitted, the Psalms were distributed in such that three were said at each hour, and the same Psalms said every day of the week in the same order.规范的时间确实已经保留,但antiphons,versicles,反应,和小章被省略了,诗篇等三个分布式据说在每一个小时,并以相同的顺序相同的诗篇说一周的每一天。 A striking feature of this breviary was the great length of the Scriptures lessons which enabled the priest to read through in the course of the year almost the whole of the Old Testament and the whole of the New Testament with Epistles of St. Paul twice over.本祈祷书的一个显着特点是圣经的教训,使牧师在这一年中读通过几乎整个旧约和新约圣保禄书信两次以上的整个长度。It was this book which Cranmer had before him when framing the office portion of the First Prayer Book.这是这本书的克兰默之前他曾在制定第一祈祷书的写字楼部分。Indeed he copied word for word in his preface a considerable portion of Quignonez's preface.事实上,他在他的序言中复制字一个字一个Quignonez的序言中的相当一部分。(See Gasquet and Bishop, op. cit., App. III.) He reduced, however, the hours to two -- Matins and Evensong (called Morning and Evening Prayer in the Second Book) -- and arranged the Psalms for recital once a month instead of once a week. (。。加斯奎特和主教,同上,应用第三)减少,但是,他安排了两个小时 - 晨祷和晚祷(所谓的第二本书上午和晚祷) - 演奏的诗篇一个月,而不是每周一次。He also introduced two Scripture lessons, one from the Old Testament and one from the New Testament at both hours of prayer, and entirely omitted the lessons of the saints.他还介绍了两个圣经的教训,从旧约和新约两个小时的祈祷,并完全省略了圣人的教训。In the Second Book he introduced "When the wicked man", "dearly beloved brethren, the Scripture moveth us", the general confession ("Almighty and most merciful Father"), and the Absolution ("Almighty God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ"), which have remained to the present day.在第二本书中,他介绍了“恶人”,“亲爱的亲爱的弟兄们,当圣经moveth我们”,一般的自白(“全能和最仁慈的父亲”),并赦免(“全能的上帝,我们的上帝之父耶稣基督“),至今仍然。 When we remember that more than a hundred editions of Quignonez's breviary were printed during the short space of twenty years, and that it was on the point of being adopted universally, we can see that this portion of the Boo of Common Prayer has some justification.当我们还记得一百多Quignonez的祈祷书版本印在短短二十多年的,它正在通过普遍点,我们可以看到,这部分的共同祈祷BOO有一定的理由。 No doctrinal questions were at stake -- unless it might be the omission of the intercession of the saints.没有理论问题受到了威胁 - 除非它可能是圣人求遗漏。

(3) The Missal(3)在Missal

The Canon.of the Mass in the Sarum Missal is taken almost word for word from the Roman Missal.Canon.of Sarum Missal地下几乎从罗马Missal字的字。In the First Prayer Book the Communion service is styled "'The Supper of the Lord and the Holy Communion, commonly called the Mass"; in the Second, and also in the present book, "The Order for the Administration of the Lord's Supper, or the Holy Communion".的共融服务的第一祈祷书自称“'”的主及的神圣圣餐的晚餐,通常称为地下“;在二,和也中的目前本书,”政府主的晚餐的顺序,或圣餐“。 It is not possible within the limits of the present article to compare in detail the first Book with the Sarum on the one hand, and with the subsequent books on the other.本文范围内,这是不可能的,比较详细的第一本书一方面Sarum,并与其他后续的书籍。(See Gasquet and Bishop, ch. xii and xvi).(见加斯奎特和主教,十二和十六CH。)。The word altar is used in the First Book, though with the alternative of "God's board"; in the Second Book and subsequent Books "table" and "board" alone occur.词坛的第一本书,虽然有“神板”替代;在第二本书,“表”和“董事会”单独发生的后续书籍。As regards vestments the First Book directs that the priest shall wear "a white alb plain, with a vestment (chasuble?) or cope", find the assisting clergy "albs with tunacles"; the Second Book "the minister at the time of the Communion find all other times in his ministration, shall use neither alb, vestment nor cope; but being archbishop or bishop, he shall have and wear a rochet, and being a priest or deacon, he shall have and wear a surplice only".至于法衣的第一本书指示祭司穿“白色ALB平原,与法衣(chasuble?)或应付”,找到协助神职人员“tunacles albs”第二本书“的时间部长圣餐发现在他的服侍,其他所有时间,应使用既不ALB,法衣,也不适应,但大主教或主教,他应和佩戴一个罗歇,和一个牧师或执事,他应和穿法衣只“。 In the Third Book (1559) "it is to be noted that such ornaments of the church and of the ministers thereof, at all times of their ministration, shall be retained, and be in use, as were in the Church of England by the authority of Parliament in the second year of the reign of King Edward the Sixth".在第三本书(1559)“指出,教会和其部长等饰物,在所有服侍次,应予以保留,并在使用中,在由英格兰教会在第二年的爱德华国王的第六届“统治时期议会的权力。 As is well known, the meaning of this rubric has long been a matter of dispute.众所周知,这个专栏的意义,一直是有争议的问题。 The First book directs the priest to stand "humbly before the midst of the altar"; the Second, to stand "at the north side of the table", as is still the rule.第一本书的指示牧师站在“虚心前的祭坛之中”;二站“北侧表”,作为仍然是规则。No mention is made of incense, or lights, or holy water in any of the books.没有提到香,灯,或在任何书籍圣水。As to the service itself, the changes may be briefly summed up as follows: The First Book omitted all mention of any true sacrifice, but retained expressions capable of referring to the Real Presence; the Second Book excluded these; the Third and subsequent books re-admitted and combined expressions which might be taken in either sense.至于服务本身的变化可能会简要总结如下:第一本书省略了所有提及任何真正的牺牲,但保留表达式指的是真实存在的;第二本书排除这些;第三次及其后的书籍重新承认并结合无论在哪一种意义上说这可能是采取表达式。 "On comparing and the first with the second Communion office what is obvious at first sight is, that whilst the former, in spite of the substantial change made in the ancient mass, manifested a general order and disposition of parts similar to the mass itself, the latter was changed beyond recognition" (Gasquet and Bishop, 288). “是比较和第二共融办公室什么是显而易见的一见钟情,而在古老的质量所作出的重大变化,但前,表现出类似大众本身的零件一般的顺序和处置,后者是改变得面目全非“(加斯奎特和主教,288)。 It will be sufficient to note here that while the First retained something like the prepatory prayer of Consecration ("Vouchsafe to bl+ess and sanc+tify these thy gifts, and creatures of bread and wine that they may be unto us the body and blood of thy most dearly beloved Son Jesus Christ"), the Second and subsequent Books omitted this altogether; in the Second Book no directions were given as to the acts of the minister -- he might recite the words of Consecration as a mere lesson; but in the later Books he was directed to take the paten and cup into his hands.这将足以在这里要注意,虽然第一保留类似奉献的筹备祈祷(“给BL + ESS和制裁+ tify这些你的礼物,和面包和葡萄酒的生物,他们可能对我们的身体和血你最心疼的爱子耶稣基督“),第二个和后续的书籍省略了这个完全在第二本书没有方向,部长的行为 - 奉献的话,他可能会背诵作为一个单纯的教训,但在后来的书籍,他是导演考虑到他手中的金属制平碟和杯子。Most significant, too, are the changes made in the form of administering the Holy Communion.最显著的是,也有管理圣餐的形式所做的更改。In 1549:1549年:

When he deliverith the Sacrament of the Body of Christ, he shall say unto every one these words: "The body of our Lord Jesus Christ which was given for thee, preserve thy body and soul unto everlasting life".当他deliverith圣基督的身体,他说,你们每个人的这些话:“我们的主耶稣基督为你的身体,保持祂永恒的生命,你的身体和灵魂”。 And the Minister delivering the Sacrament of the Blood shall say "The blood of our Lord Jesus Christ which was shed for thee, preserve thy body and soul unto everlasting life."和部长提供的血圣事应说:“我们的主耶稣基督为你流的血,你们永生保持你的身体和灵魂。”

In 1552: 1552年:

And when he deliverith the bread, he shall say: "Take and eat this in remembrance that Christ died for thee. and feed on him in thy heart by faith, with thanksgiving."而当他deliverith的面包,他说:“就拿吃在纪念基​​督为你而死,他在你的心脏和饲料随着感恩节的信心。” And the Minister that deliverith the cup shall say: "Drink this in remembrance that Christ's blood was shed for thee, and be thankful".和部长,deliverith杯应说:“喝在纪念基督的血是为你流,并感谢”。

In 1559 and the present Book:1559年和现在的书:

And when he delivereth the Bread to any one be shall say, "The Body of our Lord Jesus Christ which was given for thee, preserve thy body and soul unto everlasting life. Take and eat this In remembrance that Christ died for thee, and feed on him in thy heart by faith with thanksgiving."当他delivereth面包任何一个被说,“我们的主耶稣基督为你的身体,保持你的身体和灵魂,你们永生。就拿吃在纪念基​​督为你死,和饲料他在感谢你所信仰的心脏。“ And the Minister that delivereth the cup shall say: "The Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, which was shed for thee, preserve thy body and soul unto everlasting life. Drink this in remembrance that Christ's Blood was shed for thee, and be thankful."而在部长,delivereth杯应说:。“在我们的主耶稣基督的血,这是为你流下,保持祂永恒的生命你的身体和灵魂饮料在记忆本,基督的血是为你流下,并心存感激。 “

The First Book forbade "any elevation or showing the Sacrament to the people"; the Second Book added the so-called "Black Rubric" denying any "real and essential presence of Christ's natural flesh and blood".禁止“任何海拔或展示给人们的圣礼”的第一本书;第二本书加入所谓的“黑专栏”拒绝任何“真正的和必要的基督的亲生骨肉的存在”。 This was omitted in 1559, but was reintroduced in 1632, shortened and slightly altered, "corporal presence" being substituted for "real and essential".这是1559年省略,但在1632年重新缩短,略有改变,“体罚的存在”取代“真正的和必要的”。

(4) The Ritual(4)仪式

The order of the administration of Baptism in the old Sarum Manuale (Ritual) was almost identical in words and ceremonies with that now in use among us.老Sarum Manuale(仪式)为了管理的洗礼,现在在我们中间使用了几乎相同的文字和仪式。(For the differences see SARUM.) The principal changes in 1549 were the omission of the blessing of the font, of the giving of the blessed salt, and of the first anointing. (差异的看到SARUM的。)在1549年的主要变化是遗漏的字体的祝福,给予的祝福盐,和第一的恩膏。New prayers were also introduced, but the general character of the old service was preserved, including the exorcisms, the giving of the white garment, and the second anointing.新的祈祷,也介绍了,但老服务的一般特征被保留下来,包括驱魔,白色服装的,第二的恩膏。All of these met with Bucer's disapproval, and were accordingly removed in 1552, and have never been restored.所有这些会见了布策尔的不满,并据此于1552年中删除,并从未恢复。The present rite is exactly the same as that of 1552, with few verbal alterations.本仪式是1552完全一样,与几个口头改建。

As the Reformers did not recognize Confirmation as a sacrament, we are not surprised to find that the rite of administering it has undergone great changes.作为改革者不承认作为一个圣餐确认,我们惊讶地发现,成年礼的管理发生了很大变化。In 1549 the anointing with chrism was omitted, but the prayer that the Holy Ghost might come down upon those about to be confirmed was retained, and they were signed with the sign of the cross on their forehead.在1549年的恩膏与chrism被省略,但被保留下来的祷告,圣灵可能得到证实后,他们与他们的额头上交叉的标志签署。 In 1552, owing again to Bucer's influence, the first prayer was altered ("strengthen them with the Holy Ghost"); the signing with the cross was omitted; and a colourless form of words used.于1552年,由于再次布策尔的影响,首先祈祷改变(“加强与圣灵”)签署交叉省略;和一个无色的话使用。This latter rite is still in use; but in 1662 the renewal of baptismal vows was prefixed to it.后者的仪式仍然在使用,但在1662年重建的洗礼誓言是它的前缀。

The "Form of Solemnization of Matrimony" comes next.“婚姻往常形式”接下来。As the essential part of the ceremony is the contracting of the parties, considerable latitude has existed in the Church with regard to the rest of the service.作为仪式的重要组成部分,是承包的各方,一直存在很大的自由度在教会方面的其他服务。The First Book followed the old rite rather closely, but the blessing of the ring and the nuptial Mass were omitted.而密切的第一本书沿袭旧的仪式,但被省略的戒指和婚礼弥撒的祝福。Of course the Reformers looked upon matrimony merely as a "state of life allowed in the Scriptures", and not as a sacrament.当然,改革者看了后结婚,只是作为一个“生活在”圣经“中允许的状态”,而不是作为一种圣礼。"The Order of the Visitation of the Sick" contains matters of grave importance.“探视生病的订购”包含的重大事项。 In the First Book and in all subsequent Books, the "sick person shall make a special confession, if he feels his conscience troubled with any weighty matter; after which the priest shall absolve him after this form [sort] . . . . I absolve thee from thy sins'".在第一本书,并在随后的所有书籍,“有病的人应作出特别的表白,如果他觉得他的良知与任何有分量的问题困扰;后,祭司免除他的这种形式后[排序]我开脱。你从你的罪孽“。 The First Book alone adds: "and the same form of absolution shall be used in all private confessions."仅第一本书补充说:“赦免相同的形式,应在所有私人口供”。Moreover the First Book alone contains the anointing of the sick: "If the sick person desire to be anointed, then shall the priest anoint him upon the forehead or breast only, making the sign of the cross", and afterwards reciting a long prayer entirely different from the old forms, which were the same as the present Catholic ones.此外,仅第一本书包含恩膏的病:“如果有病的人渴望得到的受膏者,然后祭司膏后,前额或乳房只有他,使得交叉的迹象”,事后完全背诵很长的祷告从旧的形式,这是目前天主教的相同不同。 This ceremony was removed at Bucer's suggestion.这个仪式是在布策尔的建议删除。The First Book also has a rubric about reservation of the Blessed Sacrament: "If there be more sick persons to be visited the same day then shall the curate reserve so much of the sacrament of the body and blood as shall serve the other sick persons, and such as be appointed to communicate with them if there be any; and shall immediately carry it and minister it unto them."第一本书也有一个关于圣体保留的专栏:“如果有更多生病当天人士到会参观,然后牧师储备的身体和血的圣礼,应为其他患病者,如获委任为与他们沟通,如果有任何;应立即执行部长对他们“。 Bucer does not seem to have objected to this; nevertheless no mention of reservation is made in any of the later Books.布策尔似乎并不反对这样做;,但没有保留一提的是在任何后来的书籍。The Sarum Office of the Dead included Vespers (Placebo), Matins (Dirige), Lauds, Mass (Requiem), the Absolution, and the Burial.死者中包括晚祷(安慰剂),晨祷(Dirige),赞扬,质量(安魂曲),赦免,和埋葬Sarum办公室。 As might be expected from the views of the Reformers on prayer for the dead, nothing was preserved in the new Books but the "Order for the Burial of the Dead".可能是由于预计为死者祈祷改革者的意见,什么也没有保存在新的书籍,但“埋葬死者的订单”。The First Book, indeed, contains distinct prayers for the soul of the departed, but these were removed in 1552, and have never been restored.的确,第一本书,包含不同的祈祷离去的灵魂,但这些被拆除于1552年,从来没有得到恢复。For the Thirty-nine Articles see the article under that heading.对于第三个文章的标题下的文章。

In recent years attempts have been made to reform the prayer Book in two opposite directions.在近年来的尝试已在两个相反的方向改革的祈祷书。The Evangelicals have considered it as still containing too much of the old "propery", while the High Church party have endeavoured to get back the portions omitted or altered since 1549.福音派视为它仍​​然包含太多的“属性名”老,而高教会党一直在努力找回自1549省略或改变了部分。Various changes have actually been made in the Prayer Book as used by the Protestant churches of Scotland, Ireland and America.各种变化实际上已经在苏格兰,爱尔兰和美国的新教教会的祈祷书。

It is only fair, in concluding, to note Cranmers "splendid command of the English language and his instinctive sense of what would suit average English minds. His genius for devotional composition in English is universally recognized, even by those who have least sympathy with his character and career" (Mason, Thomas Cranmer, 140).这是唯一公平的,在总结,要注意Cranmers“灿烂的命令适合平均英语头脑的英语和他的本能意识,他在英国的虔诚组成的天才是举世公认的,即使那些至少与他的同情,性格和职业“(梅森,托马斯克兰默,140)。 "I value the Prayer Book, as you cannot do", says one of the Anglican characters in Newman's "Loss and Gain" (ch. viii), "for I have known what it is to one in affliction. May it be long before you know it in a similar way; but if affliction comes on you, depend on it all these new fancies and fashions will vanish from you like the wind, and the good old Prayer Book alone will stand you in any stead." “我的价值祈祷书,因为你可以不办”,说纽曼的“损耗和增益”(ch.第八),“对我有已知的什么它是一个在痛苦中的圣公会字符之一。五月这是很久以前你知道它以类似的方式,但如果你痛苦,依赖于它的所有这些新的幻想和时装将会消失从你像风,并历久弥新的祈祷书单独站在任何代替你“。

Publication information Written by TB Scannell.结核病斯坎内尔编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Matthew Dean.转录由马修院长。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume II.天主教百科全书,第二卷。Published 1907.发布1907。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, 1907.Nihil Obstat,1907年。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

The best work on the subject is Gasquet and Bishop, Edward VI and the Book of Common Prayer; Frere, Revision of Proctors Book of Common Prayer; Weston, The Prayer Book on the Making (1907), a poor and prejudiced work; Wheatly, A Rational Illustration of the Book of Comm.关于这一问题的最好的工作是加斯奎特和主教,爱德华六世和共同祈祷书,考务人员共同祈祷书修订弗里尔;韦斯顿,对决策的祈祷书(1907年),穷人和有偏见的工作; Wheatly一个合理的商业图书的插图。Pr., being the substance of everything liturgical in Bishop Sparrow, Mr. L'Estrange, Dr. Comber Dr. Nichols, and all former ritualists, commentators, and others upon the same subject; Mason, Thomas Cranmer; and various other works treating of the Reformation in England, especially in the reign of Edward VI. 。镨,一切礼仪的主教麻雀先生,欧莱雅疏远,精梳博士尼科尔斯博士,和所有前礼官,评论家,和他人在相同的主题内容;梅森,托马斯克兰默;和其他各种工程治疗在英格兰的改革,尤其是在爱德华六世统治。



This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语



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