Gospel, Godspel, Godspell, Evangelion福音

General Information一般资料

A Gospel is one of the four accounts of the life and teachings of Jesus Christ that begin the New Testament; selections from these books are read or sung in Christian churches during worship services.福音是耶稣基督的生命和教义的四个帐户,开始新约之一,从这些书籍的选择是在基督教教会在礼拜读或唱。The English word Gospel is derived from the Old English godspel (good tidings), which is a rendering of the Greek evangelion (good news).英语单词的福音是来自古英语godspel(好消息),这是一个希腊新世纪福音战士 (好消息)的渲染。Scholars generally agree that all four Gospels, which are written in Greek, draw on earlier Aramaic oral or written sources that preserved many of the actual works and sayings of Jesus.学者们普遍认同,所有四个福音,这是写在希腊,借鉴早期阿拉姆口头或书面的来源,保存了许多实际工程和熟语的耶稣。

Synoptic Gospels观福音

The first three Gospels (Matthew, Mark, and Luke) are called the Synoptic Gospels (Greek synoptikos,"viewing at a glance") because they provide the same general view of the life and teaching of Jesus.前三个福音(马太,马可和路加)被称为天气福音(希腊synoptikos,“一目了然查看”),因为它们提供相同的耶稣的生活和教学的一般看法。 They narrate almost the same incidents, often agreeing in the order of events, and use similar phrasing.他们叙述几乎相同的事件,往往同意在事件发生的顺序,并使用类似的措辞。In many instances they use identical phrasing.在许多情况下,他们使用相同的措辞。

Until the 19th century nearly all scholars and theologians believed that Matthew was the earliest Gospel.直到19世纪,几乎所有的学者和神学家认为马太是最早的福音。Mark was believed to be an abridged version of Matthew.马克被认为是一个删节版的马修。Luke, which appeared to based on Matthew and Mark, was believed to be the latest of the three.卢克,从而出现了基于马修和马克,被认为是最新的三个。With some modification, this remains the view of some conservative scholars.进行一些修改,这仍然是一些保守的学者的看法。

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Today, most other scholars accept some modified form of the two-document hypothesis, first developed in the latter part of the 19th century.今天,其他大多数学者接受一些修改两个文件假设的形式,首先在19世纪后期的一部分开发。 According to this hypothesis, Mark is the earliest Gospel and provided much of the narrative material, as well as the chronological framework, for both Matthew and Luke.根据这一假说,马克是最早的福音,并提供许多叙事材料,以及年代框架马太和路加。A collection of sayings (with a few narratives) of Jesus, which may have been written in Aramaic, was the second main document, or source, employed by Matthew and Luke (a number of scholars, however, do not agree that it was a single document).熟语的耶稣,可能已经在亚拉姆语写的的,(有几个叙述)集合的第二个主要文件,或源,马修和卢克(多位学者聘请,但是,不同意,这是一个单一的文件)。 This document provided the material lacking in Mark and then, apparently, was lost.本文件提供的材料,缺乏在马克,然后,显然,丢失了。It usually is designated as Q (German Quelle,"source"), but sometimes as Logia (Greek for "words" or "sayings").它通常被指定 Q(德文Quelle的,“源”),但有时为Logia(希腊文“字”或“熟语”) 。The authors of Matthew and Luke may also have drawn material from other sources available to them individually.马太和路加的作者,也可能来自其他来源提供给他们单独的材料。


The Gospel attributed to John the Evangelist differs in many respects from the Synoptics.归因于约翰福音的传播者,从福音的许多方面有所不同。Several incidents mentioned in John do not occur in any of the Synoptics, and others recorded in the Synoptics are not recorded in John.在约翰提到的几个事件没有发生任何的福音,和其他的福音记录不记录在约翰。Also, some of the events common to all of the Gospels appear in a different order in John's narrative: The cleansing of the Temple, for example, appears almost at the beginning of John (2:13-25), but in the Synoptics it is put after Jesus' triumphant final entry into Jerusalem.此外,部分共同所有的福音事件以不同的顺序出现在约翰的叙述:洁净圣殿,例如,几乎在约翰(2:13-25)开始出现,但在对观福音耶稣胜利进入耶路撒冷的最后一个项目之后。 Most important, John gives different dates for the Last Supper and for the Crucifixion; the former occurs in John before the feast of the Passover, and the latter before the first day of the Passover.最重要的是,约翰给出了最后的晚餐,为受难的日期不同,前者发生在约翰逾越节之前,后者的逾越节的第一天前。Furthermore, in John, Jesus' public ministry is described as lasting for more than two years, whereas the Synoptists describe it as lasting for about one year.此外,在约翰,耶稣“公安部是形容历时两年多,而Synoptists描述,为期约一年。Finally, in John, Jesus spends much of his time in Judea, often visiting Jerusalem; the Synoptists center his public ministry in and about the province of Galilee.最后,在约翰,耶稣度过他的大部分时间在朱迪亚,经常访问耶路撒冷; Synoptists中心,他在加利利省和有关的公共事务部。

Not only the chronology of the narrative, but also the form and content of Jesus' teaching is different in John.不仅年表的叙述,而且形式和耶稣的教学内容是在约翰不同。The Synoptists present it mainly in the form of parable and epigram.Synoptists目前主要是在比喻和警句的形式。The author of John, however, presents it in long allegorical or meditative discourses and discussions - for example, those on the Good Shepherd (chapter 10) and the Vine (chapter 15).然而,笔者约翰介绍,它在长期的寓言或冥想的论述和讨论 - 例如,那些对善牧(第10章)和藤(第15章)。Characteristically, during some of these lengthy discourses, Jesus frequently expresses himself in pithy one-sentence metaphors, such as the following: "I am the bread of life" (6:35); "I am the light of the world" (8:12); "I am the way, and the truth, and the life" (14:6).特色,在一些这些冗长的话语,耶稣经常表示自己在精辟的一句话比喻,如以下:“我就是生命的粮”(6:35);“我是世界的光”(8 :12);“我的方式,和真理,生命”(14:6)。The teaching of Jesus in John generally is concerned more with Jesus' divine nature and relationship to God, whereas the Synoptists tend to emphasize his messianic vocation and dwell more on everyday religious and ethical matters.耶稣在约翰的教学一般是有关耶稣的神性和上帝的关系,而Synoptists往往强调他的救世主的使命和纠缠于日常的宗教和伦理问题的更多信息。 In addition, John emphasizes the nature and purpose of Jesus from the start of his Gospel.此外,约翰强调耶稣的性质和宗旨,从开始他的福音。In the Synoptics, these are revealed later in the ministry.在福音,这些都是后来发现,在部。

Modern biblical scholars agree that the Gospel of John was written after the Synoptic Gospels.现代圣经学者同意后观福音的书面约翰福音。However, there is considerable disagreement over whether the author of John knew the Synoptics and used them as sources.然而,约翰的作者是否知道福音和他们用作来源的相当大的分歧。Some scholars believe the author may have known and used the Gospels of Mark and Luke.有的学者认为作者可能知道和使用的马克和卢克福音。

Liturgical Use礼仪使用

In the liturgical sense, the term Gospel is applied to the short selections from the four Gospels that are read or sung in the Roman Catholic Mass and the Anglican Communion service, between the Epistle and the creed.在礼仪上,长期福音读或唱,在罗马天主教地下和英国圣公会服务之间的书信和信条,从四福音的短期选择。In the early centuries of the Christian era, Gospel readings were continuous: A day's reading began at the point in the Gospel at which it had been interrupted in the previous service.在世纪初的基督教时代,福音读数连续点开始一天的阅读中,它已经在以前的服务中断的福音。The Gospel selection now used for each day is determined by the order of worship set forth in the missal or, according to certain rules, is one chosen by the celebrant from a special lectionary.现在每天用福音的选择是由崇拜在missal或提出的顺序,按照一定的规则,是从一个特殊的lectionary证婚选择。


Advanced Information先进的信息

The English word "gospel" (from the Anglo-Saxon god-spell, ie, God-story) is the usual NT translation of the Greek euangelion.英文单词“福音”(盎格鲁撒克逊神的咒语,神的故事,即)是通常的NT希腊euangelion翻译。According to Tyndale, the renowned English Reformer and Bible translator, it signified "good, mery, glad and ioyfull tydinge, that maketh a mannes hert glad, and maketh hym synge, daunce, and leepe for ioye" (Prologue to NT).据丁道尔,英国著名的改革者和圣经翻译,它标志着“好,梅里,很高兴和ioyfull tydinge,maketh一个曼恩斯hert高兴,并maketh HYM辛格,daunce,并为ioye leepe”(序幕新台币)。 While his definition is more experiential than explicative, it has touched that inner quality which brings the word to life.虽然他的定义是超过explicative体验,它感动,内在质量的生活带来了字。The gospel is the joyous proclamation of God's redemptive activity in Christ Jesus on behalf of man enslaved by sin.福音是神在基督耶稣里的救赎的活动,代表被罪奴役的人的欢乐宣布。


Euangelion (neut. sing.) is rarely found in the sense of "good tidings" outside of early Christian literature.Euangelion(neut.唱)是很少发现早期基督教文学之外的“好消息”的意识。As used by Homer it referred not to the message but to the reward given to the messenger (eg, Odyssey xiv. 152).正如荷马用它提到的消息,但不信使(如奥德赛十四152)的奖励。In Attic Greek it always occurred in the plural and generally referred to sacrifices or thank offerings made in behalf of good tidings.在雅典希腊,它总是出现在复数,通常被称为牺牲或感谢祭代表好消息。Even in the LXX euangelion is found for sure but once (II Kings 4:10: Eng. versions, II Sam.) and there it has the classical meaning of a reward given for good tidings.即使在LXX euangelion是肯定,但一旦(二国王4:10:。英文版本,二,三)有经典意义的好消息给予奖励。(In II Kings 18:22, 25, euangelion should undoubtedly be taken as fem. sing. in harmony with vss. 20 and 27 where this form is certain.) Euangelion in the sense of the good news itself belongs to a later period.(在二国王18:22 25,euangelion无疑应该采取FEM唱和谐与VSS 20和27这种形式是肯定的。)Euangelion感本身属于一个后期的好消息。Outside of Christian literature the neuter singular first appears with this meaning in a papyrus letter from an Egyptian official of the third century AD In the plural it is found in a calendar inscription from Priene about 9 BC It is not until the writings of the apostolic fathers (eg, Didache 8:2; II Clement 8:5) that we sense a transition to the later Christian usage of euangelion as referring to a book which sets forth the life and teaching of Jesus (Justin, Apology i. 66).基督教文学之外的中性奇异首次出现在从埃及官员在公元三世纪的复数,它是在公元前约9 Priene日历题词的纸莎草纸的信,这是不与这个意​​义上,直到使徒教父的著作(例如,十二使徒遗训8:2;第二克莱门特8:5),我们的感觉是指载列了一本书,耶稣的生活和教学(贾斯汀,道歉一66)过渡euangelion后来基督教的用法。

Against this background the frequency with which euangelion occurs in the NT (more than seventy-five times) with the specific connotation of "good news" is highly informative.在此背景下的频率euangelion在与“好消息”的具体内涵新台币(超过72五倍)的发生是非常翔实。 It suggests that euangelion is quite distinctively a NT word.它表明,euangelion是相当独特的新台币字。Its true significance is therefore found, not by probing its linguistic background, but by observing its specific Christian usage.因此,发现其真正的意义,而不是通过探测其语言背景,但通过观察其具体基督教用法。

This is not to deny, of course, that the basic concept has its rightful origin in the religious aspirations of the nation Israel.这是不能否认,当然,基本概念,其在以色列国的宗教愿望的合法来源。 Some seven centuries before Christ the prophet Isaiah had delivered a series of prophetic utterances.基督先知以赛亚的前七世纪已交付了一系列预言的话语。With vivid imagery he portrayed the coming deliverance of Israel from captivity in Babylon.通过生动的形象,他描绘从囚禁在巴比伦的以色列未来的解脱。A Redeemer shall come to Zion preaching good tidings unto the meek and liberty to the captives (Isa. 60:1-2).一个救赎者应来锡安说教温顺和自由的俘虏(以赛亚书60:1-2)你们的好消息。"How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of him who brings good tidings" (Isa. 52:7). “后山美丽的是他的脚带来了好消息”(以赛亚书52:7)。Jerusalem itself is pictured as a herald whose message is good tidings (Isa. 40:9).耶路撒冷本身就是描绘成一个先驱,其消息是好消息(以赛亚书40:9)。

Jesus saw in these prophecies a description of his own mission (Luke 4:18-21; 7:22).耶稣看见这些预言中描述自己的使命(路加福音4:18-21; 7:22)。They expressed that same sense of liberation and exultation which was the true characteristic of his messianic proclamation.他们表示同样的意义,解放和欢欣,这是他的救世主的宣布的真正的特点。What was a first simply a literary allusion came easily to represent the actual message which was being proclaimed.什么是第一个只是文学典故来轻松地代表实际的消息,这是被宣布。Euangelion was the natural result of the LXX's euangelizein.Euangelion的lxx的euangelizein的自然结果。Thus Mark could write that Jesus came into Galilee "heralding the euangelion of God" (Mark 1:14).因此,马克可以写,耶稣来到加利利“,预示着euangelion神”(马可福音1:14)。

Euangelion in the GospelsEuangelion中的福音

Upon examining the four Gospels we find that the word euangelion is used only by Matthew and Mark.经审查四福音中,我们发现,马修和马克只字euangelion。The concept, however, is not foreign to Luke.这个概念,但是,是不是外国卢克。He uses the verb form twenty-six times in Luke-Acts, and the noun twice in the latter book.他使​​用的动词形式二十六倍卢克行为,并名词两次在后者的书。In the Fourth Gospel there is no trace of either verb or noun.在第四福音没有一丝无论是动词或名词。

In all but one instance Matthew further describes euangelion as the gospel "of the kingdom."但在所有的实例马修进一步说明了福音euangelion“的王国。”This gospel is not to be distinguished from what Mark calls the "gospel of God" (many manuscripts read "the gospel of the kingdom of God") and summarizes in the words," "the time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand" (Mark 1:14-15). On the other occasion Matthew writes "this gospel" (Matt. 26:13), the context indicating that Jesus is alluding to his coming death. The phrase "preaching the gospel of the kingdom" is twice used in summary statements of the ministry of Jesus (Matt. 4:23; 9:35). This gospel is to be preached throughout the entire world prior to the consummation of the age (Matt. 24:14; cf. Mark 13:10).这福音不是从什么马克称之为“神的福音”(许多手稿读“神的国的福音”)的话总结,“履行时间,和神的国度是杰出的手“(马可福音1:14-15)在其他场合。马修写的”福音“(太26:13),上下文表明耶稣是暗指他即将死亡,这句话是”传福音王国“是两次使用(太4:23; 9:35)耶稣部汇总报表。福音是整个世界宣讲圆满的年龄(太24:14;比照前马克13:10)。

The way in which Mark uses euangelion is suggested by his opening words, "The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God." Mark使用euangelion以何种方式是由他的开场白的建议,“耶稣基督的福音的开始,是神的儿子。”Here euangelion is a semitechnical term meaning "the glad news which tells about Jesus Christ."这里的euangelion是一个semitechnical意思是“高兴的消息,关于耶稣基督告诉。”Where Luke writes "for the sake of the kingdom of God" (Luke 18:29), the Markan parallel is "for my sake and for the gospel" (Mark 10:29).卢克写道:“为了神的国度”(卢克18时29分),Markan并行的是“为我着想,为福音”(马可福音10:29)。 This gospel is of such tremendous import that for its sake a man must be willing to enter upon a life of complete self-denial (Mark 8:35).这福音是如此巨大的进口,其为了一个人必须愿意进入后,一个完整的自我否定的生命(马可福音8:35)。In the long ending of Mark, Christ commands his disciples to "preach the gospel to the whole creation" (Mark 16:15).在马克的结束,基督命令他的门​​徒“传福音给整个创作”(马可福音16:15)。

The Gospel According to Paul据保罗的福音

Over against the six occasions (discounting parallels) on which euangelion is used by the Gospel writers, it is found a total of sixty times in the writings of Paul.在对6场合(贴现相似之处)上euangelion是福音作者,它是在保罗的著作共六十次。Euangelion is a favorite Pauline term.Euangelion是最喜欢的宝莲任期。It is evenly distributed throughout his epistles, missing only in his note to Titus.它是均匀分布在整个他的书信的,只有在他的注意,以提图斯失踪。

Paul's ministry was distinctively that of the propagation of the gospel.保罗的职事是独特的传播福音。Unto this gospel he was set apart (Rom. 1:1) and made a minister according to the grace of God (Eph. 3:7).赐给这福音,他除了(罗马书1:1)和一个部长根据神的恩典(弗3:7)。His special sphere of action was the Gentile world (Rom. 16:16; Gal. 2:7).他的行动的特殊领域,是詹蒂莱世界(罗马书16:16;加拉太2:7)。Since Paul accepted the gospel as a sacred trust (Gal. 2:7), it was necessary that in the discharge of this obligation he speak so as to please God rathern than man (I Tim. 2:4).由于作为一种神圣的信任(加拉太书2:7)保罗接受了福音,它是必要的,在履行这一义务,他说,以请神rathern比男子(我添。2:4)。 The divine commission had created a sense of urgency that made him cry out, "Woe to me if I do not preach the gospel" (I Cor. 9:16).神圣的委员会创造了一种紧迫感,让他哭出来,“有祸了我,如果我不传福音”(我肺心病。9:16)。For the sake of the gospel Paul was willing to become all things to all men (I Cor. 9:22-23).为了福音保罗愿意成为所有事情所有的人(我肺心病。9:22-23)。No sacrifice was too great.牺牲太大。Eternal issues were at stake.永恒的问题受到了威胁。Those whose minds were blinded and did not obey the gospel were perishing and would ultimately reap the vengeance of divine wrath (II Cor. 4:3; II Thess. 1:9).那些被蒙蔽的头脑和不服从的福音被灭亡,并最终将获得神的愤怒的报复(二肺心病4:3;二帖前1:9)。On the other hand, to those who believed, the gospel had effectively become the power of God unto salvation (Rom. 1:16).另一方面,谁相信,福音,有效地成为神的救恩的力量(罗马书1:16)。

Because Paul on occasion speaks of his message as "my gospel" (Rom. 2:16; II Tim. 2:8), and because in his letter to the Galations he goes to some pains to stress that he did not receive it from man (Gal. 1:11ff.), it is sometimes maintained that Paul's gospel should be distinguished from that of apostolic Christianity in general.因为他的消息,有时保罗谈“我的福音”(罗2:16; II添2:8),因为在他的信中向加拉太中,他去一些阵痛强调,他没有收到它从人(加拉太书1:11 FF),有时是维持杰出的,应在一般的基督教使徒保罗的福音。

This does not follow.这不遵循。I Cor.我肺心病。15:3-5 sets forth with crystal clarity the message of primitive Christianity.15:3-5载列晶莹澄澈的原始基督教的消息。 Paul, using terms equivalent to the technical rabbinic words for the reception and transmission of tradition, refers to this message as something which he had received and passed on (vs. 3).保罗,相当于接收和传输的传统技术拉比的话的使用方面,是指此消息的东西,他已收到(比3)通过。In vs. 11 he can say, "Whether then it was I or they, so we preach and so you believed."在对11,他可以说,“无论然后,它是我或者他们,所以我们宣讲,所以你相信。”In Galations, Paul tells how he laid before the apostles at Jerusalem the gospel which he had preached.保罗在加拉太书,讲述如何奠定了他在耶路撒冷之前他福音的使徒。Far from finding fault with the message, they extended to him the right hand of fellowship (Gal. 2:9).从发现故障的消息,他们延伸到他的​​右手相交(加拉太书2:9)。What Paul meant by his earlier remarks is that the charges against his gospel as a mere human message were completely fraudulent.保罗他刚才所说的意思是,对他作为一个单纯的人类消息的福音的指控是完全欺诈。The revelation of the full theological impact of the Christ-event was God-given and stemmed from his encounter on the Damascus road.基督事件的完整的神学影响的启示是上帝赋予的,从他在大马士革的路上遇到阻挡。Thus he speaks of "my gospel" meaning his own personal apprehension of the gospel.因此,他说“我的福音”的含义了自己的个人福音逮捕。On other occasions he can speak freely of "our gospel" (II Cor. 4:3; I Thess. 1:5).在其他场合,他可以畅所欲言“我们的福音”(二肺心病。4:3;帖前1:5)。

For Paul, the euangelion is preeminently the "gospel of God" (Rom. 1:1; 15:16; II Cor. 11:7; I Thes. 2:2, 8-9).对于保罗,euangelion preeminently“上帝的福音”(罗1:1; 15时16分,二肺心病11:7;我帖前2:2,8-9)。It proclaims the redemptive activity of God.它宣告上帝救赎的活动。This activity is bound up with the person and work of God's Son, Christ Jesus.这项活动势必与人,神的儿子,基督耶稣的工作。 Thus it is also the "gospel of Christ" (I Cor. 9:12; II Cor. 2:12; 9:13; 10:14; Gal. 1:7; I Thess. 3:2; vss. 16 and 19 of Rom. 15 indicate that these are interchangeable terms).因此,它是“基督的福音”(林前9:12;二肺心病。2:12; 9:13; 10点14分。加尔1:7;帖前3:2; VSS 16和。罗15 19表明,这些是可以互换的条款)。This gospel is variously expressed as "the gospel of our Lord Jesus" (II Thess. 1:8), "the gospel of the glory of the blessed God" (I Tim. 1:11), "the gospel of his Son" (Rom. 1:9), and "the gospel of the glory of Christ" (II Cor. 4:4).这福音是不同的表述为“我们的主耶稣基督的福音”(二帖前1:8),“福音的祝福神的荣耀”(我添。1:11),“他儿子的福音” (罗马书1:9),(二肺心病。4:4)“基督的荣耀的福音”。It is a gospel of salvation (Eph. 1:13) and peace (Eph. 6:15).这是一个福音的救恩(弗1:13)与和平“(弗6:15)。It proclaims the hope of eternal life (Col. 1:23).它宣称永生的盼望(西1:23)。It is "the word of truth" (Col. 1:5; Eph. 1:13).这是“真理”这个词(上校1:5;弗1时13分)。Through this gospel, life and immortality are brought to light (II Tim. 1:10).通过这个福音,生命和不朽的光(二添。1:10)。

The Apostolic Preaching使徒的说教

If we wish to investigate more closely the specific content of the primitive gospel, we will do well to adopt the basic approach of CH Dodd (The Apostolic Preaching and Its Developments).如果我们要更加紧密地调查的具体内容的原始福音,我们将做好采取CH多德的基本方法(使徒的说教及其发展)。 While Dodd refers to the message as kerygma, he is ready to admit that this term is a virtual equivalent of euangelion.虽然多德是指作为kerygma的消息,他是准备承认,这个词是一个相当于虚拟euangelion。(Kerygma stresses the manner of delivery; euangelion, the essential nature of the content.) (Kerygma强调交付方式; euangelion,内容的本质)

There are two sources for the determination of the primitive proclamation.原始宣布的决心有两个来源。Of primary importance are the fragments of pre-Pauline tradition that lie embedded in the writings of the apostle.最重要的是在于使徒的著作预宝莲传统嵌入式片段。These segments can be uncovered by the judicious application of certain literary and formal criteria.这些片段可以发现一定的文学和正式标准的明智应用。While at least one purports to be the actual terms in which the gospel was preached (I Cor. 15:3-5), others take the form of early Christian hymns (eg, Phil. 2:6-11), summaries of the message (eg, Rom. 10:9), or creedal formulas (I Cor. 12:3; I Tim. 3:16).虽然至少有一个看来是福音鼓吹(我肺心病。15:3-5)的实际条款,其他早期基督教赞美诗的形式(例如,菲尔。2:6-11),摘要消息(例如,罗10:9),或creedal公式(林前12:3;我添3:16)。

A second source is the early Petrine speeches in Acts.第二个来源是早在使徒伯多禄发言。These speeches (on the basis of their Aramaic background, freedom from Paulinism, and the general trustworthiness of Luke as a historian) can be shown to give reliably the gist of what Peter actually said and not what a second generation Christian thought he might have said.可以证明给可靠的彼得居然说的要点,不是哪一个基督教思想的第二代,他可能会说这些发言(阿拉姆背景,从Paulinism自由,和一般的卢克作为一个历史学家的可信性的基础上,) 。

These two sources combine to set forth one common apostolic gospel.这两个来源相结合,设置了一个共同的使徒福音。In briefest outline, this message contained: (1) a historical proclamation of the death, resurrection, and exaltation of Jesus, set forth as the fulfillment of prophecy and involving man's responsibility; (2) a theological evaluation of the person of Jesus as both Lord and Christ; (3) a summons to repent and receive the forgiveness of sins.在最短的轮廓,此消息中包含:(1)死亡的历史宣告复活,和耶稣的提高,实现的预言和涉及人的责任规定;(2)一个人耶稣既是神学评价上帝和基督;(3)传票,悔改,接受赦罪的。

It will be noticed that the essential core of this message is not the dawn of the messianic age (as Dodd implies), although this is most certainly involved, but that sequence of redemptive events which sweeps the hearer along with compelling logic toward the climactic confession that Jesus is Lord.这将是注意到,此消息的基本核心是不是弥赛亚时代的黎明(多德意味着),虽然这是最肯定参与,但序列,扫描一起引人注目的逻辑走向高潮自白听者的救赎事件耶稣是主。

The gospel is not the product of a bewildered church pondering the theological significance of Good Friday.福音不是惶惑琢磨教会神学意义的耶稣受难日的产品。It is rather the result of a natural development which had its origins in the teachings of Jesus himself.这是相当自然的发展,它的起源在耶稣自己的教导的结果。The Passion sayings of Jesus, far from being "prophecies after the event" (cf. R. Bultmann, Theology of the NT, I 29), are undeniable evidence that Jesus laid the foundation for a theology of the cross.耶稣受难记的说法,“远离”预言事件后(参见R.布特曼,神学的新台币,我29),是不可否认的证据表明耶稣十字架神学奠定基础。 In his teaching regarding his own person Jesus furnished what RH Fuller has aptly termed "the raw materials of Christology" (The Mission and Achievement of Jesus).在他的教学,对自己的人耶稣布置相对湿度富勒恰当地称之为“原料”的基督(耶稣的使命和成就)。The resurrection was the catalyst which precipitated in the minds of the disciples the total significance of God's redemptive activity.复活沉淀的弟子心目中的上帝的救赎活动的总意义的催化剂。It released the gospel!它释放的福音!

This gospel is power (Rom. 1:16).这福音就是力量(罗马书1:16)。As an instrument of the Holy Spirit it convicts (I Thess. 1:5) and converts (Col. 1:6).作为圣灵的工具,它罪犯(帖前1:5)和转换(西1:6)。It cannot be fettered (II Tim. 2:9).它不能被束缚(二添。2:9)。Although it is good news, it is strenously opposed by a rebellious world (I Thess. 2:2).虽然它是个好消息,这是一个叛逆的世界(帖前2:2)strenously反对。Opposition to the message takes the form of opposition to the messenger (II Tim. 1:11-12; Philem. 13).反对的消息的形式反对信使(二添1:11-12; Philem 13)。Yet those who proclaim it must do so boldly (Eph. 6:19) and with transparent simplicity (II Cor. 4:2), not with eloquence lest the cross of Christ be robbed of its power (I Cor. 1:17).然而那些宣布它必须这样做大胆(以弗所书6:19)和透明简洁(二肺心病。4:2)与口才,免得基督的十字架,其权力(我肺心病。1:17)抢劫。 To those who refuse the gospel it is both foolishness and a stumbling block (I Cor. 1:18ff.), but to those who respond in faith it proves itself to be "the power of God unto salvation" (Rom. 1:16).那些拒绝福音它既是愚蠢的绊脚石(我肺心病。1:18 FF),但那些在信仰证明自己是“力神得救”(罗马书1:16 )。

RH Mounce相对湿度Mounce
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
RH Strachan, "The Gospel in the NT," IB, VII; W. Barclay, NT Wordbook; AEJ Rawlinson, EncyBrit X, 536ff.; M. Burrows, "The Origin of the Term 'Gospel,'"JBL 44:21-33; W. Milligan, Thess., Note E;A.RH斯特拉坎,“在NT的福音”,IB,第七; W.巴克利,新台币歌词集; AEJ罗林森,EncyBrit X,536ff。M.挖洞,“起源”一词的福音,“JBL 44:21 -33; W ·米利根,帖前,注五; A。Harnack, Constitution and Law, Appendix III; L. Clarke, "What Is the Gospel?"哈纳克,宪法和法律,附录三; L.克拉克,“什么是福音?” in Divine Humanity; V. Becker, NIDNTT, II, 107ff.; G. Friedrich, TDNT, II, 705ff,; RH Mounce, The Essential Nature of NT Preaching.神圣人性; NIDNTT,二,五,贝克尔,107ff; G.弗里德里希,TDNT,二,705ff; RH Mounce,新台币传教的本质。


Advanced Information先进的信息

Gospel is a word of Anglo-Saxon origin, and meaning "God's spell", ie, word of God, or rather, according to others, "good spell", ie, good news.福音是一个盎格鲁 - 撒克逊血统的字,意思是“上帝的咒语”,即上帝的话,或者说,根据其他人,“好法术”,即好消息。It is the rendering of the Greek evangelion, ie, "good message."这是渲染,即希腊新世纪福音战士“好消息”。It denotes它是指

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Advanced Information先进的信息

The central fact of Christian preaching was the intelligence that the Saviour had come into the world (Matt. 4:23; Rom. 10:15); and the first Christian preachers who called their account of the person and mission of Christ by the term evangelion (= good message) were called evangelistai (= evangelists) (Eph. 4:11; Acts 21:8).基督教传教的中心事实是,救主了走向世界(太4:23;罗10:15)。;来的情报,并第一个基督教传教士谁所要求的长期帐户的人,基督的使命新世纪福音战士(好消息)被称为evangelistai(=布道者)(以弗所书4:11;徒21:8)。 There are four historical accounts of the person and work of Christ: "the first by Matthew, announcing the Redeemer as the promised King of the kingdom of God; the second by Mark, declaring him 'a prophet, mighty in deed and word; the third by Luke, of whom it might be said that the represents Christ in the special character of the Saviour of sinners (Luke 7:36; 15:18); the fourth by John, who represents Christ as the Son of God, in whom deity and humanity become one. The ancient Church gave to Matthew the symbol of the lion, to Mark that of a man, to Luke that of the ox, and to John that of the eagle: these were the four faces of the cherubim" (Ezek. 1:10).基督的人,工作有四个历史记载:“由马修第一,作为神的国度的承诺国王宣布救世主;马克第二,宣称他”一个先知,在契约和Word的强大;由Luke的三分之一,其中,它可能会说,代表在罪人的救主(路加福音7:36; 15:18);特殊字符基督的约翰,谁代表基督作为神的儿子,第四在其中神和人类成为一个古老的教堂给马修狮子的象征,一个男人,马克,路加的牛,约翰鹰:这些基路伯的四个面“(以西结书。1:10)。


The Gospels were all composed during the latter part of the first century, and there is distinct historical evidence to show that they were used and accepted as authentic before the end of the second century.福音均在第一世纪的后半部分组成,并有独特的历史证据显示,他们使用和正宗的第二个世纪结束前接受。

Mutual relation相互关系

"If the extent of all the coincidences be represented by 100, their proportionate distribution will be: Matthew, Mark, and Luke, 53; Matthew and Luke, 21; Matthew and Mark, 20; Mark and Luke, 6. Looking only at the general result, it may be said that of the contents of the synoptic Gospels [ie, the first three Gospels] about two-fifths are common to the three, and that the parts peculiar to one or other of them are little more than one-third of the whole." “如果所有的巧合程度上代表了100,其按比例分配将是:马太,马克,路加,53马太和路加,21马修和马克,20马克和卢克,6只在展望。一般的结果,可以说天气福音[即,前三福音约五分之二的内容是共同的三个,和他们特有的一个或其他部位比多整个第三。“


Did the evangelists copy from one another?没有从彼此的布道者复制?The opinion is well founded that the Gospels were published by the apostles orally before they were committed to writing, and that each had an independent origin. “意见”是有道理的福音书被出版了由使徒口头之前,他们致力于写作,并每有一个独立的起源。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)

Social Implications of Gospel福音对社会的影响

Advanced Information先进的信息

The gospel is the proclamation and demonstration of God's redemptive activity in Jesus Christ to a world enslaved by sin.福音是神在耶稣基督救赎活动的宣讲和示范被罪奴役世界。Redemption is personal as men and women respond to the claims of Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior.赎回是个人的,男性和女性的主和救主耶稣基督的索赔作出回应。Redemption is also social, but the nature, priority, and extent of the social implications of the gospel have not been as readily agreed upon.赎回也是社会的,但性质,优先级,福音的社会影响的程度没有爽快地答应了。

Early Period早期

The social implications of the gospel have been evident in every era of the church's life.福音的社会影响已经明显在教会生活的每一个时代。The early church, for example, expressed a social witness by faithfulness to the radical demands of Christian community (Acts 2:42-46).早期的教会为例,表达了社会证人忠于基督教社区的激进要求(徒2:42-46)。 Limited in their social expression by virtue of being members of a persecuted sect, many Christians challenged cultural values in their refusal to bear arms.凭借被受迫害教派的成员在他们的社会表达有限公司,很多基督徒质疑他们拒绝携带武器的文化价值观。

The church continuously manifested its social conscience with a concern for the poor.教会不断地体现其社会良知,为穷人的关注。Basil the Great, for example, created a whole complex of charitable institutions in the fourth century.罗勒大,例如,创建了一个慈善机构,在第四世纪整个复杂。The monastic movement generated much philanthropic activity.寺院的运动产生了许多慈善活动。The institutional charities of the Roman Catholic Church take their impetus from this medieval social heritage.体制的罗马天主教教会的慈善机构,他们的动力,从这个中世纪的社会遗产。

The Reformation heralded a renewal of biblical faith, including the Scripture's social emphasis.宗教改革预示着圣经信仰的重建,包括圣经的社会重视。Though Martin Luther denied that good works had any place in the drama of salvation, he nevertheless commended good works as the proper response to the gracious gift of redemption.虽然马丁 - 路德否认,好的作品在任何地方戏剧的救赎,但他赞扬的优秀作品,为妥善应对赎回的恩赐。John Calvin, a second-generation Reformer, gave greater attention to the implications of the gospel for society.约翰卡尔文,第二代的改革者,更加重视社会福音的影响。Whereas for Luther the civil rule was a restraining force because of sin, for Calvin government should be a positive force for the common welfare.而路德的民间规则是因为罪的约束力,卡尔文政府应该为共同福利的积极力量。 In Calvin's Geneva this meant a commitment to education and to welfare for refugees, and outside Geneva sanctioning, under certain circumstances, the right of resistance for peoples suffering under unjust rulers.在加尔文的日内瓦,这意味着教育和难民的福利,以及日内瓦以外的制裁在某些情况下,抵抗权,在遭受不公正的统治者的人民的承诺。

Modern evangelicalism traces its roots to the Reformation, but is more directly the result of a variety of post-Reformation movements.现代福音派,其根源可追溯到宗教改革,但更直接的是各种后宗教改革运动的结果。Puritanism grew up in England in the sixteenth century, but its spirit flowered in America in the seventeenth century.清教在英国长大,在十六世纪,但其精神在17世纪在美国开花。"The Puritan dilemma" in America was the tension between individual freedom and social order. “清教徒的困境”在美国,个人自由和社会秩序之间的紧张关系。The strong emphasis on the covenant, though, meant an impetus toward self-sacrifice for the common good.不过,有关“公约”的高度重视,意味着走向自我牺牲,为共同的利益动力。Puritanism is sometimes remembered for its individualism, but it deserves to be known as much for its contribution to the social realm, bequeathing elements that would help form the American political tradition.清教有时记住其个人主义,但值得被称为社会领域的贡献,遗赠,这将有助于形成美国的政治传统的元素。

German pietism infused new life into seventeenth century Lutheranism.十七世纪路德教德国虔诚主义注入新的生命。Though often characterized as individualistic, legalistic, and other-worldly, the pietists nevertheless complained heartily against a lifeless orthodoxy that did not translate into love and compassion.虽然经常个人主义,墨守成规,和其他世俗的特点,但虔诚主义者抱怨由衷地对一个没有生命的正统,并没有转化成爱心和同情心。 Thus Philipp Jakob Spener challenged wealthy Christians to give their goods to the poor in order to eliminate begging.因此菲利普雅各布Spener挑战富裕的基督徒的贫困人口,让他们的商品,以消除乞讨。Spencer's pupil, August Hermann Francke, transformed the University of Halle into a training center for pastors and missionaries, and in the town itself an orphanage and hospital were founded and the poor were both catechized and fed.斯宾塞的瞳孔,八月赫尔曼弗兰克,一个牧师和传教士培训中心转化为哈勒大学,并在镇成立了一所孤儿院和医院和穷人catechized和美联储。

Fueled in part by the example of pietism, and especially the influence of the Moravians, an evangelical revival swept across Great Britain in the eighteenth century.部分原因虔诚主义的例子,尤其是在摩拉维亚,在18世纪的福音派宗教复兴运动席卷整个大不列颠的影响。John and Charles Wesley, along with George Whitefield, preached in fields and streets in an attempt to recapture the alienated poor for the church.约翰和查尔斯韦斯利,随着乔治Whitefield的,鼓吹的领域和街道,企图夺回教会的疏离差。Their emphasis on sanctification and the holy life energized their followers into opposing slavery, exhibiting concern for prisoners, and initiating reforms related to the industrial revolution.他们强调通电圣洁,圣洁的生活,到反对奴役他们的追随者,参展的囚犯的关注,并发起改革相关的工业革命。

In America the First Great Awakening, which began as a season of individual conversions, resulted in an intercolonial movement that reshaped the social order.在美国的第一次大觉醒,作为一个赛季的个人转换开始,导致intercolonial运动,重塑社会秩序。Under the leadership of Jonathan Edwards and Whitefield the hierarchical nature of both church and society was challenged.乔纳森爱德华兹和Whitefield的领导下,教会和社会的分层性质受到挑战。Indeed, it is widely recognized that this movement, with its democratizing influence, helped prepare the way for the American Revolution.事实上,这是举世公认,这一运动,其民主化的影响,帮助准备为美国革命的方式。

Modern Period现代时期

The modern discussion about the social implications of the gospel has been shaped by a variety of movements and factors.现代福音的社会影响的讨论已形成的各种动作和因素。Revivalism has been a crucial force in determining the nature of the discussion because of the prominence of revival leaders in molding modern evangelicalism.复兴已在确定性质的讨论,因为在塑造现代福音派的复兴领导人的突出的重要力量。In the nineteenth century Charles G. Finney maintained that religion came first, reform second, but he sent his converts from the "anxious bench" into a variety of reform movements, including abolitionism.在19世纪,查尔斯芬尼保持宗教排在第一,第二次改革,但他派他的转换成各种改革运动,包括废奴“惶惶不安”。 Energized by a postmillennial theology, Finney often said that "the great business of the church is to reform the world."由postmillennial神学通电,芬尼常说的“教会伟大的企业是改革的世界。”Dwight L. Moody, on the other hand, saw little hope for society.德怀特属穆迪,另一方面,看到社会的希望不大。As a premillennialist he pictured the world as a wrecked ship: "God had commissioned Christians to use their lifeboats to rescue every man they could." premillennialist他描绘成一个沉船的世界:“上帝已委托基督徒使用他们的救生艇救​​援每一个男人,他们可以。”

This shift in the relationship between revivalism and reform, present in Moody and more pronounced in Billy Sunday, has been characterized by evangelical scholars as "the great reversal."这种复兴和改革之间的关系的转变,目前在穆迪和比利星期日更为显着,已被定性为“大逆转”。福音派学者Beginning at the end of the nineteenth century and continuing past the midpoint of the twentieth century, the social implications of the gospel were neglected, sometimes abandoned, and most often declared to be of secondary importance by those who called themselves conservatives or fundamentalists.在十九世纪末开始,持续过去的二十世纪的中点,福音的社会影响,被忽视,有时被遗弃,最经常宣布次要由那些人称自己是保守派或原教旨主义者。 Groups that had hitherto supported social reform retreated into a posture where the primary concern after conversion was the purity of individuals rather than justice in society.组一直支持社会改革撤退的姿态转换后的首要关注的是个人,而不是在社会正义的纯洁性。

At the same time, however, a movement was on the rise which challenged this uncoupling of evangelism and reform, the social gospel.然而,与此同时,一个动作是质疑这种传福音和改革,社会福音解偶联上升。Born in post-Civil War America, growing to maturity in the era of progressivism, the impact of the social gospel continued long after its formal demise following World War I. The social gospel has been defined by one of its adherents as "the application of the teaching of Jesus and the total message of the Christian salvation to society, the economic life, and social institutions as well as to individuals."出生在南北战争后美国在时代的进步,成长到成熟,社会福音的影响继续长后正式消亡第一次世界大战社会福音已被其信徒之一定义为“应用耶稣的教导和基督的救恩到社会,经济生活和社会机构的消息 ,以及给个人。“Interacting with the changing realities of an increasingly industrialized and urbanized nation, the social gospel viewed itself as a crusade for justice and righteousness in all areas of the common life.交互与日益工业化和城市化的国家不断变化的现实,社会福音视为正义和共同生活的所有领域的正义的讨伐。

Walter Rauschenbusch was its foremost theologian, and his own pilgrimage is typical.沃尔特饶申布什是其最重要的神学家,和他自己的朝圣是典型的。Reared in the piety of a German Baptist minister's family, Rauschenbusch began his first charge in the Hell's Kitchen neighborhood of New York City.在虔诚的德国浸信会牧师的家庭饲养,饶申布什开始了他在纽约市的地狱的厨房邻里的第一押记。Encountering conditions that stifled the lives of his people, he wrote that Hell's Kitchen "was not a safe place for saved souls."遇到扼杀了他的人民的生活条件,他写道:地狱的厨房“是不是一个安全的地方保存灵魂。”This experience forced Rauschenbusch to return to the Bible in search of resources for a more viable ministry.这方面的经验被迫饶申布什返回寻找资源更可行部“圣经”。He discovered there both in the prophets and in the teaching of Jesus the dynamic concept of the kingdom of God was left undeveloped by individualistic theology," so that "the original teaching of our Lord has become an incongruous element in so-called evangelical theology."他发现,在先知和耶稣的教学动态的概念是神的国度留下个人主义神学不发达,“所以,”原来我们的主教学已成为所谓的福音派神学的不协调的元素。 “

The discoveries of Rauschenbusch, Washington Gladden, and other social gospel leaders, however, helped exacerbate a deep division that was developing within American Protestantism.然而,饶申布什,华盛顿格拉登和其他社会福音领袖,发现帮助加剧了深刻的分部,在美国新教的发展。Because the social gospel was closely identified with theological liberalism, a popular logic developed whereby conservatives tended to reject social action as part of their rejection of liberalism.一种流行的逻辑发展,因为社会福音密切神学自由主义,即保守派倾向于拒绝他们拒绝自由主义的社会行动。As a matter of record, not all social gospelers were liberals and not all liberals were social gospelers.作为记录的问题,并不是所有的社会福音自由主义者,不是所有的自由主义者是社会福音。Indeed, Rauschenbusch characterized himself as an "evangelical in their adherence to personal faith and piety, but liberal in their openness to critical biblical studies and their insistence on a social ministry based on the social conception of sin which demanded social action beyond individual acts of benevolence.事实上,饶申布什的特点,他们坚持个人信仰和虔诚的福音,但在关键的圣经研究和社会保障部的要求超出个人行为的仁社会行动罪的社会观的基础上,他们坚持其开放性的自由,自己。

Recent Discussion最近的讨论

In the contemporary period there are numerous attempts to return to a balance of individual and social emphasis in the Christian faith.在当代时期,有无数次尝试返回到个人和社会的重视的基督教信仰的平衡。Carl FH Henry, in The Uneasy Conscience of Modern Fundamentalism (1947), decried the lack of social compassion among conservatives.卡尔跳频亨利在现代原教旨主义感到不安的良心(1947年),谴责保守派之间的社会同情心的缺乏。Further, the civil rights crisis and the Vietnam war pricked the consciences of younger evangelicals who wondered whether their spiritual parents had not accommodated their faith to an American "civil religion."此外,公民权利危机和越南战争竖起年轻的福音派谁不知道,是否他们的精神父母不照顾他们的信仰一个美国的良心“民间宗教。” The last two decades have seen a rebirth of social concern.在过去二十年已经看到了社会关注的重生。Evangelicals have been rediscovering their roots in Finney and earlier evangelical leadership.福音派已被重新发现自己的根在芬尼和早期福音派领导。The Chicago Declaration of 1973 acknowledged that "we have not proclaimed or demostrated [God's] justice to an unjust American society."1973年的“芝加哥宣言”承认,“我们还没有宣布或demostrated [神的司法不公正的美国社会。”Today organizations such as Evangelicals for Social Action and journals such as Sojourners and The Other Side advocate the involvement of evangelicals in all aspects of society.如当今社会行动和期刊,如旅居对方福音派组织主张在社会各方面的参与的福音派。

A new perspective is the liberation theologies emanating from Latin America, Asia, and Africa.一个新的视角是来自拉丁美洲,亚洲和非洲的解放神学的产生。The demand is for theological reflection that begins, not in the classroom, but in the midst of the poverty and injustice that defines the human situation for many of the peoples of the world today.需求是神学反省开始,而不是在课堂上,但在贫穷和不公正的,它定义了许多当今世界各国人民的人权状况中。 The call is for a theology of "praxis" (practice).调用“实践”(实践)神学。Many evangelicals recoil from liberation theologies because of the use of Marxist analysis.许多福音派反冲从解放神学,因为用马克思主义分析。But others believe that the affirmation that God is on the side of the poor is a starting place for yet more faithful understandings of the meaning of discipleship.但也有人认为上帝对穷人的一面是,肯定是一个更忠实的门徒的意义的理解开始的地方。Although the Third World liberation theologians state that their programs cannot be directly translated to North America, at the same time there has been fruitful interchange with black, feminist, and other theologians working out the meaning of justice.虽然第三世界的解放神学家国有,他们的方案不能直接翻译,同时在北美,有正义的意义与黑色,女权主义者,和其他神学家富有成果的交流。

In summary, historical study helps focus present options.总之,历史研究,有助于集中目前的选项。 As for priority the question remains: Are the social implications equal, secondary, or prior to the individual implications of the gospel?优先的问题是:平等,中学,或之前福音的个人影响社会的影响?Continuing discussion about the nature and extent of social ministry revolves around such options as (1) individual and/or social action; (2) charity and/or justice.继续关注社会保障部的性质和程度的讨论围绕(1)个人和/或社会行动等选项;(2)慈善机构和/或司法。However one chooses, the challenge is to translate love and justice into meaningful strategies so that proclamation becomes demonstration.但是一个选择,面临的挑战是要转化为有意义的战略的爱与正义,因此,宣布成为示范。

RC White, Jr钢筋混凝土白色,JR
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
DW Dayton, Discovering an Evangelical Heritage; G. Gutierrez, A Theology of Liberation; DO Moberg, The Great Reversal: Evangelism versus Social Concern; W. Rauschenbusch, A Theology for the Social Gospel; W. Scott, Bring Forth Justice; RJ Sider, Rich Christians in an Age of Hunger; TL Smith, Revivalism and Social Reform; J. Sobrino, Christology at the Crossroads; J. Wallis, Agenda for Biblical People; RC White, Jr., and CH Hopkins, The Social Gospel, Religion and Reform in Changing America; JH Yoder, The Politics of Jesus.DW顿,发现一个福音遗产; G.古铁雷斯的解放神学;莫葛博士,大逆转:传福音与社会关怀;伟,一个社会福音神学饶申布什W.斯科特,带来司法,RJ考虑,丰富的基督徒在一个饥饿的时代; TL史密斯,复兴和社会改革; J. Sobrino,处于十字路口的基督; J.瓦利斯,圣经人民的议程; RC白色,小,和CH霍普金斯,社会福音,宗教在变化中的美国和改革; JH尤德,耶稣的政治。

Gospel and Gospels福音和福音

Catholic Information天主教信息

The word Gospel usually designates a written record of Christ's words and deeds.字福音通常指定一个基督的言行的书面记录。It is very likely derived from the Anglo-Saxon god (good) and spell (to tell), and is generally treated as the exact equivalent of the Greek euaggelion (eu well, aggello, I bear a message), and the Latin Evangelium, which has passed into French, German, Italian, and other modern languages.它很可能是来自盎格鲁撒克逊神(良好)和拼写(告诉),和一般希腊euaggelion完全相同(欧盟,aggello,我承担了消息),和拉丁美洲Evangelium治疗,已通过成法语,德语,意大利语,和其他现代语言。 The Greek euaggelion originally signified the "reward of good tidings" given to the messenger, and subsequently "good tidings".希腊euaggelion最初标志的“好消息的奖励”信使,并随后“好消息”。Its other important meanings will be set forth in the body of the present general article on the Gospels.它的其他重要的意义,将载于本福音书的一般性条款的身体。

(1) Titles of the Gospels(1)标题的福音

The first four historical books of the New Testament are supplied with titles (Euaggelion kata Matthaion, Euaggelion kata Markon, etc.), which, however ancient, do not go back to the respective authors of those sacred writings.冠军(Euaggelion卡塔Matthaion,Euaggelion卡塔Markon等),古代,但不回去那些神圣的著作的作者提供的新约圣经的前四个历史书籍。 The Canon of Muratori, Clement of Alexandria, and St. Irenæus bear distinct witness to the existence of those headings in the latter part of the second century of our era.佳能的穆拉托,克莱门特的亚历山德里亚,圣irenæus承担鲜明的见证存在这些标题在我们这个时代的第二个世纪的后半部分。 Indeed, the manner in which Clement (Strom., I, xxi), and St. Irenæus (Adv. Hær., III, xi, 7) employ them implies that, at that early date, our present titles to the Gospels had been in current use for some considerable time.事实上,克莱门特(Strom.,我,XXI),和圣Irenæus(Adv. Hær,三,十一,7)聘请他们的方式意味着,在早期的日期,我们目前的福音标题已在目前使用相当长的一段时间。Hence, it may be inferred that they were prefixed to the evangelical narratives as early as the first part of that same century.因此,可以推断,他们早在同一世纪的第一部分前缀福音叙述。That, however, they do not go back to the first century of the Christian era, or at least that they are not original, is a position generally held at the present day.然而,他们不回去一世纪的基督教时代,或至少他们不是原来的,一般在今天举行的一个位置。It is felt that since they are similar for the four Gospels, although the same Gospels were composed at some interval from each other, those titles were not framed, and consequently not prefixed to each individual narrative, before the collection of the four Gospels was actually made.有人认为,因为他们是四福音相似,相同的福音,虽然在一些彼此的间隔组成,这些头衔并没有陷害,并因此没有前缀的每一个人叙事,前四福音收集竟是作出。 Besides, as well pointed out by Prof. Bacon, "the historical books of the New Testament differ from its apocalyptic and epistolary literature, as those of the Old Testament differ from its prophecy, in being invariably anonymous, and for the same reason. Prophecies whether in the earlier or in the later sense, and letters, to have authority, must be referable to some individual; the greater his name, the better. But history was regarded as a common possession. Its facts spoke for themselves. Only as the springs of common recollection began to dwindle, and marked differences to appear between the well-informed and accurate Gospels and the untrustworthy . . . did it become worth while for the Christian teacher or apologist to specify whether the given representation of the current tradition was 'according to' this or that special compiler, and to state his qualifications".此外,指出培根教授,“新约圣经的历史书籍不同于其世界末日和书信的文学,因为旧约的不同于它的预言,总是匿名,出于同样的原因。预言无论是在早期或在更高意义上说,和信件,有权威,必须乃作出的某些个别越大,他的名字,更好,但历史是作为共同占有其事实来说话,只是作为。共同回忆的弹簧开始萎缩,并出现明显的差异之间的消息灵通和准确的福音和不可信。。没有成为基督教的教师或指定是否给予代表性目前传统的卫道士值得“根据“这个或那个特殊的编译器,并说出他的资格”。 It thus appears that the present titles of the Gospels are not traceable to the Evangelists themselves.因此,看来,目前的福音标题是无法追查的福音本身。

The first word common to the headings of our four Gospels is Euaggelion, some meanings of which remain still to be set forth.我们的四福音书的标题常见的第一个字是Euaggelion,其中的一些含义仍然仍有待阐明。The word, in the New Testament, has the specific meaning of "the good news of the kingdom" (cf. Matthew 4:23; Mark 1:15).这个词在新约,“王国的好消息”(参马太福音4:23,马可福音1:15)的具体含义。In that sense, which may be considered as primary from the Christian standpoint, Euaggelion denotes the good tidings of salvation announced to the world in connexion with Jesus Christ, and, in a more general way, the whole revelation of Redemption by Christ (cf. Matthew 9:35; 24:14; etc.; Mark 1:14; 13:10; 16:15; Acts 20:24; Romans 1:1, 9, 16; 10:16; etc.).在这个意义上说,这可能是首要考虑从基督教的角度来看,Euaggelion表示救恩的好消息宣布,在与耶稣基督联接世界,并在更普遍的方式,全由基督救赎的启示(参马太福音9:35; 24:14;等;马克1:14; 13:10; 16:15;使徒20点24分;罗马书1:1,9,16; 10:16;等)。This was, of course, the sole meaning connected with the word, so long as no authentic record of the glad tidings of salvation by Christ had been drawn up.当然,这是与字相连的唯一意义,只​​要没有真实的记录由基督救恩的喜讯已经制定了。In point of fact, it remained the only one in use even after such written records had been for some time received in the Christian Church: as there could be but one Gospel, that is, but one revelation of salvation by Jesus Christ, so the several records of it were not regarded as several Gospels, but only as distinct accounts of one and the same Gospel.事实上,它仍然在使用的只有一个,甚至在基督教会收到一些时间后,这些书面记录:有可能,但一个福音,就是耶稣基督救恩的启示,所以几个记录不被视为几个福音,但只是作为一个不同的帐户和相同的福音。 Gradually, however, a derived meaning was coupled with the word Euaggelion.然而,渐渐地,派生的意思是加上字Euaggelion。 Thus, in his first Apology (c. lxvi), St. Justin speaks of the "Memoirs of the Apostles which are called Euaggelia", clearing referring, in this way, not to the substance of the Evangelical history, but to the books themselves in which it is recorded.因此,在他的第一个道歉(三LXVI),圣贾斯汀谈“被称为Euaggelia使徒回忆录”,结算指,以这种方式,而不是福音历史的实质内容,但书籍本身在它被记录下来。 It is true that in this passage of St. Justin we have the first undoubted use of the term in that derived sense.在这段话圣贾斯汀中,我们在某种意义上派生的第一个任期勿庸置疑的使用,这是事实。But as the holy Doctor gives us to understand that in his day the word Euaggelion had currently that meaning, it is only natural to think that it had been thus employed for some time before.但是,作为神圣的医生给我们了解,在他的天字Euaggelion目前这个意思,这是很自然认为,它已因此聘用前一段时间。 It seems, therefore, that Zahn is right in claiming that the use of the term Euaggelion, as denoting a written record of Christ's words and deeds, goes as far back as the beginning of the second century of the Christian era.看来,因此,赞恩有权在声称一词Euaggelion的使用,作为基督的言行表示一个书面记录,尽可能的第二个世纪的基督教时代的开始,回。

The second word common to the titles of the canonical Gospels is the preposition kata, "according to", the exact import of which has long been a matter of discussion among Biblical scholars.常见的典型福音的标题第二个字是介词卡塔,“根据”,其确切的进口一直是圣经学者之间的讨论的问题。Apart from various secondary meanings connected with that Greek particle, two principal significations have been ascribed to it.此外,希腊粒子连接各中学的含义,有两个主要意指已归因于它。Many authors have taken it to mean not "written by", but "drawn up according to the conception of", Matthew, Mark, etc. In their eyes, the titles of our Gospels were not intended to indicate authorship, but to state the authority guaranteeing what is related, in about the same way as "the Gospel according to the Hebrews", or "the Gospel according to the Egyptians", does not mean the Gospel written by the Hebrews or the Egyptians, but that peculiar form of Gospel which either the Hebrews or the Egyptians had accepted.许多作者都采取它的意思不是“书面”,但“制定了根据”,马太,马克,等在他们眼中,我们的福音书的标题不是为了表明作者的概念,但状态权威保证什么是相关的,在有关作为,或“福音据埃及人”“福音根据希伯来人的”相同的方式,并不意味着希伯来人或埃及人写的福音,但造型奇特的福音希伯来人或埃及人接受。 Most scholars, however, have preferred to regard the preposition kata as denoting authorship, pretty much in the same way as, in Diodorus Siculus, the History of Herodotus is called He kath Herodoton historia.然而,多数学者倾向于视为作者表示,几乎在以同样的方式,因为狄奥多罗斯S​​iculus,希罗多德的历史,被称为他凯丝Herodoton historia,介词卡塔。At the present day it is generally admitted that, had the titles to the canonical Gospels been intended to set forth the ultimate authority or guarantor, and not to indicate the writer, the Second Gospel would, in accordance with the belief of primitive times, have been called "the Gospel according to Peter", and the third, "the Gospel according to Paul".在现今人们普遍承认,标题典型福音打算提出了最终的权威或担保人,而不是表明作家,第二福音,将按照与原始时代的信仰,有被称为“根据彼得福音”,以及第三,“福音根据Paul”。 At the same time it is rightly felt that these titles denote authorship, with a peculiar shade of meaning which is not conveyed by the titles prefixed to the Epistles of St. Paul, the Apocalypse of St. John, etc; The use of the genitive case in the latter titles Paulou Epistolai, Apokalypsis Ioannou, etc.) has no other object than that of ascribing the contents of such works to the writer whose name they actually bear.同时它是正确的认为,这些头衔代表作者,这不是由圣保罗的书信,启示圣约翰等前缀的标题传达的意义奇特的树荫;使用所有格后者的标题中的情况下,Apokalypsis约安努Paulou Epistolai等)有没有比归咎于作家的名字,他们实际上承担此类作品的内容其他对象。The use of the preposition kata (according to), on the contrary, while referring the composition of the contents of the First Gospel to St. Matthew, of those of the second to St. Mark, etc., implies that practically the same contents, the same glad tidings or Gospel, have been set forth by more than one narrator.使用介词卡塔(根据),反之,则指第二圣马克等,这些组成的第一福音圣马太的内容,意味着几乎相同的内容,同样的喜讯或福音,已载列由多个叙述者。 Thus, "the Gospel according to Matthew" is equivalent to the Gospel history in the form in which St. Matthew put it in writing; "the Gospel according to Mark" designates the same Gospel history in another form, viz, in that in which St. Mark presented it in writing, etc. (cf. Maldonatus, "In quatuor Evangelistas", cap .i).因此,“福音根据马太福音”是相当于在福音马太以书面的形式历史;“马可福音”的另一种形式,即在指定的同一福音历史,在中圣马克书面等(参见Maldonatus,“在quatuor Evangelistas”,第I)。

(2) Number of the Gospels(2)数的福音

The name gospel, as designating a written account of Christ's words and deeds, has been, and is still, applied to a large number of narratives connected with Christ's life, which circulated both before and after the composition of our Third Gospel (cf. Luke 1:1-4).的名称福音指定一个基督的言行书面帐户,,一直仍是,适用于大量与基督的生命,叙述这两个前和我们的第三个福音组成后(参见路加福音传阅1:1-4)。 The titles of some fifty such works have come down to us, a fact which shows the intense interest which centred, at an early date, in the Person and work of Christ.约50个此类工程的标题来给我们,其实这显示了浓厚的兴趣中心,在个人和基督的工作,早日。it is only, however, in connexion with twenty of these "gospels" that some information has been preserved.它是唯一的,但是在这些“福音”20联接,一直保存一些信息。Their names, as given by Harnack (Chronologie, I, 589 sqq.), are as follows: -哈纳克(Chronologie,我,589 SQQ),他们的名字,如下: -

1-4. 1-4。The Canonical Gospels典型福音

5. 5。The Gospel according to the Hebrews.根据希伯来人的福音。

6. 6。The Gospel of Peter.彼得的福音。

7. 7。The Gospel according to the Egyptians根据埃及人的福音

8. 8。The Gospel of Matthias.马提亚福音。

9. 9。The Gospel of Philip.菲利普福音。

10. 10。The Gospel of Thomas.托马斯福音。

11. 11。The Proto-Evangelium of James.原Evangelium詹姆斯。

12. 12。The Gospel of Nicodemus (Acta Pilati).尼哥底母福音(文献皮拉蒂)。

13. 13。The Gospel of the Twelve Apostles.十二使徒的福音。

14. 14。The Gospel of Basilides.巴西里德福音。

15. 15。The Gospel of Valentinus.Valentinus福音。

16. 16。The Gospel of Marcion.马吉安的福音。

17. 17。The Gospel of Eve.夏娃的福音。

18. 18。The Gospel of Judas.犹大福音。

19. 19。The writing Genna Marias.写作Genna玛丽亚斯。

20. 20。The Gospel Teleioseos.福音Teleioseos。

Despite the early date which is sometimes claimed for some of these works, it is not likely that any one of them, outside our canonical Gospels, should be reckoned among the attempts at narrating the life of Christ, of which St. Luke speaks in the prologue to his Gospel.尽管有时这些作品的一些声称早日,也不太可能,其中任何一个,我们的典型福音外,应计算之间的尝试在叙述基督的生命,其中圣卢克在说话他的福音的序幕。 Most of them, as far as can be made out are late productions, the apocryphal character of which is generally admitted by contemporary scholars (see APOCRYPHA).其中最重要的是,尽量可以做出来的后期制作,其中杜撰的字符一般是由当代学者承认(见伪经)。

It is indeed impossible, at the present day, to describe the precise manner in which out of the numerous works ascribed to some Apostle, or simply bearing the name of gospel, only four, two of which are not ascribed to Apostles, came to be considered as sacred and canonical.这实在是不可能的,在目前的一天,在这众多作品中所赋予一些使徒,或干脆轴承的福音,只有四个,其中两个是不冲高到使徒的名字来形容精确地,后来被视为神圣和规范。 It remains true, however, that all the early testimony which has a distinct bearing on the number of the canonical Gospels recognizes four such Gospels and none besides.它仍是如此,然而,所有早期的证词,其中有一个独特的轴承上的典型福音认识四个这样的福音,并没有除了。Thus, Eusebius (died 340), when sorting out the universally received books of the Canon, in distinction from those which some have questioned writes: "And here, among the first, must be placed the holy quaternion of the Gospels", while he ranks the "Gospel according to the Hebrews" among the second, that is, among the disputed writings (Hist. Eccl., III, xxv).因此,尤西比乌斯(死于340),排序时,普遍收到了佳能的书籍,其中一些人质疑的区别,写道:“在这里,其中第一,必须放在神圣的福音四元”,而他名列“福音根据希伯来人”,即在第二,在有争议的著作(Hist.传道书,三,二十五)中。 Clement of Alexandria (died about 220) and Tertullian (died 220) were familiar with our four Gospels, frequently quoting and commenting on them.克莱门特的亚历山德里亚(约220死亡)和特土良(死于220)熟悉我们的四福音,他们经常引用和评论。The last-named writer speaks also of the Old Latin version known to himself and to his readers, and by so doing carries us back beyond his time.过去命名的作家也谈到自己和他的读者旧拉丁美洲版本,并超出了他的时间进行这样我们回到的。The saintly Bishop of Lyons, Irenæus (died 202), who had known Polycarp in Asia Minor, not only admits and quotes our four Gospels, but argues that they must be just four, no more and no less.里昂,爱任纽(死于202),曾称为小亚细亚波利卡普圣洁的主教不仅承认和引号四福音,但认为,他们必须短短四年,没有多也不能少。 He says: "It is not possible that the Gospels be either more or fewer than they are. For since there are four zones of the world in which we live, and four principal winds, while the Church is scattered throughout the world, and the pillar and ground of the Church is the Gospel and the Spirit of life; it is fitting that we should have four pillars, breathing out immortality on every side and vivifying our flesh. . . The living creatures are quadriform, and the Gospel is quadriform, as is also the course followed by the Lord" (Adv. Hær., III, xi, 8).他说:“这是不可能的福音比他们更多或更少,因为我们生活在其中的世界,四个区域和四个主要风,而教会是散布在世界各地,和支柱产业和地下教会的福音和生活的精神;,是恰当的,我们应该有四大支柱,呼吸在每边和生机的不朽我们的血肉众生quadriform,和福音是quadriform。。也主“(Adv. Hær,三,十一,8)课程。About the time when St. Irenæus gave this explicit testimony to our four Gospels, the Canon of Muratori bore likewise witness to them, as did also the Peshito and other early Syriac translations, and the various Coptic versions of the New Testament.关于圣irenæus了这个明确的证词,我们的四福音,穆拉托佳能孔同样见证他们的时间也一样Peshito和其他早期叙利亚文译本,以及各种科普特版本的新约。 The same thing must be said with regard to the Syriac harmony of the canonical Gospels, which was framed by St. Justin's disciple, Tatian, and which is usually referred to under its Greek name of Diatessaron (To dia tessaron Euaggelion).同样的事情必须说叙利亚文和谐的典型福音,这是圣贾斯汀的弟子,塔蒂安,这是通常所指的Diatessaron的希腊名字(直径tessaron Euaggelion)拟定。The recent discovery of this work has allowed Harnack to infer, from some of its particulars, that it was based on a still earlier harmony, that made by St. Hippolytus of Antioch, of our four Gospels.这项工作最近发现了允许的Harnack来推断,它的一些详情,这是基于一个更早的和谐,即四福音,圣安提阿希波吕托斯。 It has also set at rest the vexed question as to St. Justin's use of the canonical Gospels.它也休息棘手的问题圣贾斯汀的典型福音。"For since Tatian was a disciple of Justin, it is inconceivable that he should have worked on quite different Gospels from those of his teacher, while each held the Gospels he used to be the books of primary importance" (Adeney). “对于自塔蒂安贾斯汀的弟子,这是不可想象的,他应该从他的老师相当不同的福音工作,而每个举行的福音,他曾经是首要的书籍”(Adeney)。 Indeed, even before the discovery of Tatian's "Diatessaron", an unbiased study of Justin's authentic writings had made it clear that the holy doctor used exclusively our canonical Gospels under the name of Memoirs of the Apostles.事实上,即使在发现塔蒂安的“Diatessaron”,不偏不倚的研究Justin的正宗著作已明确表示,神圣的医生专门用于根据我们的典型福音使徒回忆录的名称。

Of these testimonies of the second century two are particularly worthy of notice, viz, those of St. Justin and St. Irenæus.这些证词的第二个世纪两个特别值得注意,即,那些圣贾斯汀和圣Irenæus。As the former writer belongs to the first part of that century, and speaks of the canonical Gospels as a well-known and fully authentic collection, it is only natural to think that at his time of writing (about AD 145) the same Gospels, and they only, had been recognized as sacred records of Christ's life, and that they had been regarded as such at least as early as the beginning of the second century of our era.由于前者作家属于这个世纪的第一部分,并作为一个著名的和完全地道的收集典型福音的讲,它是很自然的认为,在他的写作时间(约公元145年)相同的福音,他们只已被确认为基督的生命的神圣记录,以及他们一直这样认为,至少在我们这个时代的第二个世纪初早。 The testimony of the latter apologist is still more important.后者的辩护者的证词仍然是更为重要。"The very absurdity of his reasoning testifies to the well-established position attained in his day by the four Gospels, to the exclusion of all others. Irenæus' bishop was Potinus who lived to the age of 90, and Irenæus had known Polycarp in Asia Minor. Here are links of connexion with the past which go back beyond the beginning of the second century" (Adeney). “他的理由很荒谬,证明行之有效的位置,在他的一天达到四福音,排斥所有其他主教爱任纽”Potinus人活到90岁,和爱任纽亚洲知名波利卡普未成年人在这里与过去的第二个世纪初超越“(Adeney)联接链接。

In the writings of the Apostolic Fathers one does not, indeed, meet with unquestionable evidence in favour of only four canonical Gospels.使徒教父的著作里没有,事实上,满足赞成的只有四个典型福音不容置疑的证据。But this is only what one might expect from the works of men who lived in the very century in which these inspired records were composed, and in which the word Gospel was yet applied to the glad tidings of salvation, and not to the written accounts thereof.但是,这是只有人们可能期望的人住在很世纪中,这些灵感记录组成,其中字福音尚未应用到救恩的喜讯,以及不以书面的帐户及其作品。

(3) Chief Differences between Canonical and Apocryphal Gospels. (3)规范和杜撰的福音之间的主要差异。From the outset, the four Gospels, the sacred character of which was thus recognized very early, differed in several respects from the numerous uncanonical Gospels which circulated during the first centuries of the Church.从一开始,四福音,它的神圣性,因此很早就承认,在以下几个方面的差异,从众多uncanonical福音在第一世纪的教会传阅。 First of all, they commended themselves by their tone of simplicity and truthfulness, which stood in striking contrast with the trivial, absurd, or manifestly legendary character of many of those uncanonical productions.首先,他们赞扬他们的简单性和真实性,站在鲜明的对比与许多那些uncanonical制作的琐碎,荒诞,或明显传奇性的基调。 In the next place, they had an earlier origin than most of their apocryphal rivals, and indeed many of the latter productions were directly based on the canonical Gospels.在未来的地方,他们比他们杜撰的对手最早期的起源,确实很多后期制作直接基于典型福音。A third feature in favour of our canonical records of Christ's life was the purity of their teachings, dogmatic and moral, over against the Jewish, Gnostic, or other heretical views with which not a few of the apocryphal gospels were tainted, and on account of which these unsound writings found favour among heretical bodies and, on the contrary, discredit in the eyes of Catholics.一个有利于基督的生命我们的规范记录的第三个功能是在他们的教义的纯洁性,教条式的和道德,比对与没有一个的猜测福音少数人玷污的犹太人,诺斯底,或其他邪教的意见,并考虑这些不健全的著作中发现邪教团体之间的赞成和,与此相反,在天主教徒的眼里抹黑。 Lastly, and more particularly, the canonical Gospels were regarded as of Apostolic authority, two of them being ascribed to the Apostles St. Matthew and St. John, respectively, and two to St. Mark and St. Luke, the respective companions of St. Peter and St. Paul.最后,更特别的是,典型福音使徒权威,其中两人被归因于使徒圣马太和圣约翰,分别和两个各自的同伴圣圣马克和圣卢克彼得和圣保罗。 Many other gospels indeed claimed Apostolic authority, but to none of them was this claim universally allowed in the early Church.其他许多福音的确声称使徒权威,但他们都不是在早期教会普遍允许这种说法。The only apocryphal work which was at all generally received, and relied upon, in addition to our four canonical Gospels, is the "Gospel according to the Hebrews".唯一杜撰的工作,这是在一般收到的所有依赖后,除了我们四个典型福音,是“福音根据希伯来人”。It is a well-known fact that St. Jerome, speaking of this Gospel under the name of "The Gospel according to the Nazarenes", regards it as the Hebrew original of our Greek canonical Gospel according to St. Matthew.这是一个众所周知的事实,圣杰罗姆,讲这福音“的拿撒勒福音”的名称下,把我们希腊的典型福音原为希伯来文,根据圣马太。 But, as far as can be judged from its fragments which have come down to us, it has no right to originality as compared with our first canonical Gospel.但是,据其碎片已回落到我们可以判断,它没有正确的原创性比我们的第一个规范的福音。At a very early date, too, it was treated as devoid of Apostolic authority, and St. Jerome himself, who states that he had its Aramaic text at his disposal, does not assign it a place side by side with our canonical Gospels: all the authority which he ascribes to it is derived from his persuasion that it was the original text of our First Gospel, and not a distinct Gospel over and above the four universally received from time immemorial in the Catholic Church.太多,它是在一个非常早期的日期,视为缺乏使徒权威,和圣杰罗姆自己,谁规定说,他在他的处置阿拉姆文本,不分配给它一个并排方与我们的典型福音:所有他赋予它的权力是来自他的劝说,这是我们的第一个福音的原始文本,而不是从远古时代的普遍欢迎,在天主教教会的四个之上的一个独特的福音。

(4) Order of the Gospels(4)令“的福音

While the ancient lists, versions, and ecclesiastical writers agree in admitting the canonical character of only four Gospels, they are far from being at one with regard to the order of these sacred records of Christ's words and deeds.虽然古老的名单,版本,和教会作家同意在承认只有四福音书的规范性,他们远在一个方面为了基督的言行,这些神圣的记录。 In early Christian literature, the canonical Gospels are given in no less than eight orders, besides the one (St. Matthew, St. Mark, St. Luke, St. John) with which we are familiar.在早期基督教文学,的典型福音给予不低于8个订单,除了一个(圣马太,圣马克,圣卢克,圣约翰)与我们所熟悉的的。 The variations bear chiefly on the place given to St. John, then, secondarily, on the respective positions of St. Mark and St. Luke.变化承担主要圣约翰的地方,然后,其次,在圣马克和圣卢克各自的立场。St. John passes from the fourth place to the third to the second, or even to the first.圣约翰传递到第三到第二,甚至第一,第四位。As regards St. Luke and St. Mark, St. Luke's Gospel is often placed first, doubtless as being the longer of the two, but at times also second, perhaps to bring it in immediate connexion with the Acts, which are traditionally ascribed to the author of our Third Gospel.至于圣卢克和圣马克,圣卢克的福音往往是放在第一,无疑为两个,但有时也第二,可能带来立即联接的行为,这是传统归因于它我们的第三个福音的作者。

Of these various orders, the one which St. Jerome embodied in the Latin Vulgate, whence it passed into our modern translations, and even into the Greek editions of the New Testament, is unquestionably the most ancient.这些不同的订单,其中圣杰罗姆体现在拉丁语武加大,自何处它传递到我们的现代译本,甚至到了新约的希腊文版本,无疑是最古老的。 It is found in the Canon of Muratori, in St. Irenæus, in St. Gregory of Nazianzus, in St. Athanasius, in the lists of the sacred books drawn up by the Councils of Laodicea and of Carthage, and also in the oldest Greek uncial Manuscripts.: the Vatican, the Sinaitic, and the Alexandrine.它被发现在佳能的穆拉托,圣Irenæus,在圣格雷戈里的nazianzus,在圣athanasius,在老底嘉和迦太基议会制定的神圣的书籍清单,并在最古老的希腊安色尔字体手稿:梵蒂冈的Sinaitic,和亚历山大。 Its origin is best accounted for by the supposition that whoever formed the Gospel collection wished to arrange the Gospels in accordance with the respective date which tradition assigned to their composition.它的起源是最好的假定谁形成了福音收集希望安排在按照各自的日期,其中传统分配给其组成福音。Thus, the first place was given to St. Matthew's Gospel, because a very early tradition described the work as originally written in Hebrew, that is, in the Aramaic language of Palestine.因此,首先是给圣马太的福音,因为一个非常早期的传统所描述的工作,原先在希伯来文写在阿拉姆语的巴勒斯坦语言,就是。 This, it was thought, proved that it had been composed for the Jewish believers in the Holy Land, at a date when the Apostles had not yet started to preach the glad tidings of salvation outside of Palestine, so that it must be prior to the other Gospels written in Greek and for converts in Greek-speaking countries. ,有人认为,这证明,它已在圣地的犹太信徒组成的使徒时尚未开始宣讲救恩的喜讯以外的巴勒斯坦,因此,它必须是前一个日期,其他福音写在希腊和希腊为母语的国家的转换。 In like manner, it is clear that St. John's Gospel was assigned the last place, because tradition at a very early date looked upon it as the last in the order of time.在喜欢的方式,它是明确的圣约翰福音被分配了最后的地方,因为在一个非常早日传统视为最后在时间顺序。As to St. Mark and St. Luke, tradition ever spoke of them as posterior to St. Matthew and anterior to St. John, so that their Gospels were naturally placed between those of St. Matthew and St. John.以往传统圣马克和圣卢克,他们的发言后圣马修和前圣约翰,使他们的福音,是自然的圣马太和圣约翰之间放置。In this way, as it seems, was obtained the present general order of the Gospels in which we find, at the beginning, an Apostle as author; at the end, the other Apostle; between the two, those who have to derive their authority from Apostles.这样,因为它似乎,获得在开始的时候,使徒为作者的福音中,我们发现目前的整体秩序,在年底,其他使徒;两者之间,那些得到他们的权力从使徒。

The numerous orders which are different from the one most ancient and most generally received can easily be explained by the fact that after the formation of the collection in which the four Gospels were for the first time united, these writings continued to be diffused, all four separately, in the various Churches, and might thus be found differently placed in the collections designed for public reading.这是一个最古老和最普遍得到不同的大量订单,可以很容易地解释的事实,后形成的集合,其中四福音第一时间美国,这些著作的继续扩散,所有四个此外,在各教会,并可能因此被发现不同供市民阅读设计的集合。 It is likewise easy in most cases to make out the special reason for which a particular grouping of the four Gospels was adopted.在大多数情况下,通过特殊原因,其中特别是四福音分组同样容易。The very ancient order, for instance, which places the two Apostles (St. Matthew, St. John) before the two disciples of Apostles (St. Mark, St. Luke) may be easily accounted for by the desire of paying a special honour to the Apostolic dignity.非常古老的秩序,例如,哪些地方的两个使徒(马太,圣约翰)前两个弟子的使徒(圣马克,圣卢克)可以很容易地占付出了特殊荣誉的愿望使徒的尊严。 Again, such an ancient order as Matthew, Mark, John, Luke, bespeaks the intention of coupling each Apostle with an Apostolic assistant, and perhaps also that of bringing St. Luke nearer to the Acts, etc.同样,如马太,马克,约翰,路加,古承四起耦合使徒每一个使徒助理的意图,或许也将圣卢克接近行为等,

(5) Classification of the Gospels(5)分类的福音

The present order of the Gospels has the twofold advantage of not separating from one another those Evangelical records (St. Matthew, St. Mark, St. Luke) whose mutual resemblances are obvious and striking, and of placing at the end of the list of the Gospels the narrative (that of St. John) whose relations with the other three is that of dissimilarity rather than of likeness.目前的福音秩序不从那些福音记录(圣马太,圣马克,圣卢克),其相互明显和惊人的相似之处,并放置在列表的最后分离的双重优势福音叙事(圣约翰)的关系与其他三个相异,而不是形似。 It thus lends itself well to the classification of the Gospels which is now generally admitted by Biblical scholars.因此,它非常适用于现在一般圣经学者所承认的福音的分类。St. Matthew, St. Mark, and St. Luke are usually grouped together, and designated under the common name of the Synoptic Gospels.圣马太,圣马克和圣卢克,通常组合在一起,并根据指定的通用名称的天气福音。They derive this name from the fact that their narratives may be arranged and harmonized, section by section, so as to allow the eye to realize at a glance the numerous passages which are common to them, and also the portions which are peculiar either to only two, or even to only one, of them.他们从这个名字,他们的叙述可能被安排和协调,逐节,让眼一目了然,实现共同的许多段落,和部分特有要么只两个,甚至只是其中之一。 The case stands very differently with regard to our Fourth Gospel.案件的立场非常不同的方面对我们的第四福音。As it narrates but a few incidents in common with the Synoptists, and differs from them in respect to style, language, general plan, etc., its chief parts refuse to be included in a harmony such as may be framed by means of the first three Gospels.由于它叙述,但在Synoptists共同几个事件,并从他们不同的风格,语言,总体规划等方面,它的主要部分拒绝在一个和谐,如可能被诬陷的第一手段三个福音。 While, therefore, the Synoptic narratives are naturally put together into one group, St. John's record is rightly considered as standing apart and as, so to speak, making up a class by itself (see SYNOPTICS).因此,尽管天气叙述自然是投入一组一起,圣约翰的纪录是正确地认为,除了站立和作为,可以这么说,一类本身(见福音)。

(6) The Gospels and the Oral Gospel(6)的福音和口腔的福音

All recent critics admit that the contents of our four Gospels are intimately connected with more primitive accounts of Christ's life, which may be described, in a general way, as an Oral Gospel.所有最近的批评者也承认,我们的四福音书的内容是紧密连接,一般可描述作为口头福音,基督的生命,更原始的帐户。They are well aware that Jesus Himself did not consign to writing His own teachings, and directed His Apostles not to write, but to preach, the Gospel to their fellow-men.耶稣本人并没有委托写他自己的教义,他们都很清楚,并指示他的门徒,不写,但宣讲,他们的同胞男性的福音。 They regard as an undoubted fact that these first disciples of the Master, faithful to the mission which He had entrusted to them, began, from the day of Pentecost on, boldly to declare by word of mouth what they had seen and heard (cf. Acts 4:2), considering as a special duty of theirs "the ministry of the word" (Acts 6:4).他们认为这些法师的第一个弟子,忠于他的使命托付给他们,开始作为一个不容置疑的事实,从五旬节上,大胆地通过口口相传,他们所看到和听到的声明(见使徒行传4:2),考虑他们的特殊的责任“字部”(徒6:4)。 It is plain, too, that those whom the Apostles immediately selected to help them in the discharge of this most important mission had to be, like the Apostles themselves, able to bear witness to the life and teachings of Christ (cf. Acts 1:21 sq.).这是平原,太多,这些人的使徒立即选择,以帮助他们在这个最重要的使命的排放,使徒们本身一样,能够见证基督的生命和教导(参徒1: 21平方米)。The substance of the Evangelical narratives would thus be repeated viva voce by the early teachers of Christianity, before any one of them bethought himself to set it down in writing.福音叙述的内容,因此,基督教的早期教师反复口试前,其中任何一个,bethought自己设置把它写下来。It can be readily seen that such Apostolic teaching was then inculcated in words which tended to assume a stereotyped form of expression, similar to that which we find in the Synoptic Gospels.它可以很容易地看到,如使徒教学中灌输的话往往承担千篇一律的表达形式,类似的,我们发现在天气福音。In like manner, also, one can easily realize how the Apostles would not be concerned with the exact order of events narrated, and would not aim at completeness in telling what they "had seen and heard".在喜欢的方式,也可以方便地实现使徒不会关注与叙述事件的确切顺序,并不会告诉他们“看到和听到的完整性的目的”。 Thus, according to this opinion, was gradually formed what may be called the "Oral Gospel", that is, a relation of Christ's words and deeds, parallel, in respect to matter and form, to our canonical Gospels.因此,根据这一意见,逐步形成了可被称为“口头的福音”,也就是基督的言行关系,平行,在方面的问题和形式,我们的典型福音。 In view of this, critics have endeavoured to find out the general contents of this Oral Gospel by means of the second part of the Book of the Acts, by a study of the doctrinal contents of the Epistles of St. Paul, and more particularly by a close comparison of the Synoptic narratives; and it may be freely said that their efforts in that direction have met with considerable success.鉴于此,评论家一直在努力圣保禄书信的理论内容的研究,找出一般内容的行为“的第二部分,这一口头福音,并特别通过一个天气叙述密切比较,它可以自由说,他们的努力在这个方向有相当大的成功,满足的。 As regards, however, the precise relation which should be admitted between our canonical Gospels and the Oral Gospel, there is still, among contemporary scholars, a variety of views which will be set forth and examined in the special articles on the individual Gospels.然而,至于,应承认之间的典型福音和口头福音的确切关系,还有的是,当代学者之间,各种意见将载,在对个人福音的特殊物品检查。 Suffice it to say, here, that the theory which regards the canonical Gospels as embodying, in substance, the oral teaching of the Apostles concerning the words and deeds of Christ is in distinct harmony with the Catholic position, which affirms both the historical value of these sacred records and the authoritative character of the Apostolic traditions, whether these are actually consigned to writing or simply enforced by the ever living voice of the Church.说,在这里,理论​​方面体现了典型福音,在物质,口语教学的使徒有关基督的言论和事迹,在不同的和谐与天主教会的立场,其中确认的历史价值这些神圣的记录和使徒传统的权威性质,是否委托编写或只需通过教会生活的语音强制执行。

(7) Divergences of the Gospels(7)背离的福音

The existence of numerous and, at times, considerable differences between the four canonical Gospels is a fact which has long been noticed and which all scholars readily admit.无数的存在和四个典型福音之间的相当大的差异,有时,是长期以来一直注意和所有学者愿意承认的事实。Unbelievers of all ages have greatly exaggerated the importance of this fact, and have represented many of the actual variations between the Evangelical narratives as positive contradictions, in order to disprove the historical value and the inspired character of the sacred records of Christ's life.所有年龄不信大大夸大了这一事实的重要性,并曾代表许多实际变化之间的矛盾为阳性的福音叙述,以否定的历史价值和基督的生命的神圣记录的启发性。 Over against this contention, sometimes maintained with a great display of erudition, the Church of God, which is "the pillar and ground of the truth" (1 Timothy 3:15), has always proclaimed her belief in the historical accuracy and consequent real harmony of the canonical Gospels; and her doctors (notably Eusebius of Cæsarea, St. Jerome, and St. Augustine) and commentators have invariably professed that belief.在对这个论点,有时保持一个博学的伟大显示,神的教会,这是“的支柱和地面的真相”(提摩太前书3:15),一直宣称她在历史的精确性和随之而来的真正的信仰和谐的典型福音;和她的医生(特别是尤西比乌斯的cæsarea,圣杰罗姆和圣奥古斯丁)和评论家都不约而同地宣称这种信念。 As can readily be seen, variations are naturally to be expected in four distinct, and in many ways independent, accounts of Christ's words and deeds, so that their presence, instead of going against, rather makes for the substantial value of the Evangelical narratives.由于可以很容易被看到,变化自然是预计在四个不同的,和独立的,基督的言行帐户,在许多方面,以便使它们的存在,而不是违背,而的的福音叙述的实质性价值使得。 From among the various answers which have been given to the alleged contradictions of the Evangelists we simply mention the following.从已获得指称矛盾的福音之间的各种答案,我们只是提到以下。Many a time the variations are due to the fact that not one but two really distinct events are described, or two distinct sayings recorded, in the parallel passages of the Gospels.很多时候的变化是由于真的不是一个而是两个不同的事件描述,或两种截然不同的说法记录下来的福音平行通道,。At other times, as is indeed very often the case, the supposed contradictions, when closely examined, turn out to be simply differences naturally entailed, and therefore distinctly accounted for, by the literary methods of the sacred writers, and more particularly, by the respective purpose of the Evangelists in setting forth Christ's words and deeds.在其他时候,的确是很通常的情况是,所谓的矛盾,仔细检查时,转出,只是自然entailed,因此明显占,神圣的作家的文学方法,更特别的,的差异各自的目的在提出基督的言行福音。 Lastly, and in a more general way, the Gospels should manifestly be treated with the same fairness and equity as are invariably used with regard to other historical records.最后,在更普遍的方式,福音应明显地被视为具有相同的公平和公正,都不约而同地与其他历史记录方面使用。

To borrow an illustration from classical literature, the 'Memoirs' of the Apostles are treated [by unbelievers] by a method which no critic would apply to the 'Memoirs' of Xenophon.要借用古典文学的一个例证,被视为“回忆录”的使徒[由非信徒没有评论家的方法将适用于“回忆录”色诺芬。The [Rationalistic] scholar admits the truthfulness of the different pictures of Socrates which were drawn by the philosopher, the moralist, and the man of the world, and combines them into one figure instinct with a noble life, half hidden and half revealed, as men viewed it from different points; but he seems often to forget his art when he studies the records of the Saviour's work. [理性主义学者承认苏格拉底的哲学家,道德家,和世界的人得出不同的图片的真实性,并结合成一个高尚生活图本能,一半隐藏和半透露,作为男子是从不同点,但他似乎往往忘记了他的艺术时,他的研究救主的工作记录。 Hence it is that superficial differences are detached from the context which explains them.因此,它是表面差异,这就解释了他们从上下文分离。It is urged as an objection that parallel narratives are not identical.这是敦促作为反对平行叙述是不相同的。Variety of details is taken for discrepancy.各种细节的差异。The evidence may be wanting which might harmonize narratives apparently discordant; but experience shows that it is as rash to deny the probability of reconciliation as it is to fix the exact method by which it may be made out.在证据可能想这可能协调的叙述显然是不和谐的,但经验表明,它是为皮疹否认和解的可能性,因为它是修复确切的方法,它可能会做出来。 If, as a general rule, we can follow the law which regulates the characteristic peculiarities of each Evangelist, and see in what way they answer to different aspects of one truth, and combine as complementary elements in the full representation of it, we may be well contented to acquiesce in the existence of some difficulties which at present admit of no exact solution, though they may be a necessary consequence of that independence of the Gospels which, in other cases, is the source of their united power (Westcott). ,作为一般规则,如果我们能够按照法律规定每个传播者的特点特殊性,并看到何种方式回答一个真理的不同方面,是相辅相成的要素结合起来,充分的代表性,我们可能会自得地默许存在的一些困难,目前承认,没有确切的解决方案,尽管他们可能是一个必要的,独立的福音,在其他情况下,这是他们的美国权力的来源(韦斯科特)后果。

Publication information Written by Francis E. Gigot.弗朗西斯大肠杆菌Gigot编写的出版物信息。 Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.转录由道格拉斯J.波特。Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VI.献给耶稣基督的圣心天主教百科全书,第六卷。 Published 1909.发布1909年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, September 1, 1909. Nihil Obstat,1909年9月1日。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约


Catholic authors: MEIGNAN, Les Evangiles et la Critique (Paris, 1870); FILLION, Introd.天主教作者:MEIGNAN,LES Evangiles等的批判“(巴黎,1870年);菲利安,Introd。 gén.根。aux Evangiles (Paris, 1888); TROCHON ET LESÉTRE, Introd.AUX Evangiles(巴黎,1888年); TROCHON等LESÉTRE,Introd。 à l'Ecriture sainte, III (Paris, 1890); BATIFFOL, Six leçons sur les Evangiles (Paris, 1897); CORNELY, Introd.à L' Ecriture圣,三(巴黎,1890年); BATIFFOL,六leçons SUR LES Evangiles(巴黎,1897年); CORNELY,Introd。sp. SP。(Paris, 1897); JACQUIER, Hist.(巴黎,1897年); JACQUIER,组织胺。des Liv.DES丽芙。du NT, II (Paris, 1905); VERDUNOY, L'Evangile (Paris, 1907); BRASSAC, Manuel biblique, III (Paris, 1908).杜新台币,二(巴黎,1905年); VERDUNOY,Evangile欧莱雅(巴黎,1907年); BRASSAC,曼努埃尔biblique,三(巴黎,1908年)。--

Non-Catholic: WESTCOTT, Introd.非天主教:韦斯科特,Introd。to the Study of the Gospels (New York, 1887); WILKINSON, Four Lectures on the Early History of the Gospels (London, 1898); GODET, Introd.研究的福音(纽约,1887年);威尔金森四个讲座早期历史的福音(伦敦,1898年); GODET,Introd。to the New Test.新的考验。(tr. New York, 1899); ADENEY, Biblical Introduction (New York, 1904)(编辑部纽约,1899年); ADENEY,圣经简介(纽约,1904年)

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