Druzes, Druze, al-Darazi德鲁兹

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Druze beliefs deviate markedly from those of mainstream Islam, consisting of an amalgamation of Neo-Platonic, Isma'ili, and extreme Shi'ite beliefs.德鲁兹人信仰明显偏离主流伊斯兰教,合并了新柏拉图主义,Isma'ili,和极端什叶派信仰。The movement derives its name from an Isma'ili missionary, al-Darazi (d.1019/20), who proclaimed the divinity of the sixth Fatimid caliph, Abu 'Ali al-Mansur al-Hakim (985-1021). Isma'ili传教士,AL - Darazi(d.1019/20),宣布第六届的法蒂玛哈里发,阿布阿里AL -曼苏尔哈基姆(985-1021)的神性运动源于它的名字。The principal figure, however, behind the formation of the movement's beliefs was Hamzah ibn 'Ali (d. 1021) who not only taught the divinity of al-Hakim but claimed that he himself was the cosmic intellect.主要的数字,然而,运动的信念的形成背后的哈姆扎本阿里(卒于1021)不仅教哈基姆的神性,但声称,他本人是宇宙的智力。

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The Druzes attach particular importance to speaking the truth among themselves (although it is permissible to lie to outsiders and even to pretend to accept the religious beliefs of the ruling majority).该Druzes特别重视讲彼此之间的真相(虽然它是允许的谎言为外人道,甚至假装接受执政多数的宗教信仰)。 They believe that Hakim and Hamzah will return to the world and establish a just order ruled by Druzes.他们认为,哈基姆和哈姆扎将重返世界,建立一个公正的秩序Druzes裁定。Some sects believe in reincarnation and the temporary manifestation of God in human form.有些教派相信轮回和神的人形临时表现。They assemble for worship on Thursdays, rather than Fridays, and reject much of Islamic legal practice.他们崇拜星期四组装,而不是周五,拒绝许多伊斯兰法律实践。

The Druze scripture is the Rasa'il al-hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom), most of which was composed by Hamzah's successor, Baha al-Din al-Muqtana.德鲁兹经文是Rasa'il人hikmah(智慧的书信),其中大部分是由哈姆扎的继任者,巴哈al - Din的AL - Muqtana组成。

History历史

Druze religion has its origins in the second decade of the 11th century, when al-Darazi and Hamzah ibn Ali declared the sixth Fatimid caliph to be the incarnation of the godhead.德鲁兹宗教起源于11世纪第二个十年,当AL - Darazi和哈姆扎本阿里宣布第六届的法蒂玛哈里发神格的化身。 Following the death of al-Hakim in 1021 the Druze sect in Egypt was subjected to persecution and disappeared.以下死亡哈基姆在1021德鲁兹教派在埃及遭受迫害而消失。The sect, however, flourished in Syria where it had been established by Darazi's followers, and reached as far as Iraq, Iran and India.然而,该教派,盛行于叙利亚已Darazi的追随者成立,并达成尽可能伊拉克,伊朗和印度。

During the Ottoman period the Druze were allowed to govern themselves.在奥斯曼帝国时期,德鲁兹人被允许管理自己。In the 17th and 18th centuries the sect was bitterly divided between the Qaysis and Yamanis who engaged in a series of violent conflicts with each other.在17和18世纪的教派从事了一系列的暴力冲突,相互之间Qaysis和Yamanis的严重分歧。Throughout the 19th century, until the end of the first world war, the Druzes were almost continually in conflict with Maronite Christians.在整个19世纪,直到第一次世界大战结束,Druzes几乎马龙派基督教徒的冲突不断。 The worst incident occurred in 1860 when the Druzes burned 150 Christian villages, and killed some 11,000 people.最严重的事件发生在1860年时Druzes烧掉150基督教村庄,并杀害了约11000人。

Following the end of the first world war and the collapse of the Ottoman empire the Druze, like other groups in the region, came under the jurisdiction of the European powers who took control of the Middle East.随着第一次世界大战的结束和奥斯曼帝国的德鲁兹的崩溃,在该地区的其他群体一样,来到下的欧洲列强,谁控制了中东的管辖范围。 The Druzes constituted important minority groups in three of the countries that were set up in the region in the 1940s: Syria, Lebanon and Israel. Druzes构成重要的少数群体在三个地区在20世纪40年代,国家:叙利亚,黎巴嫩和以色列。The Druzes existed in Syria as a deprived minority denied political power and many educational opportunities.Druzes存在在叙利亚作为剥夺少数剥夺政治权力和许多受教育的机会。In 1966 fears of a possible Druze inspired coup led to the purging of Druze officers from the Syrian army and the persecution of the Druzes, causing many to flee to the Lebanon and Jordan.在1966年的一个可能的德鲁兹灵感政变的担忧导致清除德鲁兹人员从叙利亚军队和迫害的Druzes,造成了许多逃往黎巴嫩和约旦。 The capture of the Golan heights by Israel in 1973 led to the further depletion of the Druze population of Syria.捕获的戈兰高地以色列在1973年率领的叙利亚德鲁兹人口的进一步枯竭。

In Lebanon the history of the Druze has very much been tied up with the unfortunate history of the country.在黎巴嫩德鲁兹的历史已经非常被捆绑起来与该国的不幸的历史。During the first twenty-five years of the country's history the various religious groups succeeded in coexisting without conflict.各宗教团体在该国历史上的第一个二十五年的成功共存,而不会发生冲突。However, the denial of effective political power to Lebanon's Muslims by the Christian majority led to the outbreak of civil war in 1958 and in 1975.然而,否认黎巴嫩的穆斯林,基督教多数的有效的政治权力,导致在1958年和1975年爆发内战。One important consequence of the post-1975 conflict for the Druzes of Lebanon was the establishment of links between themselves and the Druzes of Syria and Israel as these two countries became involved in Lebanon's civil war. 1975年后黎巴嫩的Druzes冲突的重要后果之一是建立自己和这两个国家参与黎巴嫩内战,叙利亚和以色列的Druzes之间的联系。

The Druzes of Israel have enjoyed the most stability and prosperity of all the Middle Eastern Druze communities.以色列Druzes享有所有中东德鲁兹教派最稳定和繁荣。Of all the non-Jewish communities in Israel the Druzes have been the most loyal to the state.所有在以色列的非犹太人社区的Druzes有最忠实的状态。The refusal of the Druzes to involve themselves in the Arab-Israeli conflict and the loyalty of the majority of the Druzes to the state of Israel has led them to be treated relatively favourably by the Israeli authorities.Druzes拒绝涉及到自己在阿拉伯 - 以色列冲突和大多数的以色列国Druzes的忠诚导致他们被视为以色列当局相对逊色。

Symbols符号

The main symbol of the Druzes is the five-pointed star.Druzes的主要标志是五角星。This can often be found outside Druze shrines.这往往可以发现外面德鲁兹圣地。

Adherents遗民

It is difficult to say with accuracy what the global population of the Druze community is.这是很难说全球人口的德鲁兹社会的准确性。In Syria the Druzes number about 260,000 (Makarem 1974, 3); in Jordan about 3,000 (ibid); in Israel 89,300 (Europa Publications Ltd. I 1996, 1679); and in Lebanon 250,000 (Europa Publications Ltd., II 1996).Druzes数量约26万(Makarem 1974年,3);在约旦,叙利亚约3000(同上);在以色列89300(欧罗巴出版有限公司我1996年1679年); 250,000(欧罗巴出版有限公司1996年,二)在黎巴嫩。Small Druze communities also exist in the United States, Canada, Brazil, Mexico, Argentina and Australia.小德鲁兹社区也存在于美国,加拿大,巴西,墨西哥,阿根廷和澳大利亚。

Headquarters / Main Centre总部/主要中心

There are numerous Druze centres in the Middle East.在中东有许多德鲁兹中心。In Syria the Druze population is concentrated in the Jabal Al-Duruz region which borders Jordan and Israel.在叙利亚德鲁兹人口集中在约旦和以色列边界的Jabal al - Duruz地区。In Lebanon they are concentrated in the centre of the country to t he east of Beirut.在黎巴嫩,他们都集中在该国中部吨贝鲁特他东。In Israel they are concentrated in Galilee.在以色列,他们都集中在加利利。

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Druzes Druzes

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Small Mohammedan sect in Syria, notorious for their opposition to the Marionites, a Catholic people dwelling on the slopes of the Lebanon.小穆罕默德教派在叙利亚,他们反对的Marionites,一个天主教的人居住在黎巴嫩的斜坡而臭名昭著。Their name is derived as a plural form of Dorazy, the proper name of a Persian at the court of El Hakim in Egypt (about 1015).他们的名字是派生的Dorazy,波斯在法院在埃及的El哈基姆(约1015)适当的名称的复数形式。They subsequently repudiated all connection with this Mohammed Ibn Ismail el-Dorazy, and styled themselves Unitarians, or Muwahhedin, on account of the emphasis they lay on the unity of God.他们随后推翻所有与本穆罕默德伊本伊斯梅尔EL - Dorazy的连接,并自称自己的一神论,或Muwahhedin,帐户的重视,他们对上帝的团结奠定。Their history begins with the arrival of Dorazy in the Wady el-Teim, after his flight from Egypt.他们的历史始于Dorazy在Wady EL - Teim到来后,他从埃及的航班。This Persian had had the audacity to read to a large multitude in a mosque a book tending to prove that El Hakim, the mad Fatimite caliph, was an incarnation of God.这波斯语不得不厚颜无耻地阅读到一本书,抚育证明,狂Fatimite哈里发,厄尔尼诺哈基姆是神的化身在清真寺的大众多。 Escaping from the crowd, who were enraged at this blasphemy, he fled to the valley between Hermon and the Southern Lebanon, and with the support of his master preached his doctrine to these mountaineers, already given to Batenite doctrine and therefore predisposed to accept a further incarnation of the Deity.逃逸的人群中,谁是在这亵渎激怒,他逃到之间的赫尔蒙和黎巴嫩南部的山谷,与支持他的主人宣扬他的学说,这些登山,已经给Batenite学说,因此倾向于接受进一步神的化身。 He was soon superseded by another Persian, Hamzeh Ibn Ahmed El Hady, who became the real founder of the sect and the author of its sacred books.他很快就被取代另一个波斯语,Hamzeh伊本艾哈迈德Hady,成为该教派的真正的创始人,其神圣的书籍的作者。After the assassination of El Hakim, Hamzeh wrote a treatise to prove that El Hakim had not really died but only disappeared to test the faith of his followers. Hamzeh厄尔尼诺哈基姆遭暗杀后,写了一篇论文来证明厄尔尼诺哈基姆没有真正死亡,但只有消失,以测试他的追随者的信仰。This disappearance and ultimate return of El Hakim are the cardinal points of the Druze faith today.这种消失,并最终返回的El哈基姆是今天的德鲁兹人信仰的基点。The sacred books of the Druzes, successfully hidden from the world for eight centuries, have since the middle of the last century found their way into European libraries. Druzes神圣的书籍,成功地从隐藏在世界八个世纪,自上个世纪中叶发现他们的方式进入欧洲图书馆。They are written in Arabic and effect the style of the Koran.他们用阿拉伯语和效果的“古兰经”的风格。They consist of six volumes containing 111 treatises of a controversial character or explanatory epistles to individual persons.他们组成6个含有111一个有争议的字符或个人的解释书信论文的卷。Each book takes its name from its first treatise.每本书,它的名字从第一次的论文。Their speculations strongly reflect their Persian origin.他们的猜测强烈反映波斯湾的起源。

The Druze doctrine concerning God is characterized by its abstraction from all Divine attributes; these, it declares, would imply limitation in the Supreme Being.德鲁兹主义关于上帝的特点是其从所有神的属性的抽象,它宣称,这意味着在最高法院被限制。God, however, manifested Himself first in the Universal Mind, then in the Universal Soul, and again in the Word.神,但是,表现自己就先在寰宇记,然后在通用的灵魂,并再次在Word。These three form the first great manifestation.这三种形式的第一个伟大的表现。The second great manifestation began with the residence of the Universal mind in Adam for a thousand years; after which Enoch took his place, and in turn was followed by the seven ministers, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, Mohammed, Ibn Ishmail; the seventh is unknown.第二大表现与居住在亚当寰宇记一千年开始后,诺了他的位置,并依次由七位部长,诺亚,亚伯拉罕,摩西,耶稣,穆罕默德伊本Ishmail;七是未知之数。 God appeared ten times in human form, for the last time in El Hakim.上帝出现在人类形成了十次,最后一次在El哈基姆。The Druzes teach a distinction between Jesus, the son of Joseph, and the Christ. Druzes教,约瑟的儿子,耶稣和基督之间的区别。Christ instructed Jesus, but finally Jesus disobeyed Christ and was crucified in consequence.基督耶稣的指示,但最后耶稣不服从基督和后果钉在十字架上。Christ, who was concealed under the form of one of the disciples of Jesus, stole the body of Jesus from the grave, and gave out the report that Christ had risen, in order that the true Druzes might be concealed for awhile in the religion of Jesus.基督,谁是耶稣的门徒之一的形式掩盖下,从坟墓中偷耶稣的身体,并给出了报告,基督已上升一段时间,真正的Druzes可能隐藏在宗教秩序,耶稣。 The Druzes are firm believers in the transmigration of souls, and this transmigration will never end; after the Judgment Day death will continue, but it will be painless for the saved, who will live to the age of 120 years, and whose souls will forthwith be reborn and re-enter a life of peace and pleasure. Druzes是坚定信仰的灵魂轮回,轮回永远不会结束;审判日死亡后会继续,但是这将是无痛的保存,能活到120岁的年龄,和他们的灵魂将随即而脱胎换骨,重新进入一个和平与快乐的生活。 The Druze are unshakably convinced that the whole of China is peopled with adherents of their religion.德鲁兹人都坚定不移地相信,整个中国人居住与他们的宗教信徒。The Judgment Day, or rather the golden age for the Druzes, will be at hand when the Christians wax greater than the Mohammedans, some nine hundred years after the disappearance of El Hakim.审判之日,或者更确切地说,为Druzes的黄金时代,将手头的基督徒比伊斯兰教的蜡时,约900一百多年后的El哈基姆失踪。 Then the Christians, aided by the King of Abyssinia, a sort of Antichrist named "The Antagonist", will march against the Caaba in Mecca.然后的基督徒,阿比西尼亚的国王,一个名为“拮抗剂”敌基督的排序的帮助下,将游行反对Caaba麦加。The hosts of Christ and Mohammed will meet, but only to be both overcome by 2,500,000 Chinese Druzes.基督和穆罕默德的主机将满足,但只能由250万中国Druzes既克服。Moslems and Christians will both be reduced to everlasting slavery, and the Unitarians will reign forever.穆斯林和基督徒都将减少到永远奴役,和一神论将永远统治。The Druze religion contains several moral precepts: veracity, love of the brethren, forsaking of idolatry, repudiation of devils, acknowledgement of God's unity at all times, secrecy in religion, and resignation to the will of God.德鲁兹宗教包含几个道德戒律:真实性,爱弟兄,放弃偶像崇拜,魔鬼的抵赖,承认上帝在任何时候都团结,宗教保密,并辞职到神的旨意。

The Druzes are divided into two main classes: the Ukkal, or initiated, and the Juhhal, or uninitiated; among the former the Iwayid profess the strictest Druze principles. Druzes分为两大类:Ukkal,或发起,并Juhhal,或门外汉;其中前者Iwayid信奉严格的德鲁兹原则。They meet on Thursday evenings for worship, which consists almost exclusively in reading their sacred books.他们满足于周四晚上崇拜,几乎完全由在读他们的神圣的书籍。They often comply with the outward observances of Islam and even make pretense of being Mohammedans, but they are officially designated as unbelievers.他们经常遵守伊斯兰教的向外纪念活动,甚至被伊斯兰教徒的幌子,但他们被正式指定为不信的。They live mostly in Lebanon, but are also found in the Hauran and in the districts near Damascus; their total number is estimated at 100,000 or a few thousand more.他们大多居住离子,黎巴嫩,但在Hauran在大马士革附近地区也发现,他们的总人数估计在10万元或几千。Encouraged by Turkish authorities, the Druze in 1860 attacked the Catholic Marionites, and are said to have massacred some ten thousand of them.德鲁兹人在1860年袭击土耳其当局的鼓励下,天主教Marionites,并说有一些然后他们千屠杀。The massacres were stayed mainly through English and French intervention.住大屠杀主要是通过英语和法语的干预。

Publication information Written by JP Arendzen.太平绅士Arendzen编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by M. Donahue.转录由M.多纳休。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V. Published 1909.天主教百科全书,体积五发布1909年。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909.Nihil Obstat,1909年5月1。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

Wortabet, Researchers into the Religions of Syria (London, 1860); Churchill, the Druze and Marionites (London, 1862); Socin in Realencyk.für prof. Wortabet,到叙利亚的宗教(伦敦,1860年)的研究人员,邱吉尔,德鲁兹和Marionites(伦敦,1862年); Realencyk.für教授Socin。Theol.Theol。(Leipzig, 1898), sv Drusen; Neumann, Das Volk des Drusen (Vienna, 1878). (莱比锡,1898年),SV玻璃膜疣;诺依曼,DAS沃尔克DES玻璃膜疣(维也纳,1878年)。



Also, see:此外,见:
Islam, Muhammad伊斯兰教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an可兰经,可兰经
Pillars of Faith支柱的信仰
Abraham 亚伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham全书亚伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari启示-h adiths从第一册的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari信仰-h adiths从第二册的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari知识-h adiths从第三册的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari时代的祈祷-h adiths从书展1 0个基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari缩短祈祷(在taqseer ) -h adiths从书展2 0铝布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari朝圣(朝觐) -h adiths从书展2 6铝布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari争取事业的阿拉(杰哈德) -h adiths图书5 2铝布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari同一性,独特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths图书9 3铝布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanafiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni)malikiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni)shafi'iyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanbaliyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni)maturidiyyah神学(逊尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni)ash'ariyyah神学(逊尼派)
Mutazilah Theologymutazilah神学
Ja'fari Theology (Shia)ja'fari神学(什叶派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia)nusayriyyah神学(什叶派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia)zaydiyyah神学(什叶派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia)伊玛目(什叶派)
Druze 德鲁兹
Qarmatiyyah (Shia)qarmatiyyah (什叶派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail伊斯梅尔,司马义。
Early Islamic History Outline早在伊斯兰历史纲要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿维森纳
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone天房,黑石头
Ramadan 斋月
Sunnites, Sunni逊尼派,逊尼派
Shiites, Shia什叶派,什叶派
Mecca 麦加
Medina 麦迪
Sahih, al-Bukharisahih ,铝-布哈里
Sufism 苏非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主义
Abu Bakr阿布巴克尔
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭马亚王朝
Fatima 法蒂玛
Fatimids (Shia)法蒂玛王朝(什叶派)
Ismailis (Shia)伊斯玛仪教派(什叶派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 萨拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar伊斯兰日历
Interactive Muslim Calendar互动穆斯林日历


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