Theology of John约翰 神学

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For a man who has been so prominent in Christian thinking throughout the centuries John is a strangely shadowy figure.对于谁一直在基督教思想,突出整个世纪的人,约翰是一个奇怪的人影。In the Gospels and Acts he is almost invariably accompanied by someone else and the other person is the spokesman (there is an exception when John tells Jesus that he forbade a man to cast out demons; Luke 9:49).福音和行为,他几乎总是伴随着别人和其他人是发言人(有一个例外,当约翰告诉耶稣,他禁止一个人赶鬼;路加福音10点差11分)。 He is often linked with Peter and with his brother James, and these three were specially close to Jesus (Matt. 17:1; Mark 14:33; Luke 8:51).他经常与彼得和他的兄弟詹姆斯,和这三个特别接近耶稣(马太福音17:1,马可福音14:33;路加福音8:51)。 He and James were called "sons of thunder" (Boanerges; Mark 3:17), which perhaps points to the kind of character revealed in their desire to call down fire from heaven on people who refused to receive Jesus (Luke 9:54).他和詹姆斯被称为“儿子的雷声”(Boanerges;马可福音3:17),这也许是一种性格,在他们的愿望呼叫从天上降下来的人拒绝接受耶稣(路加福音9时54分)消防透露。

We learn more from the writings linked with his name.我们从与他的名字联系在一起的著作。The Fourth Gospel as it stands is anonymous, but there is good reason for thinking that John wrote it and that he was the beloved disciple who leaned on Jesus' breast at the Last Supper (John 13:23) and to whom the dying Jesus commended his mother (John 19:26-27).第四福音,因为它是匿名的,但有很好的理由认为,约翰写,他是耶稣的乳房斜靠在最后的晚餐“(约翰福音13:23),其中垂死的耶稣赞扬爱徒他的母亲(约翰福音19:26-27)。 The impression we get is that John had entered into the mind of Jesus more than any of the other disciples had.我们得到的印象是,约翰已经进入到耶稣的心比任何其他弟子。

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God as Father上帝作为父亲

From his Gospel we learn a good deal about the Father and, indeed, it is to John more than anyone else that Christians owe their habit of referring to God simply as "the Father."从他的福音,我们学习关于父亲的一个很好的协议,事实上,这是对约翰基督徒欠他们仅仅作为神的习惯“父的比谁都多。” John uses the word "father" 137 times (which is more than twice as often as anyone else; Matthew has it 64 times, Paul 63).约翰使用的“父亲”一词的137倍(这是比经常和别人的两倍多;马修64倍,保罗63)。No less than 122 refer to God as Father, a beautiful emphasis which has influenced all subsequent Christian thinking.不超过122指上帝作为父亲,一个美丽的重视,这也影响了所有后续的基督教思想。John also tells us that this God is love (I John 4:8, 16), and love is an important topic in both his Gospel and his epistles.约翰还告诉我们,这个神就是爱(约翰一书4:8,16),和爱他的福音和他的书信中的一个重要的课题。We know love in the Christian sense because we see it in the cross (John 3:16; I John 4:10); it is sacrificial giving, not for worthwhile people, but for sinners.我们知道,在基督教意义上的爱,因为我们看到在十字架(约翰福音3:16;约翰一书4时10分);它是牺牲奉献,不值得的人,但为罪人。

The Father is constantly active (John 5:17); he upholds his creation and brings blessing on those he has made.父亲是不断活跃(约翰福音5:17),他坚持他的创作,并带来他提出的祝福。He is a great God whose will is done, particularly in election and salvation.他是一个伟大的神的意愿得以实现的,特别是在选举和拯救,。"No one can come to me," said Jesus, "unless the Father who sent me draws him" (John 6:44); and again, "You did not choose me, but I chose you" (John 15:16; cf. 8:47; 18:37). “没有人能到我这里来,”耶稣说,“除非父亲是谁送我提请他”(约翰6时44分);再次,“你没有选择我,但我选择了你”(约翰福音15:16;比照8:47; 18:37)。

The book of Revelation was written by John (Rev. 1:1-3), though which John is not specified.本书是写启示录的约翰(启示录1:1-3),虽然约翰没有指定。But there is good reason for seeing it as coming from John the apostle and as stressing an important aspect of Johannine thought, namely that of divine sovereignty.看到来自使徒约翰强调约翰思想的一个重要方面,即神的主权,但有很好的理由。It is easy to get lost in a strange world of seals, trumpets, bowls, and animals with unusual numbers of heads and horns.这是很容易在一个陌生的世界海豹,小号,碗,和不寻常的头和角的动物失去了。But this is not the important thing.但这并不是最重要的事情。Throughout this book God is a mighty God.在这本书中,上帝是全能的神。He does what he wills and, though wickedness is strong, in the end he will triumph over every evil thing.他做他的遗嘱,虽然邪恶强,最终他将战胜一切邪恶的东西。There is a great deal about the wrath of God in Revelation (and something about it in the Gospel), which brings out the truth that God is implacably opposed to evil and will in the end overthrow it entirely.关于启示录神之怒(和一些福音),带出implacably反对上帝是真理,邪恶,最终会完全推翻它有一个很大。

Christology基督

Throughout the Johannine writings there is a good deal of attention given to Christology.整个约翰的著作中,有一个很好的协议,以基督的关注。The Gospel begins with a section on Christ as the Word, a passage in which it is clear that God has taken action in Christ for revelation and for salvation.作为Word的部分,它是神在基督的启示和救赎行动,通过对基督福音的开始。Christ is "the Savior of the world" (John 4:42), and this is brought out when he is referred to as Christ (= Messiah), Son of God, Son of man, and in other ways.基督是“世界的救主”(约翰福音4:42),这是带出时,他被称为基督(弥赛亚),上帝的儿子,人子,并以其他方式。They all depend in one way or another on the thought that God is active in Christ in bringing about the salvation he has planned.他们都依赖于这种或那种方式,认为上帝是活跃在基督里,使他已计划的救恩。John has an interesting use of terms like "glory" and "glorify," for he sees the cross as the glorification of Jesus (John 12:23; 13:31).约翰有一个有趣的“荣耀”和“光宗耀祖”,他认为作为颂扬耶稣的十字架(约翰12时23分,13点31分)使用。Suffering and lowly service are not simply the path to glory; they are glory in its deepest sense.痛苦和卑贱的服务不单纯是走向辉煌的道路,他们是在其最深的意义上的荣耀。This striking form of speech brings out the truth that God is not concerned with the kind of thing that people see as glorious.这醒目的讲话形式带出上帝是不关心的事情,人们看到作为光荣的真理。The whole life of Jesus was lived in lowliness but John can say, "We have beheld his glory" (John 1:14).耶稣的一生,是生活在卑微,但约翰可以说,“我们看见他的荣耀”(约翰福音1:14)。

Miracles奇迹

John's treatment of the miracles is distinctive.约翰的治疗的奇迹是鲜明的。He never calls them "mighty works" as do the synoptists, but "signs" or "works."他从来没有要求他们“异能”的synoptists,但“苗头”或“工程。”They point us to significant truth, for God is at work in them.他们指出显著真理,为神的工作是他们。"Work" may be used of Jesus' nonmiraculous deeds as well as those that are miraculous, which suggests that his life is all of a piece. “工作”可能是耶稣的nonmiraculous事迹,以及那些腐朽为神奇,这表明,他的生命是一块。He is one person; he does not do some things as God and others as man.他是一个人,他没有做神和其他人作为人的一些事情。But all he does is the outworking of his mission, a thought which means much to John.但是,他所做的一切是他的使命,认为这意味着很多约翰outworking。There are two Greek words for "to send," and John's gospel has both more frequently than any other book in the NT.有两个希腊字“送”和约翰福音都更频繁地比任何其他的书,在新台币。Mostly he uses the words to bring out the truth that the Father sent the Son, though there are some important passages linking the mission of his followers with that of Jesus (John 17:18; 20:21).大多是他使用的话,带出真相,父亲发来的儿子,但也有一些与耶稣(约翰17时18分,20时21分),他的追随者的使命的重要通道。 Being sent means that Jesus became man in the fullest sense, as is brought out by his dependence on the Father (cf. John 5:19, 30) and by statements about his human limitations (eg John 4:6; 11:33, 35; 19:28).被送到意味着耶稣成为人在充分意义上,带出他对父亲的依赖(参见约翰一书5:1​​9,30),并陈述有关他的人的局限性(如约翰4时06分,11时33分, 35; 19时28分)。John's Jesus is fully divine, indeed, but he is also fully human.事实上,约翰的耶稣是完全的神,但他也是完全的人。

The Holy Spirit圣灵

John tells us more about the Holy Spirit than do the other evangelists.约翰告诉我们更多的圣灵比其他传福音。He is active from the beginning of Jesus' ministry (John 1:32-33), but the full work of the Spirit among man awaited the consummation of Jesus' own ministry (John 7:39).他是'部(约翰福音1:32-33)从耶稣开始活跃,但之间的人精神的完整的工作期待已久的耶稣完善自己的部(约7时39分)。 The Spirit is active in the Christian life from the beginning (John 3:5, 8) and there are important truths about the Spirit in Jesus' farewell discourse.精神是活跃在基督徒的生活从一开始(约翰福音3:5,8),约在耶稣的告别话语精神有重要的真理。There we learn among other things that he is "the Spirit of truth" (John 14:16-17), that he will never leave Jesus' people (John 14:16), and that he has a work among unbelievers, namely that of convicting them of sin, righteousness, and judgment (John 16:8).在那里,我们在其他的事情,他是“真理的圣灵”(约翰福音14:16-17),他将永远不会离开耶稣的人(约翰福音14:16),和他有一个非信徒之间的工作,即中学习他们定罪罪,义,和判断(约翰福音16:8)。

The Spirit is active in leading Christians in the way of truth (John 16:13), and John has a good deal to tell us about the Christian life.精神是积极领导基督徒在真理(约翰福音16:13)的方式,和约翰告诉我们基督徒的生活有一个很好的协议。He speaks of "eternal life," which seems to mean life proper to the age to come, life of the highest quality (cf. John 10:10).他谈到了“永生”,这似乎意味着生活适当的年龄来,最高质量的生活(参见约翰福音10:10)。Entrance into life is by believing, and John uses this verb 98 times (though never the noun "faith").走进生活的入口是由相信,和约翰使用这个动词98倍(虽然从未名词“信仰”)。Believers are to be characterized by love (John 13:34-35).信徒要爱(约翰福音13:34-35)的特点。They owe all they have to the love of God, and it is proper that they respond to that love with an answering love, a love for God that spills over into a love for other people.他们欠他们有上帝的爱,这是正确的,他们响应,爱与应答的爱,对神的爱,渗透到其他人的热爱。This receives strong emphasis in I John.这收到约翰的高度重视。John emphasizes the importance of light (for believers are people who "walk in the light"; I John 1:7) and of truth.约翰强调光的重要性(信徒是谁“在光明中行”的人;,约翰一书1:7)和真理。Jesus is the truth (John 14:6) and the Spirit is the Spirit of truth (John 14:17).耶稣是真理(约翰福音14:6)圣灵就是真理的圣灵(约翰福音14:17)。To know the truth is to be free (John 8:31-32).要知道事情的真相是可以自由(约翰福音8:31-32)。

John's is a profound and deep theology, though expressed in the simplest of terms.约翰是深刻和深厚的神学,但在最简单的条款表示。It sets forth truths which no Christian can neglect.它载列真理,没有基督教可以忽略。

L Morris大号莫里斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
JE Davey, The Jesus of St. John; WF Howard, Christianity According to St. John; R. Kysar, The Fourth Evangelist and His Gospel; CF Nolloth, The Fourth Evangelist; NJ Painter, John: Witness and Theologian; SS Smalley, John: Evangelist and Interpreter; DG Vanderlip, Christianity According to John.乙脑戴维,圣​​约翰的耶稣; WF霍华德,基督教据圣约翰; R.,第四传播者和他的福音Kysar; CF Nolloth,第四传播者;新泽西州画家约翰:证人和神学家; SS斯莫利约翰:传播者和翻译; DG Vanderlip,基督教据约翰。



Also, see:此外,见:
Theology of Matthew神学的马修。
Theology of Mark神学的标志
Theology of Luke神学路加福音
New Testament Theology新约圣经神学


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