Theology of Luke神学路加福音 章

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The Evidence证据

The theology of Luke may be discerned by observing several converging lines of evidence.神学的卢克可能通过观察几个汇合线的证据可以看出端倪。Since a Gospel lacks the logical sequence of propositional statements characteristic of the epistles, great care is needed to assess this evidence accurately.由于福音缺乏书信的特点命题陈述的逻辑顺序,需要非常小心,以准确地评估这方面的证据。The following must be considered.必须考虑以下。

Narrative Structure叙事结构

The careful statement of purpose inserted before the narrative commences alerts the reader to observe factors that contribute to assurance regarding the truth of the Christian gospel.仔细的目的语句之前插入叙事开始提醒读者观察的因素,有助于保证基督教福音的真理。The inclusion of the birth narratives, in contrast to Mark and John, and with different episodes from those in Matthew, directs the reader to certain themes regarding the messiahship and sonship of Jesus.列入诞生的叙述,马克和约翰相比,与在马修的不同情节,读者关于耶稣的弥赛亚和sonship的某些主题。The use of a chiastic structure in Zechariah's Benedictus (1:68-79) focuses attention on the middle theme, oath/covenant, along with the other repeated themes: God's "coming" (or "visitation"), his "people," "salvation," "prophets," the "hand" of the "enemies," and the "fathers."在撒迦利亚的Benedictus(1:68-79)chiastic结构的使用重点中等偏上的主题,宣誓/公约“,以及与其他重复的主题,注意:上帝的”未来“(或”探视权“),他的”人,“ “救赎”,“先知”,“手”的“敌人”和“父亲。”The introduction of two witnesses Simeon and Anna, according to the accepted pattern of two witnesses, draws attention to and confirms the identity of the baby as the promised Messiah (2:25-38).引进两名证人西麦和安娜,根据两名证人的接受模式,提请注意,并确认婴儿的身份,作为所应许的弥赛亚(2:25-38)。

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Within the narrative of Jesus' ministry certain editorial touches have great effect in featuring theological themes.在耶稣的部一定社论触及的叙述有很大的影响,具有神学主题。For example, by omitting most of Mark's narrative of 6:45-8:26, Luke is able to move quickly from the stilling of the storm (Mark 4:35-41; Matt. 8:23-27; Luke 8: 22-25), with its significant climactic question, "Who is this?"例如,通过省略大部分马克的叙事6:45-8:26,卢克是能够迅速地从风暴的消力(马可福音4:35-41;太8:23-27,路加福音8:22。 -25),其显著的高潮问题,“谁是这个吗?”pausing for only a few incidents, mainly those with messianic significance, to the question of Herod, "Who, then, is this?"暂停只有几个事件,主要是那些与救世主的意义,希律王的问题,“谁,那么,这是?”(Luke 9:9), and on to the question at Caesarea Philippi, "Who do you say I am?" (路加福音9:9),并在撒利亚腓问题,“你说我吗?”Another use of structure is the inclusion of the unique central section.结构的另一个用途是独特的中央部分列入。This not only contains a collection of Jesus' teachings but features a travel motif.这不仅包含了耶稣的教义的集合,但设有一个旅游的主题。There is a strong sense of movement toward Jerusalem, the city of destiny in God's plan (9:51; 53; 13:22; 33; 17:11; 18:31).的运动对耶路撒冷强烈的责任感,命运之神的计划中的城市(9点51分; 53; 13点22分; 33; 17时11分,18时31分)。Cf.比照9:31; 19:11, 28 on Jerusalem, and 9:57; 24:13-17 for examples of Luke's specific references to traveling. 9时31分,19时11分,28日在耶路撒冷,和九点57;旅游卢克的具体提到的例子24:13-17。The introduction to this section looks ahead specifically to Jesus' ascension ("taken up," Luke 9:51; cf. the same term in Acts 1:2).本节介绍展望特别是耶稣升天(“,”路加福音九点51分;比照相同的长期行为1时02分)。。This is a unique emphasis of Luke, the final event of his Gospel (24:50-53).这是一个独特的卢克最后一场比赛,他的福音(24:50-53)重点。

Vocabulary词汇

Careful observation of word frequency, provides significant evidence of theological emphasis, especially in comparison with the other Gospels.词频仔细观察,提供了显著证据的神学强调,尤其是在比较与其他福音。Observing the relative frequency of such words as "salvation," "sinner," "today," "God," "word," "city," and various words grouped in semantic fields such as those relating to poverty and wealth (to cite just a few) is foundational in assessing the theology of Luke.这样的话相对频率观察“拯救”,“罪人”,“今天”,“神”,“字”,“城市”,并在有关贫困和财富,如语义场分组(举各话短短数)是在评估的卢克神学基础。 One example is the unusual frequency of "today" (Luke 2:11; 4:21; 5:26; 12:28; 13:32, 33; 19:5, 9; 22:34, 61; 23:43 and nine times in Acts).一个例子是“今天”的不同寻常的频率(路加福音2时11分,4点21分,5点26; 12时28分,13点32分,33; 19时05分,9,22时34分,61; 23时43分和在使徒行传9次)。

Context上下文

Here we see especially the converging lines of evidence.这里我们可以看到,特别是对证据的汇合线。When several significant words occur together in a passage which clearly has theological importance, especially if it is at a crucial point in the narrative, the reader may be confident that the author is making a major theological statement.当出现几个显著的话中的一段话显然有神学的重要性,尤其是如果它在叙事中的一个关键点是,读者可能会相信,作者作出了重大的神学声明。 Jesus' conversation with Zacchaeus is an example.耶稣与撒的谈话就是一个例子。It occurs shortly before Jesus' triumphal entry, centers on one of the so-called sinners (Luke 19:7), social outcasts, and other unpopular people featured in Luke as the objects of Jesus' concern.前不久发生耶稣凯旋项,中心的关注所谓的罪人(卢克19时07分),社会的弃儿,在路加福音耶稣的对象功能的其他不受欢迎的人之一。 The vocabulary includes such key terms as "today" and "salvation."词汇包括等关键条款“今天”和“拯救”。Another significant event occurs at the beginning of Jesus' ministry: his preaching in the Nazareth synagogue.另一个重要的事件发生在耶稣的事工的开始:他在拿撒勒犹太教堂讲道。This contains a programmatic statement about Jesus' anointing by the Spirit to preach good news to the poor.这包含了关于耶稣由圣灵恩膏向穷人传福音“的纲领性声明。The significant use of Isaiah 61 with its jubilee motif (the "year of the Lord's favor") contributes to its theological importance.以赛亚书61银禧图案,其显著的使用(“主的青睐,今年”),有助于其神学的重要性。

Geographical and Historical Background地理和历史背景

Other indications of theology are seen in Luke's stress on these features.神学的其他迹象出现在卢克的对这些功能的压力。Luke sets the salvation events within the sweep of human history.卢克套在人类历史上的扫描的救赎事件。His description of Jesus' orientation to Jerusalem from Luke 9:51 on points to the passion, resurrection, and ascension.他的描述耶稣的方向耶路撒冷从路加福音9:51分的激情,复活,和阿森松。

In summary, every aspect of the Gospel, from individual words to the larger historical scene, is worth investigating for theological information.总之,每一个方面的福音,从单个的单词,以更大的历史场景,是值得调查的神学信息。

Theological Themes神学主题

Some of the specific themes and topics in Luke are:在卢克的具体主题和主题是:

Christology基督

As in the other Gospels, Jesus is seen as Messiah (eg, Luke 9:20).至于在其他福音,耶稣被视为弥赛亚(例如,路加福音9点20分)。He is also the Son of God, as the angel indicates (Luke 1:35) and as he himself recognizes at age twelve (Luke 2:49).他也是神的儿子,天使显示(路加福音1:35),正如他自己在十二岁(路加福音2点49分)承认。One unique contribution of Luke is the presentation of Jesus as a prophet.卢克的一个独特的贡献,是耶稣为先知的介绍。He is compared and contrasted with John the Baptist as a prophetic figure.他比较,并与施洗约翰预言的数字对比。Luke hints at his prophetic role in 4:24-27 and 13:33.卢克暗示他在4:24-27和13时33预言作用。Also the ministry of Elisha comes to mind at the raising of the son of the widow of Nain near where Elisha had raised the son of the "great woman" of Shunem.以利沙部还想到在附近的拿因寡妇的儿子以利沙曾提出的“大女人”的书念的儿子提高。

Soteriology救世神学

Without question, Luke emphasizes the need and provision of salvation.毫无疑问,卢克强调救恩的需要和提供。The Gospel focuses on the cross through the passion predictions (9:22, etc.), in common in Matthew and Luke, in the early foreshadowings of 2:35; 5:35; and especially through the sayings at the Last Supper (22:19-22).福音的重点在十字架上的激情预测(9:22等),共同在马修和卢克,在早期foreshadowings 2时35分,5时35分,特别是通过“最后的晚餐”的熟语(22 :19 - 22)。In Acts the cross is seen as God's will, though accomplished by sinful people (Acts 2:23).在使徒行传十字架被视为上帝的旨意,虽然罪孽深重的人(徒2:23)完成。If neither the Gospel nor Acts contains the explicit statements familiar from Paul on the theology of atonement, that does not mean Luke's doctrine is deficient.如果既不是福音,也不行为包含赎罪的神学从保罗熟悉的明确声明,这并不意味着卢克的学说有缺陷的。The Gospel presents the need of salvation and the progress of Jesus to the cross vividly; Acts declares the opportunity of forgiveness through Christ (eg, 2:38; 4:12; 10:43; 13:39).福音提出了需要拯救的和生动的交叉耶稣的进展;行为宣布通过基督的宽恕的机会(例如,2:38; 4:12; 10:43; 13时39分)。

Glory荣耀

Nevertheless, Luke has a very strong theology of glory.尽管如此,卢克有一个非常强的荣耀神学。He emphasizes the victory of the resurrection, with a declaration of the vindication of Jesus (Acts 2:24; 3:15; 4:10; 10:39-42; 13:26-37; 17:31).他强调复活的胜利,与申报平反耶稣(使徒行传2:24; 3:15; 4:10; 10:39-42; 13:26-37; 17时31分)。The ascension is stressed predictively in the middle of the Gospel (9:51) and in the middle of Luke's two-volume work, Luke 24 and Acts 1.阿森松岛是在中间的福音(9时51分),在卢克的两卷本的工作,卢克24中强调predictively和行为1。

Doxology Doxology

This theology of glory finds practical expression in repeated ascriptions of glory to God.这荣耀的神学认为上帝荣耀的反复归属的实际体现。These occur especially at the birth of Christ (2:14) and on the occasions of healing (eg, Luke 5:25-26; Acts 3:8-10).这些发生,特别是在基督诞生(2:14)和愈合的场合(例如,路加福音5:25-26使徒行传3:8-10)。

The Holy Spirit圣灵

The Spirit is prominent from the beginning (Luke 1:15, 41; 2:25-35).精神是从一开始(路加福音1:15,41; 2:25-35)突出。Jesus was conceived by the overshadowing of the Spirit (1:35).耶稣的构思是由圣灵(1:35)黯然失色。He was full of the Spirit and led by the Spirit at the time of his temptation (4:1).他的精神和圣灵带领他的诱惑(4:1)的时间。The Spirit was upon him in his ministry (4:18).圣灵是他在他的部(4:18)。The Lord promised the Holy Spirit in answer to prayer (11:13) and in anticipation of Pentecost (24:49; Acts 1:4).主承诺在回答祷告(11:13),圣灵在五旬节的期待(24:49;徒1:4)。The Holy Spirit is, of course, prominent throughout the book of Acts.圣灵是,当然,整个书的行为突出。

Prayer祈祷

This is especially significant at times of crisis in the life of Jesus (Luke 3:1; 6:12; 9:18) and in the early perilous days of the church (eg, Acts 4:23-31; 6:4, 6; 8:15; 9:11; 10:2; 13:3).这是在危机时刻,尤其是在耶稣的生命(路加福音3:1; 6:12;九时18分)显著,并在教会的早期殆天(例如,徒4:23-31; 6时04分, 6; 8:15; 9时11,10时02分; 13:3)。

The Power of God上帝的力量

Along with the other Gospels, Luke records the miracles of Jesus and uses the word dynamis.除了与其他福音,路加记载耶稣的奇迹和用字的潜能。This emphasis continues throughout Acts.这种强调将继续在整个行为。

Sense of Destiny; Prophecy and Fulfillment命运之感;预言和履行

This is a unique emphasis of Luke.这是一个独特的卢克强调。The verb dei, "it is necessary," occurs frequently with reference to the things Jesus "must" accomplish (Luke 2:49; 4:43; 9:22; 13:33; 24:7, 26, 44-47).动词DEI“,这是必要的,”发生的事情经常耶稣“必须”完成(路加福音2时49; 4点43分,9时22分,13点33; 24:7,26,44-47) 。This is seen both in terms of accomplishment (Luke 1:1, translating peplerophoremenon as "accomplished" or, with NIV, "fulfilled") and in terms of fulfillment of OT prophecy.这是既成就(路加福音1:1,翻译为“完成”或与“为证:”履行“peplerophoremenon),并在履行旧约预言。 "Proof from prophecy" is a significant aspect of Luke's writing.“从预言的证明”是卢克的写作的一个重要的方面。

Eschatology末世论

This aspect of Luke's work has occasioned much discussion.这方面卢克的工作已经引起了不少讨论。It was the view of H. Conzelmann that Luke wrote against a background of concern because Jesus had not yet returned.这是卢克对一个值得关注的的背景下写的,因为耶稣尚未返回的H. Conzelmann。Luke supposedly met this alleged "delay of the parousia" by reworking Jesus' teachings which the church is to continue.卢克理应见了这个所谓的“parousia延迟”改造耶稣的教导,教会是要继续。Without dealing here with Conzelmann's various ideas on this and other topics, we may note that further study has shown that, while Luke sees a period of faithful service prior to the Lord's return (eg, the parable of the nobleman, or the ten minas, Luke 19:11-27), he also retains strong eschatological teachings (eg, 12:35-40) and a sense of imminency (eg, 18:8).不处理这个主题Conzelmann的各种想法在这里,我们可能会注意进一步的研究显示,而卢克看到忠诚的服务期主的回报(例如,贵族的比喻,或在十个米纳斯之前,路加福音19:11-27),他还保留了强烈的末世论的教义(如12:35-40)和imminency感(如18:8)。 It is misguided speculation (cf. Luke 17:20-21) which Luke rejected, not the imminency of the Lord's return.这是误导炒作(参路17:20-21),卢克拒绝,而不是主的回归imminency。It is against this background that Luke's unique emphasis on "today" is to be seen.这是卢克的“今天”的独特的重点是要看到,在此背景下。

Israel and the People of God以色列和神的人

The word laos, "people," is used with special meaning in Luke.老挝的字,“人”,是用特殊的意义在路加福音。In contrast to the crowds (ochloi) and the hostile rulers, the "people" are ready to receive Jesus.相比之下人群(ochloi)和敌对的统治者,“人”准备接受耶稣。Naturally, in the period of Luke-Acts most of these are Jews.当然,在卢克期徒其中大部分是犹太人。Luke seems to be dealing with the nature of the people of God, the position of the church in relation to the unbelieving Jews.卢克似乎是与神,不信的犹太人教堂的位置的人的性质处理。He emphasizes that thousands of the Jews believed (Acts 21:20), even though he shows Paul as turning to the Gentiles.他强调,成千上万的犹太人相信(使徒21时20分),尽管他转向外邦人,保罗。

The Word of God神的话语

This is a more significant theme in Luke's writings than is generally recognized.这是一个比一般承认在卢克的著作更显著的主题。Logos occurs in the Gospel prologue (1:2), in 4:22, 32, 36, and notably in the parable of the sower, which stresses obedience to the word of God (8:4-15).图案出现在福音的序幕(1:2),在4点22分,32,36,特别是在撒种的比喻,强调服从神(8:4-15)字。 In Acts the growth of the "word" parallels the growth of the church (Acts 4:31; 6:7; 12:24).在使徒行传“字”的成长平行的教会(使徒行传4点31分,6时07分; 12时24分)的增长。

Discipleship门徒

Luke contains teachings not in the other Gospels.卢克不包含教义在其他福音。In addition to 9:23-26, paralleled in Matthew and Mark, Luke has major sections on discipleship in 9:57-62; 14:25-33.除了9:23-26,并联马修和马克,路加对门徒的主要部分已在9:57-62; 14:25-33。

Poverty and Wealth贫穷和财富

The Gospel, addressed to a wealthy person, records Jesus' mission to the poor (4:18).福音,给一个富有的人,给穷人(4:18)记录耶稣的使命。Luke refers to a future reversal of social roles in the Magnificat (1:46-55), the Beatitudes (along with the woes, which only Luke describes; 6:20-26), and the story of the rich man and Lazarus (16:19-31).卢克是指未来逆转的社会角色在尊(1:46-55),讲到(一起的疾苦,只有路加描述; 6:20-26),和财主和拉撒路的故事( 16:19-31)。Luke gives direct teaching on possessions (Luke 12:33), has the only comment on the Pharisees' greed (Luke 16:14), and emphasizes the church's generosity in sharing with those in need (Acts 2:44-45; 4:32-37; 11:27-30).卢克直接教学提供财产(卢克12时33分),对法利赛人的贪婪(路加福音16:14)只评论,并强调有需要的人(徒2:44-45分享教会的慷慨; 4: 32-37; 11:27-30)。

Recent Study最近的研究

The study of Luke's theology has been pursued with great vigor during the past several decades.卢克的神学的研究一直奉行以极大的活力,在过去的几十年。The creative work of Conzelmann spawned a number of treatises on Luke's theology.创造性地开展工作的Conzelmann催生了卢克的神学论文的数量。At issue have been the purpose for which Luke wrote the Gospel and Acts, the extent and significance of his redaction (editing), and the effect the author's theological tendencies may have had on his historical reliability.目前的问题已为路加写福音和行为,他的节录的程度和意义(编辑),和作者的神学倾向,可能对他的历史可靠性的影响的目的。 According to Conzelmann, Luke's purpose was to set forth his scheme of salvation history.据Conzelmann,卢克的目的是为了阐述他的救恩历史的计划。Marshall sees Luke's work as a witness to salvation itself.马歇尔认为卢克的救恩本身的见证工作。Others have seen an apologetic motive (eg, defense of Christianity for one or another purpose) or a theological motive (eg, the identity of the people of God).其他人看到一个歉意的动机(例如,基督教防御的一个或另一个目的)或神学的动机(例如,神的子民的身份)。Evaluation of the extent of Luke's redactional work to serve his purposes depends on one's assessment of several matters.评价卢克的redactional工作,为他的目的的程度取决于一个人的若干事项评估。Is "S" given editorial modification due to theology, style, or sources used?“S”的编辑修改由于神学,风格,或使用的来源?If to sources, were there theological reasons for using a given source and for allowing its theological data to stand unmodified?如果消息人士透露,在那里使用一个给定的源代码,并允许其神学数据站在未修改的神学原因?Must it be assumed, as is often done, that Luke's theological purposes affected his historical objectivity adversely?一定要假定,因为往往是做,卢克的神学目的影响了他的历史的客观性不利?For a defense of Luke's credibility as both a historian and theologian, see Marshall's work below.对于卢克的信誉作为一个历史学家和神学家的防御,看到马歇尔的工作。In conclusion, Fitzmyer's caution against interpreting Luke's theology in terms of one's own thesis about Luke is itself a comment on many contributions to this subject. Fitzmyer的反对卢克的神学解释自己的论文约路加​​福音的谨慎结论,本身就是对这一问题作出了许多贡献的评论。

WL Liefeld轮候册Liefeld
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
CK Barnett, Luke the Historian in Recent Study; H. Conzelmann, The Theology of St. Luke; NA Dahl, "The Purpose of Luke-Acts," in Jesus in the Memory of the Early Church; EE Ellis, Eschatology in Luke; H. Flender, St. Luke: Theologian of Redemptive History; JA Fitzmyer, The Gospel According to Luke I-IX; E. Franklin, Christ the Lord: A Study in the Purpose and Theology of Luke-Acts; J. Jervell, Luke and the People of God; LT Johnson, The Literary Function of Possessions in Luke-Acts; LE Keck and JL Martyn, eds., Studies in Luke-Acts; IH Marshall, Luke: Historian and Theologian; AJ Mattill, Jr., Luke and the Last Things; JC O'Neill, The Theology of Acts in Its Historical Setting; NB Stonehouse, The Witness of Luke to Christ; CH Talbert, Literary Patterns, Theological Themes and the Genre of Luke-Acts, and (ed.) Perspectives on Luke-Acts; DL Tiede, Prophecy and History in Luke-Acts.CK,卢克在最近的研究历史学家巴尼特; H. Conzelmann,圣卢克神学; NA达尔,“卢克行为的目的,”耶稣在早期教会的记忆; EE埃利斯,在路加福音末世; H ·弗兰德,圣卢克:救赎历史的神学家; JA Fitzmyer,据卢克的I - IX福音; E.富兰克林,主基督:卢克行为的目的和神学研究,J. Jervell,卢克神的人; LT约翰逊,卢克行为财产的文学功能; LE凯克和JL马丁,EDS,卢克行为的研究;中转房屋马歇尔,卢克:历史学家和神学家; AJ Mattill,小,卢克最后的事情; JC奥尼尔,在其​​历史背景神学的行为; NB斯通豪斯,见证基督的卢克; CH塔尔伯特,文学模式,神学主题和卢克行为类型,(主编)卢克行为的观点; DL Tiede,预言和卢克行为的历史。



Also, see:此外,见:
Theology of Matthew神学的马修。
Theology of Mark神学的标志
Theology of John神学的约翰。
New Testament Theology新约圣经神学


This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语



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The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at:的, 主要相信网页(和索引科目),是在:
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
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