Donatism, Donatists多纳图斯派

General Information一般资料

Donatism was an heretical Christian movement of the 4th and 5th centuries, which claimed that the validity of the sacraments depends on the moral character of the minister.Donatism是一个邪教的基督教运动的第四和第五世纪,声称圣礼的有效性取决于部长品德。It arose as a result of the consecration of a bishop of Carthage in AD311.它是由于AD311的迦太基主教奉献的结果。One of the three consecrating bishops was believed to be a traditor, that is, one of the ecclesiastics who had been guilty of handing over their copies of the Bible to the oppressive forces of the Roman emperor Diocletian.三个供奉主教之一,被认为是一个traditor,就是谁已犯交给他们的“圣经”的副本,以罗马皇帝戴克里先的压迫势力的神职人员之一。 An opposition group of 70 bishops, led by the primate of Numidia, formed itself into a synod at Carthage and declared the consecration of the bishop invalid.一个反对派组织的70位主教,主教在迦太基努米底亚灵长类领导,形成本身,并宣布无效的主教祝圣。They held that the church must exclude from its membership persons guilty of serious sin, and that therefore no sacrament could rightly be performed by a traditor.他们认为教会必须排除其成员的人,犯了严重的罪,因此没有圣餐可以说是一个traditor执行。

The synod excommunicated the Carthaginian bishop when he refused to appear before it.主教逐出教会的迦太基主教时,他拒绝出庭。Four years later, upon the death of the new bishop, the theologian Donatus the Great became bishop of Carthage; the movement later took its name from him.四年后,新主教逝世后,神学家那图斯的迦太基伟大成为主教;运动后来从他的名字。As a result of the desire of the Roman emperor Constantine the Great to settle the dispute, it was submitted to various ecclesiastical bodies and in 316 to the emperor himself; in each case the consecration of the bishop elected originally, in 311, was upheld.罗马皇帝君士坦丁大帝解决争端的愿望,这是提交给各教会机构和在316到皇帝本人,在每一种情况下主教祝圣当选原来在311,维持原判。 Constantine the Great at first attempted to suppress the Donatists by force, but in 321 he adopted a policy of tolerance; the policy was reversed, however, by his youngest son, Constans I, who instituted a regime of persecution.第一次试图用武力镇压多纳徒,但在321,他采取了宽容的政策;政策发生了逆转,但他最小的儿子,CONSTANS我,谁建立了政权的迫害,君士坦丁巨大。 In 411 a debate between the Donatist and Catholic bishops was held at Carthage to settle the dispute.在411多纳和天主教主教之间的辩论是在迦太基举行,以解决争端。The outcome was once again adverse to the Donatists.其结果是再次不利的多纳徒。As a result, they were deprived of all civil rights in 414, and, in the following year, their assemblies were banned under penalty of death.因此,他们被剥夺了所有公民权利,在414,并在次年,他们的集会被禁止死刑下。 The movement then began to decline, but it survived until the Moorish conquests of the 7th and 8th centuries.运动,然后开始下降,但幸存下来,直到第7和第8世纪摩尔人征服。

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Donatism Donatism

Advanced Information先进的信息

Donatism was a schismatic movement arising in the fourth century. Donatism是在第四世纪的分裂运动所产生的。In its first stage it was a North African expression of a doctrine of the church.在第一阶段,它是北非表达了教会的教义。 In its second stage it was a popular rebellion that pitted the Berber and landless against the landed Latin Catholic elite.在第二阶段中,它是一个普遍的叛乱,进站对降落拉丁美洲天主教精英柏柏尔和失地。Donatus, schismatic Bishop of Carthage (313-47), sometimes spoken of as Donatus the Great, directed the schismatic church with vigor and a shrewd use of ethnic and social factors until the Roman emperor exiled him to Gaul or Spain in 347; he died there ca.那图斯,分裂的迦太基主教(313-47),有时发言,为那图斯大,定向分裂教会的民族和社会的因素的生机和精明的使用,直到罗马皇帝放逐他在347高卢或西班牙,他去世有CA。 350.350。Parmenian, also an able leader, succeeded him.Parmenian,也是一位能干的领导人,接替他。

Donatism grew out of the teachings of Tertulian and Cyprian. Donatism增长Tertulian和塞浦路斯的教诲。Following these two, Donatists taught that a priest's part in sacraments was substantial (he had to be holy and in proper standing with the church for the sacrament to be valid) rather than simply instrumental.以下两个多纳徒教祭司的圣礼中的一部分是相当大(他要圣洁,并与教会的正确地位圣餐是有效的),而不是简单的工具。 The latter was the view of Rome and of Augustine, Bishop of Hippo and chief anti-Donatist spokesman.后者是罗马和奥古斯丁主教,河马和首席反多纳发言人的观点。To Donatus the church was a visible society of the elect separate from the world, whereas Augustine developed the Catholic concept of an invisible church within the visible.为了那图斯的教会是一个明显的社会,来自世界各地的独立的选举,而奥古斯丁开发的一种无形的教会天主教概念,内可见。 Donatists also had a fierce reverence for every word of Scripture; therefore to pour a libation to the emperor or to surrender a Bible to Roman peersecutors to burn was to be a heretic or a traditore.多纳徒也有激烈的崇敬每一个字的经文,因此倒奠酒皇帝或交出圣经罗马peersecutors燃烧是一个邪教组织或一个traditore。 Any who had done so were forever outside the visible church unless they were rebaptized (being saved all over again).任何谁做了有形教会以外的永远,除非他们rebaptized(被保存一遍)。Augustine and the Catholics accepted traditores as they did any other backsliders; they were welcomed back into communion upon proper penance prescribed by their bishop.奥古斯丁和天主教徒接受traditores因为他们没有任何其他backsliders;他们欢迎回来后,他们的主教规定的适当苦修共融。 Donatists saw themselves as the only true church and Augustine and his Catholics as a mixed multitude.多纳徒看到了自己作为唯一真正的教会和奥古斯丁和他作为一个混合多种的天主教徒。

The actual schism followed Diocletian's persecution (303-5), which was particularly widespread in North Africa.实际的分裂,戴克里先的迫害(303-5),这是在北非,特别是广泛的。There priests and bishops were often permitted to escape death by surrending Scriptures and regalia to authorities.有神父和主教经常被允许逃脱surrending当局圣经和粉墨死亡。In 311 Caecillian was elected and consecrated as Bishop of Carthage.311 Caecillian当选为迦太基主教奉献。Religiously the consecration was considered invalid because Caecilian himself may have handed over Scriptures for burning and because one of his three confirming bishops, Felix of Aptonga, was a traditore.宗教的奉献被视为无效,因为Caecilian自己可能有烧圣经移交,因为他的三个确认主教,Aptonga费利克斯,是一个traditore。 Politically the consecration of Caecilian was suspect because the primate of Numidia, Secundus of Tigisi, was not involved, and for the previous forty years Numidia had claimed the right of ordaining the Bishop of Carthage.政治Caecilian奉献​​怀疑,因为努米底亚,灵长类动物Tigisi Secundus,并没有参与,并为以前的40年努米底亚声称的祝圣主教的迦太基的权利。Secundus arrived in Carthage with seventy Numidian bishops, declared Caecilian's election invalid, and elected Majorinus as rival Bishop of Carthage.Secundus在迦太基到达70 Numidian主教,宣布Caecilian的选举无效,并当选为对手的迦太基主教Majorinus。Majorinus died within two years, and Donatus was consecrated in his place in 313. Majorinus两年内死亡,而那图斯在他的地方奉献在313。

Constantine, after trying councils and conciliation, turned to severe oppression in 317; but when that failed he granted Donatists liberty of worship in 321.康斯坦丁,试图议会和调解后,转向317严重压迫,但是当失败时,他给予321多纳徒崇拜的自由。In 371 Donatists joined the anti-Roman revolt of Firmus.在371多纳徒加入Firmus反罗马起义。In 388 the fanatical Donatist Bishop Optatus of Thamugadi and organized bands of Donatist terrorists, called Circumcellions, led a revolt under Geldon that lasted to the deaths of Optatus and Geldon in 398.在388的Thamugadi狂热的多纳主教Optatus多纳恐怖分子称为Circumcellions,组织乐队带领下Geldon起义,历时398 Optatus和Geldon死亡。Donatism survived until the seventh century Muslim conquest of North Africa obliterated Catholics and Donatists alike.Donatism幸存下来,直到七世纪穆斯林征服北非抹杀天主教徒和多纳徒都。

VL Walter VL的沃尔特
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
WHC Frend, The Donatist Church; WJ Sparrow-Simpson, St. Augustine and African Church Divisions; RA Markus, "Donatism: The Last Phase," in Studies in Church History, I.西隧Frend; WJ雀辛普森,圣奥古斯丁和非洲教会司; RA马库斯,“Donatism:最后一个阶段,”在教会历史上,一研究,多纳教会


Donatists多纳徒

Catholic Information天主教信息

The Donatist schism in Africa began in 311 and flourished just one hundred years, until the conference at Carthage in 411, after which its importance waned.在非洲的多纳分裂开始在311和繁荣只是一个一百多年,直到会议在迦太基在411后,其重要性减弱。

CAUSES OF THE SCHISM分裂的原因

In order to trace the origin of the division we have to go back to the persecution under Diocletian.为了追查该司的起源,我们要回去下戴克里先的迫害。The first edict of that emperor against Christians (24 Feb., 303) commanded their churches to be destroyed, their Sacred Books to be delivered up and burnt, while they themselves were outlawed.对基督徒的第一个皇帝诏书(303)2月24日,指挥他们的教堂被摧毁,他们的圣书,交付和烧毁,而自己被取缔。 Severer measures followed in 304, when the fourth edict ordered all to offer incense to the idols under pain of death.严厉的措施,在304,当第四法令下令所有提供死亡的痛苦下香的偶像。After the abdication of Maximian in 305, the persecution seems to have abated in Africa. 305玛西缅中退位后,迫害似乎已经在非洲减弱。Until then it was terrible.在那之前,它是可怕的。In Numidia the governor, Florus, was infamous for his cruelty, and, though many officials may have been, like the proconsul Anulinus, unwilling to go further than they were obliged, yet St. Optatus is able to say of the Christians of the whole country that some were confessors, some were martyrs, some fell, only those who were hidden escaped.在努米底亚Florus,总督,他的残暴臭名昭著,并且,尽管许多官员可能已经像方伯Anulinus,不愿百尺竿头更进一步,他们被迫,但圣Optatus可以说,整个基督徒一些国家为师,一些烈士,有的下跌,只有那些被隐藏逃脱。 The exaggerations of the highly strung African character showed themselves.高度串成的非洲特色的夸张表明自己。A hundred years earlier Tertullian had taught that flight from persecution was not permissible.一百年以前,戴尔都良曾告诉我们,从迫害飞行是不允许的。Some now went beyond this, and voluntarily gave themselves up to martyrdom as Christians.一些人现在超越了这一点,并自愿放弃自己作为基督徒殉道。Their motives were, however, not always above suspicion.他们的动机,但是,并非总是上述猜疑。Mensurius, the Bishop of Carthage, in a letter to Secundus, Bishop of Tigisi, then the senior bishop (primate) of Numidia, declares that he had forbidden any to be honoured as martyrs who had given themselves up of their own accord, or who had boasted that they possessed copies of the Scriptures which they would not relinquish; some of these, he says, were criminals and debtors to the State, who thought they might by this means rid themselves of a burdensome life, or else wipe away the remembrance of their misdeeds, or at least gain money and enjoy in prison the luxuries supplied by the kindness of Christians. Mensurius,迦太基主教,Secundus,Tigisi主教的一封信,然后努米底亚高级主教(灵长类动物),声明说,他严禁任何烈士们给自己的荣幸,或谁曾夸口说,他们拥有的圣经,他们不会放弃的副本;他说,其中一些国家的犯罪分子和债务人,谁想到他们可能通过这种手段摆脱了繁重的生活,否则擦去的纪念他们的劣迹,或至少获得金钱和在监狱中享受基督徒的恩情提供的奢侈品。 The later excesses of the Circumcellions show that Mensurius had some ground for the severe line he took.Circumcellions后来过激Mensurius他采取了一些严重的行地面。He explains that he had himself taken the Sacred Books of the Church to his own house, and had substituted a number of heretical writings, which the prosecutors had seized without asking for more; the proconsul, when informed of the deception refused to search the bishop's private house.他解释说,他自己采取了自己的房子教会的神圣的书籍,并已经取代一些邪教的著作,其中检察官有没有要求更多查获的方伯,当欺骗知情拒绝向搜索主教的私人住宅。 Secundus, in his reply, without blaming Mensurius, somewhat pointedly praised the martyrs who in his own province had been tortured and put to death for refusing to deliver up the Scriptures; he himself had replied to the officials who came to search: "I am a Christian and a bishop, not a traditor." Secundus,在他的答复,没有埋怨Mensurius,有点尖锐地赞扬了自己的省已经折磨和拒绝提供“圣经”,把死亡的烈士;他自己回答的官员前来进行搜索:“我一个基督教主教,不是一个traditor。“ This word traditor became a technical expression to designate those who had given up the Sacred Books, and also those who had committed the worse crimes of delivering up the sacred vessels and even their own brethren.这两个字traditor成为一个技术表达指定那些曾放弃的圣书,和那些已承诺提供了神圣的船只坏的罪行,甚至自己的兄弟的。

It is certain that relations were strained between the confessors in prison at Carthage and their bishop.迦太基在狱中的忏悔和他们的主教之间的紧张关系,这是肯定的。If we may credit the Donatist Acts of the forty-nine martyrs of Abitene, they broke off communion with Mensurius.如果我们可以信贷多纳徒的Abitene四十九个烈士,他们断绝与Mensurius共融。We are informed in these Acts that Mensurius was a traditor by his own confession, and that his deacon, Caecilian, raged more furiously against the martyrs than did the persecutors themselves; he set armed men with whips before the door of the prison to prevent their receiving any succor; the food brought by the piety of the Christians was thrown to the dogs by these ruffians, and the drink provided was spilled in the street, so that the martyrs, whose condemnation the mild proconsul had deferred, died in prison of hunger and thirst.我们被告知这些行为,Mensurius是他自己的表白traditor,他的执事,Caecilian,更加疯狂地肆虐比迫害者本身对烈士,他之前设置监狱的大门,武装人员用皮鞭,以防止其接受任何救助;这些暴徒的狗被抛出虔诚的基督教徒带来的食物,并提供饮料洒在大街上,这样的烈士,其谴责轻度方伯推迟,死于饥饿监狱渴。 The story is recognized by Duchesne and others as exaggerated.Duchesne和其他夸张的故事是公认的。It would be better to say that the main point is incredible; the prisoners would not have been allowed by the Roman officials to starve; the details -- that Mensurius confessed himself a traditor, that he prevented the succoring of the imprisoned confessors -- are simply founded on the letter of Mensurius to Secundus.倒不如说,主要的一点是令人难以置信的囚犯不会被罗马官员允许饿死的细节 - Mensurius供述自己traditor,他阻止了被囚禁的忏悔succoring - 干脆成立的Mensurius信Secundus。 Thus we may safely reject all the latter part of the Acts as fictitious.因此,我们可以放心地拒绝所有的后半部分作为虚构的行为。 The earlier part is authentic: it relates how certain of the faithful of Abitene met and celebrated their usual Sunday service, in defiance of the emperor's edict, under the leadership of the priest Saturninus, for their bishop was a traditor and they disowned him; they were sent to Carthage, made bold replies when interrogated, and were imprisoned by Anulinus, who might have condemned them to death forthwith.在早期的一部分,是正宗的:它涉及如何忠实的Abitene一定会见,庆祝他们通常周日服务,无视皇帝的诏书,在在牧师Saturninus的领导下,为他们的主教是一个traditor和他们否认他;他们被送往迦太基,进行了大胆的答复时,审问,并Anulinus,被监禁的人可能会谴责他们立即死亡。 The whole account is characteristic of the fervid African temperament.整个帐户的特点是激越的非洲气质。We can well imagine how the prudent Mensurius and his lieutenant, the deacon Caecilian, were disliked by some of the more excitable among their flock.我们可以想像如何审慎Mensurius和他的副手,执事Caecilian,一些更受他们的羊群兴奋的的不喜欢。

We know in detail how the inquiries for sacred books were carried out, for the official minutes of an investigation at Cirta (afterwards Constantine) in Numidia are preserved.我们详细知道如何进行了神圣的书籍查询,西尔塔(事后康斯坦丁)在努米底亚调查官方分钟保留。The bishop and his clergy showed themselves ready to give up all they had, but drew the line at betraying their brethren; even here their generosity was not remarkable, for they added that the names and addresses were well known to the officials.主教和他的僧侣发现自己准备放弃他们,但提请线在出卖他们的弟兄,即使在他们的慷慨不显着,为他们补充说,是众所周知的官员的姓名和地址。 The examination was conducted by Munatius Felix, perpetual flamen, curator of the colony of Cirta. Munatius菲利克斯,永久的祭司,馆长殖民地西尔塔进行检查。Having arrived with his satellites at the bishop's house -- in Numidia the searching was more severe than in Proconsular Africa -- the bishop was found with four priests, three deacons, four subdeacons, and several fossores (diggers).主教的家,来到他的卫星 - 努米底亚的搜索比地方总督非洲更严重 - 主教与四位神职人员,三个执事,四个修士,和几个fossores(挖掘机)。These declared that the Scriptures were not there, but in the hands of the lectors; an in fact the bookcase was found to be empty.这些声明,圣经是不存在,但在讲师手中;书柜发现其实是空的。The clergy present refused to give the names of the lectors, saying they were known to the notaries; but, with the exception of the books, they gave in an inventory of all possessions of the church: two golden chalices, six of silver, six silver cruets, a silver bowl, seven silver lamps, two candlesticks, seven short bronze lamp-stands with lamps, eleven bronze lamps with chains, eighty-two women's tunics, twenty-eight veils, sixteen men's tunics, thirteen pairs of men's boots, forty-seven pairs of women's boots, nineteen countrymen's smocks.神职人员目前拒绝给讲师的名字,说他们被称为向公证人,但异常的书籍,他们在教会所有的财产清单了:两个金色的酒杯,6银,6银cruets,一个银碗,七个银灯,两个烛台,七个短的青铜灯,站在灯,11个链,八十二个妇女的长袍,二十八个面纱,十六个男子的长袍,男人的靴十三对青铜灯,四十七个双女靴,十九同胞的工作服。 Presently the subdeacon Silvanus brought forth a silver box and another silver lamp, which he had found behind a jug.目前subdeacon西拉带来了一个银盒子和另一个银色的灯,这是他的背后发现一个酒壶。In the dining-room were four casks and seven jugs.在饭厅里4桶和7个水壶。A subdeacon produced a thick book.一个subdeacon一本厚厚的书。Then the houses of the lectors were visited: Eugenius gave up four volumes, Felix, the mosaic worker gave up five, Victorinus eight, Projectus five large volumes and two small ones, the grammarian Victor two codices and five quinions, or gatherings of five leaves; Euticius of Caesarea declared that he had no books; the wife of Coddeo produced six volumes, and said that she had no more; and a search was made without further result.然后讲师的房屋进行了走访:叶夫根尼放弃四册,菲利克斯,马赛克工人放弃了五,Victorinus八个,Projectus五个大容量和两个小的,文法维克多两个抄本和五个quinions,五叶或聚会凯撒利亚Euticius宣布,他已经没有书; Coddeo妻子生产六卷,并说,她没有更多的搜索没有进一步的结果。It is interesting to note that the books were all codices (in book form), not rolls, which had gone out of fashion in the course of the preceding century.有趣的是,要注意的书籍,所有抄本(在书的形式),不卷,在上个世纪的过程中已经过时。

It is to be hoped that such disgraceful scenes were infrequent.它是希望,这种不光彩的场面罕见。 A contrasting instance of heroism is found in the story of Felix, Bishop of Tibiuca, who was hauled before the magistrate on the very day, 5 June 303, when the decree was posted up in that city.一个英雄主义的对比实例,发现在303菲利克斯,主教Tibiuca拖拉,谁是在裁判官席前的那一天,5月,当该法令被张贴在这个城市的故事。 He refused to give up any books, and was sent to Carthage.他不肯放弃任何书籍,被送往迦太基。The proconsul Anulinus, unable by close confinement to weaken his determination, sent him on to Rome to Maximian Hercules.方伯Anulinus,无法禁闭,削弱他的决心,送他到罗马去玛西缅大力士。

In 305, the persecution had relaxed, and it was possible to unite fourteen or more bishops at Cirta in order to give a successor to Paul. 305,放宽迫害,并有可能团结在西尔塔十四个或更多的主教为了给保罗的继任者。Secundus presided as primate, and in his zeal he attempted to examine the conduct of his colleagues. Secundus主持作为灵长类动物,并在他的热情,他试图检查他的同事们的行为。They met in a private house, for the Church had not yet been restored to the Christians.他们会见了在一所私人住宅,教会尚未恢复到基督徒。"We must first try ourselves", said the primate, "before we can venture to ordain a bishop". “我们必须首先尝试自己”,说的灵长类动物,“之前,我们可以大胆一位主教祝圣”。To Donatus of Mascula he said: "You are said to have been a traditor."为了那图斯的Mascula,他说:“你是说,有一个traditor。” "You know", replied the bishop, "how Florus searched for me that I might offer incense, but God did not deliver me into his hands, brother. As God forgave me, do you reserve me to His judgment." ,回答说:“你知道”主教,“Florus搜索如何对我来说,我可能会提供香,但神在他手里没有提供我的兄弟。正如上帝原谅我,你保留我到他的判断。” "What then", said Secundus, "shall we say of the martyrs? It is because they did not give up anything that they were crowned."“那么”说,Secundus,“我们说的烈士?这是因为他们没有放弃任何东西,他们加冕。”"Send me to God," said Donatus, "to Him will I give an account."“送我到神,”多那图斯说,“我会向他交代。”(In fact, a bishop was not amenable to penance and was properly "reserved to God" in this sense.) "Stand on one side", said the president, and to Marinus of Aquae Tibilitanae he said: "You also are said to be a traditor." (事实上​​,主教是不适合苦修,是正确的“保留神”在这个意义上)“站在一边”,布什总统说,水华Tibilitanae Marinus他说:“你也说是一个traditor“。Marinus said: "I gave papers to Pollux; my books are safe."Marinus说:“我给了论文,以波吕克斯;我的本本是安全的。”This was not satisfactory, and Secundus said: "Go over to that side"; then to Donatus of Calama: "You are said to be a traditor."这是不能令人满意,和Secundus说:“去那一边”,然后那图斯的卡拉马:“你说是一个traditor。” "I gave up books on medicine." “我放弃了医学上的书籍。”Secundus seems to have been incredulous, or at least he thought a trial was needed, for again he said: "Stand on one side." Secundus似乎已不可思议,或至少他认为审判是必要的,他再次说:“站在一边”After a gap in the Acts, we read that Secundus turned to Victor, Bishop of Russicade: "You are said to have given up the Four Gospels."在这些法案中的差距后,我们读到,Secundus胜者,主教的Russicade:“你是说已经放弃四福音” Victor replied: "It was the curator, Valentinus; he forced me to throw them into the fire. Forgive me this fault, and God will also forgive it."维克托回答说:“这是馆长,Valentinus;,他强迫我扔在火里,原谅我这个故障,上帝也会原谅。。”Secundus said: "Stand on one side."Secundus说:“站在一边。”Secundus (after another gap) said to Purpurius of Limata: "You are said to have killed the two sons of your sister at Mileum" (Milevis).Secundus(后另一个差距)Limata Purpurius说:“你是说,在Mileum杀害你姐姐的两个儿子”(Milevis)。Purpurius answered with vehemence: "Do you think I am frightened by you as the others are? What did you do yourself when the curator and his officials tried to make you give up the Scriptures? How did you manage to get off scot-free, unless you gave them something, or ordered something to be given? They certainly did not let you go for nothing! As for me I have killed and I kill those who are against me; do not provoke me to say anymore. You know that I do not interfere where I have no business." Purpurius与激烈的回答:“你认为我你害怕其他你做了什么自己当馆长和他的官员试图让你放弃”圣经“,你是如何管理下车逍遥法外,除非你给他们的东西,或者责令给予的东西,他们当然没有让你去白白至于我,我杀死,我杀了那些对我!不惹我说了,你知道,我不要干涉我没有生意。“ At this outburst, a nephew of Secundus said to the primate: "You hear what they say of you? He is ready to withdraw and make a schism; and the same is true of all those whom you accuse; and I know they are capable of turning you out and condemning you, and you alone will then be the heretic. What is it to you what they have done? Each must give his account to God."在此爆发,灵长类动物的一个侄子Secundus说:“你听到你说他是准备撤出,使一个分裂;相同的是所有的人,你指责,我知道他们有能力?你谴责你,和你一个人将被邪教。什么是给你自己所做的事吗?每个人都必须向上帝给他的帐户。“ Secundus (as St. Augustine points out) had apparently no reply against the accusation of Purpurius, so he turned to the two or three bishops who remained unaccused: "What do you think?" Secundus(圣奥古斯丁指出)显然没有对Purpurius指责的答复,于是他转身对两个或三个主教仍然unaccused:“你怎么想” These answered: "They have God to whom they must give an account."这些回答说:“他们有上帝,他们必须交代。”Secundus said: "You know and God knows. Sit down."Secundus说:“你知道,上帝知道,坐下。”And all replied: Deo gratis.回答:迪奥无偿。

These minutes have been preserved for us by St. Augustine.此份会议纪要已被保存为我们的圣奥古斯丁。 The later Donatists declared them forged, but not only could St. Optatus refer to the age of the parchment on which they were written, but they are made easily credible by the testimonies given before Zenophilus in 320.后来多纳徒宣布他们伪造的,但圣Optatus不仅可以指羊皮纸上写的年龄,但他们是由前Zenophilus 320证词轻松可信的。Seeck, as well as Duchesne (see below), upholds their genuineness. Seeck,以及Duchesne(见下文),坚持自己的真实性。We hear from St. Optatus of another fallen Numidian bishop, who refused to come to the council on the pretext of bad eyes, but in reality for fear his fellow-citizens should prove that he had offered incense, a crime of which the other bishops were not guilty.我们听到从圣Optatus另一个下降Numidian主教,谁不来会坏眼睛的借口,但在现实中,怕他的同胞公民应证明他提供了香,它的其他主教犯罪不认罪。 The bishops proceeded to ordain a bishop, and they chose Silvanus, who, as a subdeacon, assisted in the search for sacred vessels.主教进行祝圣主教,他们选择了西拉,人,作为一个subdeacon,协助在寻找神圣的船只。The people of Cirta rose up against him, crying that he was a traditor, and demanded the appointment of a certain Donatus.西尔塔人民奋起反对他,哭了,他是一个traditor,并要求一定的那图斯的任命。But country people and gladiators were engaged to set him in the episcopal chair, to which he was carried on the back of a man named Mutus.但是,全国人民和角斗士从事设置他在主教主持,他是进行名为Mutus一个人回。

CAECILIAN AND MAJORINUSCAECILIAN和MAJORINUS

A certain Donatus of Casae Nigrae is said to have caused a schism in Carthage during the lifetime of Mensurius.一定的Casae Nigrae那图斯说造成分裂,在迦太基期间Mensurius一生。In 311 Maxentius obtained dominion over Africa, and a deacon of Carthage, Felix, was accused of writing a defamatory letter against the tyrant.写诽谤信反对暴君统治整个非洲获得311 Maxentius和执事的迦太基,菲利克斯,被指控。Mensurius was said to have concealed his deacon in his house and was summoned to Rome. Mensurius是说在他的房子隐瞒他的执事,被传唤到罗马。He was acquitted, but died on his return journey.他被无罪释放,但在他的回归之旅死亡。Before his departure from Africa, he had given the gold and silver ornaments of the church to the care of certain old men, and had also consigned an inventory of these effects to an aged woman, who was to deliver it to the next bishop.他从非洲出发前,他给了教会照顾一些老部下的金银饰品,也委托清点这些影响,一个中年妇女,谁是提供给未来的主教。 Maxentius gave liberty to the Christians, so that it was possible for an election to be held at Carthage.Maxentius了自由的基督徒,因此它可能在迦太基举行的选举。The bishop of Carthage, like the pope, was commonly consecrated by a neighbouring bishop, assisted by a number of others form the vicinity.常用奉献,像教皇,主教的迦太基是由邻近的主教,他人的协助下形成的附近。He was primate not only of the proconsular province, but of the other provinces of North Africa, including Numidian, Byzacene, Tripolitana, and the two Mauretanias, which were all governed by the vicar of prefects.他不仅是灵长类动物的地方总督省,但北非的其他省份,包括Numidian,Byzacene,Tripolitana,和两个Mauretanias,这些都是由省长副主教管辖。 In each of these provinces the local primacy was attached to no town, but was held by the senior bishop, until St. Gregory the Great made the office elective.在这些省份,每年当地的首要地位是没有镇,但由资深的主教举行,直到圣格雷戈里大办公室选修。St. Optatus implies that the bishops of Numidia, many of whom were at no great distance from Carthage, had expected that they would have a voice in the election; but two priests, Botrus and Caelestius, who each expected to be elected, had managed that only a small number of bishops should be present.圣Optatus意味着努米底亚,其中许多人在没有很大的距离,从迦太基主教们曾预计他们将在选举中的声音;但两个祭司,Botrus Caelestius,每个预计将当选,管理只有少数的主教应在场。Caecilian, the deacon who had been so obnoxious to the martyrs, was duly chosen by the whole people, placed in the chair of Mensurius, and consecrated by Felix, Bishop of Aptonga or Abtughi. Caecilian,已如此厌恶烈士的执事,整个人已正式选择,放置在Mensurius椅子,菲利克斯,主教Aptonga或Abtughi奉献。 The old men who had charge of the treasure of the church were obliged to give it up; they joined with Botrus and Caelestius in refusing to acknowledge the new bishop.曾负责教会的宝藏的老部下被迫放弃,他们Botrus和Caelestius拒绝承认新主教加入。They were assisted by a rich lady named Lucilla, who had a grudge against Caecilian because he had rebuked her habit of kissing the bone of an uncanonized (non vindicatus) martyr immediately before receiving Holy Communion.他们协助名为Lucilla,有一个对Caecilian斗气丰富的夫人,因为他斥责她接吻uncanonized(非vindicatus)烈士的骨立即接受圣餐之前的习惯。 Probably we have here again a martyr whose death was due to his own ill-regulated fervour.也许我们在这里再次一个烈士的死亡是由于他自己生病调节热情。

Secundus, as the nearest primate, came with his suffragans to Carthage to judge the affair, and in a great council of seventy bishops declared the ordination of Caecilian to be invalid, as having been performed by a traditor. Secundus,最接近的灵长类动物,带着他suffragans迦太基来判断事情,并在一个伟大的七十主教理事会宣布Caecilian协调无效,视为已获traditor执行。 A new bishop was consecrated.新主教被奉献。Majorinus, who belonged to the household of Lucilla and had been a lector in the deaconry of Caecilian. Majorinus,属于Lucilla家庭,并已在Caecilian deaconry讲师。That lady provided the sum of 400 folles (more than 11,000 dollars), nominally for the poor; but all of it went into the pockets of the bishops, one-quarter of the sum being seized by Purpurius of Limata.那小姐,名义上为穷人提供的400 folles(超过11,000美元)的总和,但它的所有主教的口袋,一季度Limata Purpurius被检获的款项去。Caecilian had possession of the basilica and the cathedra of Cyprian, and the people were with him, so that he refused to appear before the council. Caecilian拥有大教堂和塞浦路斯cathedra,以及人与他,让他拒绝出庭理事会。"If I am not properly consecrated", he said ironically, "let them treat me as a deacon, and lay hands on me afresh, and not on another."他说:“如果我没有正确的奉​​献”,具有讽刺意味的​​是,“让他们把我作为一个执事,躺在我的手重新,而不是另一个。” On this reply being brought, Purpurius cried: "Let him come here, and instead of laying on him, we will break his head in penance."被带到这个答复,Purpurius叫道:“让他来这里,而不是他铺设,我们将打破他的头在苦修。”No wonder that the action of this council, which sent letters throughout Africa, had a great influence.难怪,整个非洲发出的信件,本会的行动产生了很大影响。But at Carthage it was well known that Caecilian was the choice of the people, and it was not believed that Felix of Aptonga had given up the Sacred Books.但在迦太基这是众所周知的,Caecilian是人民的选择,这是不相信Aptonga菲利克斯已经放弃了的圣书。Rome and Italy had given Caecilian their communion.罗马和意大利Caecilian他们的共融。The Church of the moderate Mensurius did not hold that consecration by a traditor was invalid, or even that it was illicit, if the traditor was still in lawful possession of his see.温和Mensurius教会没有举行一个traditor,奉献是无效的,甚至,它是非法的,如果traditor仍然是他看到的合法拥有。 The council of Secundus, on the contrary, declared that a traditor could not act as a bishop, and that any who were in communion with traditors were cut off from the Church. Secundus会,相反,宣布一个traditor不能作为一个主教,和任何人与traditors削减从教会共融。They called themselves the Church of the martyrs, and declared that all who were in communion with public sinners like Caecilian and Felix were necessarily excommunicate.他们自称教会的烈士,并宣布所有共融像Caecilian和Felix的公共罪人一定破门。

THE CONDEMNATION BY POPE MELCHIADES由罗马教皇梅尔希亚德斯的谴责

Very soon there were many cities having two bishops, the one in communion with Caecilian, the other with Majorinus.很快,有许多城市,有两位主教,Caecilian,与Majorinus其他的共融与。 Constantine, after defeating Maxentius (28 October, 312) and becoming master of Rome, showed himself a Christian in his acts.康斯坦丁,击败Maxentius(10月28日,312),并成为罗马的主人后,表明自己在他的行为是基督徒。He wrote to Anulinus, proconsul of Africa (was he same as the mild proconsul of 303?), restoring the churches to Catholics, and exempting clerics of the "Catholic Church of which Caecilian is president" from civil functions (Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. X, v 15, and vii, 2).他写信给Anulinus,非洲方伯(是他轻度方伯303相同),恢复教会的天主教徒,和豁免“天主教Caecilian是总统”来自民间的功能(优西比乌,组织胺。传道书神职人员X,V 15,七,2)。he also wrote to Caecilian (ibid., X, vi, 1) sending him an order for 3000 folles to be distributed in Africa, Numidia, and Mauretania; if more was needed, the bishop must apply for more.Caecilian(同上六,1,X)他还写了送他以分布在非洲,努米底亚,毛里塔尼亚和3000 folles;如果需要,主教必须申请更多。He added that he had heard of turbulent persons who sought to corrupt the Church; he had ordered the proconsul Anulinus, and the vicar of prefects to restrain them, and Caecilian was to appeal to these officials if necessary.他补充说,他听说过动荡的人,谁试图破坏教会,他已下令方伯Anulinus,副主教的省长来约束他们,并Caecilian呼吁这些官员如果有必要。 The opposing party lost no time.反对方不失时机地。A few days after the publication of these letters, their delegates, accompanied by a mob, brought to Anulinus two bundles of documents, containing the complaints of their party against Caecilian, to be forwarded to the emperor.几天后公布这些信件,他们的代表,被暴徒的陪同下,带来Anulinus两个文件包,包含对Caecilian他们的党的投诉,被转发到皇帝。 St. Optatus has preserved a few words from their petition, in which Constantine is begged to grant judges from Gaul, where under his father's rule there had been no persecution, and therefore no traditors.圣Optatus保留了几句话,从他们的请愿书,其中君士坦丁是乞求给予法官从高卢,他父亲的统治下没有任何迫害,因此没有traditors。 Constantine knew the Church's constitution too well to comply and thereby make Gallic bishops judges of the primates of Africa.君士坦丁知道教会的宪法,很好地遵守,从而使非洲灵长类动物的高卢主教法官。He at once referred the matter to the pope, expressing his intention, laudable, if too sanguine, of allowing no schisms in the Catholic Church.他提到一次的问题给教宗,表达他的意图,值得称道的,允许在天主教教会没有分裂,如果过于乐观,的。That the African schismatics might have no ground of complaint, he ordered three of the chief bishops of Gaul, Reticius of Autun, Maternus of Cologne, and Marinus of Arles, to repair to Rome, to assist at the trial.非洲schismatics可能没有申诉的理由,他下令三个高卢首席主教,Reticius欧坦,科隆Maternus,和阿尔勒Marinus,修复罗马,协助审判。 He ordered Caecilian to come thither with ten bishops of his accusers and ten of his own communion.他下令Caecilian拿出十个主教对他的控告和他自己的共融10上去。The memorials against Caecilian he sent to the pope, who would know, he says, what procedure to employ in order to conclude the whole matter with justice.对Caecilian奏折,他说,他给教皇,谁知道什么程序,聘请以结束与正义整件事。(Eusebius, Hist. Eccl., X, v, 18).(优西比乌,组织胺。传道书,X,V,18)。Pope Melchiades summoned fifteen Italian bishops to sit with him.教宗梅尔希亚德斯召见坐下来与他的15个意大利主教团。From this time forward we find that in all important matters the popes issue their decretal letters from a small council of bishops, and there are traces of this custom even before this.从这个时候,我们发现,在所有重要事项,的问题,从一个小会的主教教皇法令的信件,并有此习俗,即使在此之前的痕迹。The ten Donatist bishops (for we may now give the party its eventual name) were headed by a Bishop Donatus of Casae Nigrae.十(我们现在可以给党的最终名称)多纳主教由主教Cas​​ae Nigrae那图斯领导。It was assumed by Optatus, Augustine, and the other Catholic apologists that this was "Donatus the Great", the successor of Majorinus as schismatic Bishop of Carthage.这是假设Optatus,奥古斯丁,和其他天主教辩护士,这是“那图斯大”,作为分裂的迦太基主教继任的Majorinus。 But the Donatists of St. Augustine's time were anxious to deny this, as they did not wish to admit that their protagonist had been condemned, and the Catholics at the conference of 411 granted them the existence of a Donatus, Bishop of Casae Nigrae, who had distinguished himself by active hostility to Caecilian.但圣奥古斯丁的时间多纳徒急于否认这一点,因为他们不想承认他们的主角已被谴责,并在411会议天主教徒给予他们那图斯的存在,主教Cas​​ae Nigrae,谁积极敌视Caecilian自己。Modern authorities agree in accepting this view.现代当局同意接受这个观点。But it seems inconceivable that, if Majorinus was still alive, he should not have been obliged to go to Rome.但它似乎是不可思议的,如果Majorinus他还活着,他不应该被迫去罗马。It would be very strange, further, that a Donatus of Casae Nigrae should appear as the leader of the party, without any explanation, unless Casae Nigrae was simply the birthplace of Donatus the Great.这将是很奇怪,进一步Casae Nigrae那图斯应作为党的领导,没有作出任何解释的情况下,除非Casae Nigrae只是那图斯的发源地。If we assume that Majorinus had died and had been succeeded by Donatus the Great just before the trial at Rome, we shall understand why Majorinus is never again mentioned.如果我们假设Majorinus死了,并且已经由之前在罗马的审判那图斯大成功,我们应明白为什么Majorinus是从来没有再次提及。 The accusations against Caecilian in the memorial were disregarded, as being anonymous and unproved.在纪念对Caecilian指控被忽视,被匿名和未经证实的。The witnesses brought from Africa acknowledged that they had nothing against him.从非洲带来的证人都承认,他们已经对他一无所知。Donatus, on the other hand, was convicted by his own confession of having rebaptized and of having laid his hands in penance on bishops -- this was forbidden by ecclesiastical law.那图斯,另一方面,被定罪,由他自己的供述有rebaptized,并奠定了他的手,对主教的忏悔 - 这是由教会法禁止。 On the third day the unanimous sentence was pronounced by Melchiades: Caecilian was to be maintained in ecclestiastical communion.第三天一致的判决被宣布梅尔希亚德斯:Caecilian是要保持在ecclestiastical共融。If Donatist bishops returned to the Church, in a place where there were two rival bishops, the junior was to retire and be provided with another see.如果返回多纳主教在一个地方,那里有两个对立的主教,教会,初中退休,并与另见。The Donatists were furious.多纳徒群情激愤。A hundred years later their successor declared that Pope Melchiades was himself a traditor, and that on this account they had not accepted his decision; though there is no trace of this having been alleged at the time.一百年后,他们的继任者宣布,教皇梅尔希亚德斯是自己traditor,并在这个帐户,他们没有接受他的决定,虽然没有当时的这种做法已经被指控跟踪。 But the nineteen bishops at Rome were contrasted with the seventy bishops of the Cathaginian Council, and a fresh judgment was demanded.但在罗马的主教十九Cathaginian理事会第七主教进行对比,并要求一个新的判断。

THE COUNCIL OF ARLES阿尔勒理事会

Constantine was angry, but he saw that the party was powerful in Africa, and he summoned a council of the whole West (that is, of the whole of his actual dominions) to meet at Arles on 1 August, 314.康斯坦丁很生气,但他看到了党在非洲的强大,他召集了整个西方理事会(也就是说,他的实际领土的整个)在阿尔勒满足于8月1日,314。 Melchiades was dead, and his successor, St. Sylvester, thought it unbecoming to leave Rome, thus setting an example which he repeated in the case of Nicaea, and which his successors followed in the cases of Sardica, Rimini, and the Eastern oecumenical councils.梅尔希亚德斯死了,他的继任者,圣西尔维斯特,以为不雅观离开罗马,率先垂范,在尼西亚的情况下,他反复和他的继任者遵循Sardica,里米尼的情况下,东部oecumenical政局。 Between forty and fifty sees were represented at the council by bishops or proxies; the Bishops of London, York, and Lincoln were there.第四十至五十看到派代表出席了会由主教或代理;有伦敦,纽约,林肯主教。St. Sylvester sent legates.圣西尔维斯特派出使节。The council condemned the Donatists and drew up a number of canons; it reported its proceedings in a letter to the pope, which is extant; but, as in the case of Nicaea, no detailed Acts remain, nor are any such mentioned by the ancients.安理会谴责多纳徒,并制定了一些的大炮;报告教皇,这是现存的信其诉讼,但是,在尼西亚的情况下,没有详细的行为依然存在,也不是古人提到任何此类。 The Fathers in their letter salute Sylvester, saying that he had rightly decided not to quit the spot "where the Apostles daily sit in judgment"; had he been with them, they might perhaps have dealt more severely with the heretics.父亲在信中西尔维斯特敬礼,说他有正确的决定不退出点“使徒每天坐在判断”,他与他们,他们也许有处理更严重的异端。 Among the canons, one forbids rebaptism (which was still practised in Africa), another declares that those who falsely accuse their brethren shall have communion only at the hour of death.其中的大炮,禁止rebaptism(这是在非洲仍然实行),另一个宣称那些倒打一耙他们的弟兄只应在死亡的时刻共融。 On the other hand, traditors are to be refused communion, but only when their fault has been proved by public official acts; those whom they have ordained are to retain their positions.另一方面,traditors被拒绝的共融,但只有当他们的故障已经由公职人员的行为证明;那些人,他们有受戒是保留自己的立场。 The council produced some effect in Africa, but the main body of the Donatists was immovable.会产生一些效果,但在非洲的多纳徒的主体是不动产。They appealed from the council to the emperor.他们呼吁安理会向皇帝。Constantine was horrified: "O insolent madness!"君士坦丁被吓坏了:“啊,张狂的疯狂!”he wrote, "they appeal from heaven to earth, from Jesus Christ to a man."他写道,“他们呼吁从天上到地球,从耶稣基督到一个人。”

THE POLICY OF CONSTANTINE康斯坦丁的政策

The emperor retained the Donatist envoys in Gaul, after at first dismissing them.皇帝保留在高卢的多纳特使后,首先解雇他们。He seems to have thought of sending for Caecilian, then of granting a full examination in Africa.他似乎已经想到发送Caecilian,授予在非洲的全面检查,然后。The case of Felix of Aptonga was in fact examined by his order at Carthage in February, 315 (St. Augustine is probably wrong in giving 314). Aptonga费利克斯的情况下,其实他在迦太基为了研究在二月,315(圣奥古斯丁可能是错误给予314)。The minutes of the proceedings have come down to us in a mutilated state; they are referred to by St. Optatus, who appended them to his book with other documents, and they are frequently cited by St. Augustine.会议的纪要回落给我们在一个残缺不全的状态,他们被称为圣Optatus,谁追加他与其他文件的书,以及它们经常引用圣奥古斯丁。 It was shown that the letter which the Donatists put forward as proving the crime of Felix, had been interpolated by a certain Ingentius; this was established by the confession of Ingentius, as well as by the witness of Alfius, the writer of the letter.这是这封信的多纳徒证明费利克斯犯罪,已被一定Ingentius的插补,这家成立Ingentius供认,以及Alfius,作家的信的见证。 It was proved that Felix was actually absent at the time the search for Sacred Books was made at Aptonga.这是证明,费利克斯实际上是在寻找圣书是在Aptonga时缺席。Constantine eventually summoned Caecilian and his opponents to Rome; but Caecilian, for some unknown reason, did not appear.康斯坦丁最终罗马召见Caecilian和他的对手,但Caecilian,一些未知的原因,并没有出现。 Caecilian and Donatus the Great (who was now, at all events, bishop) were called to Milan, where Constantine heard both sides with great care. Caecilian和那图斯大(谁是现在,在所有事件,主教)被称为米兰,康斯坦丁听到双方非常谨慎。He declared that Caecilian was innocent and an excellent bishop (Augustine, Contra Cresconium, III lxxi).他宣称,Caecilian是无辜的,一个很好的主教(奥古斯丁,魂斗罗Cresconium,三lxxi)。He retained both in Italy, however, while he sent two bishops, Eunomius and Olympius, to Africa, with an idea of putting Donatus and Caecilian aside, and substituting a new bishop, to be agreed upon by all parties.他在意大利都保留,但是,当他向非洲派出了两位主教,Eunomius和匹阿斯,一边把那图斯和Caecilian,并代以新的主教的思想,以各方同意后。 It is to be presumed that Caecilian and Donatus had assented to this course; but the violence of the sectaries made it impossible to carry it out.它是被推定Caecilian和那图斯同意课程,但暴力的sectaries无法抓落实。Eunomius and Olympius declared at Carthage that the Catholic Church was that which is diffused throughout the world and that the sentence pronounced against the Donatists could not be annulled.Eunomius和匹阿斯宣布在迦太基,天主教会,这是在世界各地扩散,并不能废止,对多纳徒的判刑。They communicated with the clergy of Caecilian and returned to Italy.他们传达Caecilian神职人员,并回到了意大利。Donatus went back to Carthage, and Caecilian, seeing this, felt himself free to do the same.那图斯回到迦太基,Caecilian,见此情景,觉得自己做同样的自由。Finally Constantine ordered that the churches which the Donatists had taken should be given to the Catholics.最后,君士坦丁下令,应给予天主教徒的多纳徒已采取的教堂。Their other meeting-places were confiscated.其他会议场所被没收。Those who were convicted (of calumny?) lost their goods.这些人被定罪(诽谤)失去自己的商品。Evictions were carried out by the military.开展军事迁离。An ancient sermon on the passion of the Donatist "martyrs", Donatus and Advocatus, describes such scenes.古老的说教上多纳的“烈士”的激情,那图斯和Advocatus,描述了这样的场面。In one of them a regular massacre occurred, and a bishop was among the slain, if we may trust this curious document.在其中的一个经常发生的大屠杀,和一位主教是被杀害的,如果我们可以相信这种奇怪的文件。The Donatists were proud of this "persecution of Caecilian", which "the Pure" suffered at the hands of the "Church of the Traditors".多纳徒人自豪的这种“迫害Caecilian”,“纯粹的”遭受的“教会Traditors”手中。The Comes Leontius and the Dux Ursacius were the special objects of their indignation.在谈到Leontius和DUX Ursacius愤慨的特殊对象。

In 320 came revelations unpleasant to the "Pure".在320来到启示不愉快的“纯”。Nundinarius, a deacon of Cirta, had a quarrel with his bishop, Silvanus, who caused him to be stoned -- so he said in his complaint to certain Numidian bishops, in which he threatened that if they did not use their influence in his behalf with Silvanus, he would tell what he knew of them.Nundinarius,执事的西尔塔,他的主教,西拉,使他被砸死的争吵 - 所以他说他在投诉中某些Numidian主教,他威胁说,如果他们不使用他们的代表在他的影响西拉,他会告诉他知道他们。As he got no satisfaction he brought the matter before Zenophilus, the consular of Numidia.由于他有没有满意的时候,他带来了前Zenophilus,努米底亚领事问题。The minutes have come to us in a fragmentary form in the appendix of Optatus, under the title of "Gesta apud Zenophilum".分钟到我们这里来,在Optatus附录中的零碎的形式,根据“Gesta APUD Zenophilum”称号。Nundinarius produced letters from Purpurius and other bishops to Silvanus and to the people of Cirta, trying to have peace made with the inconvenient deacon. Nundinarius产生字母Purpurius和其他主教西拉和人民的西尔塔,试图和平与不便执事。The minutes of the search at Cirta, which we have already cited, were read and witnesses were called to establish their accuracy, including two of the fossores then present and a lector, Victor the grammarian.分钟西尔塔,我们已列举的搜索,阅读和证人被称为建立其准确性,其中包括两名fossores然后和一个集电极,维克多的文法。 It was shown no only that Silvanus was a traditor, but that he had assisted Purpurius, together with two priests and a deacon, in the theft of certain casks of vinegar belonging to the treasury, which were in the temple of Serapis.结果表明没有只西拉是一个traditor,但他曾协助Purpurius,两名牧师和执事在醋的某些属于国库,寺庙塞拉皮斯木桶的盗窃,一起。 Silvanus had ordained a priest for the sum of 20 folles (500 to 600 dollars).西拉了祝圣神父为20 folles(500至600美元)的总和。It was established that none of the money given by Lucilla had reached the poor for whom it was ostensibly given.它的成立,都没有达到由Lucilla钱对他们来说,这是表面上给予贫困。Thus Silvanus, one of the mainstays of the "Pure" Church, which declared that to communicate with any traditor was to be outside the Church, was himself proved to be a traditor.因此,西拉,“纯”的教会,宣布,沟通与任何traditor是教会之外的重要支柱之一,是自己被证明是一个traditor。 He was exiled by the consular for robbing the treasury, for obtaining money under false pretences, and for getting himself made bishop by violence.他被流放的领事抢劫国库,获得蒙混过关的钱,自己越来越暴力主教。 The Donatists later preferred to say that he was banished for refusing to communicate with the "Caecilianists", and Cresconius even spoke of "the persecution of Zenophilus".多纳徒后首选地说,他拒绝沟通“Caecilianists”放逐,Cresconius甚至“Zenophilus迫害”的发言。 But it should have been clear to all that the consecrators of Majorinus had called their opponents traditors in order to cover their own delinquencies.但它应该已经都清楚,Majorinus的consecrators称为他们的对手traditors,为了掩盖自己的拖欠。

The Donatist party owed its success in great part to the ability of its leader Donatus, the successor of Majorinus.多纳党欠其成功在很大程度上给其领导者的那图斯,Majorinus继任的能力。 He appears to have really merited the title of "the Great" by his eloquence and force of character.他似乎真的值得他的口才和性格的力量“大”的标题。His writings are lost.失去了他的著作。His influence with his party was extraordinary.他与他的党的影响力是非凡的。St. Augustine frequently declaims against his arrogance and the impiety with which he was almost worshipped by his followers.圣奥古斯丁经常东亚文明对他的嚣张气焰,他差点被他的追随者崇拜的不虔诚。In his lifetime he is said to have greatly enjoyed the adulation he received, and after death he was counted as a martyr and miracles were ascribed to him.在他的一生,他是说有极大的享受,他收到的阿谀奉承,死后,他被​​算为烈士和奇迹,归功于他。

In 321 Constantine relaxed his vigorous measures, having found that they did not produce the peace he had hoped for, and he weakly begged the Catholics to suffer the Donatists with patience. 321君士坦丁放宽他的有力措施,他们发现,他们并没有产生他所希望的和平,和他弱乞求天主教徒遭受耐心多纳徒。This was not easy, for the schismatics broke out into violence.这是不容易的,为schismatics爆发成暴力。At Cirta, Silvanus having returned, they seized the basilica which the emperor had built for the Catholics.在西尔塔,西拉返回,他们抓住了皇帝建的教堂的天主教徒。They would not give it up, and Constantine found no better expedient that to build another.他们不会给它,和君士坦丁发现没有更好的权宜之计,以建立另一个。Throughout Africa, but above all in Numidia, they were numerous.在整个非洲,但上述所有在努米底亚,他们是多不胜数。They taught that in all the rest of the world the Catholic Church had perished, through having communicated with the traditor Caecilian; their sect alone was the true Church.他们教导,在世界各地的天主教会灭亡通过沟通与traditor Caecilian,他们的教派单是真正的教会。 If a Catholic came into their churches, they drove him out, and washed with salt the pavement where he had stood.如果到他们的教堂,天主教,他们开着他,并用盐水洗净他站在路面。Any Catholic who joined them was forced to be rebaptized.任何天主教加入他们被迫要rebaptized。They asserted that their own bishops and ministers were without fault, else their ministrations would be invalid.他们宣称自己的主教和部长们无过错,否则他们ministrations的将是无效的。But in fact they were convicted of drunkenness and other sins.但事实上,他们被定罪的醉酒和其他的罪。St. Augustine tells us on the authority of Tichonius that the Donatists held a council of two hundred and seventy bishops in which they discussed for seventy-five days the question of rebaptism; they finally decided that in cases where traditors refused to be rebaptized they should be communicated with in spite of this; and the Donatist bishops of Mauretania did not rebaptize traditors until the time of Macarius.圣奥古斯丁告诉我们Tichonius管理局,多纳徒举行了二百七十主教理事会在72 - 5天问题rebaptism讨论,他们终于决定在情况下traditors拒绝被rebaptized,他们应该沟通,尽管这和毛里塔尼亚多纳主教没有rebaptize traditors直到米加利阿斯时间。Outside Africa the Donatists had a bishop residing on the property of an adherent in Spain, and at an early period of the schism they made a bishop for their small congregation in Rome, which met, it seems, on a hill outside the city, and had the name of "Montenses".在非洲以外地区的多纳徒居住坚持在西班牙的财产的一个主教,并在分裂初期,他们在罗马的主教为他们的小众,符合,看来,城外的山上, “Montenses”的名称。This antipapal "succession with a beginning" was frequently ridiculed by Catholic writers.这antipapal“继承”一开始还经常嘲笑天主教作家。The series included Felix, Boniface, Encolpius, Macrobius (c. 370), Lucian, Claudian (c. 378), and again Felix in 411.该系列包括菲利克斯,博尼法斯,Encolpius,Macrobius(公元前370),卢西恩,克劳狄(公元前378),并再次在411费利克斯。

THE CIRCUMCELLIONS在CIRCUMCELLIONS

The date of the first appearance of the Circumcellions is uncertain, but probably they began before the death of Constantine.首次亮相的Circumcellions的日期是不确定的,但也许他们之前死亡的君士坦丁开始。They were mostly rustic enthusiasts, who knew no Latin, but spoke Punic; it has been suggested that they may have been of Berber blood.他们大多是质朴的爱好者,谁知道没有拉美,但谈到迦太基,它已建议他们可能柏柏尔人的血液。 They joined the ranks of the Donatists, and were called by them agnostici and "soldiers of Christ", but in fact were brigands.他们加入多纳徒的行列,并呼吁他们agnostici和“基督的​​士兵”,但实际上是土匪。Troops of them were to be met in all parts of Africa.他们的军队在非洲的所有部分满足。They had no regular occupation, but ran about armed, like madmen.他们没有正规的职业,但关于武装跑了,像疯子。They used no swords, on the ground that St. Peter had been told to put his sword into its sheath; but they did continual acts of violence with clubs, which they called "Israelites".他们没有使用剑,圣彼得曾告诉他的剑投入其鞘的地面上,但他们不断的暴力行为,与俱乐部,他们称之为“以色列人”。 They bruised their victims without killing them, and left them to die.他们伤痕累累没有杀害他们的受害者,并留下他们死。In St. Augustine's time, however, they took to swords and all sorts of weapons; they rushed about accompanied by unmarried women, played, and drank.然而,在圣奥古斯丁的时间,他们采取了剑和各种武器;他们赶到未婚女性的陪同下,发挥,并喝。They battle-cry was Deo laudes, and no bandits were more terrible to meet.他们的战斗口号是迪奥laudes,并没有土匪更可怕的,以满足。 They frequently sought death, counting suicide as martyrdom.他们经常寻求死亡,计数作为殉教自杀。They were especially fond of flinging themselves from precipices; more rarely they sprang into the water or fire.他们特别喜欢自己从悬崖扔的,他们很少到水或火窜出。Even women caught the infection, and those who had sinned would cast themselves from the cliffs, to atone for their fault.甚至妇女引起的感染,和那些犯了罪,将投自己从悬崖上,为他们的过错赎罪。Sometimes the Circumcellions sought death at the hands of others, either by paying men to kill them, by threatening to kill a passer-by if he would not kill them, or by their violence inducing magistrates to have them executed.有时在别人的手里Circumcellions寻求死亡,要么支付男子杀死他们,威胁要杀死一名途人,如果他不会杀死他们,或他们的暴力诱使裁判把他们执行。 While paganism still flourished, they would come in vast crowds to any great sacrifice, not to destroy the idols, but to be martyred.虽然异教仍然蓬勃发展,他们会来在广大的人群,任何伟大的牺牲,不破坏偶像,而是要殉国。Theodoret says a Circumcellion was accustomed to announce his intention of becoming a martyr long before the time, in order to be well treated and fed like a beast for slaughter. Theodoret说Circumcellion习惯于宣布,他打算成为一名烈士长的时间之前,以良好的待遇和美联储像一个野兽屠宰。He relates an amusing story (Haer. Fab., IV, vi) to which St. Augustine also refers.他有关圣奥古斯丁还提到一个有趣的故事(Haer.晶圆厂,四,六)。A number of these fanatics, fattened like pheasants, met a young man and offered him a drawn sword to smite them with, threatening to murder him if he refused.一个养肥像山鸡,这些狂热分子的数量,遇到一名年轻男子,并提供了他绘制的剑击打他们,威胁要谋杀他,如果他拒绝。 He pretended to fear that when he had killed a few, the rest might change their minds and avenge the deaths of their fellows; and he insisted that they must all be bound.他假装害怕时,他杀害了几个,剩下的可能改变他们的想法和报复他们的同伴死亡,他坚持说,他们都必须约束。They agreed to this; when they were defenceless, the young man gave each of them a beating and went his way.他们同意,当他们手无寸铁,年轻人给了他们每人一个击败了他的方式。

When in controversy with Catholics, the Donatist bishops were not proud of their supporters.与天主教徒的争议时,多纳图派的主教们没有他们的支持者感到自豪。They declared that self-precipitation from a cliff had been forbidden in the councils.他们宣称,已在议会禁止从悬崖自我沉淀。Yet the bodies of these suicides were sacrilegiously honoured, and crowds celebrated their anniversaries.然而,这些自杀的尸体被sacrilegiously荣幸,和群众庆祝他们的纪念日。Their bishops could not but conform, and they were often glad enough of the strong arms of the Circumcellions.他们的主教不禁符合,他们往往高兴Circumcellions强大的武器。Theodoret, soon after St. Augustine's death, knew of no other Donatists than the Circumcellions; and these were the typical Donatists in the eyes of all outside Africa. Theodoret,圣奥古斯丁的死亡后不久,知道没有其他比Circumcellions多纳徒;而这些人在所有非洲以外的眼中典型的多纳徒。 They were especially dangerous to the Catholic clergy, whose houses they attacked and pillaged.他们尤其危险的天主教神职人员,他们袭击和抢劫的房子。They beat and wounded them, put lime and vinegar on their eyes, and even forced them to be rebaptized.他们殴打并打伤了他们,把他们的眼睛石灰和醋,甚至强迫他们rebaptized。Under Axidus and Fasir, "the leaders of the Saints" in Numidia, property and roads were unsafe, debtors were protected, slaves were set in their masters' carriages, and the masters made to run before them. Axidus和Fasir下,在努米底亚“圣徒的领袖”,财产和道路不安全的,债务人的保护,奴隶们在他们的主人“车,和主人运行前At length, the Donatist bishops invited a general named Taurinus to repress these extravagances.长度,多纳主教邀请一般命名Taurinus压制这些奢侈。He met with resistance in a place named Octava, and the altars and tablets to be seen there in St. Optatus's time testified to the veneration given to the Circumcellions who were slain; but their bishops denied them the honour due to martyrs.他会见了名为Octava一个地方的阻力,和祭坛和圣Optatus的时间有片作证人被杀害Circumcellions的崇拜;但他们的主教否认他们由于向烈士的荣誉。 It seems that in 336-7 the proefectus proetorio of Italy, Gregory took some measures against the Donatists, for St. Optatus tells us that Donatus wrote him a letter beginning: "Gregory, stain on the senate and disgrace to the prefects".它似乎在336-7意大利proefectus proetorio,格雷戈里圣Optatus对多纳徒的一些措施,告诉我们,那图斯给他写了一个字母开头的:“格雷戈里在参议院和耻辱的污点的省长”。

THE "PERSECUTION" OF MACARIUS米加利阿斯的“迫害”

When Constantine became master of the East by defeating Licinius in 323, he was prevented by the rise of Arianism in the East from sending, as he had hoped, Eastern bishops to Africa, to adjust the differences between the Donatists and the Catholics.当康斯坦丁成为李锡尼在323击败东主,他是无法发送,如他所愿,到非洲东部主教,调整多纳徒和天主教徒之间的差异,在东方崛起的阿里乌斯教。 Caecilian of Carthage was present at the Council of Nicea in 325, and his successor, Gratus, was at that of Sardica in 342.迦太基Caecilian目前,在325年的尼西亚会和他的继任者,Gratus,在Sardica在342。The conciliabulum of the Easterns on that occasion wrote a letter to Donatus, as though he were the true Bishop of Carthage; but the Arians failed to gain the support of the Donatists, who looked upon the whole East as cut off from the Church, which survived in Africa alone.那次的东方conciliabulum写了一封信,以那图斯,虽然他是真正的迦太基主教,但的arians未能获得支持的多纳徒,看着后,整个东削减从教会,在非洲仅存活。 The Emperor Constans was an anxious as his father to give peace to Africa In 347 he sent thither two commissioners, Paulus and Macarius, with large sums of money for distribution.皇帝CONSTANS急着给347对非洲的和平,他送巨款分发到那里的两名专员,保卢斯和米加利阿斯,作为他的父亲。 Donatus naturally saw in this an attempt to win over his adherents to the Church by bribery; he received the envoys with insolence: "What has the emperor to do with the Church?"那图斯自然企图通过贿赂拉拢他的信徒对教会在此看到,他收到的使节与狂悖:“皇帝与教会?”said he, and he forbade his people to accept any largess from Constans.他说,和他禁止他的人民接受任何从CONSTANS的赏赐。 In most parts, however, the friendly mission seems to have been not unfavourably received.然而,在大部分地区,友好的使命似乎已经不逊色收到。But at Bagai in Numidia the bishop, Donatus, assembled the Circumcellions of the neighbourhood, who had already been excited by their bishops.但在努米底亚Bagai主教,那图斯,组装的邻居,他们的主教已经兴奋的Circumcellions。Macarius was obliged to ask for the protection of the military.米加利阿斯不得不要求军队保护。The Circumcellions attacked them, and killed two or three soldiers; the troops then became uncontrollable, and slew some of the Donatists. Circumcellions攻击,两三名士兵死亡;部队,然后变得无法控制,并摆一些多纳徒。This unfortunate incident was thereafter continually thrown in the teeth of the Catholics, and they were nicknamed Macarians by the Donatists, who declared that Donatus of Bagai had been precipitated from a rock, and that another bishop, Marculus, had been thrown into a well.这一不幸事件,此后不断抛出天主教徒的牙齿,和他们绰号的多纳徒,谁宣布Bagai那图斯已经从岩石沉淀,和另一位主教,Marculus,以及掷Macarians。 The existing Acts of two other Donatist martyrs of 347, Maximian and Isaac, are preserved; they apparently belong to Carthage, and are attributed by Harnack to the antipope Macrobius.玛西缅和Isaac,现有两个347其他多纳烈士行为,将被保留,他们显然属于迦太基,并哈尔纳克对立教皇Macrobius归因。 It seems that after violence had begun, the envoys ordered the Donatists to unite with the Church whether they willed or no.看来,暴力开始后,使节下令多纳徒团结与教会他们是否意志或没有。Many of the bishops took flight with their partisans; a few joined the Catholics; the rest were banished.许多主教了与他们的党羽的飞行;数加入天主教徒;,其余被驱逐。Donatus the Great died in exile.那图斯大死于流放。A Donatist named Vitellius composed a book to show that the servants of God are hated by the world.名为Vitellius一个多纳组成一书,表明神的仆人世界恨。

A solemn Mass was celebrated in each place where the union was completed, and the Donatists set about a rumour that images (obviously of the emperor) were to be placed in the altar and worshipped.在每个地方工会完成了隆重的弥撒庆祝活动,多纳徒约谣言图像(显然皇帝)被放置在祭坛和崇拜。 As nothing of the sort was found to be done, and as the envoys merely made a speech in favour of unity, it seems that the reunion was effected with less violence than might have been expected.由于这样的事被发现做的事,作为特使只是作出了有利于团结的讲话,似乎与暴力可能已经比预期的少影响的团聚。The Catholics and their bishops praised God for the peace that ensued, though they declared that they had no responsibility for the action of Paulus and Macarius.天主教徒和随后进行的和平的神,他们的主教称赞,虽然他们宣称,他们没有为保卢斯和米加利阿斯行动的责任。In the following year Gratus, the Catholic Bishop of Carthage, held a council, in which the reiteration of baptism was forbidden, while, to please the rallied Donatists, traditors were condemned anew.次年Gratus,天主教主教的迦太基,召开了理事会,其中重申的洗礼,被禁止,同时,请上涨多纳徒,traditors重新被谴责。 It was forbidden to honour suicides as martyrs.它被禁止为烈士的荣誉自杀。

THE RESTORATION OF DONATISM BY JULIAN由Julian恢复DONATISM

The peace was happy for Africa, and the forcible means by which it was obtained were justified by the violence of the sectaries.和平是非洲感到高兴,和暴力的sectaries合理的强制手段,通过它获得。But the accession of Julian the Apostate in 361 changed the face of affairs.但在361朱利安变节加入改变面对的事务。 Delighted to throw Christianity into confusion, Julian allowed the Catholic bishops who had been exiled by Constantius to return to the sees which the Arians were occupying.高兴基督教攘,朱利安允许已康斯坦丘斯流亡返回到看到的arians被占领的天主教主教。The Donatists, who had been banished by Constans, were similarly allowed to return at their own petition, and received back their basilicas.多纳徒,谁已被流放由CONSTANS,同样被允许返回自己的请愿书,并收回他们的大教堂。 Scenes of violence were the result of this policy both in the East and the West.暴力场面的政策,在东方和西方的结果。"Your fury", wrote St. Optatus, "returned to Africa at the same moment that the devil was set free", for the same emperor restored supremacy to paganism and the Donatists to Africa The decree of Julian was considered so discreditable to them, that the Emperor Honorius in 405 had it posted up throughout Africa for their shame.圣Optatus“你的愤怒”中写道,“回到非洲在同一时刻,魔鬼被释放”恢复至上异教和多纳徒非洲相同的皇帝,朱利安的法令被认为是如此丢光了他们,皇帝挪405发布整个非洲为他们的耻辱。 St. Optatus gives a vehement catalogue of the excesses committed by the Donatists on their return.圣Optatus给出了一个他们返回的多纳徒犯下的暴行的强烈目录。They invaded the basilicas with arms; they committed so many murders that a report of them was sent to the emperor.他们侵略与武器的大教堂,他们犯了这么多,他们的报告被送到皇帝的谋杀。Under the orders of two bishops, a party attacked the basilica of Lemellef; they stripped off the roof, pelted with tiles the deacons who were round the altar, and killed two of them.两位主教的命令下,一方袭击Lemellef教堂,他们剥去屋顶,投掷砖呈圆形坛的执事,和他们两个人死亡。In Maruetania riots signalized the return of the Donatists.在Maruetania骚乱灯号的多纳徒的回报。In Numidia two bishops availed themselves of the complaisance of the magistrates to throw a peaceful population into confusion, expelling the faithful, wounding the men, and not sparing the women and children.两位主教在努米底亚利用自己的裁判殷勤来攘和平居民,驱逐忠实,伤人的男人,妇女和儿童也不放过。 Since they did not admit the validity of the sacraments administered by traditors, when they seized the churches they cast the Holy Eucharist to the dogs; but the dogs, inflamed with madness, attacked their own masters.由于他们不承认traditors,当他们抓住教堂,他们投了圣体圣事的狗管理圣礼的有效性,但狗,红肿与疯狂,攻击自己的主人。 An ampulla of chrism thrown out of a window was found unbroken on the rocks.壶腹部chrism抛出一个窗口,发现完整的岩石上。 Two bishops were guilty of rape; one of these seized the aged Catholic bishop and condemned him to public penance.两位主教分别犯有强奸罪,其中之一抓住岁的天主教主教,并谴责他公开忏悔。All Catholics whom they could force to join their party were made penitents, even clerics of every rank, and children, contrary to the law of the Church.所有的天主教徒可能会迫使他们加入他们的党作了悔罪,甚至每一个职级的神职人员和儿童,违背了教会的法律。some for a year, some for a month, some but for a day.一年,一个月,一些,但一天。In taking possession of a basilica, they destroyed the altar, or removed it, or at least scraped the surface.占有一个教堂,他们毁坏的祭坛,或删除它,或至少刮表面。They sometimes broke up the chalices, and sold the materials.他们有时分手了酒杯,出售的材料。They washed pavements, walls, and columns.他们冲洗路面,墙壁和列。Not content with recovering their churches, they employed pagan functionaries to obtain for them possession of the sacred vessels, furniture, altar-linen, and especially the books (how did they purify the book? asks St. Optatus), sometimes leaving the Catholic congregation with no books at all.不恢复其教堂的内容,他们雇用了异教的工作人员,为他们获得占有神圣的船只,家具,亚麻坛,尤其是书籍(他们是如何净化书?问圣Optatus)有时离开天主教会众,没有书。 The cemeteries were closed to the Catholic dead.坟场被关闭的天主教死。The revolt of Firmus, a Mauretanian chieftain who defied the Roman power and eventually assumed the style of emperor (366-72), was undoubtedly supported by many Donatists.反叛Firmus,Mauretanian土司谁无视罗马的权力,并最终承担了皇帝(366-72)的风格,无疑是许多多纳徒的支持。 The imperial laws against them were strengthened by Valentinian in 373 and by Gratian, who wrote in 377 to the vicar of prefects, Flavian (himself a Donatist), ordering all the basilicas of the schismatics to be given up to the Catholics.加强对他们的帝国法律瓦伦蒂安在373 Gratian,在377副主教的省长写信,弗拉维安(自己多纳),订购的schismatics给予天主教徒大教堂。St. Augustine shows that even the churches which the Donatists themselves had built were included.圣奥古斯丁,甚至教会自己已建成的多纳徒。The same emperor required Claudian, the Donatist bishop at Rome, to return to Africa; as he refused to obey, a Roman council had him driven a hundred miles from the city.相同的皇帝克劳狄,在罗马的主教多纳,返回到非洲,他拒绝服从,罗马理事会,他从城市带动一百英里。It is probable that the Catholic Bishop of Carthage, Genethlius, caused the laws to be mildly administered in Africa.天主教主教的迦太基,Genethlius,这是有可能导致在非洲管理的法律,轻度。

ST. ST。OPTATUS OPTATUS

The Catholic champion, St. Optatus, Bishop of Milevis, published his great work "De schismate Donatistarum" in answer to that of the Donatist Bishop of Carthage, Parmenianus, under Valentinian and Valens, 364-375 (so St. Jerome).天主教冠军,Optatus圣主教Milevis,发表他的伟大的工作,在回答“德schismate Donatistarum”多纳的迦太基主教,Parmenianus,下瓦伦蒂安和瓦伦斯,364-375(圣杰罗姆)。Optatus himself tells us that he was writing after the death of Julian (363) and more than sixty years after the beginning of the schism (he means the persecution of 303). Optatus自己告诉我们,他写朱利安(363)去世后,超过60年后开始分裂(他指的是303的迫害)。The form which we possess is a second edition, brought up to date by the author after the accession of Pope Siricius (Dec., 384), with a seventh book added to the original six.我们拥有的形式,是第二版,带来了最新作者教皇Siricius加入后(12 384)添加到原来的6第七本书,。In the first book he describes the origin and growth of the schism; in the second he shows the notes of the true Church; in the third he defends the Catholics from the charge of persecuting, with especial reference to the days of Macarius.在他的第一本书描述的分裂的起源和发展,在第二,他显示了真正的教会的音符;在第三他辩护天主教徒,特别参考米加利阿斯天,从迫害负责。 In the fourth book he refutes Parmenianus's proofs from Scripture that the sacrifice of a sinner is polluted.在第四册中,他驳斥Parmenianus从圣经的证明,一个罪人的牺牲是污染。In the fifth book he shows the validity of baptism even when conferred by sinners, for it is conferred by Christ, the minister being the instrument only.在第五本书中,他表明,即使所赋予的罪人,因为它是由基督,部长仅是仪器赋予的洗礼的有效性。This is the first important statement of the doctrine that the grace of the sacraments is derived from the opus operatum of Christ independently of the worthiness of the minister.这是第一次的圣礼的恩典是从基督的OPUS operatum独立的老有所为的部长派生的教义的重要声明。In the sixth book he describes the violence of the Donatists and the sacrilegious way in which they had treated Catholic altars.在第六本书中,他描述的多纳徒暴力和亵渎的方式,他们已经治疗天主教神坛。In the seventh book he treats chiefly of unity and of reunion, and returns to the subject of Macarius.在第七本书,他把主要的团结和团聚,并返回到米加利阿斯主题。

He calls Parmenianus "brother", and wishes to treat the Donatists as brethren, since they were not heretics.他呼吁Parmenianus“兄弟”,并祝愿视为弟兄的多纳徒,因为他们不是异端。Like some other Fathers, he holds that only pagans and heretics go to hell; schismatics and all Catholics will eventually be saved after a necessary purgatory.一些其他父亲一样,他认为只有异教徒和异端去地狱; schismatics和所有的天主教徒最终将是一个必要的炼狱后保存。This is the more curious, because before him and after him in Africa Cyprian and Augustine both taught that schism is as bad as heresy, if not worse.这是更好奇,因为在他之前和之后他在非洲塞浦路斯和奥古斯丁都告诉我们,分裂是坏为异端,如果不是更糟。St. Optatus was much venerated by St. Augustine and later by St. Fulgentius.圣Optatus是十分崇敬的圣奥古斯丁和后来由圣Fulgentius。He writes with vehemence, sometimes with violence, in spite of his protestations of friendliness; but he is carried away by his indignation.他写道激烈,有时用暴力,尽管他的友好抗议,但他是由他的愤慨。His style is forcible and effective, often concise and epigrammatic.他的风格是强行和有效的,往往简洁和epigrammatic。 To this work he appended a collection of documents containing the evidence for the history he had related.他对这项工作的附加包含为他相关的历史证据的文件的集合。This dossier had certainly been formed much earlier, at all events before the peace of 347, and not long after the latest document it contains, which is dated Feb., 330; the rest are not later than 321, and may possibly have been put together as early as that year.本材料肯定已经形成要早得多,在347和平之前的所有事件,以及它包含了最新版本的文档,日期为2月,330;其余的都是不超过321,并可能陆续出台后没多久连同早在当年。 Unfortunately these important historical testimonies have come down to us only in a single mutilated manuscript, the archetype of which was also incomplete.不幸的是,这些重要的历史证词有所回落我们只在一个残缺不全的手稿,其中的原型是不完整的。The collection was freely used at the conference of 411 and is often quoted at some length by St. Augustine, who has preserved many interesting portions which would otherwise be unknown to us.在411会议收集自由使用,往往是在一些长度由圣奥古斯丁,谁保留了许多有趣的部分,否则就会给我们的是未知的引述。

THE MAXIMIANISTS在MAXIMIANISTS

Before Augustine took up the mantle of Optatus together with a double portion of his spirit, the Catholics had gained new and victorious arguments from the divisions among the Donatists themselves.前奥古斯丁了与他的精神的双份Optatus地幔,天主教徒的多纳徒本身之间的分歧取得新的胜利的论据。Like so many other schisms, this schism bred schisms within itself.像许多其他的分裂,这种分裂繁殖自身内部的分裂。In Mauretania and Numidia these separated sects were so numerous that the Donatists themselves could not name them all.在毛里塔尼亚和努米底亚这些分离的教派如此众多的多纳徒本身不能他们的名字。We hear of Urbanists; of Claudianists, who were reconciled to the main body by Primianus of Carthage; of Rogatists, a Mauretanian sect, of mild character, because no Circumcellion belonged to it; the Rogatists were severely punished whenever the Donatists could induce the magistrates to do so, and were also persecuted by Optatus of Timgad.我们听到的城市规划; Claudianists,不甘心的迦太基Primianus主体; Rogatists,Mauretanian节品性温和的,因为没有Circumcellion属于它的Rogatists严惩的多纳徒时,可能导致裁判这样做,也提姆加德Optatus迫害。 But the most famous sectaries were the Maximianists, for the story of their separation from the Donatists reproduces with strange exactitude that of the withdrawal of the Donatists themselves from the communion of the Church; and the conduct of the Donatists towards them was so inconsistent with their avowed principles, that it became in the skilled hands of Augustine the most effective weapon of all his controversial armoury.但最有名的sectaries Maximianists,从多纳徒分离的故事,撤出自己的多纳徒从教会的共融奇怪的精密再现;和对他们的多纳徒行为是与他们不一致公开宣布的原则,在奥古斯丁,他的所有有争议的军械库中最有效的武器熟练手中成了。 Primianus, Donatist Bishop of Carthage, excommunicated the deacon Maximianus. Primianus,多纳的迦太基主教逐出教会执事Maximianus。The latter (who was, like Majorinus, supported by a lady) got together a council of forty-three bishops, who summoned Primianus to appear before them.后者(谁是,一个女人的支持,像Majorinus)聚在一起的四十三个主教,谁召见Primianus出现在他们面前的会。 The primate refused, insulted their envoys, tried to have them prevented from celebrating the Sacred Mysteries, and had stones thrown at them in the street.灵长类动物的拒绝,侮辱他们的使节,设法让他们庆祝神圣奥秘阻止,并在他们身上的石块在街上。The council summoned him before a greater council, which met to the number of a hundred bishops at Cebarsussum in June, 393.会召唤之前他一个更大的会,会见了在Cebarsussum数百年主教在六月,393。Primianus was deposed; all clerics were to leave his communion within eight days; if they should delay till after Christmas, they would not be permitted to return to the Church even after penance; the laity were allowed until the following Easter, under the same penalty. Primianus被废黜;所有神职人员八天之内离开他的共融;如果他们推迟至圣诞节后,他们将不会被允许返回到教会即使苦修;俗人被允许直到复活节根据同样的刑罚, 。A new bishop of Carthage was appointed in the person of Maximian himself, and was consecrated by twelve bishops.玛西缅自己的人,一个被任命为新主教的迦太基是由十二位主教奉献。The partisans of Primianus were rebaptized, if they had been baptized after the permitted delay. Primianus游击队rebaptized,如果他们被允许的延迟后的洗礼。Primianus stood out, and demanded to be judged by a Numidian council; three hundred and ten bishops met at Bagai in April, 394; the primate did not take the place of an accused person, but himself presided.Primianus站了出来,并要求由Numidian议会来判断;三百年,十主教,394 4月在Bagai会见灵长类动物没有被控告人的地方,但自己主持。He was of course acquitted, and the Maximianists were condemned without a hearing.当然,他被无罪释放,Maximianists未经听证谴责。All but the twelve consecrators and their abettors among the clergy of Carthage were given till Christmas to return; after this period they would be obliged to do penance.但12 consecrators及教唆非法入境者之间的迦太基神职人员到圣诞节返回;这一时期后,他们将不得不做的忏悔。This decree, composed in eloquent style by Emeritus of Caesarea, and adopted by acclamation, made the Donatists hence-forward ridiculous through their having readmitted schismatics without penance.撒利亚名誉雄辩的风格组成,并以鼓掌方式通过这项法令,多纳徒,因此,通过他们苦修再次入院schismatics荒谬。 Maximian's church was razed to the ground, and after the term of grace had elapsed, the Donatists persecuted the unfortunate Maximianists, representing themselves as Catholics, and demanding that the magistrates should enforce against the new sectaries the very laws which Catholics emperors had drawn up against Donatism.玛西缅的教堂被夷为平地到地面后的宽限期的期限已经过去了,在多纳徒迫害的不幸Maximianists,代表作为天主教徒自己,和要求,裁判官应执行对在新sectaries的非常法律这天主教徒皇帝曾绘制起来反对Donatism。 Their influence enabled them to do this, for they were still far more numerous than the Catholics, and the magistrates must often have been of their party.他们的影响力,使他们能够做到这一点,他们仍然远远超过了天主教徒众多,裁判必须经常被他们的党。In the reception of those who returned from the party of Maximian they were yet more fatally inconsequent.在接待那些从党的玛西缅返回,他们还更致命inconsequent的。The rule was theoretically adhered to that all who had been baptized in the schism must be rebaptized; but if a bishop returned, he and his whole flock were admitted without rebaptism.该规则在理论上坚持,所有已在分裂的洗礼,必须rebaptized,但如果一个主教回来了,他和他的整个羊群没有rebaptism承认。 This was allowed even in the case of two of the consecrators of Maximian, Praetextatus of Assur and Felixianus of Musti, after the proconsul had vainly tried to expel them from their sees, and although a Donatist bishop, Rogatus, had already been appointed at Assur.这是允许的,即使在玛西缅,亚述和Felixianus的Musti Praetextatus,方伯妄图开除他们认为他们,虽然多纳图派的主教,Rogatus,已经在亚述任命consecrators 。In another case the party of Primianus was more consistent.在另一起案件中,党的Primianus更加一致。Salvius, the Maximianist Bishop of Membresa, was another of the consecrators.Salvius,Membresa Maximianist主教,另一consecrators。He was twice summoned by the proconsul to retire in favour of the Primianist Restitutus.他曾两次召见由方伯退休赞成Primianist Restitutus。As he was much respected by the people of Membresa, a mob was brought over from the neighbouring town of Abitene to expel him; the aged bishop was beaten, and made to dance with dead dogs tied around his neck.他Membresa人民的尊重,一个暴徒被带来了从邻镇的Abitene将他驱逐出境;岁的主教被殴打,并取得了舞蹈在他的脖子上绑死狗。 But his people built him a new church, and three bishops coexisted in this small town, a Maximianist, a Primianist, and a Catholic.但他的人,他建了一个新的教会,和三位主教在这个小镇上并存,Maximianist,Primianist,和天主教。

The leader of the Donatists at this time was Optatus, Bishop of Thamugadi (Timgad), called Gildonianus, from his friendship with Gildo, the Count of Africa (386-397).此时的多纳徒领导人Optatus,Thamugadi主教(提姆加德),被称为Gildonianus,从他的友谊与吉尔,非洲的计数(386-397)。 For ten years Optatus, supported by Gildo, was the tyrant of Africa.十年来,Optatus吉尔的支持,是非洲的暴君。He persecuted the Rogatists and Maximianists, and he used troops against the Catholics.他迫害Rogatists和Maximianists的,他用军队对天主教徒。St. Augustine tells us that his vices and cruelties were beyond description; but they had at least the effect of disgracing the cause of the Donatists, for though he was hated throughout Africa for his wickedness and his evil deeds, yet the Puritan faction remained always in full communion with this bishop, who was a robber, a ravisher, an oppressor, a traitor, and a monster of cruelty.圣奥古斯丁告诉我们,他的罪恶和残酷难以形容;但他们至少羞辱多纳徒的原因效果,因为尽管他是整个非洲恨他的邪恶和他的劣迹,但清教徒派始终保持在这个主教,谁是强盗,ravisher,压迫者,叛徒,和残暴的怪物充分的共融。 When Gildo fell in 397, after having made himself master of Africa for a few months, Optatus was thrown into a prison, in which he died.当吉尔在397下跌后,使自己掌握了数个月的非洲,Optatus被扔进一个监狱,在他去世。

SAINT AUGUSTINE圣奥古斯丁

St. Augustine began his victorious campaign against Donatism soon after he was ordained priest in 391.圣奥古斯丁开始他对Donatism胜利运动后不久,他被任命教士在391。His popular psalm or "Abecedarium" against the Donatists was intended to make known to the people the arguments set forth by St. Optatus, with the same conciliatory end in view.他受欢迎的诗篇“Abecedarium”反对多纳徒的目的是使已知的论据阐述圣Optatus相同的和解结束,人们。 It shows that the sect was founded by traditors, condemned by pope and council, separated from the whole world, a cause of division, violence, and bloodshed; the true Church is the one Vine, whose branches are over all the earth.它表明,该教派成立traditors,谴责教皇和议会,从整个世界的分离,分裂,暴力和流血的原因,真正的教会是一个藤,其分行在全地上。 After St. Augustine had become bishop in 395, he obtained conferences with some of the Donatist leaders, though not with his rival at Hippo.在圣奥古斯丁已成为主教在395,他获得了一些多纳领导人会议,虽然不是他的对手在河马。 In 400 he wrote three books against the letter of Parmenianus, refuting his calumnies and his arguments from Scripture.在400,他写了三对Parmenianus信的书,从经文驳斥他的诽谤和他的论点。More important were his seven books on baptism, in which, after developing the principle already laid down by St. Optatus, that the effect of the sacrament is independent of the holiness of the minister, he shows in great detail that the authority of St. Cyprian is more awkward than convenient for the Donatists.更重要的是他的书上的洗礼,其中,发展中国家已作出规定,由圣Optatus,圣餐的效果是独立部长的圣洁的原则后,他非常详细地显示,圣管理局塞浦路斯是较方便的多纳徒尴尬。 The principal Donatist controversialist of the day was Petilianus, Bishop of Constantine, a successor of the traditor Silvanus.这一天的主要多纳争论者是主教,君士坦丁,traditor西拉的继任者Petilianus。St. Augustine wrote two books in reply to a letter of his against the Church, adding a third book to answer another letter in which he was himself attacked by Petilianus.圣奥古斯丁写了两本书,在回答了他对教会的信,加入第三本书回答的另一封信中,他本人Petilianus攻击。 Before this last book he published his "De Unitate ecclesiae" about 403.在此之前的最后一本书,他出版了他的“德约403 Unitate该书”。To these works must be added some sermons and some letters which are real treatises.这些作品必须添加一些说教和一些字母,是真正的论文。

The arguments used by St. Augustine against Donatism fall under three heads.对Donatism使用圣奥古斯丁的论据属于三个头。First we have the historical proofs of the regularity of Caecilian's consecration, of the innocence of Felix of Aptonga, of the guilt of the founders of the "Pure" Church, also the judgment given by pope, council, and emperor, the true history of Macarius, the barbarous behaviour of the Donatists under Julian, the violence of the Circumcellions, and so forth.首先,我们有规律性Caecilian的奉献的历史,Aptonga费利克斯无罪的证明,在的“纯”教会的创始人有罪,也教皇,理事会和皇帝的真实历史的的判决,米加利阿斯,根据朱利安,Circumcellions暴力多纳徒的野蛮行为,等等。 Second, there are the doctrinal arguments: the proofs from the Old and New Testaments that the Church is Catholic, diffused throughout the world, and necessarily one and united; appeal is made to the See of Rome, where the succession of bishops is uninterrupted from St. Peter himself; St. Augustine borrows his list of popes from St. Optatus (Ep. li), and in his psalm crystallizes the argument into the famous phrase: "That is the rock against which the proud gates of hell do not prevail."二是有:从旧约和新约的证据,教会是天主教的教义的论点,在世界各地扩散,而不一定之一,美国提出上诉,见罗马,在那里继承主教是不间断地从圣彼得本人;圣奥古斯丁借用他的教皇从圣Optatus(李插曲)的列表,并且,在他的诗篇结晶那句名言的说法:“这是岩石反对自豪地狱之门不占上风“。 A further appeal is to the Eastern Church, and especially to the Apostolic Churches to which St. Peter, St. Paul, and St. John addressed epistles - they were not in communion with the Donatists.进一步上诉的东方教会,特别是使徒教会,圣彼得大教堂,圣保罗和圣约翰解决书信 - 他们在共融与多纳徒。The validity of baptism conferred by heretics, the impiety of rebaptizing, are important points.异端,不虔诚的rebaptizing所赋予的洗礼的有效性,重要的点。All these arguments were found in St. Optatus.所有这些论点被发现在圣Optatus。Peculiar to St. Augustine is the necessity of defending St. Cyprian, and the third category is wholly his own.特有的圣奥古斯丁是保卫圣塞浦路斯的必要性,第三类是完全自己。The third division comprises the argumentum ad hominem drawn from the inconsistency of the Donatists themselves: Secundus had pardoned the traditors; full fellowship was accorded to malefactors like Optatus Gildonianus and the Circumcellions; Tichonius turned against his own party; Maximian had divided from Primatus just as Majorinus from Caecilian; the Maximianists had been readmitted without rebaptism.第三师包括来自多纳徒自己不一致的argumentum广告人身攻击:Secundus赦免了traditors;全奖学金是给予像Optatus Gildonianus和Circumcellions居心不良; Tichonius转身对他自己的党;玛西缅分,就像从Primatus Majorinus从Caecilian; Maximianists已没有rebaptism再次入院。

This last method of argument was found to be of great practical value, and many conversions were now taking place, largely on account of the false position in which the Donatists had placed themselves.这种论点的最后方法被认为是很大的实用价值,和许多转换现在的地方,在很大程度上考虑到假的多纳徒放在自己的位置。 This point had been especially emphasized by the Council of Carthage of Sept., 401, which had ordered information as to the treatment of the Maximianists to be gathered from magistrates.这一点已特别强调理事会的迦太基9月,401,这已下令从裁判聚集Maximianists治疗的信息。 The same synod restored the earlier rule, long since abolished, that Donatist bishops and clergy should retain their rank if they returned to the Church.同样的主教恢复了以前的规则,取消了长久以来,多纳图派的主教和神职人员应保留其职级,如果他们返回教会。Pope Anastasius I wrote to the council urging the importance of the Donatist question.教皇阿纳斯塔修斯,我写信给安理会敦促多纳问题的重要性。Another council in 403 organized public disputations with the Donatists.另一个在403局主办的多纳徒公共disputations。 This energetic action roused the Circumcellions to new violence.这有力的行动激起了Circumcellions,新的暴力事件。 The life of St. Augustine was endangered.的圣奥古斯丁的生命受到威胁。His future biographer, St. Possidius of Calama, was insulted and ill-treated by a party led by a Donatist priest, Crispinus.由多纳牧师,Crispinus领导的政党,他未来的传记作者,圣卡拉马Possidius,侮辱和虐待。The latter's bishop, also named Crispinus, was tried at Carthage and fined ten pounds of gold as a heretic, though the fine was remitted by Possidius.后者的主教,也被命名Crispinus,试图在迦太基,并罚款10英镑的黄金作为一个邪教组织,虽然罚款由Possidius汇出。 This is the first case known to us in which a Donatist is declared a heretic, but henceforth it is the common style for them.这是第一种情况,我们所知的其中一个多纳被宣布为邪教,但今后它是为他们的共同风格。The cruel and disgusting treatment of Maximianus, Bishop of Bagai, is also related by St. Augustine in detail. Maximianus主教Bagai,残忍和恶心的治疗也由圣奥古斯丁有关细节。The Emperor Honorius was induced by the Catholics to renew the old laws against the Donatists at the beginning of 405.皇帝挪诱导的天主教徒,以延续对405开始的多纳徒旧的法律。Some good resulted, but the Circumcellions of Hippo were excited to new violence.一些好的结果,但河马的Circumcellions被激发新的暴力事件。The letter of Petilianus was defended by a grammarian named Cresconius, against whom St. Augustine published a reply in four books. Petilianus信是由一个名为Cresconius一个文法辩护,对他们的圣奥古斯丁在四本书出版的答复。The third and fourth books are especially important, as in these he argues from the Donatists' treatment of the Maximianists, quotes the Acts of the Council of Cirta held by Secundus, and cites other important documents.第三和第四的书籍尤其重要,在这些他从多纳徒“的治疗Maximianists认为,安理会的西尔塔的行为引号举行Secundus,并列举了其他重要文件。 The saint also replied to a pamphlet by Petilianus, "De unico baptismate".圣人也回答了一本小册子,Petilianus,“德UNICO baptismate”。

THE "COLLATIO" OF 411“411”COLLATIO

St. Augustine had once hoped to conciliate the Donatists by reason only.圣奥古斯丁曾经希望调解仅因多纳徒。The violence of the Circumcellions, the cruelties of Optatus of Thamugadi, the more recent attacks on Catholic bishops had all given proof that repression by the secular arm was absolutely unavoidable.Circumcellions暴力,Optatus Thamugadi,更近的攻击天主教主教的残酷镇压世俗手臂是绝对不可避免的证明。It was not necessarily a case of persecution for religious opinions, but simply one of the protection of life and property and the ensuring of freedom and safety for Catholics.这是不一定的迫害宗教的意见的情况下,而只是保护生命和财产和天主教徒自由和安全的保证。Nevertheless the laws went much further than this.然而,法律比这走得更远。Those of Honorius were promulgated anew in 408 and 410.挪这些重新颁布了408和410。In 411 the method of disputation was organized on a grand scale by order of the emperor himself at the request of the Catholic bishops.在411争议的方法,举办了一个规模宏大,由皇帝本人的顺序在天主教主教的请求。Their case was now complete and unanswerable.他们的情况,现在已完成,无法回答。But this was to be brought home to the people of Africa, and public opinion was to be forced to recognize the facts, by a public exposure of the weakness of the separatist position.但是,这是要带回家给非洲人民,舆论是不得不承认的事实,公开曝光的分裂立场的弱点。The emperor sent an official named Marcellinus, an excellent Christian, to preside as cognitor at the conference.皇帝派进行正式命名Marcellinus,一个优秀的基督徒,作为cognitor主持会议。He issued a proclamation declaring that he would exercise absolute impartiality in his conduct of the proceedings and in his final judgment.他发出公告,宣布他将行使自己的诉讼行为和绝对公正,在他的最后判决。The Donatist bishops who should come to the conference were to receive back for the present the basilicas which had been taken from them.多纳图派的主教们要来的会议,接收目前已经从他们采取的大教堂。The number of those who arrived at Carthage was very large, though somewhat less that the two hundred and seventy-nine whose signatures were appended to a letter to the president.那些抵达迦太基的数量是非常大的,虽然少了几分,第二百七十九名被追加到总统的信中的签名。The Catholic bishops numbered two hundred and eighty-six.天主教主教编号的两个一百八十六。Marcellinus decided that each party should elect seven disputants, who alone should speak, seven advisers whom they might consult, and four secretaries to keep the records. Marcellinus决定,各缔约方应选出七个争论者,他们单独说话,7个顾问,他们可能咨询和四名秘书保持的纪录。Thus only thirty-six bishops would be present in all.因此,只有三十六个主教将在所有在场。The Donatists pretended that this was a device to prevent their great numbers being known; but the Catholics did not object to all of them being present, provided no disturbance was caused.多纳徒假装这是一个装置,以防止大批被称为他们的,但天主教徒没有他们在场的所有对象,提供无干扰造成的。

The chief Catholic speaker, besides the amiable and venerable Bishop of Carthage, Aurelius, was of course Augustine, whose fame had already spread through the whole Church.行政天主教扬声器,除了可亲可敬的主教迦太基,奥勒留,当然奥古斯丁,其名声已经通过整个教会传播。His friend, Alypius of Tagaste, and his disciple and biographer, Possidius, were also among the seven.他的朋友Tagaste Alypius,和他的弟子和传记,Possidius,也​​是七。The principal Donatist speakers were Emeritus of Caesarea in Mauretania (Cherchel) and Petilianus of Constantine (Cirta); the latter spoke or interrupted about a hundred and fifty times, until on the third day he was so hoarse that he had to desist.主要多纳的发言者的cæsarea名誉在毛里塔尼亚(Cherchel)和康斯坦丁Petilianus(西尔塔),后者的发言,或中断,约一百五十次,直到第三天,他是如此沙哑,他停止。 The Catholics made a generous proposal that any Donatist bishop who should join the Church, should preside alternately with the Catholic bishop in the episcopal chair, unless the people should object, in which case both must resign and a new election be made.天主教徒作出了任何多纳谁应该加入教会的主教,应主持轮流与天主教主教在主教主持,除非人民应该反对,在这种情况下,都必须辞职,新的选举作出的慷慨建议。 The conference was held on the 1, 3, and 8 June.这次会议是6月1,3和8日举行。The policy of the Donatists was to raise technical objections, to cause delay, and by all manner of means to prevent the Catholic disputants from stating their case.多纳徒的政策是提高技术的反对,导致延误,并通过所有的方式方法,以防止从他们的情况,说明天主教的争论者。The Catholic case was, however, clearly enunciated on the first day in letters which were read, addressed by the Catholic bishops to Marcellinus and to their deputies to instruct them in the procedure.然而,天主教的情况下,明确阐述的第一天,在阅读,解决由天主教主教Marcellinus和他们的副手指示过程中的信件。 A discussion of important points was arrived at only on the third day, amid many interruptions.讨论的一个重要点到达,只有在第三天,中许多中断。It was then evident that the unwillingness of the Donatists to have a real discussion was due to the fact that they could not reply to the arguments and documents brought forward by the Catholics.这在当时显然不愿意的多纳徒有一个真正的讨论,是由于这样的事实,他们不能回答的论据和文件所带来的天主教徒。 The insincerity as well as the inconsequence and clumsiness of the sectaries did them great harm.伪善以及inconsequence和笨拙的sectaries对他们极大的伤害。The main doctrinal points and historical proofs of the Catholics were made perfectly plain.主要的教义点和天主教徒的历史证明是完全纯的。The cognitor summed up in favor of the Catholic bishops.cognitor总结了有利于天主教主教。The churches which had been provisionally restored to the Donatists were to be given up; their assemblies were forbidden under grave penalties.已被暂时恢复到多纳徒的教会放弃他们的集会被禁止在严重的处罚。The lands of those who permitted Circumcellions on their property were to be confiscated.那些允许对他们的财产Circumcellions的土地被没收。The minutes of this great conference were submitted to all the speakers for their approval, and the report of each speech (mostly only a single sentence) was signed by the speaker as a guarantee of its accuracy.这个伟大的会议纪要,提交审批的所有发言者,并为保证其准确性,每个讲话(大多是只有一个单句)的报告是由议长签署。 We possess these manuscripts in full only as far as the middle of the third day; for the rest only the headings of each little speech are preserved.我们拥有在这些手稿只有尽可能中间的第三天,剩下的只有每个小讲话的标题被保留。These headings were composed by order of Marcellinus in order to facilitate reference.这些标题是由Marcellinus秩序,以便参考。On account of the dullness and a length of the full report, St. Augustine composed a popular resume of the discussions in his "Breviculus Collationis", and went with more detail into a few points in a final pamphlet, "Ad Donatistas post Collationem".浊音和报告全文长度的帐户,圣奥古斯丁在他的“Breviculus Collat​​ionis”的讨论组成一个流行的恢复,并进入更详细几点在最后的小册子,“广告Donatistas后Collat​​ionem” 。

On 30 Jan., 412, Honorius issued a final law against the Donatists, renewing old legislation and adding a scale of fines for Donatist clergy, and for the laity and their wives: the illustres were to pay fifty pounds of gold, the spectabiles forty, the senatores and sacerdotales thirty, the clarissimi and principales twenty, the decuriones, negotiatores, and plebeii five, which Circumcellions were to pay ten pounds of silver. 1月,412月30日,挪发出反对多纳徒的最后法律,更新旧的立法和加入多纳神职人员的罚款规模,并为俗人和他们的妻子:illustres分别支付50磅黄金,spectabiles第四十senatores sacerdotales第三十,clarissimi第二十principales,decuriones,negotiatores plebeii五个,其中Circumcellions银支付10磅。Slaves were to be reproved by their masters, coloni were to be constrained by repeated beatings.奴隶被他们的主人责备,科洛尼被反复殴打的制约。All bishops and clerics were exiled from Africa.所有的主教和神职人员被流放来自非洲。In 414 the fines were increased for those of high rank: a proconsul, vicar, or count was fined two hundred pounds of gold, and a senator a hundred.罚款在414增加等级高的人:一个方伯,副主教,或计数被罚款两百年磅黄金,和参议员一百。A further law was published in 428.在428发表进一步的法律。The good Marcellinus, who had become the friend of St. Augustine, fell a victim (it is supposed) to the rancour of the Donatists; for he was put to death in 413, as though an accomplice in the revolt of Heraclius, Count of Africa, in spite of the orders of the emperor, who did not believe him guilty.好Marcellinus,已成为朋友的圣奥古斯丁,一个受害者(应该是)的多纳徒积怨下跌,因为他是在413到死亡,仿佛在赫拉克留起义的帮凶,计数非洲,尽管皇帝的命令,谁也不相信他有罪。 Donatism was now discredited by the conference and proscribed by the persecuting laws of Honorius. Donatism现在无颜会议和挪迫害的法律所禁止的。The Circumcellions made some dying efforts, and a priest was killed by them at Hippo. Circumcellions作出一些垂死的努力,在河马和一名牧师被他们杀害。It does not seem that the decrees were rigidly carried out, for the Donatist clergy was still found in Africa.它似乎并不该法令硬性开展多纳神职人员,仍然在非洲发现的。The ingenious Emeritus was at Caesarea in 418, and at the wish of Pope Zosimus St. Augustine had a conference with him, without result.在418巧妙的名誉是在该撒利亚,教皇Zosimus圣奥古斯丁希望与他的会议无果而终。But on the whole Donatism was dead.但对整个Donatism死亡。Even before the conference the Catholic Bishops in Africa were considerably more numerous than the Donatists, except in Numidia.即使在会议召开前,在非洲的天主教主教,大大超过了多纳徒众多,除了在努米底亚。From the time of the invasion of the Vandals in 430 little is heard of them until the days of St. Gregory the Great, when they seem to have revived somewhat, for the pope complained to the Emperor Maurice that the laws were not strictly enforced.从430小破坏者的入侵的时候听说过他们的日子,直到圣格雷戈里大时,他们似乎已经恢复,有些皇帝莫里斯抱怨,没有严格执行法律,为教皇。 They finally disappeared with the irruptions of the Saracens.他们终于消失了撒拉逊人irruptions。

DONATIST WRITERS多纳作家

There seems to have been no lack of literary activity among the Donatists of the fourth century, though little remains to us.目前似乎已经不乏多纳徒之间的第四个世纪的文学活动,虽然有点仍然给我们。The works of Donatus the Great were known to St. Jerome, but have not been preserved.那图斯的伟大的作品被称为圣杰罗姆,但还没有被保存下来。His book on the Holy Spirit is said by that Father to have been Arian in doctrine.他对圣灵的书,已阿里安在教义的父亲说。 It is possible that the Pseudo-Cyprianic "De singularitate clericorum" is by Macrobius; and the "Adversus aleatores" is by an antipope, either Donatist or Novatianist.这是可能的伪Cyprianic的“德singularitate clericorum”是由Macrobius;和“Adversus aleatores”是由对立教皇,无论多纳或Novatianist。 The arguments of Parmenianus and Cresconius are known to us, though their works are lost; but Monceaux has been able to restore from St. Augustine's citations short works by Petilianus of Constantine and Gaudentius of Thamugadi, and also a libellus by a certain Fulgentius, from the citations in the Pseudo-Augustinian "Contra Fulgentium Donatistam". Parmenianus和Cresconius的论点为我们所知,虽然他们的作品都将丢失,但Monceaux已经能够恢复君士坦丁和Gaudentius Thamugadi Petilianus从圣奥古斯丁的引文短篇作品,也是libellus一定Fulgentius,从引文的伪奥古斯丁的“魂斗罗Fulgentium Donatistam”。Of Tichonius, or Tyconius, we still possess the treatise "De Septem regulis" (PL, XVIII; new ed. by Professor Burkitt, in Cambridge "Texts and Studies", III, 1, 1894) on the interpretation of Holy Scripture.Tichonius,或Tyconius,我们仍然拥有的论文“德Septem regulis”(PL,十八;新的ED,在剑桥大学教授伯基特“文本和研究”,三,1,1894)对圣经的解释。His commentary on the Apocalypse is lost; it was used by Jerome, Primasius, and Beatus in their commentaries on the same book.失去了他在“启示录”的评论是,它是由杰罗姆,Primasius,并在他们的评论精艺轩使用同一本书。Tichonius is chiefly celebrated for his views on the Church, which were quite inconsistent with Donatism, and which Parmenianus tried to refute.Tichonius主要是庆祝他对教会的看法,其中相当不一致,与Donatism Parmenianus试图反驳。In the famous words of St. Augustine (who often refers to his illogical position and to the force with which her argued against the cardinal tenets of his own sect): "Tichonius assailed on all sides by the voices of the holy pages, awoke and saw the Church of God diffused throughout the world, as had been foreseen and foretold of her so long before by the hearts and mouths of the saints. And seeing this, he undertook to demonstrate and assert against his own party that no sin of man, however villainous and monstrous, can interfere with the promises of God, nor can any impiety of any persons within the Church cause the word of God to be made void as to the existence and diffusion of the Church to the ends of the earth, which was promised to the Fathers and now is manifest" (Contra Ep. Parmen., I, i).在圣奥古斯丁(通常是指他不合逻辑的位置和力量与她对自己教派的大是大非的原则主张)的名言:“Tichonius抨击各方通过神圣的页面声音,醒来看见神的教会在世界各地扩散,已预见和她这样没过多久,的预言圣人的心和口,看到这一点,他承诺证明,并断言对他自己的党,没有人的罪,不过流氓和可怕的,可以干扰与神的应许,也不能造成任何教会内的任何人的不虔诚到教会的存在和扩散到天涯海角无效,这是上帝的话承诺的父亲,现在是体现“(魂斗罗EP。Parmen,我,我)。

Publication information Written by John Chapman.出版信息书面约翰查普曼。Transcribed by Anthony A. Killeen.转录由安东尼基林。Aeterna non caduca The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V. Published 1909. Aeterna非caduca天主教百科全书,体积五发布时间1909年。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909.Nihil Obstat,1909年5月1。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约



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