Ishmael, Ismael, Ismail, Ismahel伊斯梅尔,伊斯梅尔 日

General Information一般资料

According to Genesis 16, Ishmael was the son of the patriarch Abraham by the Egyptian handmaiden Hagar.据创世纪16,以实玛利是族长亚伯拉罕由埃及婢女夏甲的儿子。When Abraham's supposedly barren wife Sarah finally bore Isaac, a rivalry developed between Sarah and Hagar and thus between the two half brothers, Isaac and Ishmael.当亚伯拉罕据说贫瘠的夫人莎拉终于膛艾萨克,撒拉和夏甲,因而之间的两个同父异母的兄弟,以撒和以实玛利开发出一种竞争。

Cast out into the wilderness, Ishmael was the ancestor of the nomadic Arabian Ishmaelites, arranged, like the Israelites, into twelve tribes. Because Islam traces its lineage from Abraham through Ishmael and Judaism and Christianity trace their lineages through Isaac, Muslims, Jews, and Christians are all spiritual "children of Abraham."铸造出到旷野,以实玛利的游牧阿拉伯实玛利的祖先,安排,像以色列人十二支派,因为伊斯兰教的痕迹它的后裔,从亚伯拉罕以实玛利和犹太教和基督教通过跟踪他们的谱系通过艾萨克,穆斯林,犹太人 ,和基督徒是所有精神“亚伯拉罕的子孙。”

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General Information一般资料

Ishmael (Hebrew, "may God hear"), in the Old Testament, the elder son of the Hebrew patriarch Abraham, and in Islamic tradition, an ancestor of the Arab peoples.以实玛利(希伯来文,“愿上帝听到”),在旧约圣经,希伯莱族长亚伯拉罕的长子,和传统的伊斯兰,阿拉伯人民的祖先。 His story (see Genesis 16, 21, 25) is interwoven with that of Isaac.他的故事(见创世纪16,21,25)是交织与以撒。Ishmael's mother was Hagar, Egyptian handmaid to Abraham's wife, Sarah, who was barren.以实玛利的母亲夏甲,埃及婢女亚伯拉罕的妻子,莎拉,谁不生育。In answer to her prayers, Sarah conceived and was delivered of a son, Isaac.在回答她的祈祷,莎拉设想和交付是一个儿子,以撒。Having thus satisfied Abraham, Sarah demanded that Hagar and Ishmael be driven away.从而满意亚伯拉罕,撒拉要求,夏甲和以实玛利被赶走。Hagar and her son fled to the south.夏甲和她的​​儿子逃往南部。Ishmael settled in the wilderness, married an Egyptian woman, and became the progenitor of 12 tribes of desert nomads.以实玛利在旷野定居,结婚的埃及妇女,并成为12沙漠游牧民族部落的祖。The region occupied by these Ishmaelites included most of central and northern Arabia. Muslims regard themselves as the descendents of Ishmael and view Hagar as the true wife of Abraham, and Ishmael (or Ismail) his favored son. In this version, Ismail, not Isaac, was offered for sacrifice by Abraham.这些以实玛利被占领的地区包括中部和北部阿拉伯的大部分穆斯林认为自己作为以实玛利和夏甲查看的后裔亚伯拉罕真正的妻子,和以实玛利(或司马义)他喜欢的儿子,在这个版本中,伊斯梅尔,而不是以撒,亚伯拉罕牺牲。


Advanced Catholic Information先进的天主教信息

(Septuagint 'Ismaél; Vulgate Ismahel, in 1 Chronicles 1:28, 20, 31). (译本“伊斯梅尔;武加大Ismahel,在历代志上1:28,20,31)。

The son of Abraham and Agar, the Egyptian.儿子亚伯拉罕和琼脂,埃及。His history is contained in parts of Gen., xvi-xxv, wherein three strata of Hebrew tradition (J, E, P) are usually distinguished by contemporary scholars.他的历史是将军,XVI - 25,其中三个阶层希伯来传统(J,E,P),部分地区中,通常是杰出的当代学者。The name "Ismael", which occurs also in early Babylonian and in Minæan, was given to the child before its birth (Genesis 16:11), and means: "may God hear". “伊斯梅尔”的名称,这也发生在早期巴比伦和Minæan,前出生的孩子(创世记16:11),是指:“愿上帝听到”。As Sarai, Abram's wife, was barren, she gave him, in accordance with the custom of the time, her handmaid, Agar, as concubine, in order to obtain children through her.作为亚伯兰的妻子撒莱,是贫瘠的,她给了他,按照自定义的时候,她的婢女,琼脂作为妾,的,为了获得通过,她的孩子。Agar's conception of a child soon led to her flight into the wilderness, where the angel of Yahweh appeared to her, bade her to return to her mistress, and fixed the name and character of her future son.琼脂的概念到旷野,耶和华的使者出现给她,她的飞行很快导致孩子吩咐她回到她的情妇,和固定的名字和她的未来女婿的性格。 After her return to Bersabee, she brought forth Ismael to Abram, who was then eighty-six years old (xvi).她回Bersabee后,她带来了伊斯梅尔亚伯兰,当时八十六岁(十六)。Ismael was very dear to the aged patriarch, as is shown by his entreaty of God in Ismael's behalf, when the Almighty promised him a son through Sara.伊斯梅尔是非常亲爱岁族长,是代表伊斯梅尔的神,他恳求全能的答应他通过萨拉的儿子。In answer to this earnest entreaty, God disclosed to Abraham the glorious future which awaited Ismael: "As for Ismael, I have also heard thee. Behold, I will bless him, and increase, and multiply him exceedingly: he shall beget twelve chiefs, and I will make him a great nation."在回答这个热切恳求,神向亚伯拉罕透露这期待已久的伊斯梅尔美好的未来:“至于伊斯梅尔,我也听到你看哪,我必赐福给他,并增加,并乘他好生:他生出十二个月酋长,我将让他一个伟大的民族。“ Ismael was not the destined heir of the covenant; yet, as he belonged to Abraham's family, he was submitted to the rite of circumcision when the patriarch circumcised all the male members of his household.伊斯梅尔是不是注定继承人的盟约;,然而,因为他属于亚伯拉罕的家庭,他提交的割礼仪式时族长割礼他的家庭的男性成员。 He was then a lad of thirteen (xvii).然后,他被一个小伙子十三(十七)。Abraham's tender love towards Ismael manifested itself on another occasion.亚伯拉罕对伊斯梅尔的温柔的爱表现自己在另一个场合。 He resented Sara's complaint to him, when, on the great festival given at the weaning of Isaac, she requested Agar's and Ismael's summary dismissal because she "had seen the son of Agar the Egyptian playing with [or mocking] Isaac her son".他憎恨萨拉的投诉他,时,在以撒断奶给出的伟大节日,她要求琼脂的和伊斯梅尔的总结解雇,因为她“曾见过的琼脂儿子的[或嘲弄]埃及打她的儿子以撒”。 Ismael was Abraham's own "son", and indeed his first- born.伊斯梅尔是亚伯拉罕自己的“儿子”,而事实上,他的第一个出生的。At this juncture, God directed Abraham to accede to Sara's request, comforting him with the repeated assurance of future national greatness for Ismael.此时,神指示亚伯拉罕加入萨拉的要求,安慰他反复伊斯梅尔保证未来国家的伟大。Whereupon the patriarch dismissed Agar and Ismael with a modicum of provision for their journey.于是族长驳回了他们的旅途提供些许琼脂和伊斯梅尔。As their scanty provision of water was soon exhausted, Ismael would have certainly perished in the wilderness, had not God shown to Agar a well of water which enabled her to revive the dying lad.由于他们提供微薄的水很快就被耗尽,伊斯梅尔将有一定的灭亡在旷野,不是上帝证明琼脂的水井,使她重振奄奄一息的小伙子。

According to God's repeated promise of future greatness for Agar's son, Ismael grew up, lived in the wilderness of Paran, became famous as an archer, and married an Egyptian wife (xxi, 8-21).根据琼脂的儿子未来的伟大的神的一再承诺,伊斯梅尔长大,住在巴兰的旷野,成了著名的一个弓箭手,和埃及的妻子(XXI,​​8-21)结婚。 He became the father of twelve chiefs, whose names and general quarters are given in Gen., xxv, 12-16.他成为父亲的十二个月酋长,他们的名字和一般宿舍12日至16日,在将军,XXV。Only one daughter of Ismael is mentioned in Holy Writ, where she is spoken of as one of Esau's wives (cf. Genesis 28:9; 36:3).伊斯梅尔只有一个女儿提到圣经,在那里她说,以扫的妻子之一(参见创世记28:9; 36:3)。 The last incident known of Ismael's career is connected with Abraham's burial, in which he appears associated with Isaac (xxv, 9).伊斯梅尔的职业生涯中的最后一个事件是与亚伯拉罕的墓地,在他看来与以撒(二十五,9)。Ismael died at the age of one hundred and thirty-seven, "and was gathered unto his people" (xxv, 17).伊斯梅尔去世,享年一百三十七个年龄“,是对他的人聚集”(二十五,17)。

In his Epistle to the Galatians (4:21, sqq.) St. Paul expands allegorically the narrative of Ismael and Isaac, urging upon his readers the duty of not giving up their Christian freedom from the bondage of the Law.在他的书信向加拉太(4:21),SQQ。圣保罗扩展寓言叙事的伊斯梅尔和Isaac,呼吁他的读者的催促下,不放弃自己的基督教自由法“的束缚的责任。 Of course, in so arguing, the Apostle of the Gentiles did not intend to detract in any way from the historical character of the narrative in Genesis.当然,这样争论,使徒的外邦人不打算以任何方式有损于在创世记的叙述历史人物。With regard to the various difficulties, literary and historical, suggested by a close study of the Biblical account of Ismael's life, suffice it to say that each and all will never cause a careful and unbiased scholar to regard that account otherwise than as portraying an ancient historical character, will never induce him to treat otherwise than as hypercritical every attempt, by whomsoever made, to resolve Ismael into a conjectural personality of the founder of a group of Arabic tribes.关于的各种困难,文学和历史,一个在伊斯梅尔的生活圣经帐户的密切研究的建议,就够了,说,每个和所有将永远不会导致一个审慎和不偏不倚的学者,以方面比为塑造一个古老的该帐户,否则历史人物,绝不会促使他把它当作挑眼每一个尝试,由何人提出,要解决的推测个性的阿拉伯部落集团的创始人伊斯梅尔以外。 And this view of the matter will appear most certain to any one who compares the Biblical narrative with the legends concerning Ismael which are embodied in the Talmud, the Targum, and the other rabbinical works; while the latter are plainly the result of puerile imagination, the former is decidedly the description of an ancient historical figure.这种此事的看法会出现一定的比较伊斯梅尔是体现在塔木德,Targum,和其他拉比作品有关的传说“圣经”叙事的任何一个人,而后者则是显然薄利多销想象的结果,前者是决定性的一个古老的历史人物的描述。

Written by Francis E. Gigot.写由弗朗西斯大肠杆菌Gigot。Transcribed by WGKofron.转录WGKofron。With thanks to St. Mary's Church, Akron, Ohio The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.与感谢圣玛丽教堂,阿克伦,俄亥俄州天主教百科全书,第八卷。Published 1910.发布1910。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography 参考书目
See bibliography to ISAAC, to which may be added, DRIVER in HASTINGS, Dict.以撒,见参考书目,可能会增加,司机在黑斯廷斯,快译通。of the Bible, sv Ishmael; SELIGSOHN in The Jewish Encyclopedia, sv Ishmael. “圣经”,SV实玛利;在犹太百科全书,SV实玛利SELIGSOHN。


Jewish Viewpoint Information犹太观信息

-Biblical Data:- 圣经的数据:

Eldest son of Abraham by his concubine Hagar; born when Abraham was eighty-six years of age (Gen. xvi. 15, 16).亚伯拉罕的长子,由他的妾夏甲;亚伯拉罕出生时的年龄八十六年(创十六15,16)。God promised Abraham that His blessing should be upon Ishmael, who, He foretold, would beget twelve princes and would become a great nation (Gen. xvii. 18, 20).神应许亚伯拉罕,他的祝福时,应以实玛利,谁,他预言,会生出12个诸侯和将成为一个伟大的民族(创十七18,20)。Ishmael was circumcised at the age of thirteen (Gen. xvii. 23-26).在十三岁(创十七23-26),以实玛利受割礼。When Sarah saw Ishmael mocking her son Isaac, his brother, younger by fourteen years, she insisted that Abraham cast out Ishmael and his slave-mother.当莎拉看到实玛利嘲笑她的儿子以撒,他的弟弟,以十四岁以下,她坚持认为亚伯拉罕投出实玛利,和他的奴隶母亲。 Abraham reluctantly yielded, having provided them with bread and a bottle of water.亚伯拉罕勉强屈服,他们提供面包和一瓶水。Ishmael was about to die of thirst when an angel showed his mother a well, repeating to her at the same time that Ishmael would become a great nation.以实玛利被渴死一个天使表明他的母亲,以及重复她的同时,以实玛利将成为一个伟大的民族。Ishmael dwelt in the wilderness, apparently, of Beer-sheba, where he became a skilful archer; later he settled in the wilderness of Paran, where his mother took him a wife from Egypt (Gen. xxi. 8-21).显然,以实玛利在旷野住,别是巴,在那里他成为一个熟练的弓箭手后,他定居在巴兰的旷野,他的母亲把他的妻子从埃及(创二十一8-21)。 Both Ishmael and Isaac were present at the burial of their father, Abraham.以实玛利和以撒都被埋葬在他们的父亲,亚伯拉罕。Ishmael died at the age of 137.以实玛利死于137岁。He had twelve sons, ancestors of twelve tribes that dwelt "from Havilah unto Shur, that is before Egypt, as thou goest to Assyria" (Gen. xxv. 9-18).他有十二个儿子,住十二个支派的祖先“你们是埃及前的书珥,从哈腓拉,你里去亚述”(创二十五9-18)。

-In Rabbinical Literature:在犹太教文学:

The name of Ishmael is an allusion to God's promise to hear () the complaints of Israel whenever it suffered at the hands of Ishmael (Gen. R. xlv. 11).以实玛利的名字是暗指上帝的承诺听到()每当它以实玛利的手(将军河XLV 11)在遭受以色列的投诉。Abraham endeavored to bring up Ishmael in righteousness; to train him in the laws of hospitality Abraham gave him the calf to prepare (Gen. R. xlviii. 14; comp. Gen. xviii. 7).亚伯拉罕努力带来了伊斯梅尔在正义;培养他在热情好客亚伯拉罕的法律给了他的小腿准备(将军河XLVIII 14;比赛将军十八7)。 But according to divine prediction Ishmael remained a savage.但根据神圣的预测以实玛利野蛮。The ambiguous expression in Gen. xxi.将军XXI暧昧的表达。9 (see Hagar) is interpreted by some rabbis as meaning that Ishmael had been idolatrous; by others, that he had turned his bow against Isaac. 9(见夏甲)是由一些拉比解释的含义,以实玛利已偶像崇拜他人,他拒绝对他的弓以撒。According to the interpretation of Simeon b.据西麦B.解释Yoḥai, Ishmael mocked those who maintained that Isaac would be Abraham's chief heir, and said that as he (Ishmael) was the first-born son he would receive two-thirds of the inheritance (Tosef., Sotah, v. 12, vi. 6; Pirḳe R. El. xxx.; Gen. R. liii. 15). Yoḥai,伊斯梅尔嘲笑那些认为艾萨克将亚伯拉罕的首席继承人,并表示,由于他(以实玛利)是第一个出生的儿子,他将收到的继承三分之二(Tosef.,Sotah,诉月12日,第六。 6PirḳeR.厄尔尼诺XXX。将军河LIII 15)。。Upon seeing the danger to Isaac, Sarah, who had till then been attached to Ishmael (Josephus, "Ant." i. 12, § 3), insisted that Abraham cast out Ishmael.见状危险艾萨克,莎拉曾至此受到重视以实玛利(约瑟夫,“蚂蚁。”我 12,§ 3),坚持认为亚伯拉罕投出实玛利。Abraham was obliged to put him on Hagar's shoulders, because he fell sick under the spell of the evil eye cast upon him by Sarah (Gen. R. liii. 17).亚伯拉罕不得不把夏甲的肩膀上他,因为他属于病萨拉(将军河LIII 17)投他的邪眼的法术。

Ishmael, left under a shrub by his despairing mother, prayed to God to take his soul and not permit him to suffer the torments of a slow death (comp. Targ. pseudo-Jonathan to Gen. xxi. 15).以实玛利,他绝望的母亲,下灌木左向上帝祈求,他的灵魂,并不允许他遭受折磨一个缓慢的死亡(comp. Targ。伪乔纳森将军XXI 15)。God then commanded the angel to show Hagar the well which was created on Friday in the week of Creation, in the twilight (comp. Ab. v. 6), and which afterward accompanied the Israelites in the wilderness (Pirḳe R. El. xxx.).神吩咐天使显示夏甲这是上周五在创造一周以及,在暮色(comp. AB诉6),并随后陪同以色列人在旷野(PirḳeR.厄尔尼诺。XXX 。)But this was protested against by the angels, who said: "Why should Ishmael have water, since his descendants will destroy the Israelites by thirst?"但是,这是抗议的天使,他说对:“为什么要以实玛利有水,因为他的后代会破坏口渴以色列人”(comp. Yer. Ta'an. iv. 8; Lam. R. ii. 2).(comp.也门里亚尔Ta'an四8;林R. II 2)。God replied: "But now he is innocent, and I judge him according to what he is now" (Pirḳe R. El. lc; Gen. R. lc; et al.).上帝回答说:“但是,现在他是无辜的,我判断他根据他现在是”(PirḳeR. EL LC将军河立法会等。)。Ishmael married a Moabitess named 'Adishah or 'Aishah (variants "'Ashiyah" and "'Aifah," Arabic names; Targ. pseudo-Jonathan to Gen. xxi. 21; Pirḳe R. El. lc); or, according to "Sefer ha-Yashar" (Wayera), an Egyptian named Meribah or Merisah.以实玛利(变种“”Ashiyah“和”“Aifah,”阿拉伯的名字;名为'Adishah或'Aishah一个摩押女子结婚。Targ伪乔纳森将军XXI 21;。PirḳeR.厄尔尼诺LC),或根据“之书公顷亚沙尔“(Wayera),埃及命名Meribah或Merisah。He had four sons and one daughter.他有四个儿子和一个女儿。Ishmael meanwhile grew so skilful in archery that he became the master of all the bowmen (Targ. pseudo-Jonathan to Gen. xxi. 20; Gen.R. liii. 20).以实玛利同时增长射箭如此娴熟,他成为了所有的前浆手的主人(Targ.伪乔纳森将军XXI 20;。Gen.R. LIII 20)。Afterward Abraham went to see Ishmael, and, according to his promise to Sarah, stopped at his son's tent without alighting from his camel.随后亚伯拉罕去看到实玛利,并根据他的诺言萨拉,在儿子的帐篷停止而从他的骆驼下车。Ishmael was not within; his wife refused Abraham food, and beat her children and cursed her husband within Abraham's hearing.伊斯梅尔没有内;他的妻子拒绝亚伯拉罕食品,击败她的孩子,并诅咒她的丈夫在亚伯拉罕的听证会。 Abraham thereupon asked her to tell Ishmael when he returned that an old man had asked that he change the peg of the tent.亚伯拉罕于是问她,当他告诉以实玛利,一位老人曾问他改变了帐篷PEG返回。Ishmael understood that it was his father, took the hint, and drove away his wife.以实玛利的理解,这是他的父亲,提示,并赶走了他的妻子。He then married another woman, named Faṭimah (Peḳimah; Targ. pseudo-Jonathan lc), who, when three years later Abraham came again to see his son, received him kindly; therefore Abraham asked her to tell Ishmael that the peg was good.随后,他与另一名女子,名为法蒂玛(Peḳimah。Targ伪乔纳森LC),三年后,亚伯拉罕再次看到他的儿子结婚,亲切接待了他,因此亚伯拉罕问她要告诉伊斯梅尔,PEG是好的。

Ishmael then went to Canaan and settled with his father (Pirḳe R. El. lc; "Sefer ha-Yashar," lc).以实玛利然后去到迦南和他的父亲(PirḳeR.厄尔尼诺立法会“之书公顷亚沙尔,”LC)定居。This statement agrees with that of Baba Batra (16a)-that Ishmael became a penitent during the lifetime of Abraham.同意本声明巴巴巴特拉(16A),以实玛利成为亚伯拉罕的生命周期在一个忏悔。He who sees Ishmael in a dream will have his prayer answered by God (Ber. 56a).他看见一个梦想中的以实玛利将有回答他的祈祷上帝(Ber. 56A)。

Isidore Singer, M. Seligsohn, Richard Gottheil, Hartwig Hirschfeld伊西多尔歌手,M. Seligsohn,理查德Gottheil,哈特维希赫希菲尔德
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.1901至1906年之间出版的犹太百科全书。

Bibliography: Beer, Leben Abraham's nach Auffassung der Jüdischen Sage, pp. 49 et seq., Leipsic, 1859.SM Sel.参考书目:啤酒,别人的生活亚伯拉罕的nach Auffassung DER Jüdischen鼠尾草,第49段及以下各段,Leipsic,1859.SM SEL。

-In Arabic Literature:在阿拉伯语文学:

For the history of Ishmael, according to Mohammedan legend, see Jew.以实玛利的历史,根据伊斯兰教传说,见犹太人。Encyc.百科全书。i.87, sv Abraham in Mohammedan Iegend; and Hagar.87,穆罕默德Iegend SV亚伯拉罕和夏甲。It may be added here that Ishmael is designated a prophet by Mohammed: "Remember Ishmael in the Book, for he was true to his promise, and was a messenger and a prophet" (Koran, xix. 55).这里可以补充,以实玛利是先知穆罕默德的指定:“记住本书以实玛利,因为他忠于自己的诺言,而且是一个使者和先知”(“古兰经”,十九55)。 Ishmael is, therefore, in Mohammedan tradition a prototype of faithfulness.以实玛利,因此,在伊斯兰教传统的忠诚的原型。He was an arrow-maker, and a good hunter.他是一个箭头的制造商,和好猎手。As a prophet, he had the gift of performing miracles.作为一个先知,他表演奇迹的礼物。He converted many heathen to the worship of the One God.他皈依许多异教徒的一个神的崇拜。He left twelve sons.他留下了十二个儿子。His son Kedar is said to have been an ancestor of Mohammed.他的儿子基达说已经是穆罕默德的祖先。Ishmael is reputed to have lived one hundred and thirty years; he was buried near the Kaaba.以实玛利是被誉为住了一百三十多年,他是天房附近安葬。His posterity, however, became pagan, and remained so until they were brought back to Islam by Mohammed.然而,他的后代,成了异教徒,并一直如此,直到他们被带回穆罕默德伊斯兰教。

Also, see:此外,见:
Islam, Muhammad伊斯兰教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an可兰经,可兰经
Pillars of Faith支柱的信仰
Abraham 亚伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham全书亚伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari启示-h adiths从第一册的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari信仰-h adiths从第二册的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari知识-h adiths从第三册的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari时代的祈祷-h adiths从书展1 0个基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari缩短祈祷(在taqseer ) -h adiths从书展2 0铝布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari朝圣(朝觐) -h adiths从书展2 6铝布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari争取事业的阿拉(杰哈德) -h adiths图书5 2铝布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari同一性,独特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths图书9 3铝布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanafiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni)malikiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni)shafi'iyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanbaliyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni)maturidiyyah神学(逊尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni)ash'ariyyah神学(逊尼派)
Mutazilah Theologymutazilah神学
Ja'fari Theology (Shia)ja'fari神学(什叶派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia)nusayriyyah神学(什叶派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia)zaydiyyah神学(什叶派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia)伊玛目(什叶派)
Druze 德鲁兹
Qarmatiyyah (Shia)qarmatiyyah (什叶派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail伊斯梅尔,司马义。
Early Islamic History Outline早在伊斯兰历史纲要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿维森纳
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone天房,黑石头
Ramadan 斋月
Sunnites, Sunni逊尼派,逊尼派
Shiites, Shia什叶派,什叶派
Mecca 麦加
Medina 麦迪
Sahih, al-Bukharisahih ,铝-布哈里
Sufism 苏非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主义
Abu Bakr阿布巴克尔
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭马亚王朝
Fatima 法蒂玛
Fatimids (Shia)法蒂玛王朝(什叶派)
Ismailis (Shia)伊斯玛仪教派(什叶派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 萨拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar伊斯兰日历
Interactive Muslim Calendar互动穆斯林日历

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