Christian Halo, Nimbus基督教晕

General Information一般资料

In Christian sacred art (Eastern and Western churches), holy persons (saints) are depicted with a halo, a golden, yellow or white circular glow, around the head.在基督教神圣的艺术(东方和西方教会),圣洁的人(圣人)描绘成一个光环,金色,黄色或白色的圆形的辉光,头部周围。It is sometimes called a nimbus as well.它有时也被称为灵气以及。

The halo appears in the art of ancient Greece and Rome, and was incorporated into Christian art sometime in the 4th century.的光环出现在古希腊和罗马的艺术,并在4世纪的某个时候被纳入到基督教艺术。 Round halos are used to signify saints.圆形光环是用来表示圣人。A cross within a halo is used to represent Jesus Christ.一个光环内的一个交叉是用来代表耶稣基督。Triangular halos are used for representations of the Trinity.三角晕用于三位一体的交涉。Square halo are used to depict unusually saintly living personages.广场光环是用来描述异常圣洁的生活人士。

In popular piety, this practice has led to the belief that saints during their earthly life actually walked around with a halo around their head.在流行的虔诚,这种做法导致的信念,在他们的现世生活的圣人实际上走在他们头上的光环围绕。Of the many wonderful stories about saints, some report that a saint was literally glowing.关于圣人的许多精彩的故事,一些报告,圣人是字面上发光。This is called the aureole, a lemon-drop-shaped item that appears to radiate from the entire body of the holy being.这就是所谓的光环,一个柠檬水滴形的项目出现辐射到整个身体的圣洁被。Finally, there is also "glory," a glowing effusion used to cover up depictions of genitalia.最后,也有“荣耀”,用来掩盖生殖器的描写一个光辉的积液。

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The halo underwent an interesting transformation during the Renaissance.文艺复兴时期的光环经历一个有趣的转变。Originally, the halo represented a glow of sanctity emanating from the head.本来,晕代表一个圣洁的光芒从头部产生。Since it was conventionally drawn as a circle, during the Renaissance, when perspective became more important in art, the halo was changed from an aura surrounding the head to a golden ring that appeared in perspective, mysteriously floating above the heads of the saints.晕了,因为它是传统画成一个圆圈,在文艺复兴时期,当角度在艺术变得更加重要,改变从一个金戒指中出现的角度来看,神秘以上的圣人首脑浮动头周围的光环。


Halo最后一战

General Information一般资料

The Halo, also called Nimbus, in art, is a radiant circle or disk surrounding the head of a holy person, a representation of spiritual character through the symbolism of light.晕,也被称为雨云,在艺术,是一个辐射圈或磁盘,周围的头一个神圣的人,通过光的象征意义的代表性的精神品格。In Hellenistic and Roman art the sun-god Helios and Roman emperors often appear with a crown of rays.在希腊和罗马艺术的太阳神赫利俄斯和罗马皇帝经常出现与射线冠。Because of its pagan origin, the form was avoided in Early Christian art, but a simple circular nimbus was adopted by Christian emperors for their official portraits.由于其异教起源,避免在早期基督教艺术的形式,但其官方肖像的基督教皇帝通过一个简单的圆形灵气。

From the middle of the 4th century, Christ was also shown with this imperial attribute, as was his symbol, the Lamb of God, from the end of the 4th century.从4世纪中叶,基督是这个帝国属性也显示,作为他的象征,上帝的羔羊,从4世纪的结束。In the 5th century it was sometimes given to angels, but it was not until the 6th century that the halo became customary for the Virgin Mary and other saints.在5世纪,这是有时天使,但直到6世纪,圣母玛利亚和其他圣人的光环成为习惯。For a period during the 5th century, living persons of eminence were depicted with a square nimbus.在5世纪时期,卓越的生活的人描绘成一个正方形的灵气。

The halo was used regularly in representations of Christ, the angels, and the saints throughout the Middle Ages.基督,天使,和整个中世纪的圣徒的交涉中经常使用的光环。Often Christ's halo is quartered by the lines of a cross or inscribed with three bands, interpreted to signify his position in the Trinity.基督的光环往往是驻扎跨线或刻有三个波段,解释,以表明他在三位一体的地位。From the 15th century, however, with the growth of naturalism in Renaissance art, the nimbus created problems in representation.然而,从15世纪,在文艺复兴时期的艺术,自然增长的灵气代表性的问题。At first it was treated by some Florentine artists as a solid object seen in perspective, a disk fixed to the back of a saint's head.起初,它是治疗一些佛罗伦萨艺术家作为圣人的头部背面固定磁盘的角度看,看到了坚实的对象。 The inadequacy of this solution led to its decline in Italian art in the 16th century and to its abandonment by Michelangelo and Titian.这种解决方案的不足,导致其在16世纪意大利艺术的下降和放弃米开朗基罗和提香。 In Flemish painting of the 15th century, it began to be represented as rays of light; under the influence of the Counter-Reformation, which sought to restore a glorious conception to religious art, this form was adopted by Italian artists of the late 16th century, notably Tintoretto, as a realistically rendered light emanating from the holy person's head.在15世纪佛兰芒绘画,它开始作为光线的代表,反宗教改革,试图恢复光荣的观念,以宗教艺术的影响下,这种形式是由16世纪后期的意大利艺术家通过特别是丁托列托,为圣洁的人的头上产生一个切实呈现光。 This new interpretation was the standard one in the Baroque period and in most subsequent religious works.这个新的解释是在巴洛克时期和随后在大多数的宗教作品的标准之一。

The halo is also found in Buddhist art of India, appearing from the late 3rd century AD.在印度的佛教艺术的光环也发现,从公元3世纪后期出现。It is believed that the motif was brought to the East by Greek invaders.据认为,所带来的主题是希腊侵略者东。

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Nimbus雨云

Advanced Information先进的信息

(Latin, related to Nebula, nephele, properly vapour, cloud), in art and archaeology signifies a shining light implying great dignity. (拉丁美洲,有关星云,涅斐勒,妥善蒸汽,云),标志着在艺术和考古学的一个闪亮的光,这意味着巨大的尊严。Closely related are the halo, glory, and aureole.与此密切相关的光环,荣耀和光环。

In Nature在“自然”

All such symbols originate in natural phenomena, scientifically accounted for in textbooks on physics.所有这些符号在自然现象的起源,科学占物理课本。There are circular phenomena of light in drops or bubbles of water and in ice crystals which by the refraction of light reveal in greater or less degree the spectral colours.有滴或气泡水,在光线的折射或大或小的程度揭示光谱颜色的冰晶圆形的光现象。Of the accompanying phenomena the horizontal and vertical diameters, the "column of light", may be mentioned.伴随的现象,水平和垂直的直径,“光柱”,可能会被提及。The curious rings of light or colour similar to the above, which often form themselves before the iris of the eye even in candle light, are more gorgeous on the mountain mist (Pilatus, Rigi, and Brocken), if the beholder has the sun behind him; they surround his shadow as it is projected upon the clouds.类似上述的光或颜色奇怪的戒指,这往往会形成自己的眼睛,即使在烛光前虹膜,更华丽的山雾(皮拉图斯山,瑞吉,峨眉),如果仁者见仁,太阳的背后他,他们环绕他的影子,因为它是根据云的预测。 The dewdrops in a meadow can produce an appearance of light around a shadow, without, however, forming distinct circles.在草地上的露珠可以产生光周围的阴影的外观,如果没有,然而,形成鲜明的圈子。

Occasionally one even sees the planet Venus veiled by a disc of light.有时甚至认为金星光盘的光隐晦。The phenomena of discs and broad rings are more usual in the sun and moon.光盘和广阔的环的现象,通常在太阳和月亮。The Babylonians studied them diligently (Kugler, "Sternkunde und Sterndienst in Babel", II, 1).巴比伦人学习他们勤奋(库格勒,“Sternkunde和Sterndienst通天塔”,二,1)。The terminology of these phenomena is vague.这些现象的术语是模糊的。The disc or circle around the sun can be correctly called "anthelia", and the ring around the moon "halo".围绕太阳的光盘或圈,才能正确地称为“anthelia”,环绕月球的“光环”。A more usual name is "aureole", which in a restricted sense means an oval or elliptical ray of light like a medallion.一个更常见的名字是“光环”,这在受限制的意义上是指一个椭圆形或椭圆形的光,像奖章。If the brightness is merely a luminous glow without definitely forming ring, circle.如果亮度只是一个没有绝对形成环形,圆光焕发。or ellipse, it is usually spoken of as a "glory".或椭圆形,它通常是谈到作为“荣耀”。The types in nature in which rays or beams of light with or without colour challenge attention, suggested the symbolical use of the nimbus to denote high dignity or power.在自然界中类型的射线束光带​​或不带颜色的挑战注意,建议使用的灵气的象征性表示尊严或高功率。It is thus that Divine characteristics and the loftiest types of humanity were denoted by the nimbus.因此,这是神圣的特点和人类最崇高的类型表示的灵气。

In Poetry在诗歌

In poetry, this symbol of light is chiefly used in the form of rays and flames or a diffused glow.在诗歌中,这种光的象征,是主要用于射线和火焰的形式或扩散的光晕。The Bible presents the best example: God is Light.“圣经”给出了最好的例子:神就是光。The Son of God, the Brightness of His Father's glory (Hebr., i, 3).神的儿子,他父亲的荣耀的亮度(Hebr.,我,3)。An emerald light surrounds God and His throne (Apoc., iv, 3), and the Son of Man seems to the prophet a flame of fire (Apoc., i, 14 sq.).翠绿的光包围着上帝和他的王位,(Apoc.,四,3),和人子似乎先知的火焰(Apoc.,我,14平方米)。So also He appeared in His Transfiguration on Tabor.因此,他也出现在他的变身泰伯。On Sinai, God appeared in a cloud which at once concealed and revealed Him (Ex., xxiv, 16, sq.) and even the countenance of Moses shone with a marvellous light in the presence of God (Ex., xxxiv, 29, sq.).上帝在西奈半岛,出现在这一次隐蔽的云,发现他(出埃及记,24,16平方米),甚至摩西的面容与奇妙的光照耀的神(出埃及记三十四,29,平方米)。 Such descriptions may have influenced Christian artists to distinguish God and the saints by means of a halo, especially around the head.这样的描述可能影响基督教艺术家来区分一个光环的手段,尤其是头部周围,上帝和圣人。They were also familiar with the descriptions of the classical poets whose gods appeared veiled by a cloud; eg according to Virgil, divinity appears "nimbo circumdata, succincta, effulgens" (bathed in light and shining through a cloud).他们还熟悉的神出现云含蓄的古典诗人的描述,如根据维吉尔,神威出现“nimbo circumdata,succincta,effulgens”(沐浴在光的照耀通过云)。

In Art在艺术

In the plastic arts (painting and sculpture) the symbolism of the nimbus was early in use among the pagans who determined its form.在造型艺术(绘画和雕塑)灵气的象征意义,早在确定其形式之间的异教徒使用。In the monuments of Hellenic and Roman art, the heads of the gods, heroes, and other distinguished persons are often found with a disc-shaped halo, a circle of light, or a rayed-fillet.在希腊和罗马艺术,古迹的神,英雄,和其他杰出人士的元首经常发现有一个圆盘状的光环,光圆,或光检查,圆角。 They are, therefore, associated especially with gods and creatures of light such as the Phoenix.因此,他们是相关的,尤其是与神和生物光如凤凰。The disc of light is likewise used in the Pompeian wall paintings to typify gods and demigods only, but later, in profane art it was extended to cherubs or even simple personifications, and is simply a reminder that the figures so depicted are not human.光盘同样是用于在庞贝壁画典型的神和半神只,但后来,在亵渎艺术,它是天使或即使是简单的人格化,是一个简单的提醒,不是人类所描绘的数字。 In the miniatures of the oldest Virgil manuscript all the great personages wear a nimbus.在所有伟大的人物,维吉尔的最古老的手稿的微缩穿了灵气。

The custom of the Egyptian and Syrian kings of having themselves represented with a rayed crown to indicate the status of demigods, spread throughout the East and the West.埃及和叙利亚国王有自己的定制与光检查冠代表表示半神的状态,整个东方和西方的传播。In Rome the halo was first used only for deceased emperors as a sign of celestial bliss, but afterwards living rulers also were given the rayed crown, and after the third century, although not first by Constantine, the simple rayed nimbus.在罗马的光环最初仅用于为死者皇帝天体幸福的标志,但后来生活的统治者也被赋予了光检查冠,和之后的第三个世纪,虽然不是第一康斯坦丁,简单的光照射灵气。 Under Constantine the rayed crown appears only in exceptional cases on the coin, and was first adopted emblematically by Julian the Apostate.在君士坦丁光检查冠只出现在硬币上的特殊情况下,并首次采用了由朱利安的叛教者emblematically。 Henceforth the nimbus appears without rays, as the emperors now wished themselves considered worthy of great honour, but no longer as divine beings.今后的灵气似乎没有光线,作为皇帝现在希望自己认为值得莫大的荣誉,但不再为天人。

In early Christian art, the rayed nimbus as well as the rayless disc were adopted in accordance with tradition.在早期基督教艺术,光检查灵气以及rayless光盘采用按照传统。The sun and the Phoenix received, as in pagan art, a wreath or a rayed crown, also the simple halo.太阳和凤凰,在异教艺术,敬献了花圈或一个光检查冠,也是简单的光环。The latter was reserved not only for emperors but for men of genius and personifications of all kinds, although both in ecclesiastical and profane art, this emblem was usually omitted in ideal figures.后者被保留,不仅为皇帝,但男性的天才和各种人格化,虽然在教会和世俗的艺术,这个会徽通常是在理想的数字省略。 In other cases the influence of ancient art tradition must not be denied.古老的艺术传统的影响,在其他情况下不得剥夺。The Middle Ages scarcely recognized such influence, and were satisfied to refer to the Bible as an example for wreath and crown or shield shaped discs as marks of honour to holy personages.中世纪几乎没有认识到这种影响,并表示满意指“圣经”作为一个花圈和冠的例子,或盾牌形状的光碟,以神圣的人士的荣誉标志。 Durandus writes: Durandus写道:

"Sic omnes sancti pinguntur coronati, quasi dicerunt. Filiae Jerusalem, venite et videte martyres cum coronis quibus coronavit eas Dominus. Et in Libro Sapientiae: Justi accipient regnum decoris et diadema speciei de manu Domini. Corona autem huiusmodi depingitur in forma scuti rotundi, quia sancti Dei protectione divina fruuntur, unde cantant gratulabundi: Domine ut scuto bonae voluntatis tuae coronasti nos" (Thus all the saints are depicted, crowned as if they would say: O Daughters of Jerusalem, come and see the martyrs with the crowns with which the Lord has crowned them. And in the Book of Wisdom: The Just shall receive a kingdom of glory, and a crown of beauty at the hands of the Lord, and a crown of this kind is shown in the form of a round shield. because they enjoy the divine protection of the Holy God, whence they sing rejoicing: O Lord, Thou hast crowned us with a shield of Thy goods-will.) (Rationale divin. offic., I, 3, 19, sq.).“SIC义务sancti pinguntur coronati,准dicerunt Filiae耶路撒冷,venite等videte martyres暨罗妮丝quibus coronavit EAS Dominus等Libro Sapientiae。Justi accipient regnum decoris等diadema speciei的马努多米尼电晕autem huiusmodi depingitur在备考scuti rotundi,quia sancti之protectione divina fruuntur,unde cantant gratulabundi:Domine UT scuto bonae voluntatis TUAE coronasti不“(因此,所有的圣人描绘,加冕,如果他们会说:Ø耶路撒冷的女儿,来看看烈士的冠与该主加冕他们的智慧之书。义人必在主的手中收到一个荣耀的国度,一个美丽的冠,这种冠是在一个圆盾构的形式显示,因为他们享受神圣圣洁的神的保护,从那里他们唱大喜:主啊,祢加冕你的商品,将屏蔽)(理由divin offic,我,3,19平方米)。。。

Furthermore the Middle Ages are almost exclusively accredited with the extension of symbolism inasmuch as they traced, sometimes felicitously, allusions to Christian truths in existing symbols, of which they sought no other origin.此外,中世纪几乎完全认可延长的象征意义,因为他们追查,有时felicitously,在现有符号,以基督教真理的典故,他们寻求没有其他来源。 Durandus adds to the passage quoted above, the nimbus containing a cross, usual in the figures of Christ, signifying redemption through the Cross, and the square nimbus which was occasionally combined with it in living persons, to typify the four cardinal virtues. Durandus增加了上面引用的通道,包含跨,通常在基督的数字,标志着通过交叉赎回,和偶尔地结合在生的人,典型的四项基本原则美德平方米灵气的灵气。 Judging by the principal monuments, however, the square nimbus appears to be only a variant of the round halo used to preserve a distinction and thus guard against placing living persons on a par with the saints.主要的古迹来看,不过,广场上的灵气似乎仅仅是一个用来保护的区别,从而防范与圣人相提并论生活的人的一轮光环的变种。 The idea of the cardinal virtues, the firmness of a squared stone, or the imperfection of a square figure as contrasted with a round one was merely a later development.与圆的对比的基本美德,一个平方的石头的坚定性,或一个正方形图的不完善的想法只是一个后来的发展。In the cross nimbus the association of the nimbus with an annexed cross must be conceded historical; but that this cross is a "signum Christi crucifixi" Durandus probably interprets correctly.在跨灵气的灵气与所附跨协会必须承认历史,但这种跨“SIGNUM斯蒂crucifixi”Durandus可能正确的解释。

Origin原产

As stated above the nimbus was in use long before the Christian era.正如上面的灵气指出长期使用前基督教时代。According to the exhaustive researches of Stephani it was an invention of the Hellenic epoch.据Stephani详尽的研究,这是一个希腊划时代的发明。In early Christian art the nimbus certainly is not found on images of God and celestial beings, but only on figures borrowed from profane art, and in Biblical scenes; in place of the simple nimbus, rays or an aureole (with the nimbus) were made to portray heavenly glory.在早期基督教艺术的灵气肯定是没有发现神和天体众生的图像,但仅在亵渎艺术借来的数字,在圣经故事;代替简单的灵气,射线或一个光环(灵气)描绘天上的荣耀。 Hence it follows that the Bible furnished no example for the bestowal of a halo upon individual saintly personages.因此,如下,“圣经”没有例如提供根据个人的圣洁人士的光环恩赐。As a matter of fact the nimbus, as an inheritance from ancient art tradition, was readily adopted and ultimately found the widest application because the symbol of light for all divine, saintly ideals is offered by nature and not infrequently used in Scripture.作为一个事实上的灵气事项,作为一个古老的艺术传统的继承,很容易通过并最终发现应用最广泛的,因为所有神圣,圣洁的理想的象征,是所提供的性质,而不是经常在圣经中使用。 In contemporary pagan art, the nimbus as a symbol of divinity had become so indefinite, that it must have been accepted as something quite new.异教在当代艺术,作为神力的象征灵气,已成为无限期,它必须有相当新的东西被接受。

The nimbus of early Christian art manifests only in a few particular drawings, its relationship with that of late antiquity.早期基督教艺术的灵气,体现在一些特定的图纸,近古的关系。In the first half of the fourth century, Christ received a nimbus only when portrayed seated upon a throne or in an exalted and princely character, but it had already been used since Constantine, in pictures of the emperors, and was emblematic, not so much of divine as of human dignity and greatness.在上半年的第四个世纪,基督只有当描绘坐在后宝座,或在尊贵和王侯性质的灵气,但它已经被用于自君士坦丁皇帝的照片,并象征性的,没有那么多作为人的尊严和伟大的神圣。 In other scenes however, Christ at that time was represented without this emblem.但是在其他场景,基督当时没有这个会徽派代表出席了会议。The "exaltation" of Christ as indicated by the nimbus, refers to His dignity as a teacher and king rather than to His Godhead.“超升”基督的灵气,是指他作为一名教师的尊严和国王,而不是他的神性。Before long the nimbus became a fixed symbol of Christ and later (in the fourth century), of an angel or a lamb when used as the type of Christ.不久成为一个固定的象征基督的灵气和更高(第四世纪),一个天使或作为基督的类型时使用的羔羊。The number of personages who were given a halo increased rapidly, until towards the end of the sixth century the use of symbols in the Christian Church became as general as it had formerly been in pagan art.被赋予了光环的人士的数量迅速增加,直到六世纪结束对使用的基督教教堂的符号一般,因为它以前在异教艺术。

Miniature painting in its cycle represents all the most important personages with haloes, just as did the Virgil codex, so that the continuity of the secular and Christian styles is obvious.在其周期的微型绘画代表所有与光晕的最重要人物,就像维吉尔法典,使世俗和基督教风格的连续性是显而易见的。This connection is definitively revealed when royal persons, eg, Herod, receive a nimbus.这种连接是明确透露王室的人,例如,希律王,当收到一个灵气。Very soon the Blessed Virgin Mary always, and martyrs and saints usually, were crowned with a halo.很快圣母玛利亚总是和烈士和圣徒通常,与光环加冕。More rarely the beloved dead or some person conspicuous for his position or dignity were so honoured.更罕见的心爱的死或一些人对他的地位和尊严的突出的荣幸。Saints were so represented if they constituted the central figure or needed to be distinguished from the surrounding personages.圣徒代表如果他们构成的核心人物,或需要从周围人士的尊敬。The nimbus was used arbitrarily in personification, Gospel types, and the like.人格化,福音类型,像任意使用的灵气。 Official representations clearly show a fixed system, but outside of these there was great variety.官方代表清楚地显示一个固定的系统,但这些之外,还有种类繁多。Works of art may be distinctly differentiated according to their birthplace.艺术作品可根据自己的出生地明显区别。 The nimbus in the Orient seems to has e been in general use at an early period, but whether it was first adopted from ecclesiastical art is uncertain.在东方的灵气似乎已经在初期一般使用已经发送,但无论是第一次通过教会艺术是不确定的。In general the customs of the East and West are parallel; for instance, in the West the personifications appear with a nimbus as early as the third century and Christ enthroned no later than in the East (in the time of Constantine).在一般的东方和西方的习俗是平行的;例如,在西方的人格化出现的第三个世纪初与灵气和基督登基不迟于东(康斯坦丁)。 Their nature makes it apparent that in every department of plastic art the nimbus is more rarely used than in painting.其性质使它明显,在造型艺术各部门的灵气比绘画更为罕见。

Form and Colour形状和颜色

The form of the symbol was first definitely determined by Gregory the Great who (about 600) permitted himself to be painted with a square nimbus.符号的形式肯定是第一个由高利大(约600)允许自己要画一个正方形灵气。Johannus Diaconus in his life of the pope, gives the reason: "circa verticem tabulae similitudinem, quod viventis insigne est, preferens, non coronam" (bearing around his head the likeness of a square, which is the sign for a living person, and not a crown.) (Migne, "PL", 75, 231).在他的教皇生活Johannus Diaconus,给出的理由是:“大约verticem tabulae similitudinem,狴viventis insigne EST,preferens,非coronam”(他的头部周围一个正方形的肖像,这是一个活生生的人的标志,并不是一顶王冠。)(米涅,“PL”,75,231)。 It appears to have already been customary to use the round nimbus for saints.它似乎已经习惯使用圣人一轮灵气。 In any event the few extant examples from the following centuries show that, almost without exception only the living, principally ecclesiastics, but also the laity and even women and children, were represented with a square nimbus.从为数不多的几百年间,现存的例子表明,在任何情况下,几乎无一例外的生活,主要教区,但也俗人,甚至妇女和儿童,派代表出席了一个正方形的灵气。 The aureole, that is the halo which surrounds an entire figure, naturally takes the shape of an oval, though if it is used for a bust, it readily resumes the circular form.的光环,这是一个全数字的光环包围,自然需要考虑的一个椭圆形的的形状,但如果它是用于胸围,它很容易恢复圆形。The radiation of light from a centre is essential and we must recognize the circle of light of the sun-god in ancient art as one of the prototypes of the aureole.光从一个中心辐射是必不可少的,我们必须认识到太阳神在古代艺术圈光环的原型之一。The medallion form was for a long time in use among the ancient Romans for the Imagines clipeata.飞龙再生形式是在想象clipeata古罗马人之间的使用时间长。The gradations of colour in the aureole reveal the influence of Apoc., iv, 3, where a rainbow was round about the throne of God.在光环的色阶显示的载脂蛋白C的影响,四,三,一道彩虹一轮关于神的宝座。Indeed, in very early times the aureole was only used in representations of God as the Dove or Hand, or of Christ when the divinity was to be emphatically expressed.事实上,在非常早期的光环只用在神的鸽子或手交涉,或基督的神性时强调表示。

In early Christian times (as now) the round nimbus was by far the most usual designation of Christ and the saints.在早期基督教时代(现在)轮灵气到目前为止,基督的最常用的名称和圣人。The broad circle is often replaced by the ring of light or a coloured disc, especially on fabrics and miniatures.广大圈是环光或彩色光盘经常更换,尤其是在面料和微缩模型。In pictures without colour the nimbus is shown by an engraved line or a raised circlet, often by a disc in relief.在没有彩色照片的灵气是刻线或提出的头饰,往往是在救灾的光盘。In the aureole blue indicates celestial glory, and it is used in the nimbus to fill in the surface, as are yellow, gray, and other colours while the margins are sharply defined in different tints.在光环蓝色表示天体的荣耀,它是用来在的灵气在表面,以填补,是黄色,灰色,其他颜色的,而利润大幅定义在不同的色彩。 In many haloes the inner part is white.在许多光环的内在部分是白色的。In mosaics, since the fifth and sixth centuries, blue has been replaced by gold.在马赛克,第五和第六世纪以来,蓝色已取代黄金。 From this period also, the frescoes show a corresponding yellow as seen for instance in paintings in the catacombs.也从这个时期的壁画显示了相应的黄色,在绘画例如在墓穴。Gold or yellow prevails in miniatures, but there is a great deal of variety in illustrated books.黄金或黄色盛行的缩影,但有大量各种图画书。Blue as a symbol of heaven has the preference, but gold, which later became the rule, gives a more obvious impression of light.作为一个象征着天上的蓝偏好,但黄金,即后来的规则,给出了一个更明显的光的印象。

The explanation of the cross nimbus variety is obvious.的跨灵气品种的解释是显而易见的。Since the sixth century it has characterized Christ and the Lamb of God, but occasionally it is given to the other Persons of the Trinity.第六世纪以来,它特点基督和上帝的羔羊,但有时是给三位一体的其他人士。 In connection with it, in the fourth and fifth centuries there was a monogram nimbus.与它连接,在第四和第五世纪有一个会标灵气。The cross and the monogram of Christ were beside or above the head of Christ and the Lamb.基督和羔羊的头旁边或上面的十字架和基督的会标。In the fifth century they were brought to the upper edge of the nimbus and finally both were concentrically combined with it.在第五世纪,他们被带到上部边缘的灵气,最后都同心与它相结合。In more recent times the monogram and the monogram nimbus have become more rare.在最近时期的会标,会标灵气已成为较为少见。 The letters Alpha and Omega for Christ and M and A for Mary, were intended for monograms and frequently accompanied the nimbus.基督和M和玛丽,用于印章,往往伴随着的灵气字母Alpha和欧米茄。

Development发展

In order to understand the nimbus and its history, it is necessary to trace it through the different branches of art.为了理解的灵气和它的历史,它是必要的跟踪它通过艺术的不同分支。The frescoes in the catacombs have a peculiar significance inasmuch as they determine the period when the nimbus was admitted into Christian art.在墓穴的壁画,有一种特殊的意义,因为它们确定的期限,承认基督教艺术的灵气。 The numerous figures lacking this symbol (Christ, Mary, and the Apostles) show that before Constantine, representations of specifically Christian character were not influenced by art traditions.众多的数字,缺乏这种符号(基督,玛利亚和使徒)显示,在君士坦丁之前,特别是基督徒的品格的交涉没有艺术传统的影响。 Only pictures of the sun, the seasons, and a few ornamental heads carried a nimbus at that date.只有图片的太阳,季节,和几个观赏元首在该日进行了灵气。The single exception is found in a figure over the well-known "Ship in a Storm" of one of the Sacrament chapels.唯一的例外是在一个较知名的圣礼教堂之一“在风暴中船”的的数字。But it is to be observed that in this case we are not dealing with a representation of God, but merely with a personification of heavenly aid, which marked a transition from personifications to direct representations of holy personages.但它是在这种情况下,我们不处理神表示待观察,但只是一个人格化天上的援助,这标志着一个从人格化圣洁的人士直接表示的过渡。 The figure seems to be copied from pictures of the sun god.图似乎是从太阳神的照片复制。

On the other hand, several pictures of Christ in the catacombs, dating from the fourth century, indicate the period when the nimbus was first used in the way familiar to us.另一方面,基督在墓穴的几张照片,从第四世纪,显示时的灵气是第一次使用的方式为我们所熟悉的时期。Besides the Roman catacombs others, especially that of El Baghaouat in the great Oasis of the Libyan desert, must be taken into account.除了罗马地下墓穴的人,特别是萨尔瓦多Baghaouat在利比亚沙漠绿洲,必须考虑。For the period succeeding Constantine, mosaics furnish important evidence since they present not only very numerous and usually definite examples of the nimbus, but have a more official character and give intelligent portrayals of religious axioms.对于成功的君士坦丁时期,马赛克提供了重要证据,因为他们目前的灵气不仅非常多,而且通常是明确的例子,但有更多的官方性质和宗教公理智能写照。 Although allowance must be made for later restorations a constant development is apparent in this field.虽然津贴必须为以后的修复的不断发展是显而易见的,在这一领域。The treatment of the nimbus, in the illuminating and illustrating of books, was influenced by the caprices of the individual artist and the tradition of different schools.治疗的灵气,在照明和说明的书籍,是个别艺术家和不同学校的传统反复无常的影响。In textiles and embroidery the most extensive use was made of the nimbus, and a rich colour scheme was developed, to which these technical arts are by nature adapted.在纺织品和刺绣是最广泛使用的灵气,丰富的色彩计划的发展,这些技术性质适应的艺术。Unfortunately the examples which have been preserved are only imperfectly known and the dates are often difficult to determine.不幸的是,已保存的例子,只是不完全已知的日期往往难以确定。

Sculpture presents little opportunity for the use of the nimbus.雕塑呈现的机会很少使用的灵气。In some few instances, indeed, the nimbus is painted on ivory or wood carvings but more often we find it engraved or raised in relief.的确,在某些少数情况下,灵气是象牙或木雕画,但更多的时候我们发现刻或救济提出。Figures with this emblem are rare.这个会徽的数字是罕见的。On the sarcophagi we find that Christ and the Lamb (apart from the sun) alone appear with a circle or disc, the Apostles and Mary, never.在石棺中,我们发现基督的羔羊(除太阳外)的圆形或光盘,使徒和玛丽,从未出现。 In ivory neither Mary nor Christ is so distinguished.象牙既不玛丽和基督是如此杰出。In the course of centuries the Christian idea that God, according to Holy Scripture the Source of Light and Divine things, must always be given a halo.在世纪基督教思想,根据圣经,上帝的光与神圣的东西的来源,必须始终得到一个光环的过程中。became more pronounced.更加明显。This applied to the three Divine Persons and their emblems, as the Cross, Lamb, Dove, Eye, and Hand; and since, according to Scripture, saints are children of Light (Luke, xvi, 8; John, xii, 36), as such they should share the honour.这三个神圣的人士和他们的标志十字架,羔羊,鸽,眼和手,并起,根据圣经,圣人是光明之子(路加福音约翰,12,36),十六,8;这样,他们应该分享荣誉。

Preference was shown for the garland or crown (corona et gloriae corona) of Christ which was also bestowed by God as a reward upon the saints, either spiritually in this life or in the Kingdom of Heaven (Ps. xx, 4; Heb., ii, 7 sq.).优先股是花环或冠基督(gloriae电晕电晕等),这也是上帝赐予的作为后圣人的奖励,无论是精神上的,这辈子或在天国(诗篇XX,4; HEB,二,7平方米)。Garlands and crowns of glory are frequently mentioned in the Bible (I Peter v, 4; Apoc., iv, 4, etc.).花环和荣耀的冠冕是经常提到的“圣经”(彼得V,4载脂蛋白C,IV,4等)。The nimbus also takes the form of a shield to emphasize the idea of Divine protection (Ps. v, 13).的灵气也需要盾牌的形式,强调保护神圣的想法(诗篇V,13)。A truly classic authority for the explanation of the nimbus may be found in Wis., v, 17: the Just shall "receive a kingdom of glory, and a crown of beauty at the hands of the Lord: for with His right hand He will cover them, and with His holy arm He will defend them."一个真正经典的权威解释的灵气,可能会发现,在威斯康星州,V,17:正义“收到一个荣耀的国度,在主的手中的美容冠:用右手,他将掩护,和他的圣臂,他将捍卫他们。“ (In Greek, "Holds the shield over them".)(在希腊语中,“认为对他们的盾牌”。)

Whereas in pagan art, the rayless nimbus signified neither holiness nor Divine protection but merely majesty and power, in Christian art it was more and more definitely made the emblem of such virtue and grace, which emanating from God, extends over the saints only. rayless灵气,而在异教艺术的标志既不是圣洁的,也不是神圣的保护,但仅仅是威严和权力,基督教艺术更,更明确等美德和风度的象征,从神所产生的,遍及只有圣人。 Urban VIII formally prohibited giving the nimbus to persons who were not beatified.乌尔班八世正式禁止的灵气给谁不享福的人。 Since the eighteenth century the word "halo" has been incorporated into the German language.自十八世纪以来,“晕”字已被纳入德国的语言。In Western countries John the Baptist is the only saint of the Old Testament who is given a halo, doubtless because before his time the grace of Christ had not yet been bestowed in its fullness.在西方国家,施洗约翰是旧约是一晕只有圣人,毫无疑问,因为在此之前他的时间基督的恩典尚未赋予其丰满。

We have already found that the aureole was be considered exclusively a device of Christian art, especially as it was reserved at first for the Divinity, and later extended only to the Blessed Virgin.我们已经发现的光环被认为是完全的基督教艺术装置,特别是因为它被保留在第一的神,后来扩展圣母。Instead of simple beams it often consists of pointed flames or is shaded off into the colours of the rainbow.而不是简单的梁,它通常包括指出火焰或成彩虹的颜色阴影。This form as well as the simple nimbus, by the omission of the circumference, may be transposed into a garland of rays or a glory.这种形式,以及简单的灵气,遗漏圆周,可能会调换成射线或荣耀的花环。A glory imitating the sun's rays was very popular for the monstrances, in other respects the lunula suggests the nimbus only because the costliness of the material enhances the lustre.模仿太阳的光芒是一个荣耀的monstrances很受欢迎,在其他方面lunula建议的灵气,不仅是因为昂贵的材料,提高光泽。 The aureole obtained the Italian name of mandorla from its almond shape.光环获得从它的杏仁形状的mandorla意大利名称。

In Germany the fish was agreed upon for the symbol of Christ, or a fish bladder if it had the shape of a figure 8.在德国同意为基督的象征,或鱼膀胱鱼后,如果它有一个数字8的形状。God the Father is typified in later pictures by an equilateral triangle, or two interlaced triangles, also by a hexagon to suggest the Trinity.父神在以后的照片,是典型的一个等边三角形,或两个交错的三角形,也由一个六边形建议三位一体。If there is no circle around the cross nimbus, the three visible arms of the cross give the same effect.如果是周围没有交叉灵气的圆,交叉的三个可见的武器给予同样的效果。Occasionally the mandorla is found composed of seven doves (type of the Seven Gifts of the Holy Ghost), or of angels.偶尔发现的mandorla七个鸽派(类型的圣灵七礼物),或天使组成。The latter are used in large pictures of the Last Judgment or heaven, for instance in the "glories" of Italian domes.后者是使用例如,在“辉煌”的意大利圆顶的大型图片最后的审判或天堂。In painting, haloes of cloud are sometimes used for delicate angel heads, as in Raphael's works.在绘画中,云晕有时用于微妙的天使头,拉斐尔的作品中。Angels also form a nimbus around the head of the Mother of God.天使也形成了天主之母的头周围的灵气。She is also given the twelve stars of Apoc., xii, 1.她也是十二星载脂蛋白C,第十二,1。Saint John Nepomucene has five or seven stars because of the great light which hovered over his body when he was drowned in the Moldau by order of King Wenceslaus.圣约翰Nepomucene有5年或7星由于大光徘徊在他的身上,当他在伏尔塔瓦河淹死为了国王Wenceslaus。

Artists have developed many varieties of the nimbus and aureole.艺术家们开发了许多品种的灵气和光环。Since the Renaissance it has been fashioned more and more lightly and delicately and sometimes entirely omitted, as the artists thought they could suggest the characteristics of the personage by the painting.自文艺复兴以来,它已被塑造越来越轻和微妙的,有时甚至完全省略,作为艺术家认为他们可以建议所画的人物的特点。 It is true that the nimbus is not intrinsically a part of the figure and at times even appears heavy and intrusive.这是真正的灵气没有本质上的数字的一部分,有时甚至出现重和侵入。A distinguishing symbol may not, however, be readily dispensed with and with the omission of this one the images of the saints have often degenerated into mere genre pictures and worldly types.然而,一个显着标志,可能不容易配发与圣人图像往往蜕变成单纯的流派图片和世俗的类型的遗漏。A delicate circlet of light shining or floating over the head does not lessen the artistic impression, and even if the character of Christ or the Madonna is sufficiently indicated in the drawing, yet it must be conceded that the nimbus, like a crown, not only characterizes and differentiates a figure but distinguishes and exalts it as well.灯闪亮或漂浮在头上的一个精致的头饰不减少的艺术印象,即使基督或麦当娜的性格充分显示在绘图,但必须承认,灵气,像一顶王冠,不仅一个数字的特点和区别,但区别和高举以及。

G Gietmann摹Gietmann
Transcribed by Michael C. Tinkler转录由迈克尔Tinkler
The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XI天主教百科全书,第十一
Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年2月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor Imprimatur.人头马lafort,性病,检查员认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约



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