Eastern Church东方教会

General Information一般资料

Eastern Church is a general term for the various ancient Christian communions of the Middle East and Eastern Europe, of which three groups remain today.东方教会是中东和东欧的各种古老的基督教圣餐,其中三组今天依然的总称。

The earliest decisive split in Christendom took place in 451 as a result of the Council of Chalcedon, which was called to consider the claims of the Monophysites (see Monophysitism).基督教最早的决定性分裂发生在451 Chalcedon委员会的结果,这是所谓考虑该monophysites索赔(见基督一)。The churches that rejected the statement of faith adopted by the council are the Armenian church, the Coptic church of Alexandria, the Ethiopian church, the Syrian church, and the Syrian church in India.安理会通过的声明,拒绝信仰教会,亚美尼亚教会,亚历山大港的科普特教堂,黑人教会,叙利亚教会,和在印度的叙利亚教会。 Sometimes known as the Oriental Orthodox , these churches today include more than 22 million members.有时也称为东方东正教 ,今天这些教会包括超过22万成员。

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The largest body, the Orthodox church , is in communion with the ecumenical patriarchate of Constantinople (Ýstanbul, Turkey).人体最大的东正教教堂 ,共融与君士坦丁堡东正教会(Ýstanbul土耳其)。

A third group of churches is known collectively as Eastern Rite churches , which recognize the authority of the Roman Catholic church.第三组的教会统称为东部成年礼教堂 ,承认罗马天主教会的权威。


Eastern Church东方教会

Advanced Information - Catholic Perspective先进的信息-天主教透视

(Editor's Note: This article from the Catholic Encyclopedia includes fairly severe biases toward the Catholic Church and against Protestants and the Orthodox Church and other Churches, and would normally be eliminated from consideration for BELIEVE for that reason. However, it is a thorough and accurate discussion of many subjects associated with Eastern Churches, and we felt it beneficial to include it, until a better presentation is found.) (编者注:这篇文章从天主教百科全书,包括走向天主教教会和对新教和东正教和其他教会相当严重的偏见,并会通常被相信这个原因的考虑淘汰然而,它是一个彻底的和准确的。讨论与东方教会相关的多学科,直到一个更好的演示,我们认为这有利于把它列入被发现。)

I. DEFINITION OF AN EASTERN CHURCH一,东方教会的定义

An accident of political development has made it possible to divide the Christian world, in the first place, into two great halves, Eastern and Western.政治发展的事故有可能分裂的基督教世界,摆在首位,分为两个伟大的一半,东部和西部。The root of this division is, roughly and broadly speaking, the division of the Roman Empire made first by Diocletian (284-305), and again by the sons of Theodosius I (Arcadius in the East, 395-408; and Honorius in the West, 395-423), then finally made permanent by the establishment of a rival empire in the West (Charlemagne, 800).本司的根源,大致和广义上说,罗马帝国的分裂首先由戴克里先(284-305),并再次狄奥多西一世(395-408在东,Arcadius的儿子;挪在西,395-423),然后终于取得永久建立在西方的竞争对手帝国(查理曼,800)。 The division of Eastern and Western Churches, then, in its origin corresponds to that of the empire.东方和西方教会的分裂,那么,对应的帝国,在其原产地。

Western Churches are those that either gravitate around Rome or broke away from her at the Reformation.西方教会是那些倾向于要么围绕罗马或打破她走在改革。Eastern Churches depend originally on the Eastern Empire at Constantinople; they are those that either find their centre in the patriarchate of that city (since the centralization of the fourth century) or have been formed by schisms which in the first instance concerned Constantinople rather than the Western world.东方教会取决于原定于东部帝国在君士坦丁堡,他们是那些在这个城市的东正教会找到他们的中心集中的第四个世纪以来,或已分裂形成在一审有关君士坦丁堡而不是西方世界。

Another distinction, that can be applied only in the most general and broadest sense, is that of language.另一个区别,可应用于只有在最普遍和广泛的意义上说,是语言。Western Christendom till the Reformation was Latin; even now the Protestant bodies still bear unmistakably the mark of their Latin ancestry.西方基督教直到宗教改革是拉丁美洲,即使是现在的新教团体仍明白无误地承担自己的拉丁血统的标志。It was the great Latin Fathers and Schoolmen, St. Augustine (d. 430) most of all, who built up the traditions of the West; in ritual and canon law the Latin or Roman school formed the West.这是伟大的拉丁教父和Schoolmen,圣奥古斯丁(卒于430)最重要的是,建立了西方的传统仪式和教会法的拉丁文或罗马学校形成了西方。 In a still broader sense the East may be called Greek.在一个更广泛的意义上说东可称为希腊。True, many Eastern Churches know nothing of Greek; the oldest (Nestorians, Armenians, Abyssinians) have never used Greek liturgically nor for their literature; nevertheless they too depend in some sense on a Greek tradition.诚然,许多东方教会知道希腊最古老的(景教,亚美尼亚,阿比西尼亚)从来没有使用过希腊liturgically也为他们的文学,但他们过于依赖一些在希腊传统意义上的。 Whereas our Latin Fathers have never concerned them at all (most Eastern Christians have never even heard of our schoolmen or canonists), they still feel the influence of the Greek Fathers, their theology is still concerned about controversies carried on originally in Greek and settled by Greek synods.而我们的拉丁教父(最东部基督徒甚至从未听说过我们的schoolmen或圣教法典)从不关心他们,他们仍然觉得希腊教父的影响,他们的神学仍然是关注对原本在希腊进行的争议和解决希腊主教。 The literature of those that do not use Greek is formed on Greek models, is full of words carefully chosen or composed to correspond to some technical Greek distinction, then, in the broadest terms, is: that a Western Church is one originally dependent on Rome, whose traditions are Latin; an Eastern Church looks rather to Constantinople (either as a friend or an enemy) and inherits Greek ideas.那些不使用希腊的文学,是对希腊模式的形成,是充满了精心挑选或组成对应于一些技术性的希腊区别的话,那么,在广义上讲,是:西方教会是一个最初在罗马,其传统的拉美;东方教会看起来相当君士坦丁堡(无论是作为一个朋友或敌人),并继承了希腊的思想。

The point may be stated more scientifically by using the old division of the patriarchates.点可能更科学的表述使用的牧首辖区的老师。Originally (eg at the Council of Nicaea, AD 325, can. vi) there were three patriarchates, those of Rome, Alexandria, and Antioch.本来(例如,在尼西亚会议,公元325年,可以六)有3个牧首辖区,罗马,亚历山大和安提。Further legislation formed two more at the expense of Antioch: Constantinople in 381 and Jerusalem in 451.进一步立法形成了两个多在安提阿的费用:451君士坦丁堡在381和耶路撒冷。In any case the Roman patriarchate was always enormously the greatest. Western Christendom may be defined quite simply as the Roman patriarchate and all Churches that have broken away from it.罗马东正教会在任何情况下始终是巨大的最大的西方基督教可以被定义为罗马东正教会打破远离教会很简单。 All the others, with schismatical bodies formed from them, make up the Eastern half. But it must not be imaged that either half is in any sense one Church. 所有的人,从他们形成分裂的机构,弥补了东部一半,但它不能成像,要么在任何意义上的一半是一个教会。The Latin half was so (in spite of a few unimportant schisms) till the Reformation.拉美一半(尽管少数不重要的分裂),直到宗教改革。To find a time when there was one Eastern Church we must go back to the centuries before the Council of Ephesus (431).要找到的时候,有一个东方教会我们必须回到几个世纪之前,安理会的以弗所(431)。Since that council there have been separate schismatical Eastern Churches whose number has grown steadily down to our own time.由于该理事会有独立的分裂的东方教会的数量稳步增长下降到我们自己的时间。The Nestorian heresy left a permanent Nestorian Church, the Monophysite and Monothelite quarrels made several more, the reunion with Rome of fractions of every Rite further increased the number, and quite lately the Bulgarian schism has created yet another; indeed it seems as if two more, in Cyprus and Syria, are being formed at the present moment (1908).景教异端留下了永久的的景教教会,基督一性和Monothelite争吵几个,每一个仪式的分数与罗马团聚进一步增加数量,而且最近的保加利亚分裂创造的又一;事实上,它似乎好像两个以上在塞浦路斯和叙利亚,在目前(1908年)正在形成。

We have now a general criterion by which to answer the question: What is an Eastern Church?现在我们有一个一般标准来回答这个问题:什么是东正教?Looking at a map, we see that, roughly, the division between the Roman patriarchate and the others forms a line that runs down somewhat to the east of the River Vistula (Poland is Latin), then comes back above the Danube, to continue down the Adriatic Sea, and finally divides Africa west of Egypt.在地图上,我们可以看到,大概,罗马东正教会和其他人之间的分工,形成了一个行跑下来有点河的维斯瓦河(波兰是拉丁美洲)以东,然后回来多瑙河以上,继续向下亚得里亚海,最后分成非洲埃及西部。 Illyricum (Macedonia and Greece) once belonged to the Roman patriarchate, and Greater Greece (Southern Italy and Sicily) was intermittently Byzantine.伊利里库姆(马其顿和希腊)曾经属于罗马东正教会,大希腊(意大利南部和西西里岛)是间歇性的拜占庭。But both these lands eventually fell back into the branches that surrounded them (except for the thin remnant of the Catholic Italo-Greeks).但同时这些土地最终回落到一拥而上(薄残余的天主教意大利 - 希腊人除外)的分支机构。 We may, then, say that any ancient Church east of that line is an Eastern Church.然后,我们可能会说,该行的任何古堂东面是东方教会。To these we must add those formed by missionaries (especially Russians) from one of these Churches.这些问题,我们必须添加那些传教士(尤其是俄罗斯)形成了从这些教会之一。Later Latin and Protestant missions have further complicated the tangled state of the ecclesiastical East.后来拉丁美洲和新教的任务变得更为复杂教会东纠结状态。Their adherents everywhere belong of course to the Western portion.他们的追随者到处当然属于西方部分。

II.二。CATALOGUE OF THE EASTERN CHURCHES东部教会目录

It is now possible to draw up the list of bodies that answer to our definition.现在可以制定机构,回答我们的定义,列表。We have already noted that they are by no means all in communion with each other, nor have they any common basis of language, rite or faith.我们已经注意到,他们并非所有在相互共融,也没有任何语言,仪式或信仰的共同基础。 All are covered by a division into the great Orthodox Church , those formed by the Nestorian and Monophysite heresies (the original Monothelites are now all Eastern-Rite Catholics), and lastly the Catholic Eastern Rites corresponding in each case to a schismatical body.都盖成伟大的东正教教堂,景教和基督一性的异端邪说(原Monothelites现在所有东方天威天主教徒),以及最后的天主教东礼记在每种情况下,相应的一个分裂的身体形成的分工。

Theologically, to Catholics, the vital distinction is between Eastern Catholic, on the one hand, and schismatics or heretics, on the other.神学,天主教徒,重要的区别是东部天主教徒之间,一方面,和其他schismatics或异端,。But it is not convenient to start from this basis in cataloguing Eastern Churches.但它并不方便,在此基础上开始编目东方教会。 Historically and archeologically, it is a secondary question.历史和archeologically,这是一个次要的问题。Each Catholic body has been formed from one of the schismatical ones; their organizations are comparatively late, dating in most cases from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.每个天主教身体已形成了从分裂的那些之一,他们的组织是比较晚,在大多数情况下,从十六,十七世纪约会。Moreover, although all these Eastern-Rite Catholics of course agrees in the same Catholic Faith we profess, they are not organized as one body.此外,虽然所有这些当然东部成年礼的天主教徒同意在同我们信奉天主教的信仰,他们没有组织为一体。Each branch keeps the rites (with in some cases modifications made at Rome for dogmatic reasons) of the corresponding schismatical body, and has an organization modelled on the same plan.每个分支保持相应分裂的身体仪式(在某些情况下修改,​​在罗马教条式的原因),并有相同的计划为蓝本组织。In faith a Catholic Armenian, for instance, is joined to Catholic Chaldees and Copts, and has no more to do with the schismatical Armenians than with Nestorians or Abyssinians.信仰天主教亚美尼亚,例如,加入天主教的迦勒底和科普特人,并没有比与景教或阿比西尼亚与分裂的亚美尼亚。 Nor does he forget this fact.他也没有忘记这一事实。He knows quite well that he is a Catholic in union with the Pope of Rome, and that he is equally in union with every other Catholic.他了然于心,他是联盟与天主教罗马教皇,和他同样是在与其他所有天主教联盟。Nevertheless, national customs, languages, and rites tell very strongly on the superficies, and our Catholic Armenian would certainly feel very much more at home in a non-Catholic church of his own nation than in a Coptic Catholic, or even Latin, church.然而,民族风俗,语言和礼仪告诉非常强烈的地上,我们天主教亚美尼亚一定会感到非常在家比在一个科普特天主教在自己国家的非天主教教会,甚至拉丁美洲,教会。

Outwardly, the bond of a common language and common liturgy is often the essential and radical division of a schism.从表面上看,债券的共同语言和共同的礼仪往往是一个分裂的本质和激进的分工。Indeed these Eastern Catholic bodies in many cases still faintly reflect the divisions of their schismatical relations.事实上,在许多情况下,这些东方天主教机构仍依稀反映其分裂的关系的分歧。What in one case is a schism (as for instance between Orthodox and Jacobites) still remains as a not very friendly feeling between the different Eastern Catholic Churches (in this case Melkites and Catholic Syrians).在一个案例中,是一个分裂(如实例之间的东正教和Jacobites)仍然作为一个不同的东方教会之间并不十分友好的感情(在这种情况下Melkites和天主教叙利亚人)。 Certainly, such feeling is a very different thing from formal schism, and the leaders of the Eastern Catholic Churches, we well as all their more intelligent members and all their well-wishers, earnestly strive to repress it.当然,这种感觉是一个非常不同的事情,从正式分裂,东方教会的领导人,以及所有他们更智能的成员和他们所有的好心人,认真努力压制。 Nevertheless, quarrels between various Eastern Catholic bodies fill up too large a portion of Eastern Church history to be ignored; still, to take another instance, anyone who knows Syria knows that the friendship between Melkites and Maronites is not enthusiastic.然而,各种东区天主教机构之间的争吵填补了过大的东方教会历史上一个不容忽视的部分;仍然采取另一个实例,知道叙利亚的任何人都知道,Melkites和马龙派教徒之间的友谊是积极性不高。 It will be seen, then, that for purposes of tabulation we cannot conveniently begin by cataloguing the Catholic bodies on the one side and then classing the schismatics together on the other.然后,将能够看到,制表的目的,我们不能方便地开始编目一方天主教机构,然后分级其他schismatics一起。We must arrange these Churches according to their historical basis and origin: first, the larger and older schismatical Churches; then, side by side with each of these, the corresponding Eastern-Rite Catholic Church formed out of the schismatics in later times.我们必须安排这些教会根据自己的历史基础和起源:第一,较大和较旧的分裂的教会,然后,这些并排,相应东部​​成年礼天主教教会形成了后来的schismatics。

A. Schismatical ChurchesA.分裂的教会

1. 1。Orthodox正统
The first of the Eastern Churches in size and importance is the great Orthodox Church.在规模和重要性的东方教会首先是伟大的东正教教堂。This is, after that of the Catholics, considerably the largest body in Christendom.这是,之后的天主教徒,大大基督教世界最大的身体。The Orthodox Church now counts about a hundred millions of members.现在东正教会成员约一百百万计数。It is the main body of Eastern Christendom, that remained faithful to the decrees of Ephesus and Calcedon when Nestorianism and Monophysitism cut away the national Churches in Syria and Egypt.这是东基督教,景教和基督一切去在叙利亚和埃及的国家教会,忠于法令以弗所和Calcedon的主体。It remained in union with the West till the great schism of Photius and then that of Caerularius, in the ninth and eleventh centuries.它仍然在联盟与西方直到Photius伟大的分裂,然后是Caerularius,在第九和第十世纪。In spite of the short-lived reunions made by the Second Council of Lyons (1274) and the Council of Florence (1439), this Church has been in schism ever since.尽管里昂(1274)和佛罗伦萨市政局(1439)第二届理事会所作的短暂团聚,这教会一直在分裂至今。

The "Orthodox" (it is convenient as well as courteous to call them by the name they use as a technical one for themselves) originally comprised the four Eastern patriarchates: Alexandria and Antioch, then Constantinople and Jerusalem. “正统”(这是方便以及礼貌,请他们为自己的技术之一所使用的名称)原本由东部四个牧首辖区:亚历山大和安提阿,然后君士坦丁堡和耶路撒冷。But the balance between these four patriarchates was soon upset.但是,这四个牧首辖区之间的平衡很快就心烦意乱。The Church of Cyprus was taken away from Antioch and made autocephalous (ie, extra-patriarchal) by the Council of Ephesus (431).从安提阿教会塞浦路斯被带走,并作出独立的安理会的以弗所(431)(即额外​​的宗法)。Then, in the fifth century, came the great upheavals of Nestorianism and Monophysitism, of which the result was that enormous numbers of Syrians and Egyptians fell away into schism.然后,在第五世纪,景教和基督一性的大动荡,其中的结果是巨大的数字,叙利亚人和埃及人陷入分裂远离。So the Patriarchs of Antioch, Jerusalem (this was always a very small and comparatively unimportant centre), and Alexandria, losing most of its subjects, inevitably sank in importance.因此,安提阿的始祖,耶路撒冷(这是一个非常小的,比较不重要的中心),亚历山德里亚,失去其大部分科目,不可避免地沉没的重要性。 The Moslem conquest of their lands completed their ruin, so that they became the merest shadows of what their predecessors had once been.穆斯林征服他们的土地完成了他们的废墟,使他们成为他们的前辈曾经是微薄的阴影。

Meanwhile Constantinople, honoured by the presence of the emperor, and always sure of his favour, rose rapidly in importance.同时君士坦丁堡,荣幸皇帝的存在,总是有利于他的肯定,迅速上升的重要性。Itself a new see, neither Apostolic nor primitive (the first Bishop of Byzantium was Metrophanes in 325), it succeeded so well in its ambitious career that for a short time after the great Eastern schism it seemed as if the Patriarch of the New Rome would take the same place over the Orthodox Church as did his rival the Pope of the Old Rome over Catholics.本身就是一种新见,既不使徒,也不是原始(拜占庭的第一位主教是在325 Metrophanes),它成功地在其雄心勃勃的事业这么好,一个伟大的东部分裂后的短时间内,仿佛新罗马祖师接管东正教同一个地方,像他的对手对天主教徒的旧罗马教皇。 It is also well known that it was this insatiable ambition of Constantinople that was chiefly responsible for the schism of the ninth and eleventh centuries.这也是众所周知的,正是这种永不满足的野心,主要负责为第九和第十世纪的分裂君士坦丁堡。The Turkish conquest, strangely enough, still further strengthened the power of the Byzantine patriarch, inasmuch as the Turks acknowledged him as the civil head of what they called the "Roman nation" ( Rum millet ), meaning thereby the whole Orthodox community of whatever patriarchate.土耳其征服,奇怪的是,进一步加强拜占庭族长的权力,因为土耳其人他承认他们所谓的“罗马民族”(朗姆酒小米)的民事头,意义,从而整个社会的任何东正教会东正教。 For about a century Constantinople enjoyed her power.约一个世纪,君士坦丁堡喜欢她的力量。

The other patriarchs were content to be her vassals, many of them even came to spend their useless lives as ornaments of the chief patriarch's court, while Cyprus protested faintly and ineffectually that she was subject to no patriarch.其他元老内容是她的附庸,其中许多人甚至来到了作为行政族长的法庭的饰花无用的生活,而塞浦路斯抗议依稀和ineffectually,她没有族长。 The bishop who had climbed to so high a place by a long course of degrading intrigue could for a little time justify in the Orthodox world his usurped title of Ecumenical Patriarch.病程长的有辱人格的阴谋已攀升到如此高的地方的主教都无法自圆其说一点时间,在东正教世界,他的君士坦丁堡宗主教篡夺称号。 Then came his fall; since the sixteenth century he has lost one province after another, till now he too is only a shadow of what he once was, and the real power of the Orthodox body is in the new independent national Churches with their "holy Synods"; while high over all looms the shadow of Russia.然后来到他的秋天,16世纪以来,他相继失去一个省,到现在他也只是一个阴影,他曾经是什么,并在新独立的国家教会与他们的“神圣的东正教机构的实权主教会议“,而在所有的高织机俄罗斯的影子。 The separation of the various national Orthodox Churches from the patriarch of Constantinople forms the only important chapter in the modern history of this body.各个国家从族长君士坦丁堡东正教会分离的形式在现代历史上的这身的唯一重要的一章。

The principle is always the same.的原则始终是相同的。More and more has the idea obtained that political modifications should be followed by the Church, that is to say that the Church of an independent State must be itself independent of the patriarch.越来越多的已获得政治上的修改应当由教会,那是说,一个独立的国家的教会必须自己独立的族长的想法。This by no means implies real independence for the national Church; on the contrary, in each case the much severer rule of the Government is substituted for the distant authority of the Ecumenical Patriarch.这绝不意味着民族教会的真正的独立,相反,在每一种情况下,政府更严厉的规则是遥远的君士坦丁堡宗主教的权威取代。

Outside the Turkish Empire, in Russia and the Balkan States, the Orthodox Churches are shamelessly Erastian -- by far the most Erastian of all Christian bodies.土耳其帝国外,在俄罗斯和巴尔干国家,东正教是厚颜无耻地Erastian - 迄今为止最Erastian所有的基督教团体。The process began when the great Church of Russia was declared autocephalous by the Czar Feodor Ivanovitch, in 1589.这个过程开始时宣布,俄罗斯伟大的教会是独立的沙皇Feodor伊万诺维奇在1589年,。Jeremias II of Constantinople took a bribe to acknowledge its independence.赫雷米亚斯君士坦丁堡第二贿赂承认其独立。Peter the Great abolished the Russian patriarchate (of Moscow) and set up a "Holy Governing Synod" to rule the national Church in 1721.彼得大帝废除了俄罗斯东正教会(莫斯科),并成立一个“圣主教理事会”在1721年统治的民族教会。The Holy Synod is simply a department of the government through which the czar rules over his Church as absolutely as over his army and navy.圣主教是一个简单的政府部门通过超过他的教会沙皇规则,绝对超过他的陆军和海军。 The independence of Russia and its Holy Synod has since been copied by each Balkan State.俄罗斯和圣主教的独立性已经被复制到每个巴尔干国家。But this independence does not mean schism.但这种独立性并不意味着分裂。Its first announcement is naturally very distasteful to the patriarch and his court.它的第一次公告之自然是很反感的族长和他的法院。He often begins by excommunicating the new national Church root and branch.他常常一开始就开除的新的民族教会的根和分支。

But in each case he has been obliged to give in finally and to acknowledge one more "Sister in Christ" in the Holy Synod that has displaced his authority.但在每种情况下,他被迫在最后承认多了一个“在基督里的姐妹在圣主教已经取代他的权威”。Only in the specially difficult and bitter case of the Bulgarian Church has a permanent schism resulted.只有在特别困难和痛苦的情况下,保加利亚教会有一个永久的分裂造成的。Other causes have led to the establishment of a few other independent Churches, so that now the great Orthodox communion consists of sixteen independent Churches, each of which (except that of the Bulgars) is recognized by, and in communion with, the others.其他原因导致其他一些独立教会的建立,以至于现在包括16个独立的教会,每个(的保加利亚除外)是公认的,在共融与其他伟大的东正教共融。

These Churches are这些教会

This ends the list of allied bodies that make up the Orthodox Church.这两端弥补东正教的专职机构名单。Next come, in order of date, the old heretical Eastern Churches.接下来是,日期顺序排列的,旧的邪教东方教会。

2. 2。Nestorians景教
The Nestorians are now only a pitiful remnant of what was once a great Church.景教是现在只有可怜的残余,是一次伟大的教会。 Long before the heresy from which they have their name, there was a flourishing Christian community in Chaldea and Mesopotamia.很久以前的异端邪说,他们有自己的名称,有一个蓬勃发展的基督教社会在迦勒底和和美索不达米亚。According to their tradition it was founded by Addai and Mari (Addeus and Maris), two of the seventy-two Disciples.根据他们的传统,它是由七十二个弟子Addai和Mari(Addeus和Maris),两个。The present Nestorians count Mar Mari as the first Bishop of Ctesiphon and predecessor of their patriarch.本景教数月马里阿尔卡蒂Ctesiphon的第一位主教和他们的族长的前身。In any case this community was originally subject to the Patriarch of Antioch.在任何情况下,这个社会原本受牧安提。 As his vicar, the metropolitan of the twin-cities of Seleucia and Ctesiphon (on either side of the Tigris, north-east of Babylon) bore the title of catholicos.由于他的副主教,大都市的塞琉西亚和Ctesiphon双城市(底格里斯河,东北巴比伦两侧)孔catholicos标题。 One of these metropolitans was present at the Council of Nicaea in 325.这些大都市之一,目前在325年的尼西亚会。

The great distance of this Church from Antioch led in early times to a state of semi-independence that prepared the way for the later schism.从安提阿教会很大的距离,以一个半独立的准备,为后来的分裂方式的状态,导致早期。Already in the fourth century the Patriarch of Antioch waived his right of ordaining the catholicos of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, and allowed him to be ordained by his own suffragans.早在第四世纪牧安提放弃他的祝圣仪式的塞琉西亚,Ctesiphon catholicos权,并允许他通过自己的suffragans受戒。In view of the great importance of the right of ordaining, as a sign of jurisdiction throughout the East, this fact is important.在祝圣,作为整个东管辖的标志,右边的重视,这一点非常重要。But it does not seem that real independence of Antioch was acknowledged or even claimed till after the schism.但它似乎并没有真正的独立的安提阿承认或直到后分裂,甚至声称。In the fifth century the influence of the famous Theodore of Mopsuestia and that of his school of Edessa spread the heresy of Nestorius throughout this extreme Eastern Church.在第五世纪著名西奥多的摩普绥提亚和他埃德萨学校的影响传遍这个极端的东方教会的异端涅斯。Naturally, the later Nestorians deny that their fathers accepted any new doctrine at that time, and they claim that Nestorius learned from them rather than they from him ("Nestorius eos secutus est, non ipsi Nestorium", Ebed-Jesu of Nisibis, about 1300. Assemani, "Bibli. Orient.", III, 1, 355).当然,后来的景教否认,当时他们的父亲接受任何新的学说,他们声称,涅斯从他(约1300“涅斯EOS secutus EST,非IPSI Nestorium”,Ebed Jesu的尼西比斯,而不是他们从他们身上学到。Assemani Bibli。东方“,三,1,355)。

There may be truth in this.有可能在这个道理。Theodore and his school had certainly prepared the way for Nestorius.西奥多和他的学校当然愿意为涅斯的方式。In any case the rejection of the Council of Ephesus (431) by these Christians in Chaldea and Mesopotamia produced a schism between them and the rest of Christendom.在任何情况下,安理会的以弗所(431)拒绝在迦勒底,美索不达米亚这些基督徒产生了它们之间的分裂和基督教的休息。 When Babaeus, himself a Nestorian, became catholicos, in 498, there were practically no more Catholics in those parts.当Babaeus,自己一个景教,成为catholicos 498,实际上在这些地区没有更多的天主教徒。From Ctesiphon the Faith had spread across the frontier into Persia, even before that city was conquered by the Persian king (244).从Ctesiphon信念跨边境传播到波斯,甚至在此之前城市被征服了波斯国王(244)。 The Persian Church, then, always depended on Ctesiphon and shared its heresy.然后,波斯教会,总是取决于对Ctesiphon和共享其邪说。From the fifth century this most remote of the Eastern Churches has been cut off from the rest of Christendom, and till modern times was the most separate and forgotten community of all.从第五世纪最偏远的东方教会已被切断从基督教的休息,直到近代是最重要的是独立的和被遗忘的的社会。

Shut out from the Roman Empire (Zeno closed the school of Edessa in 489), but, for a time at least, protected by the Persian kings, the Nestorian Church flourished around Ctesiphon, Nisibis (where the school was reorganized), and throughout Persia.拒之门外,从罗马帝国(489芝诺封闭在学校的埃德萨),但是,至少,由波斯国王保护,景教教会Ctesiphon,尼西比斯(重组)学校周围蓬勃发展,一时间,整个波斯。 Since the schism the catholicos occasionally assumed the title of patriarch.由于分裂catholicos偶尔承担的族长称号。The Church then spread towards the East and sent missionaries to India and even China.教会,然后向东蔓延,并派遣传教士到印度,甚至中国。A Nestorian inscription of the year 781 has been found at Singan Fu in China (J. Heller, SJ, "Prolegomena zu einer neuen Ausgabe der nestorianischen Inschrift von Singan Fu", in the "Verhandlungen des VII. internationalen Orientalistencongresses", Vienna, 1886, pp. 37 sp.). Singan富在中国(J.海勒律政司司长,“绪论祖einer neuen Ausgabe DER nestorianischen Inschrift冯Singan赋”,“Verhandlungen七。internationalen Orientalistencongresses”,维也纳,1886年已发现一个一年781景教碑文SP - 37)。

Its greatest extent was in the eleventh century, when twenty-five metropolitans obeyed the Nestorian patriarch.它的最大程度是在11世纪,二十五个大都市服从景教元老。But since the end of the fourteenth century it has gradually sunk to a very small sect, first, because of a fierce persecution by the Mongols (Timur Leng), and then through internal disputes and schisms.但自十四世纪末,它已逐渐沉没到一个非常小的教派,首先,由于激烈的迫害蒙古人(帖木儿岭),然后通过内部的纷争和分裂。 Two great schisms as to the patriarchal succession in the sixteenth century led to a reunion of part of the Nestorian Church with Rome, forming the Catholic Chaldean Church.两个伟大的分裂,在十六世纪导致景教与罗马教会的一部分团聚的宗法继承,形成了天主教加尔丁礼团体。At present there are about 150,000 Nestorians living chiefly in highlands west of Lake Urumiah.目前大约有15万景教主要生活在高原湖Urumiah以西。They speak a modern dialect of Syriac.他们发言的叙利亚文的现代方言。

The patriarchate descends from uncle to nephew, or to younger brothers, in the family of Mama; each patriarch bears the name Simon (Mar Shimun) as a title.东正教会下降,从舅舅的侄子,弟弟,在妈妈的家庭,每个族长熊作为标题名称西蒙(3月Shimun)。Ignoring the Second General Council, and of course strongly opposed to the Third (Ephesus), they only acknowledge the First Nicene (325).忽略第二次总理事会,当然强烈反对第三次(以弗所),他们只承认第一尼西亚(325)。They have a Creed of their own, formed from an old Antiochene Creed, which does not contain any trace of the particular heresy from which their Church is named.他们有一个属于自己的信条,形成了从旧的安提阿学派的信条,其中不包含任何特别是异端,从他们的教堂被命名为的痕迹。 In deed it is difficult to say how far any Nestorians now are conscious of the particular teaching condemned by the Council of Ephesus, though they still honour Nestorius, Theodore of Mopsuestia, and other undoubted heretics as saints and doctors.的确很难说多远任何景教现在以弗所理事会谴责特定的教学意识,但他们仍然荣誉涅斯,西奥多的摩普绥提亚,和其他圣人和医生勿庸置疑的异端。

The patriarch rules over twelve other bishops (the list in Silbernagl, "Verfassung", p. 267).族长规则超过12其他主教(Silbernagl列表,“Verfassung”,第267页)。Their hierarchy consists of the patriarch, metropolitans, bishops, chorepiscopi, archdeacons, priests, deacons, subdeacons, and readers.他们的层次由族长,大都市,主教,chorepiscopi,archdeacons,牧师,执事,修士,和读者。 There are also many monasteries.也有许多寺庙。They use Syriac liturgically written in their own (Nestorian) form of the alphabet.他们使用liturgically自己(景教)的字母形式的书面叙利亚。The patriarch, who now generally calls himself "Patriarch of the East", resides at Kochanes, a remote valley of the Kurdish mountains by the Zab, on the frontier between Persia and Turkey.族长,谁现在一般调用自己的“东祖师”,驻留在Kochanes,库尔德山脉的偏远山谷的扎卜,波斯和土耳其之间的边境上。 He has an undefined political jurisdiction over his people, though he does not receive a berat from the Sultan.他有过他的人不确定的政治管辖,虽然他没有收到来自苏丹培拉特。In any ways this most remote Church stands alone; it has kept a number of curious and archaic customs (such as the perpetual abstinence of the patriarch, etc.) that separate it from other Eastern Churches almost as much as from those of the West.以任何方式最偏远的教会是独立的,它保持了好奇,古老的习俗(如族长永久禁欲等),独立于其他东欧教会的几乎一样多从西方的。 Lately the Archbishop of Canterbury's mission to the Nestorians has aroused a certain interest about them in England.最近的坎特伯雷大主教的景教的使命已在英国引起了他们的某些利益。

All the other separated Eastern Churches are formed by the other great heresy of the fourth century, Monophysitism.所有其他分离的东方教会所形成的其他伟大的异端邪说的第四个世纪,基督一性。There are first the national Churches of Egypt, Syria, and Armenia.先有国家,埃及,叙利亚,和亚美尼亚教会。

3. 3。Copts科普特人
The Copts form the Church of Egypt.科普特人埃及的教会。Monophysitism was in a special sense the national religion of Egypt.基督一性是一种特殊意义上的民族宗教埃及。As an extreme opposition to Nestorianism, the Egyptians believed it to be the faith of their hero St. Cyril of Alexandria (d. 444).作为一个极端的反对景教,埃及人认为它是他们心目中的英雄圣亚历山大的Cyril(卒于444)的信仰。His successor, Dioscurus (444-55), was deposed and excommunicated by the Council of Calcedon (451). Dioscurus(444-55),他的继任者,被废黜,由Calcedon理事会(451)被逐出教会。From his time the Monophysite party gained ground very quickly among the native population, so that soon it became an expression of their national feeling against the Imperial (Melchite, or Melkite) garrison and government officials.基督一性党从他的时间获得地面之间的外来人口非常快,所以它很快成为表达他们对帝国(Melchite,或Melkite)驻军和政府官员的民族感情。 Afterwards, at the Moslem invasion (641), the opposition was so strong that the native Egyptians threw in their lot with the conquerors against the Greeks.随后,在穆斯林入侵(641),反对如此强烈,本地的埃及人在他们的生活全身心地投入对希腊的征服者。

The two sides are still represented by the native Monophysites and the Orthodox minority.双方仍然由本地基督一性和东正教的少数代表。The Monophysites are sometimes called Jacobites here as in Syria; but the old national name Copt (Gr. Aigyptios ) has become the regular one for their Church as well as for their nation.该monophysites有时也被称为Jacobites在叙利亚这里,但旧的国家名称科普特( 希腊语 Aigyptios)已经成为他们的教会,以及定期为他们的国家之一。Their patriarch, with the title of Alexandria, succeeds Dioscurus and Timothy the Cat, a fanatical Monophysite.他们的族长亚历山大的称号,成功Dioscurus和提摩太的猫,一个狂热的基督一性。He lives at Cairo, ruling over thirteen dioceses and about 500,000 subjects.他生活在开罗,执政超过13个教区和50万左右科目。 For him, too, the law is perpetual abstinence.法律,对于他来说,是永恒的禁欲。There are many monasteries.有许多寺庙。The Copts use their old language liturgically and have in it a number of liturgies all derived from the original Greek rite of Alexandria (St. Mark).科普特人使用旧的语言liturgically,并在它的所有派生的亚历山德里亚(圣马克)从原来的希腊仪式的礼仪。 But Coptic is a dead language, so much so that even most priests understand very little of it.但是,科普特人,是一种死语言,以至于即使是最祭司了解非常少。They all speak Arabic, and their service books give an Arabic version of the text in parallel columns.他们都讲阿拉伯语,他们的服务书籍给阿拉伯语版本中的文本并行列。The Church is, on the whole, in a poor state.教会是,就整体而言,在一个贫穷的国家。The Copts are mostly fellaheen who live by tilling the ground, in a state of great poverty and ignorance.科普特人大多fellaheen生活耕作在地面上,巨大的贫困和愚昧的状态。And the clergy share the same conditions.和僧侣共享相同的条件。Lately there have been something of a revival among them, and certain rich Coptic merchants of Cairo have begun to found schools and seminaries and generally to promote education and such advantages among their nation.最近有其中复兴的东西,一定丰富开罗的科普特人的商人开始发现学校和神学院,一般以促进教育和他们的国家之间的这种优势。 One of these, M. Gabriel Labib, who is editing their service books, promises to be a scholar of some distinction in questions of liturgy and archeology.其中之一,M.加布里埃尔Labib编辑,谁是他们的服务书,承诺是一个学者的一些礼仪和考古学的问题区别。

4. 4。Abyssinians阿比西尼亚
The Church of Abyssinia, or Ethiopia, always depended on Egypt.阿比西尼亚的教会,或埃塞俄比亚,总是依赖于埃及。It was founded by St. Frumentius, who was ordained and sent by St. Athanasius in 326.它是由圣Frumentius,被祝圣athanasius 326发送。So Abyssinia has always acknowledged the supremacy of the Patriarch of Alexandria, and still considers its Church as a daughter-church of the See of St. Mark.所以阿比西尼亚一直承认至高无上的牧首亚历山大,并仍然认为其作为圣马克见女儿教会的教会。The same causes that made Egypt Monophysite affected Abyssinia equally.同样的原因,埃及基督一性同样影响阿比西尼亚。 She naturally, almost inevitably, shared the schism of the mother Church.她自然,几乎是不可避免的,共享的母亲教会的分裂。 So Abyssinia is still Monophysite, and acknowledges the Coptic patriarch as her head.因此,阿比西尼亚仍然是基督一性,并承认她的头科普特人的族长。There is now only one bishop of Abyssinia (there were once two) who is called Abuna (Our Father) and resides at Adeva (the old see of Axum).现在只有一个主教阿比西尼亚(有两个)谁是所谓Abuna的(我们的父亲)和驻留在Adeva(老的阿克苏姆) 。He is always a Coptic monk consecrated and sent by the Coptic patriarch.他始终是一个科普特僧侣奉献和科普特人的族长发送。It does not seem, however, that there is now much communication between Cairo and Adeva, though the patriarch still has the right of deposing the Abuna.然而,它似乎并不,现在有开罗和Adeva之间多沟通,族长虽然仍然有罢免的Abuna权利。

Abyssinia has about three million inhabitants, nearly all members of the national Church.阿比西尼亚拥有约三百万居民,几乎所有的国家教会成员。There are many monks and an enormous number of priests, whom the Abuna ordains practically without any previous preparation or examination.有许多僧侣和祭司的数量巨大,几乎没有任何准备或检查人Abuna ordains。The Abyssinians have liturgies, again, derived from those of Alexandria in the old (classical) form of their language.阿比西尼亚有礼仪,再次,从那些在他们的语言形式的老(古典)的亚历山德里亚的。 The Abyssinian Church, being the religion of more than half barbarous people, cut off by the schism from relations with any other Christian body except the poor and backward Copts, is certainly the lowest representative of the great Christian family.阿比西尼亚的教会,被削减的分裂除了贫穷和落后的科普特人与任何其他基督教机构的关系,超过一半的野蛮人们的宗教肯定是伟大的基督教家庭的最低代表。 The people have gradually mixed up Christianity with a number of pagan and magical elements, and are specially noted for strong Jewish tendencies (they circumcise and have on their altars a sort of Ark of the Covenant containing the Ten Commandments).人们逐渐混淆了基督教与异教徒和魔法元素,是专为犹太人的倾向强(割礼和他们的祭坛上的方舟“公约”中包含十诫的排序)指出​​。 Lately Russia has developed an interest in the Abyssinians and has begun to undertake schemes for educating them, and, of course, at the same time, converting them to Orthodoxy.最近俄罗斯已开发出一种在阿比西尼亚的兴趣,并已开始进行教育的计划,并且,当然,在同一时间,将它们转换到东正教。

5. 5。Jacobites Jacobites
The Jacobites are the Monophysites of Syria.Jacobites是该monophysites叙利亚。Here, too, chiefly out of political opposition to the imperial court, Monophysitism spread quickly among the native population, and here, too, there was the same opposition between the Syrian Monophysites in the country and the Greek Melkites in the cities.在这里,主要是出于政治上的反对朝廷,基督一性传播迅速的外来人口当中,并在这里也有相同的国家之间在叙利亚基督一性和在城市中的希腊Melkites反对。 Severus of Antioch (512-18) was an ardent Monophysite.西弗勒斯的安提阿(512-18)是一个热心的基督一性。After his death the Emperor Justinian (527-65) tried to cut off the succession by having all bishops suspect of heresy locked up in monasteries.他去世后,皇帝查士丁尼(527-65),试图切断所有主教的犯罪嫌疑人锁定在寺院的异端的继承。But his wife Theodora was herself a Monophysite; he arranged the ordination of two monks of that party, Theodore and James.但他的妻子西奥多拉是自己一个基督一性;他安排了两个和尚的那一方,西奥多和詹姆斯的协调。It was from this James, called Zanzalos and Baradaï (Jacob Baradaeus), that they have their name ( Ia'qobaie , "Jacobite"); it is sometimes used for any Monophysite anywhere, but had better be kept for the national Syrian Church.正是从这个詹姆斯,称为Zanzalos和Baradaï(雅各布Baradaeus),他们有他们的名字(Ia'qobaie,“詹姆士”);有时是任何基督一性的任何地方使用,但最好是保持国家的叙利亚教会。 James found two Coptic bishops, who with him ordained a whole hierarchy, including one Sergius of Tella as Patriarch of Antioch.詹姆斯发现了两个科普特主教,与他受戒的整体层次,包括TELLA谢尔盖牧安提。

From this Sergius the Jacobite patriarchs descend.从这个谢尔盖詹姆斯党元老下降。Historically, the Jacobites of Syria are the national Church of their country, as much as the Copts in Egypt; but they by no means form so exclusively the religion of the native population.从历史上看,叙利亚Jacobites自己国家的民族教会,如在埃及的科普特人,但他们绝不形成专门的外来人口的宗教。 Syria never held together, was never so compact a unity as Egypt.叙利亚从来没有一起举行,从来没有如此紧凑埃及的统一。We have seen that the Eastern Syrians expressed their national, anti-Imperial feeling by adopting the extreme opposite heresy, Nestorianism, which, however, had the same advantage of not being the religion of Caesar and his court.我们已经看到,东部叙利亚人表示,采取极端相反的异端邪说,景教,其中,然而,有同样的优势不被凯撒和他的宫廷宗教的国家,反帝国主义的感觉。 Among the Western Syrians, too, there has always been a lack of cohesion.在西方叙利亚人,也有一向缺乏凝聚力。They had in Monophysite times two patriarchates (Antioch and Jerusalem) instead of one.他们在基督一性次两个牧首辖区(安提阿和耶路撒冷),而不是一个。In all quarrels, whether political or theological, whereas the Copts move like one man for the cause of Egypt and the "Christian Pharaoh", the Syrians are divided amongst themselves.在所有的争吵,无论是政治的或神学,而像埃及和“基督教法老”的原因之一人的科普特人的举动,叙利亚人分为彼此之间。

So there have always been many more Melkites in Syria, and the Jacobites were never an overwhelming majority.因此,有一直在叙利亚多Melkites,Jacobites从来没有以压倒性多数。 Now they are a small minority (about 80,000) dwelling in Syria, Mesopotamia, Kurdistan.现在,他们是少数(约80,000)居住在叙利亚,美索不达米亚,库尔德斯坦。Their head is the Jacobite Patriarch of "Antioch and all the East".他们的头是“安提阿和所有东”詹姆士祖师。He always takes the name Ignatius and dwells either at Diarbekir or Mardin in Mesopotamia.他始终把名称伊格内修,无论是居住在美索不达米亚Diarbekir或马尔丁。Under him, as first of the metropolitans, is the Maphrian, a prelate who was originally set up to rule the Eastern Jacobites as a rival of the Nestorian catholicos.在他之下,作为大都市的第一,是Maphrian,一个人最初成立主教统治景教catholicos的对手东部Jacobites。 Originally the maphrian had a number of special rights and privileges that made him almost independent of his patriarch.原来的maphrian一些特殊权利和特权,使他几乎独立于他的族长。Now he has only precedence of other metropolitans, a few rights in connection with the patriarch's election and consecration (when the patriarch dies he is generally succeeded by the maphrian) and the title "Maphrian and Catholicos of the East".现在,他仅优先于其他大都市,在族长的选举和奉献(族长去世时,他通常是成功的maphrian)和Maphrian和东Catholicos“的标题是”连接数权利。 Besides these two, the Jacobites have seven metropolitans and three other bishops.除了这两个,Jacobites有七个大城市和其他三名主教。As in all Eastern Churches, there are many monks, from whom the bishops are always taken.正如所有的东方教会,有许多僧人,从他们的主教总是采取。The Syrian Jacobites are in communion with the Copts.叙利亚Jacobites共融与科普特人。

They name the Coptic patriarch in the Liturgy, and the rule is that each Syrian patriarch should send an official letter to his brother of Alexandria to announce his succession.他们的名字的科普特人的族长,在礼仪和规则是每个叙利亚族长应该发出公函,他的哥哥亚历山德里亚,宣布他的继任。 This implies a recognition of superior rank which is consistent with the old precedence of Alexandria over Antioch.这意味着承认了优越的排名,这是安提阿岁的亚历山大优先是一致的。At Mardin still linger the remains of an old pagan community of Sun-worshippers who in 1762 (when the Turks finally decided to apply to them, too, the extermination that the Koran prescribes for pagans) preferred to hide under the outward appearance of Jacobite Christianity.在马尔丁仍然萦绕的1762年(土耳其人终于决定适用于他们,也灭绝,“古兰经”异教徒规定)的首选詹姆士基督教的外表下隐藏的太阳崇拜者一个古老的异教社会的遗骸。 They were, therefore, all nominally converted, and they conform the laws of the Jacobite Church, baptize, fast, receive all sacraments and Christian burial. ,因此,他们所有名义上的转换,并符合法律詹姆士教会,洗礼,快速,接收所有的圣礼和基督教墓地。But they only marry among themselves and every one knows that they still practise their old pagan rites in secret.但他们只相互之间结婚,每个人都知道,他们仍然在秘密实践他们的旧的异教仪式。There are about one hundred families of these people, still called Shamsiyeh (people of the Sun).有大约一百年的这些人的家庭,仍称为 Shamsiyeh(太阳的人)。

6. 6。Malabar Christians马拉巴尔基督徒

The Malabar Christians in India have had the strangest history of all these Eastern Churches.在印度的马拉巴尔基督徒有所有这些东方教会奇怪的历史。For, having been Nestorians, they have now veered round to the other extreme and have become Monophysites.因为,有被景教,他们现在已经转向全面走向了另一个极端,并已成为基督一性。We hear of Christian communities along the Malabar coast (in Southern India from Goa to Cape Comorin) as early as the sixth century.我们听到的马拉巴尔海岸,早在六世纪的基督教社区(南印度果阿角科摩罗)。They claim the Apostle of St. Thomas as their founder (hence their name "Thomas Christians", or "Christians of St. Thomas").他们声称,他们的创始人(因此他们的名字“托马斯基督徒”,或“圣托马斯基督徒”),圣托马斯使徒。In the first period they depended on the Catholicos of Selecuia-Ctesiphon, and were Nestorians like him.在第一个时期,他们依靠Selecuia - Ctesiphon的Catholicos,像他这样的景教。They are really one of the many missionary Churches founded by the Nestorians in Asia.他们是真正的景教在亚洲创立了许多传教士教会之一。In the sixteenth century the Portuguese succeeded in converting a part of this Church to reunion in Rome.在十六世纪葡萄牙人成功地在这个教会的一部分转换在罗马团聚。A further schism among these Eastern Catholics led to a complicated situation, of which the Jacobite patriarch took advantage by sending a bishop to form a Jacobite Malabar Church.这些东欧天主教徒之间的进一步分裂导致的复杂局面,其中詹姆斯党元老发送一个主教的优势,形成了詹姆士马拉巴尔教会了。

There were then three parties among them: Nestorians, Jacobites, and Catholics.有三方,其中:景教,Jacobites,和天主教徒。The line of Nestorian metropolitans died out (it has been revived lately) and nearly all the non-Catholic Thomas Christians may be counted as Monophysites since the eighteenth century.景教大都市死亡(最近已恢复)和几乎所有的非基督教天主教托马斯可能是十八世纪以来的基督一计算。But the Jacobite patriarch seems to have forgotten them, so that after 1751 they chose their own hierarchy and were an independent Church.但詹姆士族长似乎忘记了他们,让1751后,他们选择了自己的层次结构,是一个独立的教会。 In the nineteenth century, after they had been practically rediscovered by the English, the Jacobites in Syria tried to reassert authority over Malabar by sending out a metropolitan named Athanasius.在十九世纪后,他们实际上已重新发现了由英国,试图在叙利亚的Jacobites重申马拉巴尔管理局发出一个大都市命名的亚他那修过。 Athanasius made a considerable disturbance, excommunicated the hierarchy he found, and tried to reorganize this Church in communion with the Syrian patriarch.亚他那修作出了相当大的干扰,他发现逐出教会的层次结构,并试图与叙利亚族长重组这个共融的教会。But the Rajah of Travancore took the side of the national Church and forced Athanasius to leave the county.但Travancore王爷一侧的民族教会和亚他那修到​​被迫离开县。

Since then the Thomas Christians have been a quite independent Church whose communion with the Jacobites of Syria is at most only theoretic.从那时起,托马斯基督徒已经相当独立的教会的共融顶多只有理论与叙利亚的Jacobites。There are about 70,000 of them under a metropolitan who calls himself "Bishop and Gate of all India".有大约70000下一个大都市,他们自称“主教和所有印度门”谁调用。He is always named by his predecessor, ie each metropolitan chooses a coadjutor with the right of succession.他始终是他的前任命名的,即每个大城市选择与继承权的帮手。The Thomas Christians use Syriac liturgically and describe themselves generally as "Syrians".托马斯基督徒使用叙利亚文liturgically形容自己为“叙利亚人”一般。

7. 7。Armenians亚美尼亚
The Armenian Church is the last and the most important of these Monophysite bodies.亚美尼亚教会是最后的和最重要的这些基督一性机构。Although it agrees in faith with the Copts and Jacobites, it is not communion with them (a union arranged by a synod in 726 came to nothing) nor with any other Church in the world.虽然同意在信仰与科普特和Jacobites,它不是共融与他们(主教在726安排工会石沉大海),也与世界上任何其他教会。 This is a national Church in the strictest sense of all: except for the large Armenian Catholic body that forms the usual pendant, and for a very small number of Protestants, every Armenian belongs to it, and it has no members who are not Armenians.这是一个严格意义上的所有的民族教会:除大亚美尼亚天主教组织形式通常挂件,极少数的新教徒,每亚美尼亚属于它,它没有任何成员都没有亚美尼亚。 So in this case the name of the national and of the religion are really the same.所以在这种情况下的国家和宗教的名义,实际上是相同的。Only, since there are the Eastern Catholics, it is necessary to distinguish whether an Armenian belongs to them or to the schismatical (Monophysite) Church. ,因为有东部天主教徒,这是有必要区分是否亚美尼亚属于他们或分裂的教会(基督一性)。

Because of this distinction it is usual to call the others Gregorian Armenians -- after St. Gregory the Illuminator -- another polite concession of form on our part akin to that of "Orthodox" etc. Quite lately the Gregorian Armenians have begun to call themselves Orthodox.因为这种区别的,它通常调用其他公历亚美尼亚 - 圣格雷戈里照明灯后 - 另一种形式的的对我们礼貌优惠类似于“正统”等不少近期公历亚美尼亚人已经开始把自己称为东正教。This has no meaning and only confuses the issue.这已经没有任何意义,只能混淆的问题。Of course each Church thinks itself really Orthodox, and Catholic and Apostolic and Holy too.当然,每个教会认为自己真的东正教,天主教和使徒和神圣。But one must keep technical names clear, or we shall always talk at cross purposes.但是,我们必须保持明确的技术名称,或我们应始终在相互交谈。The polite convention throughout the Levant is that we are Catholics, that people in communion with the "Ecumenical Patriarch" are Orthodox, and that Monophysite Armenians are Gregorian.整个地中海东部的礼貌公约,我们是天主教徒,共融“普世牧首”的人是东正教徒,那基督一性亚美尼亚是公历。They should be content with that is an honourable title to which we and the Orthodox do not of course think that they have really any right.他们应该是内容,是一个光荣称号,我们和东正教不当​​然认为他们有真正的任何权利。 They have no real right to it, because the Apostle of Armenia, St. Gregory the Illuminator (295), was no Monophysite, but a Catholic in union with Rome.他们有没有真正的权利,因为亚美尼亚使徒,圣格雷戈里照明灯(295),是没有基督一性,但在工会与罗马天主教。

The Armenian Church was in the first period subject to the Metropolitan of Caesarea; he ordained its bishops.亚美尼亚教会撒利亚大都会在第一期的主题,他祝圣主教。It suffered persecution from the Persians and was an honoured branch of the great Catholic Church till the sixth century.从波斯人它遭受的迫害和荣幸直到第六世纪的伟大天主教分支。Then Monophysitism spread through Armenia from Syria, and in 527 the Armenian primate, Nerses, in the Synod of Duin, formally rejected the Council of Calcedon.然后通过从叙利亚亚美尼亚基督一性传播,并在527亚美尼亚的灵长类动物,Nerses主教的Duin,正式拒绝Calcedon会。 The schism was quite manifest in 552, when the primate, Abraham I, excommunicated the Church of Georgia and all others who accepted the decrees of Chalcedon.在552的分裂是相当清单,灵长类动物,亚伯拉罕我,当逐出教会的教会格鲁吉亚和所有的其他人接受法令的迦克墩。 From that time the national Armenian Church has been isolated from the rest of Christendom; the continual attempts at reunion made by Catholic missionaries, however, have established a considerable body of Armenian Catholics.国家的亚美尼亚教堂,从那个时候已经分离出其余的基督教,天主教传教士团聚的不断尝试,但是,已经建立了一个相当大的身体亚美尼亚天主教徒。

The Armenians are a prolific and widespread race.亚美尼亚是一位多产的和普遍的比赛。They are found not only in Armenia, but scattered all over the Levant and in many cities of Europe and America.他们发现,不仅在亚美尼亚,但所有在地中海东部和分散在欧洲和美洲的许多城市。As they always bring their Church with them, it is a large and important community, second only to the Orthodox in size among Eastern Churches.由于他们总是带来与他们的教会,这是一个大国和重要的社会,仅次于东方教会之间的大小东正教。There are about three millions of Gregorian Armenians.大约有三百万公历亚美尼亚。Among their bishops four have the title of patriarch.在他们的主教四个族长称号。The first is the Patriarch of Etchmiadzin, who bears as a special title that of catholicos .首先是Etchmiadzin,作为一个特殊的称号catholicos,熊祖师。Etchmiadzin is a monastery in the province of Erivan, between the Black and the Caspian Seas, near Mount Ararat (since 1828 Russian territory). Etchmiadzin是一个修道院Erivan省,黑海和里海亚拉腊山附近,自1828年俄罗斯境内。It is the cradle of the race and their chief sanctuary.它的比赛,他们的主要避难所的摇篮。

The catholicos is the head of the Armenia Church and to a great extent of his nation too. catholicos是亚美尼亚教会了他的国家在很大程度上太的头部。Before the Russian occupation of Erivan he had unlimited jurisdiction over all Georgian Armenians and was something very like an Armenian pope. Erivan俄罗斯占领之前,他所有格鲁吉亚亚美尼亚人无限的司法管辖权,是非常喜欢一个亚美尼亚教皇的东西。But since he sits under the shadow of Russia, and especially since the Russian Government has begun to interfere in his election and administration, the Armenians of Turkey have made themselves nearly independent of him.但因为他坐在俄罗斯的阴影下,特别是自俄政府已开始在他的选举和行政干预,土耳其的亚美尼亚人作出自己接近他的独立。The second rank belongs to the Patriarch of Constantinople.They have had a bishop at Constantinople since 1307.第二排名属于Constantinople.They祖师,有一个主教在君士坦丁堡自1307。In 1461 Mohammed II gave this bishop the title of Patriarch of the Armenians, so as to rivet their loyalty to his capital and to form a millet (nation) on the same footing as the Rum millet (the Orthodox Church).在1461穆罕默德二世给这个主教对亚美尼亚人的族长称号,从而铆钉他们的忠诚,他的资本, 形成一粟( 全国)糖酒会小米(东正教)的基础上。

This patriarch is the person responsible to the Porte for his race, has the same privileges as his Orthodox rival, and now uses the jurisdiction over all Turkish Armeniansthat formerly belonged to the catholicos.这族长是他的种族波特的负责人,作为他的东正教对手相同的权限,而现在使用的原属于该catholicos所有土耳其Armeniansthat管辖。 Under him, and little more than titular patriarchs, are those of Sis in Cilicia (a title kept after a temporary schism in 1440 and Jerusalem (whose title was assumed illegally in the eighteenth century). The Armenians have seven dioceses in the Russian Empire, two in Persia, and thirty-five in Turkey. They distinguish archbishops from bishops by an honorary precedence only and have an upper class of priests called Vartapeds, who are celibate and provide all the higher offices (bishops are always taken from their ranks). There are, of course, as in all Eastern Churches, many monks.在他之下,很少超过名义的始祖,是那些在西里西亚的姐姐(标题后保持在1440和耶路撒冷(其题目是假设在18世纪非法)临时分裂。亚美尼亚人在俄罗斯帝国的七个教区,两个在波斯,土耳其三十五个,他们区别于主教大主教只由一个荣誉的优先级,并有一个称为Vartapeds牧师,谁是独身主义者,并提供更高的办事处(主教总是从他们的行列)的上层阶级。有,当然,在所有的东方教会,许多僧侣。

In many ways the Armenian (Gregorian) Church has been influenced by Rome, so that they are among Eastern schismatical bodies the only one that can be described as at all latinized.亚美尼亚教会(阳历)已在许多方面影响了罗马,让他们在东部分裂的机构是唯一一个可以在所有拉丁化。Examples of such influence are their use of unleavened bread for the Holy Eurcharist, their vestments (the mitre is almost exactly the Roman one), etc. This appears to be the result of opposition to their nearer rivals, the Orthodox.这种影响力的例子是其使用的无酵饼为神圣的Eurcharist,他们的法衣(尖角几乎一模一样的罗马一)等,这似乎是他们接近的对手,东正教反对的结果。 In any case, at present the Armenians are probably nearer to the Catholic Church and better disposed for reunion than any other of these communions.在任何情况下,目前亚美尼亚人可能更接近天主教和更好地为比任何其他这些圣餐团聚处置。Their Monophysitism is now very vague and shadowy -- as indeed is the case with most Monophysite Churches.现在他们的基督一性是非常模糊,朦胧的 - 确实是最基督一性教会的情况下。It is from them that the greatest proportion of Eastern-Rite Catholics have been converted.东方天威天主教徒的比例最大,已转换,这是他们的。

This brings us to the end of the Monophysite bodies and so to the end of all schismatical Eastern Churches.这给我们带来的基督一性机构年底,使所有分裂的东方教会结束。A further schism was indeed caused by the Monothelite heresy in the seventh century, but the whole of the Church then formed (the Maronite Church) has been for many centuries reunited with Rome. Monothelite异端在第七个世纪确实是造成进一步的分裂,但整个教会,然后形成(马龙派教会)已经与罗马团聚的许多世纪。So Maronites have their place only among the Eastern Catholics.因此,马龙派教徒仅东部天主教徒之间的地方。

B. Eastern Catholic ChurchesB.东方教会

The definition of an Eastern-Rite Catholic is: A Christian of any Eastern rite in union with the pope : ie a Catholic who belongs not to the Roman, but to an Eastern rite.东部成年礼天主教的定义是:基督教的任何联盟与教宗东部仪式:即一个天主教不属于罗马,但东部仪式。They differ from other Eastern Christians in that they are in communion with Rome, and from Latins in that they have other rites.他们不同于其他东部基督徒,他们在与罗马的共融,拉丁人,因为他们有其他的仪式。

A curious, but entirely theoretic, question of terminology is: Are Milanese and Mozarabic considered Eastern Rite Catholics?一个好奇,但完全的理论,术语的问题是:米兰和莫扎拉布素歌考虑东部成年礼的天主教徒?If we make rite our basis, they are.如果我们的仪式我们的基础,他们。That is, they are Catholics who do not belong to the Roman Rite.也就是说,它们是那些不属于罗马成年礼的天主教徒。The point has sometimes been urged rather as a catch than seriously.点有时被敦促,而较严重的捕捞量。As a matter of fact, the real basis, though it is superficially less obvious than rite, is patriarchate.事实上,真正的基础,虽然它表面上小于仪式明显,是东正教会。Eastern-Rite Catholics are Catholics who do not belong to the Roman patriarchate.东方天威天主教徒,天主教徒不属于罗马东正教会。So these two remnants of other rites in the West do not constitute Eastern-Rite Churches.因此,这两个在​​西方其他仪式残余,并不构成东方天威教会。

In the West, rite does not always follow patriarchate; the great Gallican Church, with her own rite, was always part of the Roman patriarchate; so are Milan and Toledo.在西方,礼仪不始终遵循东正教会;伟大的高卢教会,用她自己的仪式,一直是罗马东正教会的一部分,所以米兰和托莱多。 This, however, raises a new difficulty; for it may be urged that in that case the Italo-Greeks are not Eastern Catholics, since they certainly belong to the Roman patriarchate.然而,这提出了一个新的困难,它可能会敦促,在这种情况下,意大利 - 希腊人没有东部的天主教徒,因为他们肯定属于罗马东正教会。They do, of course; and they always have done so legally.他们这样做,当然,他们总是有这样做的法律。But the constitution of these Italo-Greek Churches was originally the result of an attempt on the part of the Eastern emperors (Leo III, 717-741, especially; see "Orth. Eastern Church", 45-47) to filch them from the Roman patriarchate and join them to that of Constantinople.但这些意大利 - 希腊教会的宪法本来是企图在东部皇帝的结果;(利奥三世,717-741,特别是看到“奥思东方教会”,45-47),以窃取他们从罗马东正教会和他们加入君士坦丁堡。 Although the attempt did not succeed, the descendants of the Greeks in Calabria, Sicily, etc., have kept the Byzantine Rite.虽然企图没有得逞,在卡拉布里亚,西西里岛等,希腊人的后裔不断拜占庭成年礼。They are an exception to the rule, invariable in the East, that rite follows patriarchate, and are an exception to the general principle about Eastern Rites too.他们是一个例外,在东不变,即成年礼如下东正教会,和了东方礼仪的一般原则的例外。As they have no diocesan bishops of their own, on this ground it may well be denied that they form a Church.由于他们没有自己的教区主教,基于这个理由,它可能会被拒绝,他们形成了一个教会。An Italo-Greek may best be defined as a member of the Roman patriarchate in Italy, Sicily, or Corsica, who, as a memory of older arrangements, is still allowed to use the Byzantine Rite.一个意大利 - 希腊可能最好被定义为在意大利西西里岛,科西嘉岛,人,为老年人安排的内存,仍然是允许使用的拜占庭成年礼的罗马东正教会的成员。

With regard to the fundamental distinction of patriarchate, it must be noted that it is no longer purely geographical.关于东正教会的根本区别,它必须指出,它不再是纯粹的地域。A Latin in the East belongs to the Roman patriarch as much as if he lived in the West; Latin missionaries everywhere and the newer dioceses in Australia and American count as part of what was once the patriarchate of Western Europe.在东拉丁美洲属于罗马的元老,如果他住在西方,拉丁美洲传教士无处不在,在澳大利亚和美国计数的新的教区曾经是西欧的东正教会的一部分。 So also the Melkites in Leghorn, Marseilles, and Paris belong to the Byzantine Catholic patriarchate, though, as foreigners, they are temporarily subject to Latin bishops.因此,在里窝那,马赛和巴黎的Melkites属于拜占庭天主教东正教会,但作为外国人,他们暂时受到拉美主教。

A short enumeration and description of the Catholic Eastern Rites will complete this picture of the Eastern Churches.一个短期的列举和描述的天主教东礼记将完成这个东方教会的图片。 It is, in the first place, a mistake (encouraged by Eastern schismatics and Anglicans) to look upon these Catholic Eastern Rites as a sort of compromise between Latin and other rites, or between Catholics and schismatics.它是,首先,一个错误(东方schismatics和英国圣公会的鼓励)呼吁这些天主教东礼记作为拉丁美洲和其他仪式,或天主教徒和schismatics之间的某种妥协。 Nor is it true that they are Catholics to whom grudging leave has been given to keep something of their national customs.也不是真正的,他们是谁不情愿离开一直保持他们的民族风俗的东西天主教徒。Their position is quite simple and quite logical.他们的立场很简单,很符合逻辑。They represent exactly the state of the Eastern Churches before the schisms.他们代表完全相同的前分裂的东方教会状态。They are entirely and uncompromisingly Catholics in our strictest sense of the word, quite as much as Latins.他们是完全和毫不妥协的天主教徒在我们的严格意义上的字,相当像拉丁人多。They accept the whole Catholic Faith and the authority of the pope as visible head of the Catholic Church, as did St. Athanasius, St. Basil, St. John Chrysostom.他们接受整个天主教信仰为天主教可见头和教皇的权威,也圣罗勒,圣athanasius,圣约翰金口。

They do not belong to the pope's patriarchate, nor do they use his rite, any more than did the great saints of Eastern Christendom.他们不属于教皇的东正教会,也没有使用他的仪式,任何超过东部基督教的伟大圣人。They have their own rites and their own patriarchs, as had their fathers before the schism.他们有自己的礼仪和自己的始祖,他们的父亲收到的分裂。Nor is there any idea of compromise or concession about this.也没有任何妥协或让步对此的想法。The Catholic Church has never been identified with the Western patriarchate.天主教会从未与西方东正教会确定。The pope's position as patriarch of the West is as distinct from his papal rights as is his authority as local Bishop of Rome.教皇的位置,作为西方的族长是从他的罗马教皇的权利不同,这是他为罗马主教的权威。It is no more necessary to belong to his patriarchate in order to acknowledge his supreme jurisdiction that it is necessary to have him for diocesan bishop.这是没有必要为了确认他的最高法院的司法管辖权,这是教区主教,他必须有属于他的东正教会。

The Eastern Catholic Churches in union with the West have always been as much the ideal of the Church Universal as the Latin Church.东部天主教教会与西方工会一直尽可能多的通用拉丁教会的教会的理想。If some of those Eastern Churches fall into schism, that is a misfortune which does not affect the others who remain faithful.如果这些东方教会一些分裂下降,这是一次不幸的,不影响其他人继续忠实。If all fall away, the Eastern half of the Church disappears for a time as an actual fact; it remains as a theory and an ideal to be realized again as soon as they, or some of them, come back to union with Rome.如果秋天走,东半部的教会作为一个实际的事实时间消失,它仍然作为一种理论和再次实现尽快,因为他们,或者他们中的一些,回来与罗马联盟的理想。

This is what has happened.这是发生了什么事。There is at any rate no certain evidence of continuity from time before the schism in any of these Eastern Catholic Churches.无论如何,有没有在任何这些东方教会的分裂前的时间连续性的某些证据。Through the bad time, from the various schisms to the sixteenth and seventh centuries, there are traces, isolated cases, of bishops who have at least wished for reunion with the West; but it cannot be claimed that any considerable body of Eastern Christians have kept the union throughout.第十六届和第七世纪的各种分裂,通过的不好的时候,有痕迹,个别情况下主教的人都至少与西方的团聚希望,;但它可以不被声称,任何中东的基督信徒相当身体有保留在整个联盟。 The Maronites think they have, but they are mistaken; the only real case is that of the Italo-Greeks (who have never been schismatic).马龙派教徒认为他们有,但他们的想法是错误的,唯一真正的情况是,意大利 - 希腊人(从未分裂)。

Really the Eastern Catholic Churches were formed by Catholic missionaries since the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.真正的东方教会的十六,十七世纪以来所形成的天主教传教士。 And as soon as any number of Eastern Christians were persuaded to reunite with the West, the situation that had existed before the schisms became an actual one again.尽快任意数量的东部基督徒被说服与西方团聚,收到了存在的分裂的情况再次成为一个实际。They became Catholics; no one thought of asking them to become Latins.他们成为天主教徒,没有人要求他们成为拉丁思想。They were given bishops and patriarchs of their own as successors of the old Catholic Eastern bishops before the schism, and they became what all Eastern Christians had once been -- Catholics.他们分裂前的旧天主教东主教的接班人作为自己的主教和始祖,他们成为所有东部基督徒曾被 - 天主教徒。

That the Eastern Catholics are comparatively small bodies is the unfortunate result of the fact that the majority of their countrymen prefer schism.东部天主教徒是比较小的机构,是不幸的事实,广大同胞喜欢分裂结果。Our missionaries would willingly make them larger ones.我们的传教士会心甘情愿地让他们较大的。But, juridically, they stand exactly where all the East once stood, before the Greek schism, or during the short-lived union of Florence (1439-53).但是,在法律上,他们的立场究竟在何处所有东站前希腊的分裂,或在佛罗伦萨(1439年至1453年)的短暂联盟,。 And they have as much right to exist and be respected as have Latins, or the great Catholic bishops in the East had during the first centuries.和他们有同样多的权利存在,并尊重有拉丁,或在东方的伟大天主教主教在第一世纪。 The idea of latinizing all Eastern Catholics, sometimes defended by people on our side whose zeal for uniformity is greater than their knowledge of the historical and juridical situation, is diametrically opposed to antiquity, to the Catholic system of ecclesiastical organization, and to the policy of all popes. latinizing所有东部天主教徒的想法,有时在我们身边的人,其均匀的热情大于他们的历史和法律的情况下知识辩护,是截然相反的古代,天主教教会组织体系,政策所有教皇。 Nor has it any hope of success.它也没有任何成功的希望。The East may become Catholic again; it will never be what it never has been -- Latin.东可能再次成为天主教;它将永远不会被什么也从未起过 - 拉丁美洲。

1. 1。Byzantine Catholics拜占庭式的天主教徒
1.1。The Byzantine Catholics are those who correspond to the Orthodox.拜占庭式的天主教徒是那些对应的东正教。They all use the same (Byzantine) Rite; but they are not all organized as one body.他们都使用相同的(拜占庭)成年礼,但他们并不都是为一体组织。They form seven groups:他们形成七组:

This completes the list of Byzantine Catholics, of whom it may be said that the chief want is organization among themselves.这样就完成了拜占庭天主教徒名单,其中,可以说,行政要的是彼此间的组织。 There has often been talk of restoring a Catholic (Melkite) Patriarch of Constantinople.经常被恢复天主教(Melkite)君士坦丁堡宗主教的谈话。It was said that Pope Leo XIII intended to arrange this before he died.有人说,教皇利奥十三世打算安排他去世前。If such a revival ever is made, the patriarch would have jurisdiction, or at least a primacy, over all Catholics of his Rite; in this way the scattered unities of Melkites in Syria, Ruthenians in Hungary, Italo-Greeks in Sicily, and so on, would be linked together as are all other Eastern Catholic Churches.如果这种复兴是,族长将有司法管辖权,或至少有一个超过他的成年礼所有天主教徒的首要地位,在这种方式分散在叙利亚的Melkites统一,在匈牙利鲁塞尼亚,希腊人在西西里岛的意大利 - ,等上,将连在一起,所有其他的东方教会。

2. 2。Chaldean Catholics加尔丁礼天主教会
The Chaldees are Eastern Catholics converted from Nestorianism.迦勒底是从景教转换东部天主教徒。In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries a complicated series of quarrels and schisms among the Nestorians led to not very stable unions of first one and then another party with the Holy See.在十六,十七世纪的一系列复杂的景教之间的争吵和分裂导致工会第一个不是很稳定,然后又与罗马教廷的党。Since that time there has always been a Catholic patriarch of the Chaldees, though several times the person so appointed fell away into schism again and had to be replaced by another.自那时以来,一直有一个天主教会宗主教的迦勒底,虽然如此委任的人多次下跌到分裂路程再次被另一个取代。The Chaldees are said now to number about 70,000 souls (Silbernagl, op. cit., 354; but Werner, "Orbis Terr. Cath.", 166, gives the number as 33,000).迦勒底是说,现在的数量约70,000灵魂(Silbernagl,同上,354;但维尔纳,“奥比斯百富蛋白酶。”166,提供的数量为33000)。 Their primate lives at Mosul, having the title of Patriarch of Babylon.他们的灵长类动物生活在摩苏尔,巴比伦祖师称号。Under him are two archbishoprics and ten other sees.根据他的两个archbishoprics和其他十个看到。

There are monasteries whose arrangements are very similar to those of the Nestorians.有非常相似的景教寺院的安排。The liturgical books (in Syriac, slightly revised from the Nestorian ones) are printed by the Dominicans at Mosul.礼仪的书籍(在叙利亚,从景教的轻微修订)印在摩苏尔多米尼加。Most of their canon law depends on the Bull of Pius IX, "Reversurus" (12 July, 1867), published for the Armenians and extended to the Chaldees by another Bull, "Cum ecclesiastica" (31 Aug., 1869).他们的教会法大部分取决于庇护九世,“Reversurus”(7月12日,1867年)出版的亚美尼亚人,由另一个牛的迦勒底,牛市“暨ecclesiastica”(,1869年8月31日)。 They have some students at the Propaganda College in Rome.他们在罗马宣传部学院的一些学生。

3. 3。Alexandrian Catholics亚历山大天主教徒
The Alexandrian Catholics (Catholic Copts) have had a vicar Apostolic since 1781.亚历山大天主教徒(天主教科普特人)有一个副主教使徒自1781。Before that (in 1442 and again in 1713) the Coptic patriarch had submitted to Rome, but in neither case was the union of long duration.在此之前,科普特人的族长(在1442和1713年)已经提交了罗马,但在上述两种情况下,无论是持续时间长的联盟。 As the number of Catholics of this Rite has increased very considerably of late years, Leo XIII in 1895 restore the Catholic patriarchate.由于这个仪式的天主教徒人数已大为增加晚年,利奥十三世在1895年恢复天主教东正教会。 The patriarch lives at Cairo and rules over about 20,000 Catholic Copts.族长生活在开罗和超过约20,000天主教科普特人的规则。

4. 4。Abyssinians阿比西尼亚
The Abyssinians, too, had many relations with Rome in past times, and Latin missionaries built up a considerable Catholic Abyssinian Church.阿比西尼亚,也与罗马的许多关系在过去的时代,拉美传教士建立起了相当的天主教阿比西尼亚教会。But repeated persecutions and banishment of Catholics prevented this community from becoming a permanent one with a regular hierarchy.但是,从一个普通的层次结构成为一个永久的反复迫害和驱逐天主教徒阻止这个社会。 Now that the Government is tolerant, some thousands of Abyssinians are Catholics.现在的政府是宽容的,阿比西尼亚数千天主教徒。 They have an Apostolic vicar at Keren.他们有一个可人使徒教区牧师。If their numbers increase, no doubt they will in time be organized under a Catholic Abuna who should depend on the Catholic Coptic patriarch.如果人数增加,毫无疑问,他们将及时组织下一个天主教Abuna应取决于天主教科普特族长。Their liturgy, too, is at present in a state of disorganization.过,他们的礼仪,在目前的混乱状态。It seems that the Monophysite Abyssinian books will need a good deal of revision before they can be used by Catholics.它似乎才可以天主教徒,基督一性阿比西尼亚书籍需要一个良好的修订。Meanwhile the priests ordained for this rite have a translation of the Roman Mass in their own language, an arrangement that is not meant to be more than a temporary expedient.与此同时,受戒这一仪式的祭司有自己的语言翻译罗马弥撒,这不是意味着要超过权宜之计的安排。

5. 5。Syrians叙利亚人
The Catholic Syrian Church dates from 1781.叙利亚天主教教会的日期从1781。At that time a number of Jacobite bishops, priests, and lay people, who had agreed to reunion with Rome, elected one Ignatius Giarve to succeed the dead Jacobite patriarch, George III.当时詹姆士主教,司铎和奠定人,已同意与罗马团聚,选出一个伊格内修Giarve死詹姆斯党元老,乔治三世成功。Giarve sent to Rome asking for recognition and a pallium, and submitting in all things to the pope's authority.Giarve送到罗马要求的认可和大脑皮层,并在所有的事情提交给教皇的权威。But he was then deposed by those of his people who clung to Jacobitism, and a Jacobite patriarch was elected.但他当时被废黜由他的人那些坚持到Jacobitism,和一个詹姆斯党元老当选。From this time there have been two rival successions.从这个时候已经出现了两个对立的继承。In 1830 the Catholic Syrians were acknowledged by the Turkish Government as a separate millet .在1830年的天主教叙利亚人由土耳其政府承认,作为一个单独小米。The Catholic patriarch lives at Beirut, most of his flock in Mesopotamia.在贝鲁特的天主教会宗主教的生活,他的羊群在美索不达米亚。 Under him are three archbishops and six other bishops, five monasteries, and about 25,000 families.在他的三个大主教和其他六个主教,五个寺院,约25000个家庭。

6. 6。Malabar Catholics马拉巴天主教徒
There is also a Catholic Church of Malabar formed by the Synod of Diamper in 1599.还有一个马拉巴尔天主教主教1599年的Diamper形成。This Church, too, has passed through stormy periods; quite lately, since the Vatican Council, a new schism has been formed form it of about 30,000 people who are in communion with neither the Catholics, nor the Jacobites, nor the Nestorians, nor any one else at all.这个教会,也有通过暴风雨期间,相当最近梵蒂冈理事会以来,已经形成了一个新的分裂形成约30,000人,既不是天主教徒,也不Jacobites,也不是景教共融,也没有任何其他人所有。 There are now about 200,000 Malabar Catholics under three vicars Apostolic (at Trichur, Changanacherry, and Ernaculam).现在有大约20万马拉巴尔天主教徒在三位副主教使徒(Trichur,Changanacherry,并Ernaculam)。

7. 7。Armenians亚美尼亚
The Catholic Armenians are an important body numbering altogether about 130,000 souls.天主教亚美尼亚人编号共约13万亡灵的一个重要机构。Like their Gregorian countrymen they are scattered about the Levant, and they have congregations in Austria and Italy.他们的格利高里的同胞一样,他们是分散地中海东部的,而他们在奥地利和意大利众。There have been several more or less temporary reunions of the Armenian Church since the fourteenth century, but in each case a rival Gregorian party set up rival patriarchs and bishops.自十四世纪以来已经有亚美尼亚教会的几个较多或较少的临时聚会,但在每种情况下一个对手公历党成立竞争对手的始祖和主教。 The head of the Catholic Armenians is the Catholic Armenian Patriarch of Constantinople (since 1830), in whom is joined the patriarchate of Cilicia.天主教亚美尼亚人的头部是天主教亚美尼亚大主教君士坦丁堡(1830年),在其中加入西里西亚东正教会。He always takes the name Peter, and rules over three titular archbishops and fourteen sees, of which one is Alexandria and one Ispahan in Persia (Werner-- Silbernagl, 346).他总是接管三个名义上的大主教的名字彼得和规则和十四看到,其中之一是亚历山大和波斯之一Ispahan(沃纳 - Silbernagl,346)。After much dispute he is now recognized by the Porte as the head of a separate millet , and he also represents before the Government all other Catholic bodies that have as yet no political organization.很多争议后,他现在认识到,作为一个单独的小米团长波特,和他之前,政府也代表所有其他尚未有任何政治组织的天主教机构。

There are also many Catholic Armenians in Austria-Hungary who are subject in Transylvania to the Latin bishops, but in Galicia to the Armenian Archbishop of Lemberg.也有许多天主教在奥匈帝国的亚美尼亚人须在特兰西瓦尼亚的拉丁美洲主教,但在加利西亚伦贝尔亚美尼亚大主教。In Russia there is an Armenian Catholic See of Artvin immediately subject to the pope.在俄罗斯有一个亚美尼亚天主教阿尔特温立即受到教皇。The Mechitarists (Founded by Mechitar of Sebaste in 1711) are an important element of Armenian Catholicism. Mechitarists(Sebaste Mechitar成立于1711年)是亚美尼亚天主教的重要元素。They are monks who follow the Rule of St. Benedict and have monasteries at San Lazzaro outside Venice, at Vienna, and in many towns in the Balkans, Armenia, and Russia.他们是僧侣遵循圣本笃的规则,并在新Lazzaro威尼斯以外,在维也纳的寺院,并在巴尔干地区,亚美尼亚和俄罗斯的许多城镇。 They have missions all over the Levant, schools, and presses that produce important liturgical, historical, historical, and theological works.他们有地中海东部地区,学校和印刷机,产生重要的礼仪,历史,历史,神学著作的任务。 Since 1869 all Armenian Catholic priests must be celibate.自1869年以来,所有亚美尼亚天主教神父必须独身主义者。

8. 8。Maronites马龙派教徒
Lastly, the Maronite Church is entirely Catholic.最后,完全是天主教马龙派教会There is much dispute as to its origin and the reason of its separation from the Syrian national Church.它的起源和其分离从叙利亚民族教会的原因有很多争议。It is certain that it was formed around monasteries in the Lebanon founded by a certain John Maro in the fourth century.可以肯定的是,这是一定约翰马老在黎巴嫩成立于第四世纪的寺院周围形成。In spite of the indignant protests of all Maronites there is no doubt that they were separated from the old See of Antioch by the fact that they were Monothelites.在所有马龙派教徒的愤怒抗议,但没有任何怀疑,他们从老安提阿分开的事实,他们Monothelites。 They were reunited to the Roman Church in the twelfth century, and then (after a period of wavering) since 1216, when their patriarch, Jeremias II, made his definite submission, they have been unswervingly faithful, alone among all Eastern Churches.他们团聚了在12世纪的罗马教会,然后自1216年,当他们的族长,赫雷米亚斯第二,他明确提交(摇摆不定的时期后),他们一直忠贞不渝,仅在所有东方教会。 As in other cases, the Maronites, too, are allowed to keep their old organization and titles.至于在其他情况下,马龙派教徒,也被允许保留他们原来的组织和头衔。

Their head is the Maronite "Patriarch of Antioch and all the East", successor to Monothelite rivals of the old line, who, therefore, in no way represents the original patriarchate.他们的头是龙族“安提阿和所有东祖师”,继任者Monothelite旧生产线,谁,因此,在没有办法代表原东正教会的竞争对手。 He is also the civil head of his nation, although he has no berat from the sultan, and lives in a large palace at Bkerki in the Lebanon.他也是在他的国家的公民元首,虽然他没有从苏丹培拉特和生活在黎巴嫩的大皇宫在Bkerki。He has under him nine sees and several titular bishops.他有他属下的九个看到和几个挂名主教。There are many monasteries and convents.有许多寺庙和修道院。The present law of the Maronite Church was drawn up by the great national council held in 1736 at the monastery of Our Lady of the Almond Trees (Deir Saïdat al-Luaize), in the Lebanon.拟定了伟大的民族在1736年举行的理事会(代尔Saïdat AL - Luaize)杏树圣母修道院,在黎巴嫩马龙派教会的现行法律。There are about 300,000 Maronites in the Lebanon and scattered along the Syrian coast.有马龙派教徒约30万在黎巴嫩和叙利亚沿海散。They also have colonies in Egypt and Cyprus, and numbers of them have lately begun to emigrate to America.他们也有在埃及和塞浦路斯的殖民地,他们的人数最近开始移民到美国。They have a national college at Rome.他们有一个全国高校在罗马。

Conclusion结论

This completes the list of all the Eastern Churches, whether schismatic or Catholic.这样就完成了所有东方教会的清单,是否分裂或天主教。

In considering their general characteristics we must first of all again separate the Eastern Catholics from the others.在考虑他们的一般特征,我们必须首先从他人再次单独东部天主教徒。Eastern Rite Catholics are true Catholics, and have as much right to be so treated as Latins.东部成年礼天主教徒是真正的天主教徒,有尽可能多的权利,使拉丁处理。As far as faith and morals go they must be numbered with us; as far as the idea of an Eastern Church may now seem to connote schism or a state of opposition to the Holy See, they repudiate it as strongly as we do.至于信仰和道德去,他们必须与我们编号;尽可能东方教会的想法,可现在似乎意味着分裂或反对罗马教廷的状态,他们否定我们强烈。 Nevertheless, their position is very important as being the result of relations between Rome and the East, and as showing the terms on which reunion between East and West is possible.不过,他们的立场是非常重要的,罗马和东之间的关系的结果,呈现出东方与西方之间的团聚是可能的条件,而,的。

III.三。CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SCHISMATICAL EASTERN CHURCHES分裂的东方教会的特征

Although these Churches have no communion among themselves, and although many of them are bitterly opposed to the others, there are certain broad lines in which they may be classed together and contrasted with the West.这些教会虽然彼此之间没有共融,虽然其中不少是强烈反对别人,也有某些他们可能被归类在一起,对比与西方的广泛线。

National Feeling民族感情

The first of these is their national feeling.首先是他们的民族感情。In all these groups the Church is the nation; the vehement and often intolerant ardour of what seems to be their religious conviction is always really national pride and national loyalty under the guise of theology.在所有这些团体的教会,是全国的激烈,往往不耐的热情似乎是他们的宗教信念,始终是神学的外衣下真正的民族自豪感和国家的忠诚。 This strong national feeling is the natural result of their political circumstances.这种强烈的民族感情,是他们的政治环境下的自然结果。For centuries, since the first ages, various nations have lived side by side and have carried on bitter opposition against each other in the Levant.几个世纪以来,由于第一年龄,各民族生活并排和对对方的激烈反对在地中海东部。Syria, Egypt, Mesopotamia, and the Balkans have never had one homogeneous population speaking one language.叙利亚,埃及,美索不达米亚,和巴尔干地区从未有过一个同质化的人口讲一种语言。From the beginning, nationality in these parts has been a question not of the soil, but of a community held together by its language, striving for supremacy with other communities.从一开始,在这些部位的国籍已经不土的问题,但社区一起举行了它的语言,争取与其他社区至上。The Roman contest accentuated this.罗马的较量加剧。Rome and then Constantinople was always a foreign tyranny to Syrians and Egyptians.罗马和再君士坦丁堡一直是外国暴政叙利亚人和埃及人。And already in the fourth century of the Christian Era they began to accentuate their own nationalism, crushed in politics, by taking up an anti-imperial form of religion, by which they could express their hatred for the Government.并已在第四世纪的基督教时代,他们开始强调自己的民族主义,在政治上粉碎,宗教的反帝国主义的形式,他们可以表达他们的仇恨,为政府。 Such an attitude has characterized these nations ever since.自从这种态度,这些国家的特点。Under the Turk, too, the only possible separate organization was and is an ecclesiastical one. ,在土耳其人,唯一可能的独立的组织,是教会的。The Turk even increased the confusion.土耳其人更增加了混乱。He found a simple and convenient way of organizing thesubject Christians by taking their religion as a basis.他发现一个简单方便的方式,以此为基础,采取他们的宗教组织thesubject基督徒。So the Porte recognizes each sect as an artificial nation ( millet ).因此,波特承认每节作为一个人造的国家小米) 。The Orthodox Church became the "Roman nation" ( Rum millet ), inheriting the name of the old Empire.东正教会成为“罗马民族”( 朗姆酒小米 ),继承了老帝国的名称。Then there were the "Armenian nation" ( Ermeni millet ), the "Coptic nation", and so on.然后有“亚美尼亚民族”(Ermeni小米 ),“科普特人的国家”,等等。Blood has nothing to do with it.血液有什么用它做。Any subject of the Porte who joins the Orthodox Church becomes a Roman and is submitted politically to the ecumenical patriarch; a Jew who is converted by Armenians becomes an Armenian.任何PORTE的人加入东正教主体变成了罗马和君士坦丁堡宗主教是在政治上提交一个犹太人,他是亚美尼亚转换成为亚美尼亚。 True, the latest development of Turkish politics has modified this artificial system, and there have been during the nineteenthcentury repeated attempts to set up one great Ottoman nation.诚然,土耳其政治的最新发展,已经修改了这一人工系统,并有在nineteenthcentury反复尝试建立一个伟大的奥斯曼民族。 But the effect of centuries is too deeply rooted, and the opposition between Islam and Christianity too great, to make this possible.但是,世纪之交的效果太深入人心,和反对派之间的伊斯兰教和基督教太伟大了,使这成为可能。 A Moslem in Turkey -- whether Turk, Arab, or negro -- is simply a Moslem, and a Christian is a Roman, or Armenian, or Maronite, etc. Our Western idea of separating politics from religion, of being on the one hand loyal citizens of our country and on the other, as a quite distinct thing, members of some Church, is unknown in the East.在土耳其的穆斯林 - 无论是土耳其人,阿拉伯人,黑人 - 简直是一个穆斯林,和基督教是罗马人,亚美尼亚,或龙族,等我们从宗教分离政治的西方思想,一方面我国和其他忠诚的公民,作为一个相当独特的东西,一些教会的成员,是在东不明。 The millet is what matters; and the millet is a religious body. 小米是什么事情;和小米是一个宗教组织。So obvious does this identification seem to them that till quite lately they applied it to us.如此明显的识别似乎他们,直到相当最近,他们把它应用到我们。A Catholic was (and still is to the more remote and ignorant people) a "French Christian", a Protestant an "English Christian"; in speaking French or Italian, Levantines constantly use the word nation for religion .天主教(现在仍然是较偏远的和无知的人)“法国基督教,新教”英语基督教“;在讲法语或意大利语,Levantines不断用字的民族宗教Hence it is, also, that there are practically no conversions from one religion to another.因此,它是,也几乎从来没有转换,从一个宗教到另一个。Theology, dogma, or any kind of religious conviction counts for little or nothing.神学教条,或任何一种宗教信念计数很少或没有。A man keeps to his millet and hotly defends it, as we do to our fatherlands; for a Jacobite to turn Orthodox would be like a Frenchman turning German.一名男子不断到他的小米和激烈辩护,因为我们对我们的祖国;詹姆士打开东正教会像法国转向德国。

We have noted that religious conviction counts for little.我们注意到这一点宗教信念计数。It is hard to say how much say of these bodies (Nestorian or Monophysite) are now even conscious of what was once the cardinal issue of their schism.这是很难说有多少这些机构说(景教或基督一性)现在甚至曾经是其分裂的大是大非问题的自觉。The bishops and more educated clergy have no doubt a general and hazy idea of the question -- Nestorians think that everyone else denies Christ's real manhood, Monophysites that all their opponents "divide Christ".主教和更多的教育神职人员毫无疑问,一个一般的问题和朦胧的想法 - 景教认为所有的人否认基督的真正的男子汉,基督一所有他们的对手“分基督”。But what stirs their enthusiasm is not the metaphysical problem; it is the conviction that what they believe is the faith of their fathers, the heroes of their "nation" who were persecuted by the other millets , as they are day-to-day (for there everyone thinks that everyone else persecutes his religion).但是,激起他们的积极性不形而上学的问题,它是信念,他们认为是他们的父亲的信仰,他们的“民族”的人被迫害其他小米,因为他们是每天的日常英雄(因为有大家都认为所有的人迫害他的宗教)。 Opposed to all these little milal (plural of millet ) there looms, each decade mightier and more dangerous, the West, Europe Frengistan (of which the United States, of course, forms part to them).反对所有这些小milal(小米复数)织机,每一个十年mightier和更危险的,西方,欧洲Frengistan(其中美国,当然,一部分给他们)。 Their lands are overrun with Frengis ; Frengi schools tempt their young men, and Frengi churches, with eloquent sermons and attractive services, their women.他们的土地超限Frengis; Frengi学校引诱他们的青年男子,和Frengi教会,口 ​​若悬河的说教和吸引力的服务,他们的妇女。They frequent the schools assiduously; for the Levantine has discovered that arithmetic, French, and physical science are useful helps to earning a good living.他们经常在学校刻苦钻研,为地中海东部发现,算术,法语和物理科学,有益的,有助于获得一个良好的生活。But to accept the Frengi religion means treason to their nation.但接受的Frengi宗教意味着背叛自己的国家。It is a matter of course to them that we are Catholics or Protestants, those are our milal ; but an Armenian, a Copt, a Nestorian does not become a Frengi .这是理所当然 ​​的事给他们,我们是天主教徒或新教徒,这是我们的milal,但亚美尼亚,一个科普特,景教不会成为Frengi。 Against this barrier argument, quotation of Scripture, texts of Fathers, accounts of Church history, break in vain.在这种屏障参数,报价的经文,父亲的文本,教会历史上的帐户,打破徒劳的。Your opponent listens, is perhaps even mildly interested, and then goes about his business as before. Frengis are very clever and learned; but of course he is an Armenia, or whatever it may be.听你的对手,甚至轻度感兴趣,然后对他像以前那样业务 Frengis很聪明和教训;但当然他是亚美尼亚,或任何可能。 Sometimes whole bodies move (as Nestorian dioceses have lately begun to coquet with Russian Orthodoxy), and then every member moves too.有时整个身体移动(景教教区最近开始与俄罗斯东正教卖弄风情),然后每一个成员移动太。 One cleaves to one's millet whatever it does.一个劈开的小米 ,不管它。Certainly, if the heads of any body can be persuaded to accept reunion with Rome, the rank and file will make no difficulty, unless there be another party strong enough to proclaim that those heads have deserted the nation.当然,如果任何机构的负责人可以被说服接受与罗马,排名团聚和文件将没有任何困难,除非有足够强大的另一方宣布,这些首长都冷清的民族。

Intense Conservatism激烈的保守主义

The second characteristic, a corollary of the first, is the intense conservatism of all these bodies.第二个特点,第一的必然结果,是所有这些机构的强烈的保守主义。They cling fanatically to their rites, even to the smallest custom -- because it is by these that the millet is held together.他们狂热地抱住他们的仪式,甚至到了最小的自定义-因为它是由这些小米是一起举行。Liturgical language is the burning question in the Balkans.礼仪语言是在巴尔干地区亟待解决的问题。They are all Orthodox, but inside the Orthodox Church, there are various milal -- Bulgars, Vlachs, Serbs, Greeks, whose bond of union is the language used in church.他们都是东正教,但东正教教堂内的,也有各种milal -保加利亚,瓦拉几人,塞尔维亚人,希腊人,其工会的债券,是在教堂里所使用的语言。So one understands the uproar made in Macedonia about language in the liturgy; the revolution among the Serbs of Uskub in 1896, when their new metropolitan celebrated in Greek (Orth. Eastern Church, 326); the ludicrous scandal at Monastir, in Macedonia, when they fought overa dead man's body and set the whole town ablaze because some wanted him to be buried in Greek and some in Rumanian (op. cit., 333).因此,了解有关礼仪的语言在马其顿的轩然大波; Uskub的塞族人之间的革命在1896年,当他们的新的大都市,在希腊庆祝(Orth.东正教,326);莫纳斯提尔可笑的丑闻,在马其顿,当他们打overa死者的尸体,并设置整个城市灯火辉煌,因为有些人希望他要埋在希腊和罗马尼亚(同上,333)。 The great and disastrous Bulgarian schism, the schism at Antioch, are simply questionsof the nationality of the clergy and the language they use.伟大的和灾难性的保加利亚分裂,在安提阿的分裂,只是questionsof国籍的神职人员和他们所使用的语言。

Conclusion 结论

It follows then that the great difficulty in the way of reunion is this question of nationality.如下然后在团聚的方式极大的困难,这是国籍问题。Theology counts for very little.很少神学计数。Creeds and arguments, even when people seem to make much of them, are really only shibboleths, convenient expressions of what they really care about -- their nation.信条和参数,即使当人们似乎使他们太多,真的是只有shibboleths,方便他们真正关心的表现 - 他们的国家。 The question of nature and person in Christ, the Filioque in the Creed, azyme bread, and so on do not really stir the heart of the Eastern Christian.自然和人的问题,在基督的信仰,azyme面包等Filioque真的不搅拌东基督教的心脏。 But he will not become a Frengi .但他不会成为一个Frengi。Hence the importance of the Eastern Catholic Churches.因此,东方教会的重要性。Once for all these people will never become Latins, nor is there any reason why they should.一旦这些人将永远不会成为拉丁人,也没有任何理由,为什么他们要。The wisdom of the Holy See has always been to restore union, to insist on the Catholic Faith, and for the rest to leave each millet alone with its own native hierarchy, its own language, its own rites.教廷的智慧一直恢复联盟,坚持信仰天主教,其余每个小米独自离开自己的母语的层次结构,它自己的语言,自己的宗教仪式。 When this is done we have an Eastern Catholic Church.如果这样做,我们有一个东天主教。

IV.四。ROME AND THE EASTERN CHURCHES罗马和东方教会

Early attempts at reunion早在团聚的尝试

The attempts at reunion date from after the schism of Michael Caerularius (1054).迈克尔Caerularius(1054)的分裂后,试图在团聚的日期。Before that Rome was little concerned about the older Nestorian and Monophysite schisms.在此之前,罗马很少关注旧的景教和基督一性分裂。The conversion of these people might well be left to their neighbours, the Catholics of the Eastern Empire.转换这些人很可能是他们的邻居,东部帝国的天主教徒。Naturally, in those days the Greeks set about this conversion in the most disastrous way conceivable.当然,在那些日子里,希腊人对此可以想象在最灾难性的方式转换。It was the Government of Constantinople that tried to convert them back along the most impossible line, by destroying their nationality and centralizing them under the patriarch of the imperial city.这是政府试图将它们转换回沿最不可能的线,摧毁他们的国籍和集中下皇城的元老,君士坦丁堡。And the means used were, frankly and crudely, persecution.而使用的手段,坦率地说,粗制滥造,迫害。Monophysite conventicles were broken up by imperial soldiers, Monophysite bishops banished or executed.基督一性conventicles帝国士兵被打破,基督一性主教放逐或执行。Of course this confirmed their hatred of Caesar and Caesar's religion.当然,这证实了他们的凯撒,凯撒的宗教仇恨。The East, before as well as after the great schism, did nothing towards pacifying the schismatics at its gates.东,前,后以及伟大的分裂,也没有对平息盖茨schismatics。Only quite lately has Russia taken a more reasonable and conciliatory attitude towards Nestorians in Persia and Abyssinians, who are outside her political power.只有相当近来俄罗斯采取景教波斯和阿比西尼亚一个较为合理和息事宁人的态度,她的政治权力之外的人。Her attitude towards people she can persecute may be seen in her abominable treatment of the Armenians in Russia.她对人,她可以迫害的态度,可以看出她在俄罗斯对亚美尼亚人的恶劣待遇

Councils of Lyons (1274) and Florence (1438)议会的里昂(1274)和佛罗伦萨(1438)

It was, in the first instance, with the Orthodox that Rome treated with a view to reunion.这是,在一审中,东正教与罗马团聚治疗。The Second Council of Lyons (1274) and the Council of Ferrara-Florence (1438-39) were the first efforts on a large scale.里昂(1274)和费拉拉,佛罗伦萨(1438年至1439年)理事会第二届理事会第一次大规模的努力。And at Florence were at least some representatives of all the other Eastern Churches; as a kind of supplement to the great affair of the Orthodox, reunion with them was considered too.在佛罗伦萨,至少有一些所有其他东欧教会的代表,作为一种补充东正教,与亲人团聚的伟大内政,被认为过于。None of these reunions were stable.没有这些团聚稳定。Nevertheless they were, and they remain, important facts.然而他们,他们依然存在,重要的事实。They (the union of Florence especially) were preceded by elaborate discussions in which the attitudes of East and West, Orthodox and Catholic, were clearly compared.他们(佛罗伦萨尤其是联盟)之前,东方和西方,东正教和天主教,的态度显然比较精细的讨论。Every question was examined -- the primacy, the Filioque , azyme bread, purgatory, celibacy, etc.审查每一个问题是-首要地位,Filioque,azyme面包,炼狱,独身等。

The Council of Florence has not been forgotten in the East.佛罗伦萨理事会并没有被遗忘在东。It showed Eastern Christians what the conditions of reunion are, and it has left them always conscious that reunion is possible and is greatly desired by Rome.这表明东部基督徒团聚的条件是什么,它​​已经离开他们总是自觉团聚是可能的,是深受罗马所需。And on the other hand it remains always as an invaluable precedent for the Roman Court.而另一方面,它仍然始终作为一个罗马法院的宝贵先例。The attitude of the Holy See at Florence was the only right one: to be quite unswerving in the question of faith and to concede everything else that possibly can be conceded.罗马教廷的态度在佛罗伦萨是唯一正确的:相当坚定不移的信仰问题,并承认一切可能会承认。There is no need of uniformity in rites or in canon law; as long as practices are not absolutely bad and immoral, each Church may work out its own development along its own lines.没有任何仪式或教会法的统一性的需要,只要做法不是绝对坏的和不道德的,每个教会工作沿着自己的线路自身的发展。Customs that would not suit the West may suit the East very well; and we have no right to quarrel with such customs as long as they are not forced upon us.可能适合,不适合西方的海关东得很好,我们无权吵架只要海关,因为它们不是强加给我们。

So, at Florence, in all these matters there was no attempt at changing the old order.因此,在佛罗伦萨,在所有这些问题有没有改变旧秩序的企图。Each Church was to keep its own liturgy and its own canon law as far as that was not incompatible with the Roman primacy, which is de fide .每个教会是尽量保持自己的礼仪和自己的教会法,因为这是不符合罗马的首要地位, 这是去真正。The very decree that proclaimed the primacy added the clause, that the pope guides and rules the whole Church of God "without prejudice to the rights and privileges of the other patriarchs".法令,宣布至高无上的补充条款,教皇指导和规则的神全教会“在不损害其他元老的权利和特权”。And the East was to keep its married clergy and its leavened bread, was not to say the Filioque in the Creed, nor use solid statues, nor do any of the things they resent as being Latin.和东,以保持其已婚的神职人员和酵的饼,是不是说的信条 Filioque,也不使用固体雕像,也不做任何的事情,他们正在拉美反感。

After the Council of Florence之后,佛罗伦萨理事会

This has been the attitude of Rome ever since.这一直以来罗马的态度。Many popes have published decrees, Encyclicals, Bulls that show that they have never forgotten the venerable and ancient Churches cut off from us by these schisms; in all these documents consistently the tone and attitude are the same.许多教皇已公布的法令,通谕,公牛表明,他们从来没有忘记古老的和古代的削减从我们这些分裂的教会一贯的语气和态度,在所有这些文件是相同的。 If there has been any latinizing movement among Eastern Catholics, it has sprung up among themselves; they have occasionally been disposed to copy practices of the far richer and mightier Latin Church with which they are united.如果有任何latinizing运动在东部天主教徒,它已如雨后春笋般出现彼此之间;他们偶尔被弃置的丰富和壮硕,更有力的拉丁教会与他们团结复制的做法。 But all the Roman documents point the other way.但是,所有罗马的文件指出的其他方式。

If any Eastern customs have been discouraged or forbidden, it is because they were obviously abuses and immoral like the quasi-hereditary patriarchate of the Nestorians, or sheer paganism like the superstitions forbidden by the Maronite Synod of 1736.如果任何东区海关已劝阻或禁止,这是因为他们是明显的虐待和像准世袭的景教主教的职位,或纯粹的异教1736马龙派主教禁止迷信一样不道德。 True, their liturgical books have been altered in places; true also that in the past these corrections were made sometimes by well-meaning officials of Propaganda whose liturgical knowledge was not equal to their pious zeal.诚然,他们的礼仪书籍已改变的地方,也同样如此,在过去的这些更正作了宣传礼仪知识,不等于他们虔诚的热情善意的官员有时。 But in this case, too, the criterion was not conformity with the Roman Rite, but purification from supposed (sometimes mistakenly supposed) false doctrine.但在这种情况下,标准不符合罗马成年礼,但应该(有时误应该)虚假学说的净化。That the Maronite Rite is so latinized is due to its own clergy.龙族Rite是拉丁化是由于自身的神职人员。It was the Maronites themselves who insisted on using our vestments, our azyme bread, our Communion under one kind, till these things had to be recognized, because they were already ancient customs to them prescribed by the use of generations.这是马龙派教徒自己坚持用我们的法衣,我们azyme面包,我们共融的一种下,直到这些东西必须承认,因为他们已经古老的习俗,他们几代人的使用规定。

Papal Documents罗马教皇的文件

A short survey of papal documents relating to the Eastern Churches will make these points clear.有关东方教会的教皇文件的一个简短的调查,使这些观点鲜明。

Before Pius IX, the most important of these documents was Benedict XIV's Encyclical "Allatae sunt" of 2 July, 1755.庇护九世之前,这些文件中最重要的是本笃十四的通谕“Allatae必须遵守”,1755年7月2日至8月10日。In it the pope is able to quote a long list of his predecessors who had already cared for the Eastern Churches and their rites.教皇是在它能够引用一长串东方教会和他们的仪式已经照顾了他的前任。He mentions acts of Innocent III (1198-1216), Honorius III (1216-27), Innocent IV (1243-54), Alexander IV (1254-61), Gregory X (1271-76), Nicholas III (1277-80), Eugene IV (1431-47), Leo X (1513-21), Clement VII (1523-34), Pius IV (1559-65), all to this effect.他提到诺森三世(1198年至1216年),挪三(1216年至1227年),英诺森四(1243年至1254年),亚历山大四世(1254年至1261年),格雷戈里X(1271年至1276年),尼古拉斯三世(1277至1280年的行为),尤金四(1431年至1447年),利奥十(1513年至1521年),克莱门特七世(1523年至1534年),碧岳四(1559年至1565年),所有的这种效果。

Gregory XIII (1572-85) founded at Rome colleges for Greeks, Maronites, Armenians.格雷戈里十三(1572年至1585年),在希腊人的罗马学院成立后,马龙派教徒,亚美尼亚人。In 1602 Clement VIII published a decree allowing Ruthenian priests to celebrate their rite in Latin churches.八,1602年克莱门特公布了一项法令,允许鲁塞尼亚祭司在拉丁美洲教会庆祝仪式。In 1624 Urban VIII forbade Ruthenians to become Latins.1624年,乌尔班八世禁止鲁塞尼亚成为拉丁人。Clement IX, in 1669, published the same order for Armenian Catholics (Allatae sunt, I).克莱门特九,于1669年,出版亚美尼亚天主教徒(Allatae必须遵守,我)的顺序相同。Benedict XIV not only quotes these examples of former popes, he confirms the same principle by new laws.本笃十四不仅引号前教皇的这些例子,他证实了同样的原则,通过新的法律。In 1742 he had re-established the Ruthenian Church with the Byzantine Rite after the national Council of Zamosc, confirming again the laws of Clement VIII in 1595. 1742年,他重新建立了拜占庭成年礼后扎莫希奇国家理事会鲁塞尼亚教会,再次确认在1595年的克莱门特八的法律。When the Melkite Patriarch of Antioch wanted to change the use of the Presanctified Liturgy in his Rite, Benedict XIV answered: "The ancient rubrics of the Greek Church must be kept unaltered, and your priests must be made to follow them" (Bullarium Ben. XIV., Tom. I).当安提阿Melkite祖师想改变使用Presanctified在他的成年礼礼仪,本笃十四回答:“古希腊教会评鉴指标必须保持不变,和你的祭司必须遵循”(Bullarium本。十四,汤姆,我)。 He ordains that Melkites who, for lack ofa priest of their own Rite, had been baptized by a Latin, should not be considered as having changed to our Use: "We forbid absolutely that any Catholic Melkites who follow the Greek Rite should pass over to the Latin Rite" (ib., cap. xvii).他ordains Melkites,缺乏自己的成年礼OFA牧师的洗礼,已经由一个拉丁,不应被视为改变我们的使用,认为:“我们禁止绝对的,任何人跟随希腊成年礼的天主教Melkites应通过拉丁之祭“(同上,第十七章)。

The Encyclical "Allatae sunt" forbids missionaries to convert schismatics to the Latin Rite; when they become Catholics they must join the corresponding Eastern Rite (XI).谕“Allatae必须遵守”禁止传教士转换schismatics拉丁美洲成年礼;他们成为天主教徒时,他们必须加入相应的东部成年礼(十一)。 In the Bull "Etsi pastoralis" (1742) the same pope orders that there shall be no precedence because of Rite.在牛市“ETSI pastoralis”(1742年)相同的教皇的命令应当有没有因为成年礼的优先级。Each prelate shall have rank according to his own position or the date of his ordination; in mixed dioceses, if the bishop is Latin (as in Southern Italy), he is to have at least one vicar-general of the other Rite (IX).每个主教都排名根据自己的立场或他的协调日期;在混合教区主教拉丁美洲(意大利南部),他是有至少一个其他成年礼副主教一般(九) 。

Most of all did the last two popes show their concern for Eastern Christendom.最重要的是最后两个教皇东基督教的关注。Each by a number of Acts carried on the tradition of conciliation towards the schismatical Churches and of protection of Catholic Eastern Rites.每进行调解的传统走向分裂的教会和天主教东礼记保护的行为。

Pius IX, in his Encyclical "In Suprema Petri" (Epiphany, 1848), again assures non-Catholics that "we will keep unchanged your liturgies, which indeed we greatly honour"; schismatic clergy who join the Catholic Church are to keep the same rank and position as they had before.庇护九世,在他的通谕“在Suprema的Petri”(主显节,1848年),再次向非天主教徒说:“我们将保持不变,您的礼仪,而事实上,我们极大的荣誉”;参加天主教会保持相同的分裂神职人员排名和位置,因为他们以前。 In 1853 the Catholic Rumanians were given a bishop of their own Rite, and in the Allocution made on that occasion, as well as in the one to the Armenians on 2 February, 1854, he again insists on the same principle.天主教罗马尼亚人在1853年给予了自己的成年礼的主教,在那次会议上所作的训示,以及在2月2日,1854年的亚美尼亚人之一,他又坚持同样的原则。 In 1860 the Bulgars, disgusted with the Phanar (the Greeks of Constantinople), approached the Catholic Armenian patriarch, Hassun; he, and the pope confirming him, promised that there should be no latinizing of their Rite. Phanar(君士坦丁堡的希腊人)的反感,保加利亚,1860年接近天主教亚美尼亚大主教,Hassun,他和教皇确认他承诺,不应该有他们的成年礼latinizing。 Pius IX founded, 6 January, 1862, a separate department for the Oriental Rites as a special section of the great Propaganda Congregation.庇护九世创立,1862年1月6日,作为一个伟大宣传部众的特殊部分的东方礼仪的独立的部门。

Leo XIII in 1888 wrote a letter to the Armenians (Paterna charitas) in which he exhorts the Gregorians to reunion, always on the same terms.第十三狮子座在1888年写了一个信亚美尼亚人(帕特纳charitas),他在劝告Gregorians团聚,总是在相同的条件。 But his most important act, perhaps the most important of all documents of this kind, is the Encyclical "Orientalium dignitas ecclesiarum" of 30 November, 1894.但他最重要的行为,也许这种文件最重要的,是通谕“Orientalium dignitas ecclesiarum”11月30日,1894年。In this letter the pope reviewed and confirmed all similar acts of his predecessors and then strengthened them by yet severer laws against any form of latinizing the East.教皇在这封信中审查和确认他的前任的所有类似的行为,然后加强他们还严厉打击任何形式的latinizing东法律。The first part of the Encyclical quotes examples of the care of former popes for Eastern Rites, especially of Pius IX; Pope Leo remembers also what he himself has already done for the same cause -- the foundation of colleges at Rome, Philippopoli, Adrianople, Athens, and St. Ann at Jerusalem.东部仪式照顾前教皇通谕引号的例子,尤其是庇护九世教皇利奥的第一部分;记得他自己已经由于同样的原因 - 高校在罗马,Philippopoli,阿德里安堡的基础,雅典,圣安在耶路撒冷。He again commands that in these colleges students should be exactly trained to observe their own rites.他再次命令,在这些高校的学生应完全训练观察自己的宗教仪式。He praises these venerable Eastern liturgies as representing most ancient and sacred traditions, and quotes again the text that has been used so often for this purpose, circumdata varietate applied to the queen, who is the Church (Ps. xliv, 10).他称赞这些古老的东方礼仪,代表最古老,最神圣的传统,再次报价已被用于此目的,circumdata varietate适用于女王,谁是教会(诗篇四十四,10)经常文本。The Constitutions of Benedict XIV against latinizers are confirmed; new and most severe laws are promulgated: any missionary who tries to persuade an Eastern-Rite Catholic to join the Latin Rite is ipso facto suspended, and is to be expelled from his place.对latinizers本笃十四宪法确认;颁布的新的和最严重的的法律:任何传教士试图说服东部成年礼天主教加入拉丁美洲成年礼是依据事实暂停,并从他的位置被驱逐。 In colleges where boys of different Rites are educated there are to be priests of each Rite to administer the sacraments.在男孩不同的仪式教育学院有每个仪式的祭司,管理圣礼。In case of need one may receive a sacrament from a priest of another Rite; but for Communion it should be, if possible, at least one who uses the same kind of bread.在需要的情况下,可能会收到一个从另一个仪式的祭司的圣事,但它应为圣餐,如果可能的话,至少有一个人使用同一种面包。 No length of use can prescribe a change of Rite.没有使用长度可以开一个成年礼的变化。A woman marrying may conform to her husband's Rite, but if she becomes a widow she must go back to her own.一个女人结婚可能符合丈夫的成年礼,但如果她变成了寡妇,她必须回到她自己的。

In the Encyclical "Praeclara gratulationis', of 20 June, 1894, that has been often described as "Leo XIII's testament", he again turned to the Eastern Churches and invited them in the most courteous and the gentlest way to come back to communion with us. He assures schismatics that no great difference exists between their faith and ours, and repeats once more that he would provide for all their customs without narrowness (Orth. Eastern Church, 434, 435). It was this letter that called forth the unpardonably offense answer of Anthimos VII of Constantinople (op. cit., 435-438). Nor, as long as he lived, did Leo XIII cease caring for Eastern Churches. On 11 June, 1895, he wrote the letter "Unitas christiana" to be the Copts, and on 24 December of that same year he restored the Catholic Coptic patriarchate. Lastly, on 19 March, 1895, in a motu proprio , he again insisted on the reverence due to the Eastern Churches and explained the duties of Latin delegates in the East.在通谕“Praeclara gratulationis”,20年6月,1894年,,已被经常作为描述的“狮子座第十三的遗书”,他再次打开的东方教会,邀请的最有礼貌他们和在柔和的方式来来回共融与我们保证schismatics没有太大区别,他们的信仰和我们之间存在着,并重复一次,他会为他们没有狭隘的习俗(Orth.东正教,434,435)这是这封信,要求提出的unpardonably罪行的答案。Anthimos君士坦丁堡第七(同上,435-438)的NOR,只要他住,利奥十三世停止照顾东方教会,1895年6月11日,他写的信“联合文学克里斯蒂娜”科普特人,并于同年12月24日,他恢复了天主教科普特东正教会最后,1895年3月19日,在 MOTU proprio,他再次坚持由于东方教会的崇敬,并解释拉美代表的职责在东部地区。

As a last example of all, Pius X in his Allocution, after the now famous celebration of the Byzantine Liturgy in his presence on 12 February, 1908, again repeated the same declaration of respect for Eastern rites and customs and the same assurance of his intention to preserve them (Echos d'Orient, May, 1908, 129-31).作为最后一个例子,皮亚斯X在他的训示,现在著名的2月12日的庆祝活动后,在他面前的拜占庭礼仪的,1908年,东方的仪式和习俗的尊重相同的声明,和同样的保证,他打算再次重复保存他们(回声报“东方德,日,1908年,129-31)。 Indeed this spirit of conservatism with regard to liturgies is in our own time growing steadily at Rome with the increase of liturgical knowledge, so that there is reason to believe that whatever unintentional mistakes have been made in the past (chiefly with regard to the Maronite and Catholic Armenian rites) will now gradually be corrected, and that the tradition of the most entire acceptance and recognition of other rites in the East will be maintained even more firmly than in the past.事实上,这种保守主义与礼仪方面的精神在我们自己的时间在罗马稳步增长礼仪知识的增加,因此,我们有理由相信,无论在过去已无意失误(主要是关于龙族和现在,天主教亚美尼亚仪式)将逐步得到纠正,将保持不变,甚至比以往更加坚定的最全的接受和承认其他仪式在东传统。

Conclusion结论

On the other hand, in spite of occasional outbursts of anti-papal feeling on the part of the various chiefs of these Churches, it is certain that the vision of unity is beginning to make itself seen very widely in the East.另一方面,尽管偶尔爆发的反教皇对这些教会的各种酋长一部分的感觉,它是一定的,团结的愿景已经开始使自己看到在东非常广泛。 In the first place, education and contact with Western Europeans inevitably breaks down a great part of the old prejudice, jealousy, and fearof us.摆在首位,教育和西欧的接触不可避免地打破了旧的偏见,嫉妒,和fearof我们的伟大的一部分。It was a Latin missionary who said lately: "They are finding out that we are neither so vicious nor so clever as they had thought."这是一个拉丁传教士最近说:“他们发现,我们既不是如此恶毒,也不是那么聪明,因为他们认为” And with this intercourse grows the hope of regeneration for their own nations by contact with the West.与此性交和发展再生与西方的接触,希望为自己的国家。Once they realize that we do not want to eat them up, and that their milal are safe, whatever happens, they cannot but see the advantages we have to offer them.一旦他们意识到,我们不想吃他们,和他们 milal是安全的,无论发生什么事,他们不能,但看到我们的优势,为他们提供。And with this feeling goes the gradual realization of something larger in the way of a Church than their own milal .而这种感觉去的东西大于自己milal的教会的方式逐步实现。Hitherto, it was difficult to say that the various Eastern schismatics understood by the "Catholic Church" in the creed.迄今为止,这是很难说的,“天主教”的信条理解各种东区schismatics。The Orthodox certainly always mean their own communion only ("Orth. Eastern Church", 366-70); the other smaller bodies certainly hold that they alone have the true faith; everyone else -- especially Latins -- is a heretic.东正教一定总是意味着自己的共融只(“奥思东方教会”,366-70);其他较小的机构认为,只有他们有真正的信仰;其他人 - 尤其是拉丁 - 是一个邪教组织。So, presumably, for them, too, the Catholic Church is only their own body.因此,据推测,对于他们来说,太,天主教会只有自己的身体。But this is passing with the growth of more knowledge of other countries and a juster sense of perspective.但是,这是通过与其他国家更多的知识和juster感的角度的增长。The Nestorian who looks at a map of the world can hardly go on believing that his sect is the only and whole Church of Christ.景教在世界地图上看起来很难去相信他的节只和整个教会是基督的。And with the apprehension of larger issues there comes the first wish for reunion.而逮捕较大的问题,来团聚的第一个愿望。 For a Church consisting of mutually excommunicate bodies is a monstrosity that is rejected by everyone (except perhaps some Armenians) in the East.对于一个相互革除机构组成的教会是一个每个人都被拒绝在东(也许除了一些亚美尼亚)的怪物。

The feeling out towards the West for sympathy, help, and perhaps eventually communion, is in the direction of Catholics, not of Protestants.感觉对西方同情,帮助,也许最终的共融,是天主教徒的方向,而不是新教徒。Protestantism is too remote from all their theology, and its principles are too destructive of all their system for it to attract them.新教是从他们的神学太遥远,它的原则是过他们所有的系统,以吸引他们的破坏性。Harnack notes this of Russians: that their more friendly feeling towards the West tends Romeward, not in an Evangelical direction (Reden and Aufsätze, II, 279); it is at least equally true of other Eastern Churches.哈纳克指出的俄罗斯,他们对西方的友好的感情往往Romeward,在福音的方向(Reden和Aufsätze,二,279),它是至少同样其他东欧教会的真实。 When the conviction has spread that they have everything to gain by becoming again members of a really universal Church, that union with Rome means all the advantages of Western ideas and a sound theological position, and that, on the other hand, it leaves the national millet untouched, un-latinized, and only stronger for so powerful an alliance, then indeed the now shadowy and remote issues about nature and person in Christ, the entirely artificial grievances of the Filioque and our azyme bread will easily be buried in the dust that has gathered over them for centuries, and Eastern Christians may some day wake up and find that there is nothing to do but to register again a union that ought never to have been broken.当信念传播他们有百利而无再次成为一个真正的普世教会的成员,与罗马的联盟意味着西方思想中的所有优势和良好的神学立场,和,另一方面,它使国家小米不变,联合国拉丁化,只有如此强大的一个联盟,然后确实对自然和人在基督里,Filioque和我们azyme面包的完全人工的怨气现在的阴影和远程问题将很容易被掩埋在灰尘,已经聚集了数百年来,对他们和东部基督徒可能在某一天醒来发现,没有什么做的,但重新注册一个联盟,应该从来没有被打破。

Adrian Fortescue阿德里安Fortescue的
Transcribed by Christine J. Murray转录由Christine J.默里

The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909. Remy Lafort, Censor 天主教百科全书,第五卷Nihil Obstat,1909年5月1人头马lafort,检查员
Imprimatur. +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约的认可



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