Early Christian Manuscripts, Patristic Literature4000早期基督教手稿

General Information 一般资料

(Links to subject listings) (链接到主题列表)
Clement of Rome, Barnabas, Polycarp, Ignatius, Justin Martyr, Irenæus, Hermas, misc 克莱门特的罗马,巴拿巴,波利卡普,伊格内修,贾斯汀烈士,爱任纽,黑马,杂
Tatian, Papias, Theophilus, Athenagoras, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian 塔蒂安,帕皮亚,西奥菲勒斯,哥拉,克莱门特,良亚历山大
Origen, Hippolytus, Cyprian, Novatian, miscThaumaturgus, Dionysius the Great, Africanus, misc 奥利,西波吕,塞浦路斯,Novatian,杂项 - Thaumaturgus,修斯大,Africanus,杂项
Methodius, Arnobius, Lactantius, miscApost. Methodius,Arnobius,拉克唐修,杂项 - Apost。 Constitutions, Early Homilies, Early Creeds, Early Liturgies “宪法”,早期的颂歌,早期的信条,早期的礼仪
The Twelve Patriarchs, Theodotus, Clement of Romeimportant misc texts, Decretals, other misc 十二始祖,西奥多托斯,克莱门特的罗马 - 重要的杂项文本,Decretals,其他杂
Early Syriac texts, texts related to Gospels, miscHistory of Eusebius, History of Socrates, History of Sozomen, Theodoret (incl. History of Theodoret), Rufinus/Jerome 早期的叙利亚文文本,以福音相关的文本,杂 项-尤西比乌斯的历史,苏格拉底的历史,历史的Sozomen,Theodoret(包括Theodoret历史), Rufinus /杰罗姆
AthanasiusGregory of Nyssa, JeromeCyril, Nazianzen, Basil 亚他那修 - 格雷戈里的果树,杰罗姆 - 利禄Nazianzen,罗勒
Hilary of Poitiers, John of Damascus, AmbroseSulpitius Severus, Vincent of Lerins, John Cassian 希拉里的普瓦捷,约翰大马士革,刘汉铨 - Sulpitius西弗勒斯,Lerins文森特,约翰卡西安
Leo the Great (A)(B)(C)Gregory the Great (A)(B)Ephraim the Syrian 狮子座大(一) - (二) - (三) - 格里高利大(一) - (二) - 以法莲叙利亚
Early Ecum. 早Ecum。 CouncilsSecond through Sixth Ecum. 议会 - 通过第六Ecum二。 CouncilsTrullo and Seventh Ecum. 议会 - Trullo和第七Ecum。 Councils 议会
Saint Augustine (A)(B)(C)(D)(E)(F)(G)(H)(I)(J) 圣奥古斯丁(一) - (二) - (三) - (四) - (五) - (六) - (七) - (H) - (一) - (J)
Saint John Chrysostom (A)(B)(C)(D)(E)(F)(G) 圣约翰金口(一) - (二) - (三) - (四) - (五) - (六) - (G)


Patristic literature refers to the writings of the Fathers of the Christian church (the Greek word patristikos means "relating to the fathers") between the latter part of the 1st century AD and the middle of the 8th century.教父文学是指父亲之间的公元1世纪后期的一部分,在公元8世纪中叶的基督教教堂(希腊字patristikos意味着“有关的父亲”)的著作。 It can therefore be distinguished from New Testament theology at one end and from medieval scholasticism and Byzantine systematization at the other.因此,它可以区分新约神学的一端,从中世纪经院哲学和其他拜占庭式的系统化。 It reflects the philosophical and religious thought of the Hellenistic and Roman world from which it derived the bulk of its concepts and vocabulary.它反映了从它派生大量的概念和词汇的希腊和罗马世界的哲学和宗教思想。 The themes of this vast literature are manifold, but the theological reflection of the Fathers focused for the most part on questions of Christology and the Trinity.这个庞大的文学的主题是多方面的,但为基督和三位一体的问题大部分集中的神学反省的父亲。

Although writers of the East and West had much in common, perceptible shades of difference can be found in their theologies. A scientific theology developed in the East and was marked by a blend of biblical theology and Platonic idealism (especially in Alexandria) or Aristotelian realism (especially in Antioch) .虽然东方和西方的作家是共同的,感知的色调差异,可以发现在他们的神学。开发一个科学的神学,在东亚和标记的圣经神学和柏拉图式的理想主义的交融(尤其是在亚历山德里亚)或亚里士多德的现实主义(尤其是在安提阿)。 In the West, Christian writers generally depended on the Greek theological tradition, which they often clarified in definitions or interpreted in juridical categories, until the emergence in the late 4th century of a sophisticated Latin theology.在西方,基督教作家普遍依赖于希腊的神学传统,他们往往澄清定义或解释法人类别,直到在一个复杂的拉丁神学的第四世纪后期出现。

Patristic literature falls into three main periods. The ante-Nicene period (before AD 325) includes the writings of the Apostolic Fathers, the apologetic and antiheretical literature, and the beginnings of speculative Greek theology. 教父文学分为三个主要时期。前厅尼西亚时期 (公元325年之前),包括使徒教父的著作,歉意和antiheretical文学,投机希腊神学的开端。 The major figures of this period include Clement of Alexandria, Cyprian, Irenæus, Justin Martyr, Origen, and Tertullian.这一时期的重要人物,包括克莱门特的亚历山德里亚,塞浦路斯,爱任纽,贾斯汀烈士,奥利,和德尔图良。 The period between the councils of Nicæa (325) and Chalcedon (451) was the golden age of the Nicene fathers (including Eusebius of Cæsarea, the first major church historian) the Alexandrians (most notably Athanasius and Cyril of Alexandria), the Cappadocians (Basil the Great, Gregory of Nazianzus, and Gregory of Nyssa), and the Antiochenes (John Chrysostom and Theodore of Mopsuestia). 尼西亚(325)和迦克 ​​墩(451)议会之间的时期是尼西亚的父亲(包括撒利亚,第一大教会历史学家优西比乌)的黄金时代Alexandrians(最显着的亚他那修和西里尔的亚历山德里亚), Cappadocians(罗勒大,格雷戈里的nazianzus,并格雷戈里的果树),和Antiochenes(约翰金口和西奥多的摩普绥提亚)。

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This was also the period of the great Latin fathers: Hilary of Poitiers, Ambrose, Jerome, and, above all, Augustine.这也是伟大的拉丁教父的时期:普瓦捷,刘汉铨,杰罗姆,希拉里和,高于一切,奥古斯丁。 The final period of patristic literature ends with Gregory I (the Great) in the West and John Damascene in the East. 教父文学的最后期限结束与格雷戈里我(大)在东西和约翰大马士革

Ross Mackenzie罗斯麦肯齐
Bibliography: 参考书目:
Altaner, Berthold, Patrology, 5th ed. Altaner,贝特霍尔德,Patrology,第5版。 (1960); DiBerardino, Angelo, eds., Patrology, trans. (1960年); DiBerardino,安杰洛,EDS,Patrology,反。 by P. Solari, 4 vols. P.索拉里,4卷。 (1986); Goodspeed, EJ, A History of Early Christian Literature, rev. (1986年);古德斯皮德,EJ,早期基督教文学的历史,冯。 ed.编辑。 (1966); Hamell, Patrick J., Handbook of Patrology (1968); Kelly, JND, Early Christian Doctrines, rev. (1966年); Hamell,帕特里克J.,(1968)Patrology手册“;凯利,JND的,早期的基督教教义,转。 ed.编辑。 (1978); Leigh-Bennett, E., Handbook of the Early Christian Fathers (1980); Quasten, Johannes, and Plumpe, Joseph C., eds., Ancient Christian Writers (1946- ). (1978年); LEIGH - 贝内特,E,早期的基督教教父(1980)手册“; Quasten,约翰内斯,并Plumpe,约瑟夫C,EDS,古代基督教作家(1946 - )。


Since we are trying to include EVERY early Church document in this presentation, there are around 4,000 of them now included!由于我们正在努力,包括早期教会在此演示文稿中的每一个文件,其中4000现在包含大约有! It is not practical to place them all in a single link listing, so we have divided them up into smaller listings roughly as follows:它是不实际的放置在一个单一的链接列表所有这些,所以我们必须分为较小的房源大致如下:


Advanced Information 先进的信息

Collected together are the English translations of the actual texts of many known early Christian manuscripts.收集在一起,有许多著名的早期基督教手稿的实际文本的英文翻译。 These works form an important part of the foundation for virtually every Christian Church.这些作品的形式几乎每一个基督教教会的基础的重要组成部分。

In Christianity, as in all other religions, interpretation by authors and speakers and Clergy is invariably involved.在基督教中,作者和演讲者和神职人员的解释是在所有其他宗教一样,无不涉及。 Since different people have sometimes interpreted the wording of early manuscripts in different ways, (as also is true of the Bible), there developed many different "human opinions" on many important subjects, which initiated many heresies, many schisms and a large number of Denominations and other Churches, each which have their own human opinions on those important subjects.由于不同的人有时被解释的措辞,早期手稿以不同的方式(也是真正的“圣经”),开发了许多不同的许多重要议题,发起了许多异端邪说,许多分裂和大量的“人类的意见”教派和其他教会,每个都有自己的人类就这些重要议题的意见。

Since much of the argument seems to arise over interpretation of the meanings of works of the early Church Fathers, we are presenting the works here, WITHOUT significant commentary or interpretation.由于大部分的说法似乎出现过早期教父的作品的含义的解释,我们展示的作品在这里,没有显著的评论或解释。 The exceptions generally have to do with historical facts which are relevant.例外情况一般有做相关的历史事实。 For example, there are some short letters which appear to have been written to Mary, the Mother of Jesus, but the author appears to have lived many years after her!例如,有一些似乎已经写信给玛丽,耶稣的母亲的短字母,但作者似乎多年后,她的生活! Such notes include a brief reference to being "spurious".该等票据包括一个简短的参考是“虚假的”。

There are also assorted "fragments" of manuscripts included.还有配套的“碎片”,包括手稿。 In some cases, these fragments result from the illegibility of much of a manuscript, where only certain sentences are readable.在某些情况下,这些碎片从模糊的手稿,其中只有某些句子可读的结果。 In other cases, they are truly fragments, torn portions of manuscripts.在其他情况下,他们是真正的碎片,撕裂的部分手稿。

Being English translations, one must remember the need to consult the original language texts for any critical study.作为英语翻译,我们必须记住任何批判性研究的原始语言文本进行磋商的必要性。 Similarly, we must remember that, at the time these letters and books were written, even the Bible was written in Scriptua continua , continuous text without spaces for paragraphs, sentences or even words, and there was no capitalization, punctuation or other formatting.同样,我们必须记得,当时 ​​写这些信件和书籍,甚至“圣经”是在连续文本,段落,句子或什字无空格Scriptua连续写入,以及有没有大小写,标点符号或其他格式。 Therefore, the paragraph numbering and Chapter headings in these texts were obviously additions by later copyists or translators to clarify the texts.因此,段编号,并在这些文本的章标题明显增加后来的抄写或翻译,以澄清文本。 However, without those improvements, these texts are nearly impossible to read or understand, and so it seems tolerable to accept them.然而,如果没有这些改进,这些文本阅读或理解几乎是不可能的,因此它似乎容忍接受他们。

This listing is approximately in chronological order, as is currently understood.大约在这上市是按时间顺序,是目前所理解。 We hope to eventually include all known existing Manuscripts.我们希望最终包括所有已知的现有的手稿。

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Saint Clement I圣克莱门特我

Clement, d.克莱门特,D. AD 101, called Clement of Rome, was the bishop of Rome, or pope, from c.92 to 101.公元101,叫克莱门特的罗马,罗马,教皇或主教,从c.92 101。 According to Irenæus, he was the third successor of St. Peter.根据爱任纽,他是第三的圣彼得的继任者。 Little is known of his life; the main source of information is his Epistle to the Corinthians (c.96), the earliest piece of Christian literature other than New Testament writings for which the name of the author is certain.鲜为人知的是,他的生活信息的主要来源是他的书信的科林蒂安(c.96),比其他新约著作的作者的名字是一定的基督教文学的最早的一块。 The high esteem in which Clement was held is evident from the fact that until the 4th century his letter was accepted by some as Scripture.从他的信,直到第四世纪被作为圣经一些公认的事实是显而易见的崇高敬意,其中克莱门特举行。 He is one of the Apostolic Fathers of the church.他是教会的使徒教父之一。 The epistle was written because of internal discord and division in the Corinthian church.由于内部不和,在哥林多教会的司,写书信。 Clement intervened in the name of the church at Rome and appealed for restoration of peace, harmony, and order.克莱门特在罗马干预教会的名称,并呼吁恢复和平,和谐和秩序。 The document, which demonstrates Clement's familiarity with Greek Stoic philosophy and mythology, gives a valuable picture of early church organization, belief, and practice.该文件,这表明克莱门特的,与希腊斯多葛哲学和神话的熟悉,给出了一个早期教会组织,信仰和实践的宝贵图片。 Feast day: Nov. 23 (Western); Nov. 24 or 25 (Eastern).盛宴的日子:11月23日(西方)11月24日或25日(东区)。

Agnes Cunningham艾格尼丝坎宁安

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Saint Polycarp圣波利卡普

Polycarp, c.69-c.155, bishop of Smyrna, was a living link between the Apostles and the church of the later 2d century.波利卡普,c.69 - c.155,士每拿主教,是一个2D世纪后期的使徒和教会之间的活生生的联系。 As a leader of the church in Anatolia, he visited (155) Rome to discuss with its bishop the disputed date for the celebration of Easter.在安纳托利亚教会的领导者,他访问(155)罗马主教其讨论的庆祝复活节的争议日期。 It was agreed that the Eastern and Western churches would continue their divergent usages.与会者一致认为,东方和西方的教堂将继续他们的分歧用法。 After his return to Smyrna, Polycarp was arrested and burned to death.他回到士麦那之后,波利卡普被逮捕和被烧死的。 A letter from the church of Smyrna, the oldest known narrative of a Christian martyr, gives an account of his trial and death.从士麦那,一个基督徒殉道者的已​​知最古老的叙事,教会的信给他的审判和死亡的帐户。

A defender of orthodoxy--Irenæus says that he was a disciple of Saint John--Polycarp opposed Marcion and other gnostic teachers.一个正统的捍卫者 - 爱任纽说,他是圣约翰的弟子 - 波利卡普反对马吉安和其他诺斯底教师。 A letter addressed to him by Ignatius survives, in addition to one (or perhaps two combined) by Polycarp to the Philippians that throws light on early Christian doctrine, organization, and use of Scripture.给他的信,由依纳爵下来,除了一个由波利卡普(或者两者合二为一)抛出早期基督教的教义,组织腓,和使用​​的圣经。 Feast day: Jan. 25 (Eastern); Feb. 23 (Western).节日:1月25日(东区)2月23日(西方)。

Ross Mackenzie罗斯麦肯齐
Bibliography: 参考书目:
Altaner, Berthold, Patrology, (1960); Harrison, PN, Polycarp's Two Epistles to the Philippians (1936); Musurillo, HA, comp., Acts of the Christian Martyrs (1972). Altaner,贝特霍尔德,Patrology,(1960);哈里森,PN,波利卡普的书信腓(1936); Musurillo,房委会,比赛,基督教烈士(1972年)。

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Marcus Aurelius马库斯 - 奥勒留

Roman Emperor罗马帝国皇帝

Marcus Aurelius, b.马库斯 - 奥勒留,B. Apr. 26, 121, d. 4月26日,121,D. Mar. 17, 180, ruled Rome from 161 until his death.从161,180,裁定3月17日,罗马,直到他去世。 Born Marcus Annius Verus, he was adopted by the emperor AntoniusS Pius in 138 and married to his daughter Annia Galeria Faustina a few years later.马库斯Annius Verus出生的人,他是通过皇帝AntoniusS碧岳138嫁给他的女儿几年后Annia画廊Faustina。 He succeeded to the throne without difficulty on Antoninus's death.没有困难安东尼的死亡,他继承王位。 Marcus insisted on sharing power equally with Lucius Verus, whom Antoninus had also adopted, even though Verus, who died in 169, was clearly less competent.马库斯坚持卢Verus,其中安东尼还通过分享权力同样,即使Verus,在169死亡,显然是技不如人。

Educated by the best tutors in Rome and Athens, Marcus was a devotee of Greek learning and of the philosophy of Stoicism.在罗马和雅典的最好的导师的教育,马库斯是一个学习希腊和淡泊哲学爱好者。 Even during his campaigns (167-175, 178-180) against the Marcomanni and other Danubian tribes he kept a "spiritual diary."即使在他的运动对马科曼尼和其他多瑙河部落(167-175,178-180),他保持着的“心灵日记”。 This document, the Meditations, reflects Marcus's attempt to reconcile his Stoic philosophy of virtue and self-sacrifice with his role as a warrior-sovereign.这份文件,沉思,反映了马库斯的试图调和他斯多葛哲学的美德和自我牺牲精神,他作​​为一个战士主权的角色。

Marcus's wars and benevolences--he lowered taxes and was charitable toward the less fortunate--were expensive and often ineffective.马库斯的战争和benevolences - 他降低税收和慈善走向那么幸运 - 昂贵,而且往往是无效的的。 His son Commodus, who succeeded him, inherited the Danubian war, which Rome could not win, and a treasury that had been seriously depleted.他的儿子Commodus,谁接替他继承多瑙河战争,罗马不能取胜,和一个已被严重耗尽国库。

John Eadie约翰Eadie

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Birley, AR, Marcus Aurelius (1966) and rev. Birley,AR,马库斯 - 奥勒留(1966年)和REV。 ed.编辑。 (1987); Farquharson, Arthur, Marcus Aurelius, His Life and His World, ed. (1987年); Farquharson,亚瑟,马库斯 - 奥勒留,他的生活和他的世界,教育署。 by DA Rees (1951; repr. 1975); Sedgwick, Henry D., Marcus Aurelius (1921; repr. 1971 DA的里斯(1951年再版1975年);塞奇威克,亨利博士,马库斯 - 奥勒留(1921年;再版1971。

Saint Ignatius of Antioch圣依纳爵的安提阿

The third bishop of Antioch, Ignatius, dc107, was brought to Rome under Trajan and thrown to wild beasts.下图拉真和安提阿,伊格内修,dc107,第三主教被带到罗马抛给野兽。 On the way to Rome he wrote to the Christians at Ephesus, Magnesia, Tralles, Rome, Philadelphia, and Smyrna and to Polycarp, bishop of Smyrna.在罗马的途中,他写信给在以弗所,镁,Tralles,罗马,费城,和士麦那基督徒和波利卡普的士每拿主教。 These seven letters give an enlightening glimpse not only of the beliefs and internal conditions of early Christian communities, but also of the character of their author.这七封信,不仅早期的基督教社区的信仰和内部条件,但它们的作者的性格也有启发性的一瞥。

Ignatius wrote about the virgin birth and divinity of Christ, but stressed especially Christ's human nature.伊格内修斯写道童女生子和基督的神性,但他强调,特别是基督的人性。 The first writer to call the church "catholic," Ignatius described it as a society of love, presided over in love by a bishop with his presbyters and deacons, and assembled "in grace, in one faith and one Jesus Christ" (Eph. 20).致电“天主教教会的第一位作家,”伊格内修描述它作为爱情的社会,由主教主持的爱与他的长老和执事,并组装“的宽限期,在一个信仰和一个耶稣基督”(弗20)。

Called Theophoros ("God-bearer"), Ignatius considered martyrdom a great honor and asked the Roman Christians not to save him.称为Theophoros(“上帝旗手”),依纳爵认为殉难一个伟大的荣誉,并要求罗马的基督徒,不救他。 "Let me be given to the wild beasts," he wrote, "for through them I can attain unto God" (Rom. 4). “让我得到的野兽,”他写道,“通过他们,我可以达到对神”(罗马书4)。 Feast day: Oct. 17 (Western); Dec. 17 (Antioch); Dec. 20 (other Eastern).节日:10月17日(西方)12月17日(安提阿); 12月20日(其他东欧)。

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Corwin, Virginia, Saint Ignatius and Christianity in Antioch (1960); Kleist, JA, ed., The Epistles of St. Clement of Rome and St. Ignatius of Antioch (1946); Richardson, Cyril, The Christianity of Ignatius of Antioch (1935); Schoedel, William, Ignatius of Antioch: A Commentary on the Seven Letters of Ignatius (1985).科温,弗吉尼亚州,圣依纳爵和基督教在安提阿(1960);克莱斯特,JA,海关,圣克莱门特的罗马安提(1946年)和圣依纳爵的书信。理查森,西里尔,基督教的伊格内修的安提阿( 1935年); Schoedel,威廉,安提阿的伊格内修:依纳爵(1985年)的七封信述评。

Works of St. Ignatius of Antioch工程的圣依纳爵的安提阿

Saint Justin Martyr圣贾斯汀烈士

Saint Justin Martyr, c.100-c.165, is recognized as one of the most important early Christian writers.圣贾斯汀烈士,c.100 - c.165,是公认的最重要的早期基督教作家之一。 A Samarian, he studied in different schools of philosophy--Stoic, Peripatetic, Pythagorean, and Platonic--before becoming a Christian.一个撒玛利亚,他研究了在不同的哲学流派 - 斯多葛,巡回,毕达哥拉斯和柏拉图 - 在成为基督徒之前。 Justin took up the task of making a reasoned defense of Christianity to outsiders.贾斯汀拿起一个基督教的合理防御外人的任务。 He went to Rome and opened a school of philosophy.他去了罗马,并开了一个哲学学校。 Justin is the reputed author of a vast number of treatises, but the only authentic remaining works are two Apologies, his Dialogue with Trypho the Jew, and fragments of On the Resurrection. Justin是大量的论文被誉为的作者,但唯一正宗的余下工程是两个道歉,他与Trypho犹太人的对话,并在复活的片段。 Justin was beheaded, probably in 165.贾斯汀被砍头,大概在165个。 Feast day: June 1.节日:6月1日。

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Barnard, LW, Justin Martyr: His Life and Thought (1967).巴纳德,LW,贾斯汀烈士:他的生活和思想(1967)。

Works of St. Justin Martyr工程的圣贾斯汀烈士

Saint Irenæus, Irenaeus圣爱任纽,爱任纽

Saint Irenæus, b.圣爱任纽,B. Anatolia, c.140-60, dc200, known as the father of Catholic theology, is the most important theologian of the 2d century AD.安纳托利亚,c.140 - 60,DC200,被称为天主教神学的父亲,是公元2D世纪最重要的神学家。 In his youth, he became a disciple of Saint Polycarp of Smyrna.在他的青年时期,他成为圣士每拿波利卡普弟子。 Later he served as bishop of Lugdunum (Lyon) in Gaul.后来,他担任主教Lugdunum(里昂)在高卢。

Irenæus is known through several extant works, as well as by his influence on later Christian writers of the patristic era.爱任纽是通过几个现存的作品,以及他在教父时代的后面基督教作家的影响。 He was a man of peace and of tradition.他是一个和平与传统的人。 His major efforts were spent in combating Gnosticism, and his great work, Adversus hæreses (Against Heresies), was written for this purpose.他的主要工作是用在打击诺斯替主义,和他的伟大的工作,Adversus hæreses(反对异端邪说),是用于此目的的书面的。 He developed the doctrine of recapitulation (anakephalaiosis) of all things in Jesus Christ in opposition to the teachings of gnostics such as Valentinus and Basilides.他开发的学说的重述(anakephalaiosis)反对诺斯替主义的教义,如Valentinus和巴西里德所有在耶稣基督的事情。 A staunch defender of the apostolic tradition, Irenæus was the first Father of the Church to systematize the religious and theological traditions of the church, so far as they existed.爱任纽的使徒传统的坚定捍卫者,是教会的第一个父亲教会的宗教和神学的传统系统化,到目前为止,因为他们的存在。 In the Quartodeciman controversy over the date for the observance of Easter, he argued for diversity of practice in the unity of faith. Quartodeciman为庆祝复活节日期的争论,他认为实践的多样性,在信仰的合一。 Feast day: June 28.节日:6月28日。

Agnes Cunningham艾格尼丝坎宁安
Bibliography: 参考书目:
Nielsen, Jan Tjierd, Adam and Christ in the Theology of Irenæus of Lyons (1968); Wingren, Gustaf, Man and the Incarnation: A Study in the Biblical Theology of Irenæus, trans.尼尔森,在里昂(1968)爱任纽神学月Tjierd,亚当和基督; Wingren,古斯塔夫,人的化身:在爱任纽,反圣经神学研究。 by Ross MacKenzie (1959).罗斯麦肯齐(1959)。

Works of St. Irenæus圣irenæus工程

Hermas黑马

One of the Apostolic Fathers, Hermas was a 2d-century Christian who was sold in Rome as a slave.使徒教父之一,黑马是一个2D世纪基督教在罗马出售作为一个奴隶。 He was freed, married, and became successful in business, but was denounced by his children during a persecution.他被释放了,结婚了,并成为企业的成功,但他的孩子期间迫害的谴责。 His famous work, The Shepherd, divided into three parts (Visions, Mandates, Similitudes), is a series of revelations granted by an old woman (representing the church) and a shepherd (an angel) about sin, repentance, and the moral precepts that lead to a new life.他的著名作品,牧羊人,分为三个部分(愿景,任务,Similitudes),是一系列由一个老妇人(代表教堂)和一个牧羊人(天使)有关罪,悔改,和道德戒律授予的启示导致新的生活。 Many early Christians considered it part of Scripture.许多早期基督徒认为圣经的一部分。

Works of Hermas适用的黑马


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About 87 Manuscripts included here, plus fragments 约87手稿,包括在这里,加上片段

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