Hail Mary, Ave Maria冰雹玛丽,圣母颂

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The Hail Mary (sometimes called the "Angelical salutation", sometimes, from the first words in its Latin form, the "Ave Maria") is the most familiar of all the prayers used by the Universal Church in honour of our Blessed Lady.冰雹玛丽(有时也被称为“天使的称呼”,有时在其拉丁形式,“圣母颂”的第一句话,)是最熟悉普世教会在纪念我们的祝福夫人所使用的所有祈祷。

It is commonly described as consisting of three parts.它通常由三部分组成。The first, "Hail (Mary) full of grace, the Lord is with thee, blessed art thou amongst women", embodies the words used by the Angel Gabriel in saluting the Blessed Virgin (Luke, I, 28).首先,“冰雹(玛丽)充满恩典,主与你同在妇女之间的艺术,祝福你”,体现了由天使加布里埃尔在敬礼圣母(卢克,我,28)的话。 The second, "and blessed is the fruit of thy womb (Jesus)" , is borrowed from the Divinely inspired greeting of St. Elizabeth (Luke, i, 42), which attaches itself the more naturally to the first part, because the words "benedicta tu in mulieribus" (I, 28) or "inter mulieres" (I, 42) are common to both salutations.第二,“和祝福是你的子宫(耶稣)的水果”,是借来的,因为从神启示的圣伊丽莎白(卢克,我,42),重视本身,更自然的第一部分的问候的话“benedicta涂在mulieribus”(一,28)或“跨mulieres”(我42)是常见的两个称呼。 Finally, the petition "Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners now and at the hour of our death. Amen." is stated by the official "Catechism of the Council of Trent" to have been framed by the Church itself.最后,请愿书“圣母玛利亚,天主之母,我们现在在我们的死亡小时罪人祈祷,阿门。”是由官方的“教义问答”教会本身已被诬陷安理会的遄达说。 "Most rightly", says the Catechism, "has the Holy Church of God added to this thanksgiving, petition also and the invocation of the most holy Mother of God, thereby implying that we should piously and suppliantly have recourse to her in order that by her intercession she may reconcile God with us sinners and obtainfor us the blessing we need both for this present life and for the life which has no end." “最正确”,说要理问答“,添加到这个感恩神的圣教会,请愿书还援引神的最圣洁的母亲,从而暗示,我们应该求助于她的虔诚和suppliantly,以便由她说情,她可能调和神与我们罪人和obtainfor我们的祝福,我们需要既为现在的生活和生活没有结束。“

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It was antecedently probable that the striking words of the Angel's salutation would be adopted by the faithful as soon as personal devotion to the Mother of God manifested itself in the Church.天使的称呼引人注目的话,将尽快通过的忠实表现在个人奉献给天主之母教会本身,它是antecedently可能的。 The Vulgate rendering, Ave gratia plena , "Hail full of grace", has often been criticized as too explicit a translation of the Greek chaire kecharitomene , but the words arein any case most striking, and the Anglican words are in any case most striking, and the Anglican Revised Version now supplements the "Hail, thouthat art highly favoured" of the original Authorized Version by the marginal alternative, "Hail thou, endued with grace".武加大渲染, 大道特惠重瓣 ,“冰雹充满恩典”,经常被批评为太露骨翻译的希腊chaire kecharitomene,但话arein任何情况下,最引人注目的,和英国圣公会的话,在任何情况下是最引人注目的,和英国圣公会的修订版,现在补充“冰雹,thouthat艺术的高度青睐”边际替代原来的授权版本,“冰雹你,优雅endued”。 We are not surprised, then, to find these or analogous words employed in a Syriac ritual attributed to Severus, Patriarch of Antioch (c. 513), or by Andrew of Crete and St. John Damascene, or again the "Liber Antiphonarious" of St. Gregory the Great as the offertory of the Mass for the fourth Sunday of Advent.然后,我们并不感到惊讶,发现这些或类似的话在叙利亚文礼仪工作西弗勒斯,牧安提(公元前513),或由克里特岛和圣约翰大马士革安德鲁,或再次“LIBER Antiphonarious”圣格雷戈里大临的第四个星期日为地下offertory。But such examples hardly warrant the conclusion that the Hail Mary was at that early period used in the Church as a separate formula of Catholic devotion.但是,这样的例子难以保证的结论是,在教会初期,作为一个单独的公式天主教奉献圣母。Similarly a story attributing the introduction of the Hail Mary to St. Ildephonsus of Toledo must probably be regarded as apocryphal.同样一个故事,归咎于引进的冰雹玛丽圣托莱多Ildephonsus必须可能被视为杜撰。 The legend narrates how St. Ildephonsus going to the church by night found our Blessed Lady seated in the apse in his own episcopal hair with a choir of virgins around her who were singing her praises.传说讲述圣Ildephonsus如何去教堂晚上发现我们的祝福夫人坐在在自己的头发围着她的处女唱她称赞合唱团的主教后殿。 Then St. Ildephonsus approached "making a series of genuflections and repeating at each of them those words of the angel's greeting: `Hail Mary full of grace the Lord is with thee, blessed art thou amongst women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb' ".圣Ildephonsus走近“作出了一系列的genuflections,并在他们每个人的天使的问候这些话重复:'圣母充满主的恩典与你同在,保佑妇女之间的艺术你,而祝福是果你的子宫'“。 Our Lady then showed her pleasure at this homage and rewarded the saint with the gift of a beautiful chasuble (Mabillon, Acta SS. OSB, saec V, pref., no. 119).我们的夫人则表现为她高兴,在此表示敬意和奖励圣人与一个美丽的chasuble(马毕伦,文献党卫军。OSB,国家外汇管理局V,县,119)礼物。 The story, however, in this explicit form cannot be traced further back than Hermann of Laon at the beginning of the twelfth century.故事,然而,在这个明确的形式不能被追踪进一步比拉昂赫尔曼在十二世纪初。

In point of fact there is little or no trace of the Hail Mary as an accepted devotional formula before about from certain versicles and responsories occurring in the Little Office or Cursus of the Blessed Virgin which just at that time was coming into favour among the monastic orders.事实上,有很少或根本没有一丝冰雹玛丽作为前约接受虔诚的公式和小办公室或圣母Cursus只是在那个时候将有利于未来之间的寺院订单发生某些versicles responsories 。Two Anglo-Saxon manuscripts at the British Museum, one of which may be as old as the year 1030, show that the words "Ave Maria" etc. and "benedicta tu in mulieribus et benedictus fructus ventris tui" occurred in almost every part of the Cursus, and though we cannot be sure that these clauses were at first joined together so as to make one prayer, there is conclusive evidence that this had come to pass only a very little later.两个盎格鲁撒克逊手稿在大英博物馆,其中之一可能是旧如1030年度,表明发生在几乎每一个部分的话“圣母颂”等“benedicta涂在mulieribus等benedictus枳​​壳地利TUI” Cursus,虽然我们不能肯定,这些条文在第一连接在一起,使之一祈祷,有确凿的证据,这已经来通过只有一个很小的。(See "The Month", Nov., 1901, pp. 486-8.) The great collections of Mary-legends which began to be formed in the early years of the twelfth century (see Mussafia, "Marien-legenden") show us that this salutation of our Lady was fast becoming widely prevalent as a form of private devotion, though it is not quite certain how far it was customary to include the clause "and blessedis the fruit of thy womb". (见“月”,11月,1901年,页486-8。)玛丽 - 传说在12世纪初年开始形成(见Mussafia,“Marien legenden”)伟大的藏品展示我们正迅速成为这个称呼的圣母作为一个私人的奉献形式广泛流行,虽然它不是很肯定多远习惯,包括条款“和blessedis你的子宫的果实”。 But Abbot Baldwin, a Cistercian who was made Archbishop of Canterbury in 1184, wrote before this date a sort of paraphrase of the Ave Maria in which he says:但住持鲍德温,一个是在1184坎特伯雷大主教修道院,在此日期之前写的一个意译的圣母颂,​​他说:

To this salutation of the Angel, by which we daily greet the most Blessed Virgin, with such devotion as we may, we are accustomed to add the words, "and blessed is the fruit of thy womb," by which clause Elizabeth at a later time, on hearing the Virgin's salutation to her, caught up and completed, as it were, the Angel's words, saying: "Blessed are thou amongst women and blessed is the fruit of thy womb."这天使的称呼,我们每天都迎来了最圣母,奉献我们可以,我们都习惯加上“,并祝福是你的子宫的水果,”这在以后的条款伊丽莎白时间,一听到处女的称呼她,赶上并完成,因为它是天使的话,他说:“是有福的,你在妇女和祝福你的子宫的成果”

Not long after this (c. 1196) we meet a synodal decree of Eudes de Sully, Bishop of Paris, enjoining upon the clergy the see that the "Salutation of the Blessed Virgin" was familiarly known to their flocks as well as the Creed and the Lord's Prayer; and after this date similar enactments become frequent in every part of the world, beginning in England with the Synod of Durham in 1217.后不久(约1196),我们遇见了Eudes去玷污,巴黎主教主教会议的法令,呼吁神职人员责令看到亲切地称为“圣母的称呼”是他们的羊群以及为信条和主祷文;并在此日期之后类似的成文法变得频繁在世界的每一个部分,在英格兰达勒姆主教在1217年开始。


To understand the early developments of this devotion it is important to grasp the fact that those who first used this formula fully recognized that the Ave Maria was merely a form of greeting.要了解这个奉献的早期发展,重要的是要抓住那些第一次使用这个公式充分认识到,“圣母颂仅仅是一个问候的形式。 It was therefore long customary to accompany the words with some external gesture of homage, a genuflection, or least an inclination of the head.因此,长期习惯伴随着一些参拜的外部姿态,膜拜,或至少是头部倾斜的话。Of St. Aybert, in the twelfth century, it is recorded that he recited 150 Hail Marys daily, 100 with genfluctions and 50 with prostrations.圣Aybert,在12世纪,它是记录他背诵genfluctions和礼拜50 150万福玛利亚每天100。So Thierry tells us of St. Louis of France that "without counting his other prayers the holy King knelt down every evening fifty times and each time he stood upright then knelt again and repeated slowly an Ave Maria."因此,亨利告诉我们法国路易圣,神圣的国王,“不计他的其他祈祷跪了下来,每天晚上五十次,每一次他直立然后跪下再慢慢地重复一个圣母颂。” Kneeling at the Ave Maria was enjoined in several of the religious orders.跪在圣母颂被责成在几个宗教命令。So in the Ancren Riwle (qv), a treatise which an examination of the Corpus Christi manuscript 402 shows to be of older date than the year 1200, the sisters are instructed that, at the recitation both of the Gloria Patri and the Ave Maria in the Office, they are either to genuflect or to incline profoundly according to the ecclesiastical season.因此,在Ancren Riwle(QV)科珀斯克里斯蒂手稿402的检查结果表明,年纪比1200年的日期,论文,姐妹俩被指示,在背诵凯莱Patri圣母颂办公室,他们要么跪或倾斜深刻根据教会的季节。 In this way, owing to the fatigue of these repeated prostrations and genufletions, the recitation of a number of Hail Marys wasoften regarded as a penitential exercise, and it is recorded of certain canonized saints, eg the Dominican nun St. Margaret (d. 1292), daughterof the King of Hungary, that on certain days she recited the Ave a thousand times with a thousand prostrations.这样,由于这些重复的礼拜和genufletions疲劳,背诵的万福玛利亚wasoften作为悔罪行使,它是某些册封圣人的记录,例如多米尼加尼姑圣玛加利(D. 1292 ),daughterof匈牙利国王,在某些日子,她念的AVE一千个礼拜的一千倍。This concept of the Hail Mary as a form of salutation explains in some measure the practice, which is certainly older than the epoch of St. Dominic, of repeating the greeting as many as 150 times in succession.这个概念的冰雹玛丽作为一个称呼的形式解释的做法,这肯定是比圣星的时代旧重复继承的150倍之多的问候,在一定程度上。 The idea is akin to that of the "Holy, Holy, Holy", which we are taught to think goes up continually before the throne of the Most High.我们的想法是类似于“神圣的,神圣的,神圣的”,这是我们教授认为不断至高的宝座前。


In the time of St. Louis the Ave Maria ended with the words of St. Elizabeth: "benedictus fructus ventris tui"; it has since been extended by the introduction both of the Holy Name and of a clause of petition.在圣路易斯的时间圣母颂圣伊丽莎白的话:“benedictus枳​​壳地利TUI”结束,它已经被引进的圣名的信访条延长。 As regards the addition of the word "Jesus," or, as it usually ran in the fifteenth century, "Jesus Chrustus, Amen", it is commonly said that this was due to the initiative of Pope Urban IV (1261) and to the confirmation and indulgence of John XXII.至于这个词除了“耶稣”,或者,因为它通常运行在15世纪,“Chrustus耶稣,阿​​门”,它通常是说,这是由于教皇乌尔班四(1261)的主动性和确认和放纵约翰二十二。 The evidence does not seem sufficiently clear to warrant positive statement on the point.充分的证据似乎并不清楚,保证点积极发言。Still, there, can be no doubt that this was the widespread belief of the later Middle Ages. ,在那里,仍然可以毫无疑问,这是中世纪晚期的普遍信仰。A popular German religious manual of the fifteenth century ("Der Selen Troïst", 1474) even divides the Hail Mary into four portions, and declares that the first part was composed by the Angel Gabriel, the second by St. Elizabeth, the third, consisting only of the Sacred Name, Jesus Christus, by the popes, and the last, ie the word Amen, by the Church.一种流行的15世纪德国宗教手册(1474年)“明镜纶Troïst”,分为四个部分,甚至冰雹玛丽,并宣布,第一部分是由天使加布里埃尔,圣伊丽莎白的第二,第三组成,只有神圣的名字,耶稣CHRISTUS,由教皇,最后,即阿门字,由教会。


It was often made a subject of reproach against the Catholics by the Reformers that the Hail Mary which they so constantly repeated was not properly a prayer.它往往是由对天主教徒的非议问题的改革者,他们不断重复的冰雹玛丽是不正确的祈祷。It was a greeting which contained no petition (see. eg Latimer, Works, II, 229-230).它打了招呼,其中包含没有请愿书(see.例如拉蒂默,工程,二,229-230)。This objection would seem to have long been felt, and as a consequence it was uncommon during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries for those who recited their Aves privately to add some clause at the end, after the words "ventris tui Jesus".这一反对似乎一直觉得,作为一个结果,它是在吟诵自己的鸟类私下在末尾添加一些条款后,“地利TUI耶稣”的话,第十四和第十五世纪罕见。 Traces of this practice meet us particularly in the verse paraphrases of the Ave which date from this period.这种做法的痕迹,特别是在经文释义的大道,从这一时期日期我们满足。The most famous of these is that attributed, though incorrectly, to Dante, and belonging in any case to the first half of the fourteenth century.其中最有名的是归因于,虽然不正确,但丁,在任何情况下属于十四世纪的上半年。In this paraphrase the Hail Mary ends with the following words:万福玛利亚在此套用完下面的话:

O Vergin benedetta, sempre tuØ Vergin benedetta,森佩尔TU
Ora per noi a Dio, che ci perdoni,吾每车CI perdoni NOI à DIO,,
E diaci grazia a viver si quaggiu发送diaci GRAZIA一个viver SI quaggiu
Che'l paradiso al nostro fin ci doni;Che'l Paradiso的人nostro鳍CI多尼;

(Oh blessed Virgin, pray to God for us always, that He may pardon us and give us grace, so to live here below that He may reward us with paradise at our death.) (哦圣母,祈求上帝总是对我们来说,他可能会赦免我们,给我们的恩典,所以住在这里,他可能会奖励我们的死亡与天堂。)

Comparing the versions of the Ave existing in various languages, eg Italian, Spanish, German, Provençal, we find that there is a general tendency to conclude with an appeal for sinners and especially for help at the hour of death.比较在不同的语言,如意大利,西班牙,德国,普罗旺斯现有的大道版本,我们发现,有一种普遍的的倾向上诉缔结为罪人,尤其是在死亡的时刻帮助。 Still a good deal of variety prevailed in these forms of petition.仍然是处理好各种盛行于这些形式的请愿。At the close of the fifteenth century there was not any officially approved conclusion, though a form closely resembling our present one was sometimes designated as "the prayer of Pope Alexander VI" (see "Der Katholik", April, 1903, p. 334), and was engraved separately on bells (Beisesel, "Verehrung Maria", p. 460).在十五世纪结束时,有没有任何正式批准的结论,虽然我们目前的近似的形式有时被称为“教皇亚历山大六世的祈祷”(见“明镜Katholik”,四月,1903年,第334页) ,并分别镌刻上的钟声(Beisesel,“Verehrung玛丽亚”,第460)。But for liturgical purposes the Ave down to the year 1568 ended with "Jesus, Amen", and an observation in the "Myroure of our Ldy" written for the Bridgettine nuns of Syon, clearly indicates the generally feeling.但对于礼仪的目的大道下降到了1568年“耶稣,阿门”结束,在观察Syon Bridgettine修女写的,“我们LDY Myroure”清楚地表明,一般的感觉。"Some saye at the begynnyng of this salutacyon Ave benigne Jesu and some saye after `Maria mater Dei', with other addycyons at the ende also. And such thinges may be saide when folke saye their Aves of theyr own devocyon. But in the servyce of the chyrche, I trowe it to be moste sewer and moste medeful (ie meritorious) to obey the comon use of saying, as the chyrche hath set, without all such addicions." “一些在本salutacyon大道benigne Jesu begynnyng一些萨耶萨耶玛丽亚母校业会”,与其他在恩德也addycyons。如thinges后可赛德folke萨耶theyr自己devocyon鸟类。但在servyce chyrche,我trowe moste下水道和moste medeful(即立功)服从说,chyrche祂所没有等addicions COMON使用。“

We meet the Ave as we know it now, printed in the breviary of the Camaldolese monks, and in that of the Order de Mercede c.我们满足,因为我们知道它现在的大道,Camaldolese僧人的祈祷书印,并在订购Mercede C.1514.1514。Probably this, the current form of Ave, came from Italy, and Esser asserts that it is to be found written exactly as we say it now in the handwriting of St. Antoninus of Florence who died in 1459.这大概大道目前的形式,来自意大利,ESSER断言,它是被发现的书面的完全一样,我们说现在在佛罗伦萨的圣安东尼手写死于1459。 This, however, is doubtful.然而,这是值得怀疑的。What is certain is that an Ave Maria identical with our own, except for the omission of the single word nostrae , stands printed at the head of the little work of Savonarola's issued in 1495, of which there is a copy in the British Museum.可以肯定的是,圣母颂相同,只是用我们自己的,遗漏的片言只 nostrae,站在印在1495年发行的萨沃纳罗拉的,其中有一份在大英博物馆的工作很少的头。Even earlier than this, in a French edition of the "Calendar of Shepherds" which appeared in is repeated in Pynson's English translation a few years later in the form: "Holy Mary moder of God praye for us synners. Amen. ".比这还要早,在一个Pynson的英文翻译,几年后的形式反复出现的“牧羊人的日历”的法文版:“我们synners圣母玛利亚莫代尔神praye阿门“。 In an illustration which appears in the same book, the pope and the whole Church are depicted kneeling before our Lady and greeting her with this third part of the Ave.教皇和整个教会出现在同一本书的插图,描绘跪在我们的夫人和她的问候与这大道第三部分。The official recognition of the Ave Maria in its complete form, though foreshadowed in the words of the Catechism of the Council of Trent, as quoted at the beginning of this article, was finally given in the Roman Breviary of 1568.圣母颂在其完整的形式,但在安理会的遄达理的话预示,在本文开头所引述的,官方的认可,终于在1568罗马祈祷书。

One or two other points connected with the Hail Mary can only be briefly touched upon.冰雹玛丽连接一个或两个其他点只能简要地触及。It would seem that in the Middle Ages the Ave often become so closely connected with the Pater noster, that it was treated as a sort of farsura , or insertion, before the words et ne nos inducas in tentationem when the Pater noster was said secreto (see several examples quoted in "The Month", Nov., 1901, p. 490).当佩特noster说是秘密的 ,它似乎在中世纪的大道往往成为如此紧密地与佩特noster连接,这是作为一个 farsura排序或插入治疗前的话NE NOS tentationem inducas, (看到几个例子,在“月”援引,11月,1901年,第490页)。The practice of preachers interrupting their sermons near the beginning to say the Ave Maria seems to have been introduced in the Middle Ages and to be of Franciscan origin (Beissel, p. 254).中断附近开始他们的布道说圣母颂传教士的做法似乎已经出台和方济会的起源在中世纪(Beissel,第254页)。A curious illustration of its retention among English Catholics in the reign of James II may be found in the "Diary" of Mr. John Thoresby (I, 182).其保留在詹姆斯二世统治时期英国的天主教徒之间的一个好奇的插图可能会发现在“日记”约翰先生Thoresby(我182)。 It may also be noticed that although modern Catholic usage is agreed in favouring the form "the Lord is with thee", this is a comparatively recent development.它也可能会注意到,虽然现代天主教用法是在偏袒的形式同意“上帝与你同在”,这是一个比较新的的发展。The more general custom a century ago was to say "our Lord is with thee", and Cardinal Wiseman in one of his essays strongly reprobates change (Essays on Various Subjects, I, 76), characterizing it as "stiff, cantish and destructive of the unction which the prayer breathes".更普遍的习俗是一个世纪前说,“我们的主与你同在”,枢机怀斯曼在他的杂文强烈reprobates变化(关于不同主题的散文,我76),定性为“僵硬,cantish和破坏性恩膏的祷告呼吸“。 Finally it may be noticed that in some places, and notably in Ireland, the feeling still survives that the Hail Mary is complete with the word Jesus.最后,它可能会注意到,在一些地方,尤其在爱尔兰,感觉仍然生存,冰雹玛丽字耶稣的完整。Indeed the writer is informed that within living memory it was not uncommon for Irish peasant, when bidden to say Hail Marys for a penance, to ask whether they were required to say the Holy Marys too.事实上,笔者获悉,在人们的记忆中,这不是罕见的爱尔兰农民,当吩咐说一个苦修万福玛利亚,问他们是否需要太说圣玛利亚。 Upon the Ave Maria in the sense of Angelus, see ANGELUS.圣母颂奉告祈祷的意义后,看到三钟经。On account of its connection with the Angelus, the Ave Maria was often inscribed on bells.其三钟经连接的帐户,圣母颂往往是刻在钟声。One such bell at Eskild in Denmark, dating from about the year 1200, bears the Ave Maria engraved upon it in runic characters.在Eskild丹麦这样一个钟,可以追溯到1200年左右,事关圣母颂刻符文字符。(See Uldall, "Danmarks Middelalderlige Kirkeklokker", Copenhagen, 1906, p. 22.)(见Uldall“Danmarks Middelalderlige Kirkeklokker”,哥本哈根,1906年,第22页。)

Herbert Thurston赫伯特瑟斯顿

The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VII天主教百科全书,第七卷

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