Indulgences放纵

General Information一般资料

Indulgence, in Roman Catholic practice, the full or partial remission before God of temporal punishment for sins that have been forgiven.放纵,在罗马天主教的实践中,上帝已经原谅的罪孽颞处罚之前全部或部分缓解。It is granted by ecclesiastical authority and is considered to be a special form of intercession made by the whole church through its liturgy and prayers for the reconciliation of one of its members, living or dead.它是由教会的权力授予,被认为是一种特殊形式的说情,全教会通过其成员的,活的或死的和解的礼仪和祈祷。

In the early Christian church, severe penitential observances were imposed by the local priest or bishop on all who had been guilty of serious sins.在早期的基督教教堂,实施严重的悔罪纪念活动由当地的神父或主教对所有已犯了严重的罪。It was believed that sins must be atoned for, at least in part, by the sinner in this world rather than in the next.有人认为,必须被赎的罪,至少有一部分在这个世界上,而不是在未来的罪人。Works of atonement consisted of fasts, pilgrimages, floggings, and other penances of greater or less severity imposed for a specified period of time.赎罪工程包括斋戒,朝圣,鞭打,和其他指定的时间内施加更大或更小的严重性penances。Gradually, church authorities substituted lesser works of devotion (such as prayers or almsgiving), accompanied by indulgences equivalent to the corresponding periods of more severe penance.渐渐地,教会当局取代较小的作品奉献(如祈祷或施舍),相当于同期更严重的苦修由放纵的陪同下。

It was not until the 12th century that theological reflection focused on indulgences.直到12世纪,神学反省上的宽容。At first there was some opposition to the practice, but toward the end of the 12th century the attitude of theologians gradually became more favorable.起初有一些反对的做法,而是走向12世纪末期的神学家的态度逐渐变得更为有利。At the same time, the granting of indulgences became increasingly a prerogative of the pope.同时,给予的放纵越来越教皇的特权。

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During the Middle Ages, abuses surrounded the practice of granting indulgences.在中世纪,虐待包围给予的宽容的做法。 Their sale, with what appeared to be automatic spiritual benefits, even without personal repentance, led Martin Luther and other leaders of the 16th-century Protestant Reformation to abandon the practice altogether.他们的销售,似乎是自动的精神效益,甚至没有个人悔改,,LED马丁路德和其他领导人在16世纪的宗教改革完全放弃的做法。

The Roman Catholic church still grants indulgences, but the practice has been simplified since 1967.罗马天主教教会仍然给予的宽容,但这种做法已自1967年以来的简化。At that time reforms were introduced limiting the occasions for obtaining indulgences and dropping the time equivalents.当时的改革取得的宽容和下降时间等值的限制的场合。


Indulgences放纵

Advanced Information先进的信息

Indulgences are the means by which the Roman Church claims to give remission before God of the temporal punishment due to sins, whose guilt has already been forgiven.放纵是由罗马天主教会声称由于罪孽,内疚已经原谅上帝面前缓解颞处罚手段。The theology of this idea developed slowly in the Western church and from the sixteenth century in Roman Catholicism; it has often been the case that practice went ahead of the theory.这种思想的神学在西方从十六世纪在罗马天主教教会和发展缓慢,它通常的情况下,超前的理论实践中去。Further, the granting of indulgences has sometimes been the occasion of abuse and controversy, eg, the famous controversy between Martin Luther and JJ Tetzel in 1517 in Germany at the beginning of the Protestant Reformation.此外,授予的放纵有时被滥用和争议,例如,1517在德国著名的马丁路德和林俊杰Tetzel争议,在开始的宗教改革之际。

Basic to the theology of indulgences is the distinction between eternal and temporal punishment due to sins.放纵神学的基础是永恒和时间的惩罚,因为就得以之间的区别。Roman Catholics believe that in absolution, given by the priest following repentance, the repentant sinner receives the remission of sins and removal of eternal punishment by God, for the sake of Jesus Christ.罗马天主教相信赦免,由牧师以下悔改,悔改的罪人接受耶稣基督为了缓解的罪孽和神永恒的惩罚去除,。The matter of temporal punishment of sins remains, however, and this can only be removed by penitential acts and effort.颞处罚罪的问题仍然存在,但是,这只能由悔罪行为和努力删除。It is here that indulgences are believed to function, in that the church (via the pope or a bishop) grants indulgences to cover all or part of the temporal punishment of sins.正是在这里,放纵被认为是功能,在该教会(经教皇或主教)授予的宽容,以支付全部或部分颞处罚罪的。In the case of an indulgence granted to a soul in purgatory the effect is to guarantee for that soul the intercession of the saints.在授予在炼狱的灵魂的放纵的情况下,效果是保证该灵魂的圣人代祷。

By what power does the church grant such indulgences?教会什么权力授予这样的放纵呢?There is believed to exist a treasury of merits (those of Christ, the saints, and martyrs) available to the church in and through the communion of saints.有被认为是存在的优点(基督,圣徒和烈士)教会圣徒相通,并通过提供的国库。The pope may make use of this merit and apply it via indulgences to Christian people in order to remit their temporal punishment.教皇可能使这值得使用,并通过基督教的人的宽容申请以汇款时间的惩罚。Since the Second Vatican Council the Roman Church has made efforts to revise and improve this whole system.梵蒂冈第二次会议以来,罗马天主教会已经作出了修改和完善这个整个系统的努力。

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Bibliography 参考书目
J. Neuner and J. Dupuis, eds., The Christian Faith in the Doctrinal Documents of the Catholic Church; P. Schaff, Creeds of Christendom, II, 205-9, 220, 433, 549.J. Neuner和J.杜普伊斯,EDS在基督教信仰天主教的教义文件; P.沙夫,基督教,二,205-9,220,433,549信条。


Indulgences放纵

Catholic Information天主教信息

The word indulgence (Latin indulgentia, from indulgeo, to be kind or tender) originally meant kindness or favor; in post-classic Latin it came to mean the remission of a tax or debt.这个词的放纵(indulgeo,拉美indulgentia,实物或招标)原意是善良的青睐;后经典拉丁它来指减免税或债务。 In Roman law and in the Vulgate of the Old Testament (Isaiah 61:1) it was used to express release from captivity or punishment.在罗马法中,在武加大旧约(以赛亚书61:1),它被用来表达释放从囚禁或处罚。In theological language also the word is sometimes employed in its primary sense to signify the kindness and mercy of God.在神学语言的单词有时是受雇于其主要意义来表示上帝的仁慈和怜悯。But in the special sense in which it is here considered, an indulgence is a remission of the temporal punishment due to sin, the guilt of which has been forgiven.但在特殊的意义,它是这里认为,一个放纵的时间处罚缓解因罪,其中有罪已被赦免。Among the equivalent terms used in antiquity were pax, remissio, donatio, condonatio.在古代使用的当量分别为大同,remissio,donatio,condonatio。

WHAT AN INDULGENCE IS NOT什么是放纵

To facilitate explanation, it may be well to state what an indulgence is not.为了便于解释,它可能会得到很好的状态放纵是没有什么。It is not a permission to commit sin, nor a pardon of future sin; neither could be granted by any power.它不是一个权限犯罪,也不是未来的罪赦免;既不可以授予任何权力。It is not the forgiveness of the guilt of sin; it supposes that the sin has already been forgiven.这是不能宽恕的罪;,它设的罪已经被赦免。It is not an exemption from any law or duty, and much less from the obligation consequent on certain kinds of sin, eg, restitution; on the contrary, it means a more complete payment of the debt which the sinner owes to God.这是没有任何法律或责任豁免,以及随之而来的某些种类的罪,例如,恢复原状的义务少得多;相反,它意味着更完整的罪人欠神的债务支付。 It does not confer immunity from temptation or remove the possibility of subsequent lapses into sin.它并没有赋予从诱惑的免疫力或删除随后失误入罪的可能性。Least of all is an indulgence the purchase of a pardon which secures the buyer's salvation or releases the soul of another from Purgatory.所有至少是一个放纵的保护买方的救赎赦免或释放的另一个灵魂从炼狱购买。The absurdity of such notions must be obvious to any one who forms a correct idea of what the Catholic Church really teaches on this subject.这种观念的荒谬是显而易见的,以任何一种形式的天主教教这个问题上的正确的思想。

WHAT AN INDULGENCE IS什么是放纵

An indulgence is the extra-sacramental remission of the temporal punishment due, in God's justice, to sin that has been forgiven, which remission is granted by the Church in the exercise of the power of the keys, through the application of the superabundant merits of Christ and of the saints, and for some just and reasonable motive.一个放纵的时间处罚由于圣礼额外的缓解,在上帝的正义罪,已被原谅,这缓解是授予由教会键的权力的行使通过应用,在过多的优点,基督的圣人,和一些公正,合理的的动机。 Regarding this definition, the following points are to be noted:关于这个定义,要注意以下几点:

In the Sacrament of Baptism not only is the guilt of sin remitted, but also all the penalties attached to sin.洗礼不仅是汇往罪有罪,而且所有的罪处罚。In the Sacrament of Penance the guilt of sin is removed, and with it the eternal punishment due to mortal sin; but there still remains the temporal punishment required by Divine justice, and this requirement must be fulfilled either in the present life or in the world to come, ie, in Purgatory.在忏悔圣事罪被删除,永恒的惩罚,由于弥天大罪,但仍然存在颞处罚神圣的正义要求,这一要求,必须是在现在的生活,还是在世界履行来,也就是说,在炼狱。 An indulgence offers the penitent sinner the means of discharging this debt during his life on earth.地球上的生命在他履行债务的手段提供了一个放纵的忏悔的罪人。

Some writs of indulgence--none of them, however, issued by any pope or council (Pesch, Tr. Dogm., VII, 196, no. 464)--contain the expression, "indulgentia a culpa et a poena", ie release from guilt and from punishment; and this has occasioned considerable misunderstanding (cf. Lea, "History" etc. III, 54 sqq.).有些放纵的令状 - 没有他们,然而,任何教皇或议会发出的(佩施,TR Dogm,七,196,没有464。) - 包含表达式“indulgentia一个过失等一个无明文不”,即释放内疚和处罚;,这已经引起了相当大的误解(参见LEA,“历史”等三,54 SQQ)。The real meaning of the formula is that, indulgences presupposing the Sacrament of Penance, the penitent, after receiving sacramental absolution from the guilt of sin, is afterwards freed from the temporal penalty by the indulgence (Bellarmine, "De Indulg"., I, 7).该公式的真正含义是,放纵先决条件后,接受圣礼赦免的罪忏悔圣事,忏悔,,其后的放纵中解脱出来(贝拉明,“德Indulg”,我从颞处罚, 7)。In other words, sin is fully pardoned, ie its effects entirely obliterated, only when complete reparation, and consequently release from penalty as well as from guilt, has been made.换句话说,罪是完全赦免,即它的效果完全抹杀,只有当完整的赔偿,从而免除刑罚以及从内疚,已取得。Hence Clement V (1305-1314) condemned the practice of those purveyors of indulgences who pretended to absolve" a culpa et a poena" (Clement, I. v, tit. 9, c. ii); the Council of Constance (1418) revoked (Sess. XLII, n. 14) all indulgences containing the said formula; Benedict XIV (1740-1758) treats them as spurious indulgences granted in this form, which he ascribes to the illicit practices of the "quaestores" or purveyors (De Syn. dioeces., VIII, viii. 7).因此,克莱门特五(1305至1314年)谴责放纵那些传播者,谎称自己开脱“缔约过失责任等一个无明文不”(C. II 9,克莱门特,一v,针锋相对。)的做法;安理会的康斯坦茨湖(1418) (Sess.四十二,14)撤销所有的宽容,包含公式;说,本笃十四(1740年至1758年)视为他们以这种形式给予的杂散放纵,这是他赋予“quaestores”或传播者的非法行为(德SYN。dioeces,八,八,7)。

The satisfaction, usually called the "penance", imposed by the confessor when he gives absolution is an integral part of the Sacrament of Penance; an indulgence is extra-sacramental; it presupposes the effects obtained by confession, contrition, and sacramental satisfaction.的满意度,通常被称为“赎罪”,所施加的忏悔时,他给赦免的忏悔圣事是不可分割的一部分;放纵外圣礼;它的前提认罪,忏悔,圣礼满意所取得的效果。 It differs also from the penitential works undertaken of his own accord by the repentant sinner -- prayer, fasting, alms-giving -- in that these are personal and get their value from the merit of him who performs them, whereas an indulgence places at the penitent's disposal the merits of Christ and of the saints, which form the "Treasury" of the Church.,它也可以从不同自己进行忏悔的罪人的忏悔作品 - 祈祷,斋戒,施舍 - 这些是个人的,从他执行他们的好处,并得到他们的价值,而在一个放纵的地方忏悔的处置基督和圣徒的优点,从而形成“财政部”教会。

An indulgence is valid both in the tribunal of the Church and in the tribunal of God.一个放纵是有效的,无论是在教会法庭和神庭。This means that it not only releases the penitent from his indebtedness to the Church or from the obligation of performing canonical penance, but also from the temporal punishment which he has incurred in the sight of God and which, without the indulgence, he would have to undergo in order to satisfy Divine justice.这意味着,它不仅没有放纵释放的忏悔,从他的债务教会或执行规范苦修的义务,而且从他在神和视线产生颞处罚,他将不得不进行,以满足神的公义。 This, however, does not imply that the Church pretends to set aside the claim of God's justice or that she allows the sinner to repudiate his debt.然而,这并不意味着教会假装预留神的公义或声称她让罪人推翻他的债务。 As St. Thomas says (Suppl., xxv. a. 1 ad 2um), "He who gains indulgences is not thereby released outright from what he owes as penalty, but is provided with the means of paying it."正如圣托马斯说,(增刊,广告2um XXV。答:1),“谁收益的宽容是不会因此而从他欠罚公布夺标,但提供支付手段。” The Church therefore neither leaves the penitent helplessly in debt nor acquits him of all further accounting; she enables him to meet his obligations.因此教会既不离开的忏悔无奈的债务,也不acquits他的所有进一步的会计,她使他能够满足他的义务。

In granting an indulgence, the grantor (pope or bishop) does not offer his personal merits in lieu of what God demands from the sinner.在给予放纵,设保人(教皇或主教)不提供代替神要求罪人他个人的优点。He acts in his official capacity as having jurisdiction in the Church, from whose spiritual treasury he draws the means wherewith payment is to be made.他的行为在教会的精神国库他提请wherewith付款作出的管辖权,在他的官方身份。The Church herself is not the absolute owner, but simply the administratrix, of the superabundant merits which that treasury contains.教会本身是没有绝对的主人,而只是administratrix,国库包含有余的优点。In applying them, she keeps in view both the design of God's mercy and the demands of God's justice.在实行中,她一直认为这两个神的怜悯的设计和神的公义的要求。She therefore determines the amount of each concession, as well as the conditions which the penitent must fulfill if he would gain the indulgence.因此,她决定了每个优惠的金额,以及忏悔者必须履行的条件,如果他能获得的放纵。

VARIOUS KINDS OF INDULGENCES各种放纵

An indulgence that may be gained in any part of the world is universal, while one that can be gained only in a specified place (Rome, Jerusalem, etc.) is local.在世界上的任何部分可能获得的放纵是普遍的,而,只能在指定的地方(罗马,耶路撒冷等)获得的是本地的。A further distinction is that between perpetual indulgences,which may be gained at any time, and temporary,which are available on certain days only, or within certain periods.一个进一步的区分之间永久的宽容,这是在某些日子,或在一定的时期内,可在任何时候获得,和临时。Real indulgences are attached to the use of certain objects (crucifix, rosary, medal); personal are those which do not require the use of any such material thing, or which are granted only to a certain class of individuals, eg members of an order or confraternity.真正的宽容是连接到使用某些对象(十字架,念珠,金牌);个人是那些不需要使用任何这类物质的东西,或者是只发给一定的阶级的个人,如订单成员帮会。 The most important distinction, however, is that between plenary indulgences and partial.然而,最重要的区别是全体会议的宽容和部分之间。By a plenary indulgence is meant the remission of the entire temporal punishment due to sin so that no further expiation is required in Purgatory.由全体会议放纵是为了缓解由于整个颞处罚罪,没有进一步的罪过是在炼狱。A partial indulgence commutes only a certain portion of the penalty; and this portion is determined in accordance with the penitential discipline of the early Church.一个部分放纵通勤只有一定比例的罚款;,这部分是按照初期教会的悔罪纪律决定。To say that an indulgence of so many days or years is granted means that it cancels an amount of purgatorial punishment equivalent to that which would have been remitted, in the sight of God, by the performance of so many days or years of the ancient canonical penance.如果说,放纵了这么多天或数年被授予意味着它取消炼狱处罚的金额相当于已汇往这么多天或多年的古代规范的表现,在神面前,忏悔。 Here, evidently, the reckoning makes no claim to absolute exactness; it has only a relative value.显然,在这里,测算并没有绝对的正确性声称,它只是一个相对值。

God alone knows what penalty remains to be paid and what its precise amount is in severity and duration.只有上帝知道什么样的处罚仍然要付出,精密量的严重性和持续时间是什么。Finally, some indulgences are granted in behalf of the living only, while others may be applied in behalf of the souls departed.最后,一​​些放纵被授予代表的生活只有,而另一些可能代表离去的灵魂应用。It should be noted, however, that the application has not the same significance in both cases.但是,应该指出,该应用程序没有在两种情况下相同的意义。The Church in granting an indulgence to the living exercises her jurisdiction; over the dead she has no jurisdiction and therefore makes the indulgence available for them by way of suffrage (per modum suffragii), ie she petitions God to accept these works of satisfaction and in consideration thereof to mitigate or shorten the sufferings of the souls in Purgatory.授予一个放纵的生活教会行使其职权范围;过死,她没有管辖权,因此,通过普选的方式(每modum suffragii)为他们提供的放纵,即她的请愿神来接受这些作品的满意度和考虑不足,以减轻或缩短在炼狱的灵魂的痛苦。

WHO CAN GRANT INDULGENCESCAN授出的宽容

The distribution of the merits contained in the treasury of the Church is an exercise of authority (potestas iurisdictionis), not of the power conferred by Holy orders (potestas ordinis).教会国库中的优点的分布是行使权力(potestas iurisdictionis),而不是神圣的命令(potestas ordinis)所赋予的权力。Hence the pope, as supreme head of the Church on earth, can grant all kinds of indulgences to any and all of the faithful; and he alone can grant plenary indulgences.因此,教皇,作为地球上的教会最高负责人,可以授予任何及所有的忠实放纵各种;他独自一人可以授予全体会议放纵。 The power of the bishop, previously unrestricted, was limited by Innocent III (1215) to the granting of one year's indulgence at the dedication of a church and of forty days on other occasions.英诺森三世(1215年)是有限的主教的权力,以前不受限制,给予一年的放纵,在一所教堂的奉献精神和在其他场合40天。 Leo XIII (Rescript of 4 July. 1899) authorized the archbishops of South America to grant eighty days (Acta S. Sedis, XXXI, 758).利奥十三世(7月4日,1899年的诏书)授权南美洲大主教给予80天(文献S. Sedis,第31,758)。 Pius X (28 August, 1903) allowed cardinals in their titular churches and dioceses to grant 200 days; archbishops, 100; bishops, 50.皮乌斯X(1903年)8月28日,允许他们名义上的教堂和教区的枢机主教,授予200天;大主教,100;主教,50。These indulgences are not applicable to the souls departed.这些放纵是不适用的灵魂离开。They can be gained by persons not belonging to the diocese, but temporarily within its limits; and by the subjects of the granting bishop, whether these are within the diocese or outside--except when the indulgence is local.他们可以得到不属于教区的人,但暂时其限度内;授予主教科目,是否这些在教区或境外 - 除了时的放纵是本地。Priests, vicars general, abbots, and generals of religious orders cannot grant indulgences unless specially authorized to do so.牧师,教区牧师一般,方丈,和将军的宗教订单不能给予的宽容,除非特别授权这样做。On the other hand, the pope can empower a cleric who is not a priest to give an indulgence (St. Thomas, "Quodlib.", II, q. viii, a. 16).另一方面,教皇可以授权不是一个牧师牧师是谁放纵(圣托马斯,“Quodlib。”,二,八,问:A. 16)。

DISPOSITIONS NECESSARY TO GAIN AN INDULGENCE必要获得一个放纵的处置

The mere fact that the Church proclaims an indulgence does not imply that it can be gained without effort on the part of the faithful.教会宣布一个放纵这一事实并不意味着它可以不上的忠实努力获得。From what has been said above, it is clear that the recipient must be free from the guilt of mortal sin.从上面说了些什​​么,这是明确的,收件人必须从弥天大罪的有罪。Furthermore, for plenary indulgences, confession and Communion are usually required, while for partial indulgences, though confession is not obligatory, the formula corde saltem contrito, ie "at least with a contrite heart", is the customary prescription.此外,为全体会议放纵,忏悔和共融通常是必需的,而对于部分的宽容,虽然供认是不是强制性的,公式协和客机saltem contrito,即“至少与痛悔的心脏”,是习惯的处方。Regarding the question discussed by theologians whether a person in mortal sin can gain an indulgence for the dead, see PURGATORY.关于弥天大罪的人是否能获得一个为死者的放纵的神学家讨论的问题,请参阅“炼狱”。It is also necessary to have the intention, at least habitual, of gaining the indulgence.这也是需要有意向,至少惯性,获得的放纵。Finally, from the nature of the case, it is obvious that one must perform the good works -- prayers, alms deeds, visits to a church, etc. -- which are prescribed in the granting of an indulgence.最后,从案件的性质,是显而易见的,必须执行好作品 - 祈祷,施舍的事迹,参观一所教堂,等等 - 这是给予一个放纵的规定。For details see "Raccolta".有关详细信息,请参阅“Raccolta”。

AUTHORITATIVE TEACHING OF THE CHURCH教会的权威教学

The Council of Constance condemned among the errors of Wyclif the proposition: "It is foolish to believe in the indulgences granted by the pope and the bishops" (Sess. VIII, 4 May, 1415; see Denzinger-Bannwart, "Enchiridion", 622).谴责安理会的康斯坦茨之间威克里夫的错误的命题:“这是愚蠢的,相信在教皇和主教授予的放纵”(Sess.八,5月4日,1415年,见登青格Bannwart,“便览”,622 )。In the Bull "Exsurge Domine", 15 June, 1520, Leo X condemned Luther's assertions that "Indulgences are pious frauds of the faithful"; and that "Indulgences do not avail those who really gain them for the remission of the penalty due to actual sin in the sight of God's justice" (Enchiridion, 75S, 759), The Council of Trent (Sess, XXV, 3-4, Dec., 1563) declared: "Since the power of granting indulgences has been given to the Church by Christ, and since the Church from the earliest times has made use of this Divinely given power, the holy synod teaches and ordains that the use of indulgences, as most salutary to Christians and as approved by the authority of the councils, shall be retained in the Church; and it further pronounces anathema against those who either declare that indulgences are useless or deny that the Church has the power to grant them (Enchridion, 989). It is therefore of faith (de fide)在牛市“Exsurge Domine”,15年6月,1520,利奥十谴责路德的说法,“放纵是忠实虔诚的欺诈行为”;和,“放纵做不利用那些谁真正获得减刑的刑罚他们因实际在看到神的公义罪“(便览,75S,759),安理会的遄达(SESS,二十五,3-4,12月,1563)宣称:”由于给予的宽容的力量已经给教会基督,教会以来,从最早的时候使用神所给予的权力,主教的教导和ordains赎罪券的使用,作为最有益的基督徒,和议会的权威批准,应予以保留教会;进一步宣告对那些要么宣布的宽容是无用或否认教会的力量给予他们(Enchridion 989)诅咒它是信仰,因此(真正)。

that the Church has received from Christ the power to grant indulgences, and that the use of indulgences is salutary for the faithful.教会已收到来自基督的权力授予的宽容,使用的放纵是有益的忠实。

BASIS OF THE DOCTRINE该学说基准

An essential element in indulgences is the application to one person of the satisfaction performed by others.在放纵的重要组成部分,是一个人由他人进行满意的应用程序。This transfer is based on three things: the Communion of Saints, the principle of vicarious satisfaction, and the Treasury of the Church.这种转移是基于三件事情:圣人共融,替代满意的原则,和教会的财政部。

(1) The Communion of Saints(1)圣徒的共融

"We being many, are one body in Christ, and every one members one of another" (Romans 12:5).“我们很多,是一个基督的身体,和每一个成员的另外一个”(罗马书12时05分)。As each organ shares in the life of the whole body, so does each of the faithful profit by the prayers and good works of all the rest-a benefit which accrues, in the first instance, to those who are in the state of grace, but also, though less fully, to the sinful members.由于在整个身体的生活各器官的股份,因此,每一个忠实的利润的祈祷和优秀作品的所有休息受益累计,在一审中,那些国家的宽限期,而且,虽然不太充分,有罪的成员。

(2) The Principle of Vicarious Satisfaction(2)原则替代满意

Each good action of the just man possesses a double value: that of merit and that of satisfaction, or expiation.每一个正直的人好动,具有双重价值:优点和满意度,或赎罪。Merit is personal, and therefore it cannot be transferred; but satisfaction can be applied to others, as St. Paul writes to the Colossians (i, 24) of his own works: "Who now rejoice in my sufferings for you, and fill up those things that are wanting of the sufferings of Christ, in my flesh, for his body, which is the Church," (See SATISFACTION.)优点是个人,因此它不能被转移,但满意度可以适用于他人,圣保罗写道歌罗西书(I,24)自己的作品:“谁现在在你我的痛苦感到高兴,并填补想基督的苦难,在我的肉,这些东西,他的身体,这是教会“(见满意。)

(3) The Treasury of the Church(3)财政部教会

Christ, as St. John declares in his First Epistle (ii, 2), "is the propitiation for our sins: and not for ours only, but also for those of the whole world."基督,圣约翰在他的第一书信(二,2)宣布,“为我们的罪作了挽回祭,不是单为我们唯一的,同时也为整个世界的。” Since the satisfaction of Christ is infinite, it constitutes an inexhaustible fund which is more than sufficient to cover the indebtedness contracted by sin, Besides, there are the satisfactory works of the Blessed Virgin Mary undiminished by any penalty due to sin, and the virtues, penances, and sufferings of the saints vastly exceeding any temporal punishment which these servants of God might have incurred.由于基督的满意是无穷的,它构成了一个取之不尽,用之不竭的基金,这是绰绰有余覆盖罪所承包的债务,此外,还有圣母玛利亚任何因罪的刑罚不衰,和美德的满意工程, penances,并大大超过任何时间惩罚这些神的仆人有可能招致圣人的痛苦。These are added to the treasury of the Church as a secondary deposit, not independent of, but rather acquired through, the merits of Christ.这些被添加到教会作为一个次要的存款,而不是独立的国库,而是通过基督的优点收购。The development of this doctrine in explicit form was the work of the great Schoolmen, notably Alexander of Hales (Summa, IV, Q. xxiii, m. 3, n. 6), Albertus Magnus (In IV Sent., dist. xx, art. 16), and St. Thomas (In IV Sent., dist. xx, q. i, art. 3, sol. 1).这一学说明确的形式发展是伟大Schoolmen的工作,特别是亚历山大的黑尔斯(大全,二十三,四,问:米3,N. 6),阿尔伯图斯马格努斯(在第四发送,区XX,第16条),圣托马斯(在第四发,区XX,问:我的艺术。3,溶胶1)。As Aquinas declares (Quodlib., II, q. vii, art. 16): "All the saints intended that whatever they did or suffered for God's sake should be profitable not only to themselves but to the whole Church."正如阿奎那声明(Quodlib.,二,问:第七,第16条):“所有的意图,无论他们或遭受上帝的份上,应该是有利可图的,不仅对自己,而是整个教会圣人。” And he further points out (Contra Gent., III, 158) that what one endures for another being a work of love, is more acceptable as satisfaction in God's sight than what one suffers on one's own account, since this is a matter of necessity.而且他进一步点出(魂斗罗绅士。,三,158),什么之一,另一个正在工作的爱天长地久,是更满意在上帝的眼中可以接受比什么之一一个人的自己的帐户上遭受,因为这是必然的事。 The existence of an infinite treasury of merits in the Church is dogmatically set forth in the Bull "Unigenitus", published by Clement VI, 27 Jan., 1343, and later inserted in the "Corpus Juris" (Extrav. Com., lib. V, tit. ix. c. ii): "Upon the altar of the Cross", says the pope, "Christ shed of His blood not merely a drop, though this would have sufficed, by reason of the union with the Word, to redeem the whole human race, but a copious torrent. . . thereby laying up an infinite treasure for mankind. This treasure He neither wrapped up in a napkin nor hid in a field, but entrusted to Blessed Peter, the key-bearer, and his successors, that they might, for just and reasonable causes, distribute it to the faithful in full or in partial remission of the temporal punishment due to sin."在教会的优点无限的宝库的存在是教条式载红牛“Unigenitus”出版,由克莱门特六世1月27日,第1343,和后来的“法典”(Extrav. COM,LIB插入。基督流下了他的血。五,针锋相对第九C. II):“当十字架的祭坛”,教宗说,“不仅是一个下降,尽管这已经足以与Word联盟的原因,赎回了整个人类,但丰盛的洪流。从而奠定了人类无限的宝藏。这块宝地,他既不在一张餐巾纸包裹起来躲在也不在外地,但委托祝福彼得,关键旗手,并他的继任者,他们可能对公正和合理的原因,分发它的全部或部分缓解颞处罚罪的忠实。“ Hence the condemnation by Leo X of Luther's assertion that "the treasures of the Church from which the pope grants indulgences are not the merits of Christ and the saints" (Enchiridion, 757).因此狮子座路德的说法,X的谴责,“教会的宝藏,从教皇授予的宽容是不是基督的优点和圣人”(便览,757)。For the same reason, Pius VI (1794) branded as false, temerarious, and injurious to the merits of Christ and the saints, the error of the synod of Pistoia that the treasury of the Church was an invention of scholastic subtlety (Enchiridion, 1541).出于同样的原因,庇护六世(1794)品牌的假,temerarious,并损害基督的优点和圣人,主教的皮斯托亚的错误,教会的国库学术精到的发明(便览,1541 )。According to Catholic doctrine, therefore, the source of indulgences is constituted by the merits of Christ and the saints.因此,根据天主教教义,放纵源是构成基督和圣徒的优点。This treasury is left to the keeping, not of the individual Christian, but of the Church.这国库的保持,而不是个别的基督徒,但教会。Consequently, to make it available for the faithful, there is required an exercise of authority, which alone can determine in what way, on what terms, and to what extent, indulgences may be granted.因此,使其忠实,有需要行使权力,只有这样才能确定什么样的方式,在什么条件,到什么程度,可授予的宽容。

THE POWER TO GRANT INDULGENCES权力授出的宽容

Once it is admitted that Christ left the Church the power to forgive sins (see PENANCE), the power of granting indulgences is logically inferred.一旦承认,基督离开了教会的赦罪的权柄(见苦修),给予的宽容的力量是逻辑的推断。Since the sacramental forgiveness of sin extends both to the guilt and to the eternal punishment, it plainly follows that the Church can also free the penitent from the lesser or temporal penalty.由于圣礼宽恕罪的有罪和永恒的惩罚,说白了,教会也可以不受时间较少或罚款的忏悔。This becomes clearer, however, when we consider the amplitude of the power granted to Peter (Matthew 16:19): "I will give to thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven. And whatsoever thou shalt bind upon earth, it shall be bound also in heaven: and whatsoever thou shaft loose on earth, it shall be loosed also in heaven."这变得更清晰,但是,当我们考虑到彼得(马太福音16:19)授予的权力的幅度:“我会给你天国的钥匙,凡你在地上必绑定,它应绑定在天上:凡你轴地球上的松动,应松动在天上也“。 (Cf. Matthew 18:18, where like power is conferred on all the Apostles.) No limit is placed upon this power of loosing, "the power of the keys", as it is called; it must, therefore, extend to any and all bonds contracted by sin, including the penalty no less than the guilt. (参见马修18点18分,如电源是赋予所有的使徒)放置后,这种松动,“电源键”的权力没有限制,因为它是所谓的,它必须,因此,扩展到任何和所有债券承包罪,包括罚款不超过有罪。 When the Church, therefore, by an indulgence, remits this penalty, her action, according to the declaration of Christ, is ratified in heaven.当教会,因此,由放纵,汇款这个点球,她的动作,根据基督的声明,是在天上的批准。That this power, as the Council of Trent affirms, was exercised from the earliest times, is shown by St. Paul's words (2 Corinthians 2:5-10) in which he deals with the case of the incest man of Corinth.这项权力,安理会的遄达申明,从最早的时候行使,是圣保罗的话(哥林多后书2:5-10),他在与科林斯乱伦男子的情况下交易。 The sinner had been excluded by St. Paul's order from the company of the faithful, but had truly repented.圣保罗为了从公司的忠实罪人已被排除在外,但真正悔改。Hence the Apostle judges that to such a one "this rebuke is sufficient that is given by many" and adds: "To whom you have pardoned any thing, I also. For what I have pardoned, if I have pardoned any thing, for your sakes have I done it in the person of Christ."因此使徒法官,这样一个“训斥就足够了许多”,并补充说:“为了你有赦免的任何东西,我也对于我已经赦免了,如果我赦免任何事情,你缘故我做了在基督的人。“ St. Paul had bound the guilty one in the fetters of excommunication; he now releases the penitent from this punishment by an exercise of his authority -- "in the person of Christ."圣保罗逐出教会的羁绊约束有罪,他现在释放行使他的权力,从这个处罚忏悔 - “在基督的人。”Here we have all the essentials of an indulgence.在这里,我们有一个放纵的所有要领。

These essentials persist in the subsequent practice of the Church, though the accidental features vary according as new conditions arise.这些要领坚持在后来的实践中教会,虽然偶然的功能根据新的条件出现。During the persecutions, those Christians who had fallen away but desired to be restored to the communion of the Church often obtained from the martyrs a memorial (libellus pacis) to be presented to the bishop, that he, in consideration of the martyrs' sufferings, might admit the penitents to absolution, thereby releasing them from the punishment they had incurred.迫害期间,下降了,但希望恢复到常从烈士纪念(libellus PACIS)将提交给主教获得教会的共融的基督徒,他在考虑烈士的痛苦,可能承认的悔罪赦免,从而释放他们从他们招致处罚。Tertullian refers to this when he says (Ad martyres, c. i, PL, I, 621): "Which peace some, not having it in the Church, are accustomed to beg from the martyrs in prison; and therefore you should possess and cherish and preserve it in you that so you perchance may be able to grant it to others."德尔图良是指这个(广告martyres,C.我的PL,我621)时,他说:“和平一些,没有在教会,都习惯于从烈士在狱中乞求;,因此,你应具备和珍惜和维护它在你,你或许可以赋予别人。“ Additional light is thrown on this subject by the vigorous attack which the same Tertullian made after he had become a Montanist.额外的光抛出这个问题上,轰轰烈烈的攻击相同良后,他已成为Montanist。In the first part of his treatise "De pudicitia", he attacks the pope for his alleged laxity in admitting adulterers to penance and pardon, and flouts the peremptory edict of the "pontifex maximus episcopus episcoporum".在他的论文“德pudicitia”的第一部分,他的攻击教皇为他所称的忏悔和宽恕承认奸淫松弛,藐视的“教皇MAXIMUS episcopus episcoporum”强制性的诏书。At the close he complains that the same power of remission is now allowed also to the martyrs, and urges that it should be enough for them to purge their own sins -- sufficiat martyri propria delicta purgasse". And, again, "How can the oil of thy little lamp suffice both for thee and me?" (c. xxii). It is sufficient to note that many of his arguments would apply with as much and as little force to the indulgences of later ages.接近他,抱怨说,在相同的功率缓解现在也允许烈士,并促请各国政府,应该足以让他们清除自己的罪 - “,而且,再次,”sufficiat martyri固有delicta purgasse如何能油就够你盏小灯,为你和我吗?“(C.二十二)要注意尽可能多的和小的力量,他的许多论点适用于对后世的放纵,这是足够的。

During St. Cyprian's time (d. 258), the heretic Novatian claimed that none of the lapsi should be readmitted to the Church; others, like Felicissimus, held that such sinners should be received without any penance.在圣塞浦路斯的时间(卒于258),邪教Novatian声称的lapsi没有应重新教会;他人,Felicissimus一样,认为这样的罪人,应没有任何苦修收到。 Between these extremes, St. Cyprian holds the middle course, insisting that such penitents should be reconciled on the fulfillment of the proper conditions.这两个极端之间,圣塞浦路斯举行的中间路线,坚持这样的悔罪者应在履行适当的条件调和。On the one hand, he condemns the abuses connected with the libellus, in particular the custom of having it made out in blank by the martyrs and filled in by any one who needed it.一方面,他谴责libellus连接的滥用,特别是自定义作出了空白的先烈和任何一个人需要填写。"To this you should diligently attend", he writes to the martyrs (Ep. xv), "that you designate by name those to whom you wish peace to be given."“你要认真参加”,他写道:烈士(插曲XV),“那你按名称指定那些你想给予的和平。” On the other hand, he recognizes the value of these memorials: "Those who have received a libellus from the martyrs and with their help can, before the Lord, get relief in their sins, let such, if they be ill and in danger, after confession and the imposition of your hands, depart unto the Lord with the peace promised them by the martyrs" (Ep. xiii, PL, IV, 261).另一方面,他承认这些纪念物的价值:“那些已经收到从烈士libellus与他们的帮助,在耶和华面前,在他们的罪孽得到救济,让这样的,如果他们生病和危险,后供述和实施你的手,离开主啊的与和平的承诺烈士“(插曲十三,PL,IV,261)。 St. Cyprian, therefore, believed that the merits of the martyrs could be applied to less worthy Christians by way of vicarious satisfaction, and that such satisfaction was acceptable in the eyes of God as well as of the Church.圣塞浦路斯,因此,认为烈士的优点,可用于替代满意的方式值得基督徒少,这种满意度在上帝的眼中,以及教会接受。

After the persecutions had ceased, the penitential discipline remained in force, but greater leniency was shown in applying it.悔罪纪律的迫害已经停止后,仍然有效,但在应用更大的从宽处理。St. Cyprian himself was reproached for mitigating the "Evangelical severity" on which he at first insisted; to this he replied (Ep. lii) that such strictness was needful during the time of persecution not only to stimulate the faithful in the performance of penance, but also to quicken them for the glory of martyrdom; when, on the contrary, peace was secured to the Church, relaxation was necessary in order to prevent sinners from falling into despair and leading the life of pagans.圣塞浦路斯本人被指责为减轻上,他在第一个坚持的“福音的严重性”,他回答(插曲LII)等严格迫害的时间是在needful不仅激发忠实的忏悔的表现,但也加快他们殉难的荣耀,相反,和平是固定的教会,放松是必要的,以防止落入绝望的罪人,和领导的异教徒的生活。 In 380 St. Gregory of Nyssa (Ep. ad Letojum) declares that the penance should be shortened in the case of those who showed sincerity and zeal in performing it -- "ut spatium canonibus praestitum posset contrahere (can. xviii; cf. can. ix, vi, viii, xi, xiii, xix). In the same spirit, St. Basil (379), after prescribing more lenient treatment for various crimes, lays down the general principle that in all such cases it is not merely the duration of the penance that must be considered, but the way in which it is performed (Ep. ad Amphilochium, c. lxxxiv). Similar leniency is shown by various Councils--Ancyra (314), Laodicea (320), Nicaea (325), Arles (330). It became quite common during this period to favor those who were ill, and especially those who were in danger of death (see Amort, "Historia", 28 sq.). The ancient penitentials of Ireland and England, though exacting in regard to discipline, provide for relaxation in certain cases. St. Cummian, eg, in his Penitential (seventh century), treating (cap. v) of the sin of robbery, prescribed that he who has often committed theft shall do penance for seven years or for such time as the priest may judge fit, must always be reconciled with him whom he has wronged, and make restitution proportioned to the injury, and thereby his penance shall be considerably shortened (multum breviabit poenitentiam ejus). But should he be unwilling or unable (to comply with these conditions), he must do penance for the whole time prescribed and in all its details. (Cf. Moran, "Essays on the Early Irish Church", Dublin, 1864, p. 259.)在380圣格雷戈里的nyssa(插曲广告Letojum)声明的苦修,应缩短在那些表现出的诚意和热忱,在执行它的情况下 - “UT spatium canonibus praestitum posset contrahere(can.十八;比照九,第六,第八,第十一,十三,十九)。本着同样的精神,圣罗勒(379)后,规定较宽松的处理各种犯罪,规定了总的原则,在这种情况下,它不仅是工期必须考虑的忏悔,但在它执行的方式(插曲广告Amphilochium,C. lxxxiv)类似的从宽处理是通过各种议会 - 安该拉(314),老底嘉(320),尼西亚(325 ),阿尔勒(330),它成为相当普遍,在此期间,以有利于那些生病,特别是那些在死亡的危险(见Amort,“Historia”,28平方米)。爱尔兰和英国的古penitentials ,虽然严格的纪律方面,在某些情况下,为缓和。圣Cummian,例如,在他的忏悔(七世纪),治疗的抢劫罪(第V),订明,他常犯盗窃应7年或牧师可以判断适合的时间做忏悔,必须始终与他不甘心,他有委屈,而且使比例归还的伤害,应大大缩短,从而他的苦修(公司Multum breviabit poenitentiam ejus)。但他不愿或无力(符合这些条件),他必须做整个规定的时间,在所有细节的忏悔(见莫兰,“在早期的爱尔兰教会”的散文,都柏林,1864年,第259。)

Another practice which shows quite clearly the difference between sacramental absolution and the granting of indulgences was the solemn reconciliation of penitents.这十分清楚地表明圣礼赦免和给予的放纵之间的区别的另一种做法是庄严的悔罪和解。These, at the beginning of Lent, had received from the priest absolution from their sins and the penance enjoined by the canons; on Maundy Thursday they presented themselves before the bishop, who laid hands on them, reconciled them with the Church, and admitted them to communion.这些,在四旬期开始,收到了从牧师从他们的罪孽赦免,并责成该炮的苦修;濯足节上,他们提出前主教,放在他们握手,和解与教会他们自己,并承认他们共融。 This reconciliation was reserved to the bishop, as is expressly declared in the Penitential of Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury; though in case of necessity the bishop could delegate a priest for the purpose (lib. I, xiii).这个和解是保留给主教,明确宣布,坎特伯雷大主教西奥多悔罪;但在必要的情况下主教可以委托一个牧师为目的(lib.我,十三)。 Since the bishop did not hear their confession, the "absolution" which he pronounced must have been a release from some penalty they had incurred.由于主教没有听到他们的供述,他明显的“赦免”必须​​已经从一些他们招致罚款释放。The effect, moreover, of this reconciliation was to restore the penitent to the state of baptismal innocence and consequently of freedom from all penalties, as appears from the so-called Apostolic Constitutions (lib, II, c. xli) where it is said: "Eritque in loco baptismi impositio manuum"--ie the imposition of hands has the same effect as baptism (cf. Palmieri, "De Poenitentia", Rome, 1879, 459 sq.).的效果,而且,这一和解是恢复的忏悔的洗礼无罪的状态,所有罚款自由因此,如出现所谓的使徒宪法(LIB,二,三四十一)凡说: “Eritque买卖baptismi impositio manuum” - 即强加的手中有相同的效果洗礼(参见帕尔米耶,“德Poenitentia”,罗​​马,1879年,459平方米)。In a later period (eighth century to twelfth) it became customary to permit the substitution of some lighter penance for that which the canons prescribed.在以后的时期(公元八世纪至十二),它成为习惯许可证的大炮规定的替代一些较轻的苦修。Thus the Penitential of Egbert, Archbishop of York, declares (XIII, 11): "For him who can comply with what the penitential prescribes, well and good; for him who cannot, we give counsel of God's mercy. Instead of one day on bread and water let him sing fifty psalms on his knees or seventy psalms without genuflecting. But if he does not know the psalms and cannot fast, let him, instead of one year on bread and water, give twenty-six solidi in alms, fast till None on one day of each week and till Vespers on another, and in the three Lents bestow in alms half of what he receives."因此,在埃格伯特,约克大主教,悔罪声明(第十三,11):“对于他遵守什么的悔罪规定,当然很好;对他,我们给神的怜悯的律师而不是有一天上。面包和水,让他唱放在膝盖上或七十诗篇第五十诗篇没有genuflecting 但如果​​他不知道的诗篇,不能快,一年面包和水,而不是让他给二十六个solidi施舍,快速,直到另一每个星期的一天,直到晚祷,并在三个Lents没有给予施舍是什么,他收到的一半。“ The practice of substituting the recitation of psalms or the giving of alms for a portion of the fast is also sanctioned in the Irish Synod of 807, which says (c. xxiv) that the fast of the second day of the week may be "redeemed" by singing one psalter or by giving one denarius to a poor person.代朗诵诗篇或提供快速的一部分施舍的做法是认可的爱尔兰主教,807(C. XXIV)说,一周的第二天快可能“赎回“歌唱之一诗篇,还是一个贫穷的人之一denarius。Here we have the beginning of the so-called "redemptions" which soon passed into general usage.在这里,我们有所谓的“赎回”很快通过一般用法的开始。Among other forms of commutation were pilgrimages to well-known shrines such as that at St. Albans in England or at Compostela in Spain.在其他形式的减刑知名的圣地,如在圣阿本斯在英国或在西班牙的孔波斯特拉朝圣。But the most important place of pilgrimage was Rome.但最重要的地方朝圣罗马。According to Bede (674-735) the "visitatio liminum", or visit to the tomb of the Apostles, was even then regarded as a good work of great efficacy (Hist. Eccl., IV, 23).据贝德(674-735)“visitatio liminum”,或访问的使徒的陵墓,甚至被视为一个良好的工作具有十分重要的功效(Hist.传道书,四,23)。At first the pilgrims came simply to venerate the relics of the Apostles and martyrs; but in course of time their chief purpose was to gain the indulgences granted by the pope and attached especially to the Stations.朝圣者来到起初只是供奉的使徒和烈士的遗物,但随着时间的推移,其主要目的是获得由教皇授予,特别是连接车站的放纵。 Jerusalem, too, had long been the goal of these pious journeys, and the reports which the pilgrims gave of their treatment by the infidels finally brought about the Crusades.耶路撒冷,也早已被这些虔诚的旅程的目标,以及朝圣者给他们治疗异教徒的报告最终带来的十字军东征。At the Council of Clermont (1095) the First Crusade was organized, and it was decreed (can. ii): "Whoever, out of pure devotion and not for the purpose of gaining honor or money, shall go to Jerusalem to liberate the Church of God, let that journey be counted in lieu of all penance".在克莱蒙理事会第一次十字军东征(1095年)举办,这是下旨(can.二):“无论是谁,纯粹的奉献,而不是为获得荣誉或金钱的目的,应去到耶路撒冷教会中解放出来神,让这一旅程计算代替所有的忏悔“。 Similar indulgences were granted throughout the five centuries following (Amort, op. cit., 46 sq.), the object being to encourage these expeditions which involved so much hardship and yet were of such great importance for Christendom and civilization.类似的宽容被授予后,整个五百年(Amort,同上,46平方米),目的是鼓励这些探险其中涉及这么多困难,但基督教和文明的重视。 The spirit in which these grants were made is expressed by St. Bernard, the preacher of the Second Crusade (1146): "Receive the sign of the Cross, and thou shalt likewise obtain the indulgence of all thou hast confessed with a contrite heart (ep. cccxxii; al., ccclxii).在这些赠款的精神,是圣伯纳德,第二次十字军东征(1146)传道表示:“接收的十字标志,和你同样获得放纵痛悔的心交待所有祢( EP cccxxii;人,ccclxii)。

Similar concessions were frequently made on occasions, such as the dedication of churches, eg, that of the old Temple Church in London, which was consecrated in honor of the Blessed Virgin Mary, 10 February, 1185, by the Lord Heraclius, who to those yearly visiting it indulged sixty days of the penance enjoined them -- as the inscription over the main entrance attests.类似的优惠频繁的场合,如教堂,例如奉献,老在伦敦的圣殿教堂,这是纪念圣母玛利亚,2月10日,1185,奉献主赫拉克留的那些每年访问60天的苦修责成他们沉迷 - 在正门的题词证明。The canonization of saints was often marked by the granting of an indulgence, eg in honor of St. Laurence 0'Toole by Honorius III (1226), in honor of St. Edmund of Canterbury by Innocent IV (1248), and in honor of St. Thomas of Hereford by John XXII (1320).册封的圣人往往标志着给予放纵,例如在纪念圣劳伦斯0'Toole挪III(1226),在纪念圣坎特伯雷埃德蒙无辜IV(1248),和荣誉圣托马斯Hereford的约翰二十二(1320)。 A famous indulgence is that of the Portiuncula (qv), obtained by St. Francis in 1221 from Honorius III.一位著名的放纵Portiuncula(QV)挪三,圣弗朗西斯在1221。But the most important largess during this period was the plenary indulgence granted in 1300 by Boniface VIII to those who, being truly contrite and having confessed their sins, should visit the basilicas of Sts.但在此期间最重要的赏赐全体会议放纵波尼法爵八授予1300人,真正的痛悔和供述自己的罪孽,应该访问的STS大教堂。Peter and Paul (see JUBILEE).彼得和保罗(银禧)。

Among the works of charity which were furthered by indulgences, the hospital held a prominent place.慈善放纵进一步的作品中,医院举行的一个突出的地方。Lea in his "History of Confession and Indulgences" (III, 189) mentions only the hospital of Santo Spirito in Rome, while another Protestant writer, Uhlhorn (Gesch. d. Christliche Liebesthatigkeit, Stuttgart, 1884, II, 244) states that "one cannot go through the archives of any hospital without finding numerous letters of indulgence".LEA在他的“历史的忏悔和赎罪券”(三,189)只提到在罗马的Santo Spirito的医院,而另一位新教作家,Uhlhorn(Gesch. D. Christliche Liebesthatigkeit,斯图加特,1884年,二,244)国家,“不能没有找到放纵的无数信件“,通过任何一家医院的档案。The one at Halberstadt in 1284 had no less than fourteen such grants, each giving an indulgence of forty days.哈尔伯施塔特于1284人不下14个这样的补助金,给予四十天的放纵。The hospitals at Lucerne, Rothenberg, Rostock, and Augsburg enjoyed similar privileges.在卢塞恩,罗森堡,罗斯托克和奥格斯堡医院享有同样的特权。

ABUSES滥用

It may seem strange that the doctrine of indulgences should have proved such a stumbling-block, and excited so much prejudice and opposition.它可能看起来很奇怪,放纵的教义应该已经证明这样一个绊脚石,兴奋了这么多的偏见和反对。But the explanation of this may be found in the abuses which unhappily have been associated with what is in itself a salutary practice.但这种解释可能会发现在不幸这本身就是一种有益的实践已被滥用。In this respect of course indulgences are not exceptional: no institution, however holy, has entirely escaped abuse through the malice or unworthiness of man.放纵在这方面当然也不例外:任何机构,圣洁,但已完全逃脱人通过恶意或无价值的滥用。Even the Eucharist, as St. Paul declares, means an eating and drinking of judgment to the recipient who discerns not the body of the Lord.即使圣体,如圣保罗宣布,饮食和判断饮用水受助人洞察主的身体。(1 Corinthians 11:27-29). (哥林多前书11:27-29)。And, as God's forbearance is constantly abused by those who relapse into sin, it is not surprising that the offer of pardon in the form of an indulgence should have led to evil practices.而且,作为入罪复发那些滥用上帝的忍耐是不断,这是并不奇怪,在放纵的形式提供的赦免应导致邪恶的做法。These again have been in a special way the object of attack because, doubtless, of their connection with Luther's revolt (see LUTHER).再有一种特殊的方式,因为,毫无疑问,他们与路德的反抗(见路德)攻击的对象。On the other hand, it should not be forgotten that the Church, while holding fast to the principle and intrinsic value of indulgences, has repeatedly condemned their misuse: in fact, it is often from the severity of her condemnation that we learn how grave the abuses were.另一方面,它不应该被遗忘的教会,而坚守的原则和放纵的内在价值,曾多次谴责它们的误用:事实上,它往往是从她谴责的严重性,我们学习的坟墓虐待人。

Even in the age of the martyrs, as stated above there were practices which St. Cyprian was obliged to reprehend, yet he did not forbid the martyrs to give the libelli.即使在烈士的年龄,上述有圣塞浦路斯不得不申斥的做法,但他并没有禁止烈士给libelli。In later times abuses were met by repressive measures on the part of the Church.在后来的时候滥用受到了教会的镇压措施。 Thus the Council of Clovesho in England (747) condemns those who imagine that they might atone for their crimes by substituting, in place of their own, the austerities of mercenary penitents.因此Clovesho在英格兰(747)理事会谴责那些想象他们可能会为自己犯下的罪行赎罪,以自己的地方,雇佣军悔罪苦行,。 Against the excessive indulgences granted by some prelates, the Fourth Council of the Lateran (1215) decreed that at the dedication of a church the indulgence should not be for more than year, and, for the anniversary of the dedication or any other case, it should not exceed forty days, this being the limit observed by the pope himself on such occasions.对一些主教授予的过度放纵,拉特兰(1215年)第四届理事会颁布的放纵,在一所教堂的奉献精神不应该比一年多,并为周年奉献或任何其他情况下,应不超过四十天,这是由教皇本人观察在这种场合的限制。 The same restriction was enacted by the Council of Ravenna in 1317.拉韦纳理事会在1317颁布了同样的限制。In answer to the complaint of the Dominicans and Franciscans, that certain prelates had put their own construction on the indulgences granted to these Orders, Clement IV in 1268 forbade any such interpretation, declaring that, when it was needed, it would be given by the Holy See.在回答多米尼加和方济会的投诉,某些主教授予这些命令的放纵自身建设,在1268克莱门特四,禁止任何这样的解释,声明,在需要的时候,它会由罗马教廷。 In 1330 the brothers of the hospital of Haut-Pas falsely asserted that the grants made in their favor were more extensive than what the documents allowed: John XXII had all these brothers in France seized and imprisoned.医院的Haut - PAS兄弟于1330年错误地断言,有利于他们取得的赠款,比什么文件允许更广泛:约翰二十二了所有这些在法国的兄弟收缴和监禁。Boniface IX, writing to the Bishop of Ferrara in 1392, condemns the practice of certain religious who falsely claimed that they were authorized by the pope to forgive all sorts of sins, and exacted money from the simple-minded among the faithful by promising them perpetual happiness in this world and eternal glory in the next.博尼法斯九,1392年写的费拉拉主教,谴责某些宗教的实践,他们谎称,他们看好他们永久授权由教皇原谅所有各种各样的罪孽,和付出的钱从头脑简单的教友们在这个世界上永恒的荣耀,在未来的幸福。 When Henry, Archbishop of Canterbury, attempted in 1420 to give a plenary indulgence in the form of the Roman Jubilee, he was severely reprimanded by Martin V, who characterized his action as "unheard-of presumption and sacrilegious audacity".当亨利,坎特伯雷大主教,于1420年试图给在罗马禧的形式一次全体会议放纵,他严厉谴责马丁五世,他的行动定性为“前所未闻的推定和亵渎大胆”。 In 1450 Cardinal Nicholas of Cusa, Apostolic Legate to Germany, found some preachers asserting that indulgences released from the guilt of sin as well as from the punishment. 1450年主教尼古拉斯的库萨,使徒使节到德国,发现了一些传教士声称,从罪的处罚,以及发布的放纵。This error, due to a misunderstanding of the words "a culpa et a poena", the cardinal condemned at the Council of Magdeburg.这个错误,由于误解的话:“缔约过失责任等无明文不”,在马格德堡理事会谴责枢机。Finally, Sixtus IV in 1478, lest the idea of gaining indulgences should prove an incentive to sin, reserved for the judgment of the Holy See a large number of cases in which faculties had formerly been granted to confessors (Extrav. Com., tit. de poen. et remiss.).最后,于1478 Sixtus四,以免获得放纵的想法证明激励罪,为神圣的判决保留大量的院系中,以前被授予忏悔(Extrav. COM,针锋相对的案件。 poen。等失职)。

Traffic in Indulgences在放纵交通

These measures show plainly that the Church long before the Reformation, not only recognized the existence of abuses, but also used her authority to correct them.这些措施清楚地表明,教会长期在宗教改革之前,不仅认识到存在的滥用,但也用了她有权予以纠正。

In spite of all this, disorders continued and furnished the pretext for attacks directed against the doctrine itself, no less than against the practice of indulgences.尽管这一切,继续紊乱和布置针对学说本身的攻击为借口,不低于对实践的放纵。Here, as in so many other matters, the love of money was the chief root of the evil: indulgences were employed by mercenary ecclesiastics as a means of pecuniary gain.在这里,在如此众多的其他事项,对金钱的热爱是邪恶的首席根:放纵雇佣军教区受聘为金钱利益的一种手段。Leaving the details concerning this traffic to a subsequent article (see REFORMATION), it may suffice for the present to note that the doctrine itself has no natural or necessary connection with pecuniary profit, as is evident from the fact that the abundant indulgences of the present day are free from this evil association: the only conditions required are the saying of certain prayers or the performance of some good work or some practice of piety.离开关于这个交通随后的文章(见改造)的细节,它可能就足够了,目前要注意的学说本身有没有金钱利润的自然或必要的连接,是显而易见的事实,本丰富的放纵每天从这个邪恶的结社自由:所需的唯一条件是说某些祈祷或一些很好的工作性能或一些虔诚的做法。 Again, it is easy to see how abuses crept in. Among the good works which might be encouraged by being made the condition of an indulgence, alms giving would naturally hold a conspicuous place, while men would be induced by the same means to contribute to some pious cause such as the building of churches, the endowment of hospitals, or the organization of a crusade.再次,这是很容易看到如何滥用蹑手蹑脚地在这可能是一个放纵的条件鼓励优秀作品英寸,施舍给自然会举行一个显眼的地方,而男性会诱发同样的手段作出贡献一些虔诚的事业,如教堂的建设,医院的捐赠,或十字军东征的组织。 It is well to observe that in these purposes there is nothing essentially evil.它是观察到,在这些目的没有什么本质上的邪恶。 To give money to God or to the poor is a praiseworthy act, and, when it is done from right motives, it will surely not go unrewarded.为了让上帝或穷人的钱,是一个值得称道的行为,而且,当它是正确的动机,它必将不去奖励。Looked at in this light, it might well seem a suitable condition for gaining the spiritual benefit of an indulgence.从这个角度来看,它似乎可能获得一个放纵的精神利益的一个适当的条件。Yet, however innocent in itself, this practice was fraught with grave danger, and soon became a fruitful source of evil.然而,然而,在本身无辜,这种做法是充满着严重的危险,并很快成为邪恶的富有成果的来源。On the one hand there was the danger that the payment might be regarded as the price of the indulgence, and that those who sought to gain it might lose sight of the more important conditions.一方面是放纵的价格付款,可能会被视为危险,而那些寻求获得它可能失去更重要的条件。On the other hand, those who granted indulgences might be tempted to make them a means of raising money: and, even where the rulers of the Church were free from blame in this matter, there was room for corruption in their officials and agents, or among the popular preachers of indulgences.另一方面,那些授予的宽容可能会受到诱惑使他们筹集资金的手段,即使在这个问题上指责教会的统治者,他们的官员和代理人的腐败空间,或流行的传教士之间的放纵。 This class has happily disappeared, but the type has been preserved in Chaucer's "Pardoner", with his bogus relics and indulgences.这个类有愉快地消失,但已在乔叟的“Pardoner”保存类型,与他的假文物和放纵。

While it cannot be denied that these abuses were widespread, it should also be noted that, even when corruption was at its worst, these spiritual grants were being properly used by sincere Christians, who sought them in the right spirit, and by priests and preachers, who took care to insist on the need of true repentance.虽然它可以不被拒绝,这些暴行是广泛的,它也应该指出,甚至当腐败在最坏的情况是,这些精神补助被正确真诚的基督徒,谁寻求正确的精神他们的使用,以及牧师和传道人,谁照顾了坚持对确有悔改的需要。 It is therefore not difficult to understand why the Church, instead of abolishing the practice of indulgences, aimed rather at strengthening it by eliminating the evil elements.因此,不难理解为什么教会,而不是取消的放纵的做法,旨在消除邪恶的元素,而加强。The Council of Trent in its decree "On Indulgences" (Sess. XXV) declares: "In granting indulgences the Council desires that moderation be observed in accordance with the ancient approved custom of the Church, lest through excessive ease ecclesiastical discipline be weakened; and further, seeking to correct the abuses that have crept in . . . it decrees that all criminal gain therewith connected shall be entirely done away with as a source of grievous abuse among the Christian people; and as to other disorders arising from superstition, ignorance, irreverence, or any cause whatsoever--since these, on account of the widespread corruption, cannot be removed by special prohibitions--the Council lays upon each bishop the duty of finding out such abuses as exist in his own diocese, of bringing them before the next provincial synod, and of reporting them, with the assent of the other bishops, to the Roman Pontiff, by whose authority and prudence measures will be taken for the welfare of the Church at large, so that the benefit of indulgences may be bestowed on all the faithful by means at once pious, holy, and free from corruption."理事会在其法令的遄达“在放纵”(Sess.二十五)宣称:“在安理会给予放纵的欲望,节制按照教会的习俗与古代批准观察,以免过度缓解教会的纪律被削弱; 。更进一步,寻求正确的,蹑手蹑脚在滥用法令相关的连接,所有的刑事增益应完全与基督教人民的严重滥用源远离;和其他疾病引起的迷信,愚昧,不敬,或任何原因 - 因为这些帐户的普遍的腐败现象,不能由特殊的禁令被删除 - 理事会规定每个主教后,把他们之前,找出存在于他自己的教区的这种虐待行为的责任,省未来的主教,和报告,与其他主教的同意,罗马教皇,其权威性和审慎的措施,将采取大教会的福利,这样的放纵的利益可能会被赋予所有忠实的一次虔诚,圣洁的,腐败的手段。“ After deploring the fact that, in spite of the remedies prescribed by earlier councils, the traders (quaestores) in indulgences continued their nefarious practice to the great scandal of the faithful, the council ordained that the name and method of these quaestores should be entirely abolished, and that indulgences and other spiritual favors of which the faithful ought not to be deprived should be published by the bishops and bestowed gratuitously, so that all might at length understand that these heavenly treasures were dispensed for the sake of piety and not of lucre (Sess. XXI, c. ix).感到遗憾的是,尽管早期议会所规定的补救办法,在放纵的贸易商(quaestores)继续其邪恶的做法,忠实的大丑闻后,安理会受戒,这些quaestores的名称和方法应完全取消,并应当由主教发表的忠实不应该被剥夺,放纵和其他精神有利于赋予无偿,让所有可能在长度了解天上的宝物,这些被免除的虔诚而不是金钱( SESS。XXI,C. IX)。In 1567 St. Pius V canceled all grants of indulgences involving any fees or other financial transactions.在1567年圣皮乌斯V取消放纵所有的赠款,涉及的任何费用或其他金融交易。

Apocryphal Indulgences未经证实的宽容

One of the worst abuses was that of inventing or falsifying grants of indulgence.最为严重的虐待行为之一的发明或伪造放纵的赠款。Previous to the Reformation, such practices abounded and called out severe pronouncements by ecclesiastical authority, especially by the Fourth Council of the Lateran (1215) and that of Vienne (1311).在宗教改革之前,这种做法丰富和所谓的教会权威的严重声明,尤其是第四次拉特兰会议(1215年)和维埃纳省(1311)。 After the Council of Trent the most important measure taken to prevent such frauds was the establishment of the Congregation of Indulgences.安理会的遄达后最重要的措施,以防止这类骗案的建立放纵众。A special commission of cardinals served under Clement VIII and Paul V, regulating all matters pertaining to indulgences.一个特别委员会根据克莱门特八和保罗V担任枢机主教,规范有关的所有事项,以放纵。The Congregation of Indulgences was definitively established by Clement IX in 1669 and reorganized by Clement XI in 1710.克莱门特九众的放纵,最后确定于1669年,在1710年由克莱门特十一重组。It has rendered efficient service by deciding various questions relative to the granting of indulgences and by its publications.决定给予的放纵相对的各种问题,并通过其出版物,它使高效的服务。The "Raccolta" (qv) was first issued by one of its consultors, Telesforo Galli, in 1807; the last three editions 1877, 1886, and 1898 were published by the Congregation.其consultors,Telesforo嘉丽“Raccolta”(QV)首次发行,在1807年最后三个版本1877年,1886年和1898年出版由众。 The other official publication is the "Decreta authentica", containing the decisions of the Congregation from 1668 to 1882.其他正式出版的“Decreta身份认证”,包含众的决定,从1668年到1882年。This was published in 1883 by order of Leo XIII.这是为了利奥十三世在1883年出版。See also "Rescripta authentica" by Joseph Schneider (Ratisbon, 1885).约瑟夫施奈德(拉蒂斯邦,1885年)的“Rescripta身份认证”。By a Motu Proprio of Pius X, dated 28 January, 1904, the Congregation of Indulgences was united to the Congregation of Rites, without any diminution, however, of its prerogatives.放纵众通过,1904年1月28日,一个自行碧岳X,是美国众礼记,没有任何的减少,但是,其特权。

SALUTARY EFFECTS OF INDULGENCES放纵的有益效果

Lea (History, etc., III, 446) somewhat reluctantly acknowledges that "with the decline in the financial possibilities of the system, indulgences have greatly multiplied as an incentive to spiritual exercises, and they can thus be so easily obtained that there is no danger of the recurrence of the old abuses, even if the finer sense of fitness, characteristic of modern times, on the part of both prelates and people, did not deter the attempt." LEA(历史等,三,446)有些不情愿地承认,“在金融系统的可能性下降,放纵有很大乘以作为激励的精神演习,他们因此可以这么容易获得,没有旧的行为再次发生的危险,更好的健身意识,近代的特点,即使主教和人民的一部分,并没有阻止尝试。“ The full significance, however, of this "multiplication" lies in the fact that.然而,这种“乘法”的全部意义在于事实。the Church, by rooting out abuses, has shown the rigor of her spiritual life.教会铲除滥用,已经显示出她的精神生活严谨。She has maintained the practice of indulgences, because, when these are used in accordance with what she prescribes, they strengthen the spiritual life by inducing the faithful to approach the sacraments and to purify their consciences of sin.她一直保持着的放纵的做法,因为,这些都是按照她规定时,他们加强通过诱导的忠实方法圣礼和净化自己的良心罪的精神生活。 And further, they encourage the performance, in a truly religious spirit, of works that redound, not alone to the welfare of the individual, but also to God's glory and to the service of the neighbor.此外,他们鼓励的性能,在一个真正的宗教精神,作品的回报,而不是单独个人的福利,但也神的荣耀和邻居服务。

Publication information Written by WH Kent.由WH肯特编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Charles Sweeney, SJ.转录由查尔斯斯威尼,律政司司长。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VII.天主教百科全书,第七卷。Published 1910.发布1910。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年6月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

BELLARMINE, De indulgentiis (Cologne, 1600); PASSERINI, De indulgentiis (Rome, 1672); AMORT, De origine indulgentiarum (Venice, 1738); BOUVIER, Traité dogmatique et pratique des indulgences (Paris, 1855): SCHOOFS, Die Lehre vom kirchl.贝拉明,德indulgentiis(科隆,1600); PASSERINI,德indulgentiis(罗马,1672年); AMORT,origine indulgentiarum(威尼斯,1738);布维尔,条约dogmatique等无疫通行证DES的宽容(巴黎,1855年) SCHOOFS,模具Lehre VOM kirchl。Ablass (Munster, 1857); GRONE, Der Ablass, seine Gesch.Ablass(明斯特,1857年); GRONE,DER Ablass,塞纳河Gesch。u.U.Bedeutung (Ratisbon, 1863). Bedeutung(拉蒂斯邦,1863年)。


Apostolic Indulgences使徒放纵

Catholic Information天主教信息

The indulgences known as Apostolic or Apostolical are those which the Roman pontiff, the successor of the Prince of the Apostles, attaches to the crosses, crucifixes, chaplets, rosaries, images, and medals which he blesses, either with his own hand or by those to whom he has delegated this faculty.被称为使徒或使徒的放纵是罗马教皇,王子的使徒的继任者,重视的十字架,十字架,chaplets,念珠,图像,和奖牌,他祝福,无论是与他自己的手,或由这些他已委派教师。 The principles set forth in the general article on indulgences apply here also.在放纵一般文章中所阐述的原则也适用于此。But since these Apostolic indulgences are among the most frequent and abundant of those now in use throughout the Church, they seem to require a separate and more detailed treatment.但是,因为这些使徒的宽容那些现在在整个教会中使用最频繁和丰富的,他们似乎需要一个独立的和更详细的治疗。 As the name implies, they are indulgences granted by the pope himself.顾名思义,他们是由教皇亲自授予的放纵。Some of them are plenary, and others are partial indulgences.其中有些是全体会议,和其他部分的宽容。It may be observed that, the possession of the cross or medal or other indulgenced object is not the sole or immediate condition for gaining the indulgences attached thereto by the blessing of the Holy Father or his delegate.它可观察到藏有交叉或金牌或其他indulgenced对象,是不是唯一获得由圣父或其委托的祝福及其所附的放纵或立即条件。 But the possession enables the recipient to gain the various indulgences on the performance of certain prescribed good works or acts of piety.但拥有让收件人获得某些规定的优秀作品或虔诚的行为表现的各种放纵。In this respect the possession of the object may be regarded as analogous to the local or personal limitation of other indulgences.在这方面占有的对象可能会被视为类似于其他放纵的地方或个人的限制。For in blessing the objects presented to him, the Holy Father thereby grants the indulgences, not to all the faithful indiscriminately, but to certain persons, to wit the actual or prospective possessors of these crosses, medals, etc., which.教宗的祝福赠送给他的对象,从而授予的宽容,而不是所有信徒乱,但对某些人,即实际的或潜在的拥有这些十字架,奖牌等,这。 may thus be regarded as the marks or tokens distinguishing those persons to whom this special privilege is given.可能因此被视为标志或区分出那些人谁是这个特权令牌。At the same time, since it is open to all the faithful to obtain such blessed objects, especially now, when the faculty for giving this blessing is so readily granted to the clergy throughout the world, the Apostotic indulgences can hardly be reckoned with those that are merely local or personal.同时,因为它是开放给所有的信徒获得这种得天独厚的对象,尤其是现在,当教师给这祝福是如此容易授予世界各地的神职人员的,Apostotic放纵难以忽视的那些只是本地或个人。

Although the popes have been in the habit of granting indulgences from a much earlier date, some of them having an analogous limitation or connection with the holding or wearing of a blessed object, the Apostolic indulgences, as we now know them, date only from the year 1587-just a lifetime after the publication of Luther's famous theses against indulgences.虽然教皇给予的宽容来自一个更早的日期的习惯,其中一些是有一个类似的限制或连接一个祝福的对象,使徒的宽容与控股或穿着,因为我们现在知道他们,迄今为止,只有从1587年,一生对放纵的出版物后,路德的著名论断。 And a curious interest attaches to the first origin of this familiar practice.好奇的利益,重视这个熟悉的实践第一的起源。Before that date popes had simply blessed medals or other objects presented to them for that purpose.在该日期前教皇仅仅祝福的奖牌或为此目的向他们提出的其他对象。But as Pope Sixtus V sets forth in his Bull "Laudemus viros gloriosos" (1 December, 1587), the workmen engaged in his restoration and adornment of the Lateran Basilica, in pulling down some very old walls, had accidentally brought to light a number of ancient coins bearing on one side a cross and on the other the likeness of one or other of the early Christian emperors.但是,作为教皇Sixtus v设置提出了在他的公牛“Laudemus viros gloriosos”(12月1日,1587年),在从事他的恢复和拉特兰教堂装饰的工人,在拉低一些非常古老的墙壁,意外败露一个数字古钱币的一方跨轴承和其他一个或其他早期的基督教皇帝的肖像。 This remarkable discovery led the pontiff, in accordance with the opening words of his Bull, to sing the praises of those old rulers of Christendom, such as Constantine, Theodosius, and Marcianus.这个了不起的发现导致教皇,按照他的公牛的开场白,唱基督教的那些老统治者,如君士坦丁,狄奥多西和Marcianus的赞誉。 And, by a happy thought, he made their old coins again pass current, though bearing, as be fitted their new life, not an earthly but a heavenly and spiritual value.而且,一个快乐的思想,他再通过他们的古钱目前,虽然轴承,如安装新的生活,而不是一个尘世但天上和精神价值。In other words, he granted a number of indulgences, on the performance of certain pious works, to all who became possessors of the old coins enriched with this new blessing.换句话说,他理所当然的放纵,对某些虔诚的作品表现,成为拥有这个新的祝福与丰富的古钱。The list of special indulgences set forth in this Bull as thus attached to those coins of the Christian emperors is the first instance of the Apostolic indulgences which the popes now attach to the medals, etc. presented for their benediction.从而连接到基督教皇帝的硬币,在这个牛市中规定的特殊的宽容名单是一审使徒放纵教皇现在附加的奖牌,等提出了自己的祝福。 It must not be supposed, however, that the Apostolical indulgences, now so generally given in this familiar manner, are in all respects the same as those granted on this special occasion by Pope Sixtus V. A comparison of the aforesaid Bull "Laudemus viros gloriosos" with the list in the instruction annexed to the customary faculty for blessing rosaries etc., attaching indulgences thereto, will show many points of difference, both in the extent of the indulgences and in the good works prescribed as conditions for gaining them.然而,它必须不应该,使徒的宽容,所以一般在这个熟悉的方式,在各方面都在这个特殊的日子授予那些由教皇Sixtus五,上述红牛“Laudemus viros gloriosos比较相同“所附的祝福念珠等习惯的教师,放纵及其附加指令列表,将显示在放纵的程度,并在获得他们的条件所规定的优秀作品,多点的差异。 And it will be found, as might have been anticipated, that in some cases the indulgences given in the Sixtine Bull are more abundant than the others. ,它会被发现,可能已经预期,在某些情况下,在Sixtine牛市的放纵比别人更丰富。In at least one important point both lists are in agreement.在两份名单至少有一个重要的一点是一致的。Thus it will be seen that in both cases a plenary indulgence may be gained by those who devoutly invoke the Holy Name of Jesus at the hour of death (in mortis articulo).因此,我们将看到在这两种情况可能是由那些虔诚的耶稣的圣名在死亡的时刻(临终articulo)调用获得一次全体会议放纵。 But, on the other hand, the plenary indulgence for confession and Communion which the possessors of the Lateran coins could apparently gain on any day can only be gained by holders of ordinary indulgenced objects on certain great festivals, and that on the fixed condition of reciting certain prayers.但是,另一方面,忏悔和共融拉特兰硬币的拥有者显然可以得到在任何一天的全体会议放纵只能获得持有一定的伟大节日的普通indulgenced对象,并背诵的固定条件某些祈祷。

Publication information出版信息
Written by WH Kent.作者由WH肯特。Transcribed by Charles Sweeney, SJ.转录由查尔斯斯威尼,律政司司长。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VII.天主教百科全书,第七卷。Published 1910.发布1910。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年6月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约



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