Theology of Mark神学马克

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A growing consensus has emerged in recent years that the sacred evangelists were both historians and theologians.越来越多的共识,近年来涌现出神圣的传道者,历史学家和神学家。They produced accurate histories of the life of Christ and at the same time preached its implications for life in the church.他们生产的准确历史的基督的生命,并鼓吹在同一时间在教会生活的影响。Further, each evangelist had a distinctive message, seen in the way he selected and omitted certain scenes and details.此外,每个传道有一个鲜明的讯息,在他选择和省略某些场景和细节的方式看到。It is therefore accurate to speak of a "theology of Mark."因此,准确地讲,“马克神学。”His major themes will here be traced and an attempt made to delineate the way in which each is seen throughout his Gospel.这里可以追溯到他的两大主题,并试图作出界定,其中每个是整个他的福音。


The book itself declares that it is "the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God."这本书本身宣称它是“耶稣基督的福音,是神的儿子。”There is a great difference of opinion as to the central emphasis in this regard.在这方面有很大的差别,中央强调的意见。 Many have thought that Christ/Messiah is predominant and expresses Mark's portrayal of Jesus as the antitype of the suffering servant of Yahweh.许多人认为,基督/弥赛亚是主要的,并表示作为耶和华受苦的仆人antitype马克的耶稣的写照。This is then linked to a royal stress in King of Israel (15:32), ie, in Mark the servant becomes messianic King.这是再联系到一个在以色列的国王(15:32),即皇家压力,在马克的仆人成为救世主的国王。While this is no doubt true, it is not the major stress; in fact, Jesus is seen as demanding that this fact be kept secret.虽然这是毫无疑问的真实,它是不是主要的压力,事实上,耶稣是要求这一事实保密。Here we find the primary critical problem of the Gospel.在这里,我们找到福音的首要的关键问题。Every group with which Jesus is involved is forced to silence: the demons (1:23-25, 34; 3:11-12), those healed (1:40-44; 5:43; 7:36; 8:26), the disciples (8:30; 9:9).耶稣是参与的每个组被迫沉默:恶魔(1:23-25​​,34; 3:11-12),这些愈合(1:40-44; 5时43分,7时36分,8时26 ),门徒(8:30; 9:9)。In addition, the leaders are kept from the truth (3:22; 4:10-12; 8:11-12), and Jesus withdraws from the crowds (4:10; 7:17; 9:28) and hides from them (7:24; 9:30).此外,领导人保持真相(3点22分; 4:10-12; 8:11-12),和耶稣退出人群(4:10; 7点17; 9:28)和隐藏(7:24,9:30)。Many have thought that Mark created the theme in order to explain why Jesus was never recognized during his life (Wrede) or to oppose the disciples themselves, whom Mark believed were proclaiming a false gospel (Weeden).许多人认为,马克创建的主题,在以解释为什么耶稣从来没有在他的一生(Wrede)认可或反对自己的弟子,其中马克认为被宣布虚假的福音(Weeden)。 However, neither explanation is necessary.然而,无论解释是必要的。The crowds were not allowed to hear such teaching because they considered Jesus to be only a "wonder worker," and the disciples could not proclaim it due to their own misunderstanding regarding the meaning of his office, ie, they interpreted it in light of the Jewish expectation of a conquering king rather than a suffering servant.不允许的人群,听到这样的教学,因为他们认为耶稣只是一个“奇迹工人”,和弟子不能宣布它因自己的误解,关于他的办公室,即的含义,他们在解释受苦的仆人,而不是征服国王的犹太人期望。 The demons were silenced as part of the "binding of Satan" theme (cf. 3:27 and further below), and the leaders were kept from understanding as sign of God's rejection of them.恶魔沉默的“撒旦的具有约束力”的主题(参3时27分和下文)的一部分,领导人保持从认识上帝的拒绝,他们的标志。On the whole, Mark stresses that Jesus' messiaship is essentially incognito, hidden from all except those with spiritual insight.整体而言,马克讲耶稣“messiaship的本质上是隐姓埋名,隐藏所有除了那些与精神的洞察力。In short, while Jesus is indeed a wonder worker, Mark wishes to clarify the implications carefully.总之,当耶稣的确是一个奇迹工作者,马克希望认真澄清的影响。

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In this regard we must note "Son of God," the title which begins the Gospel (1:1) and occurs at the climax in the centurion's cry (15:39).在这方面,我们必须注意“上帝的儿子”的称号开始的福音(1:1)和发生在百夫长的呐喊(15:39)高潮。The stress on sonship occurs at the baptism (1:11) and transfiguration (9:7) and is a key element in Jesus' control over the demonic realm (3:11). sonship强调发生的洗礼(1:11)和变身(9:7),耶稣“恶魔领域(3:11)的控制是一个关键要素。Further, Jesus is seen as omniscient (2:8; 5:32, 39; 6:48; 8:17; 9:4, 33; 11:2, 14; 12:9; 13:12) and omnipotent over demons, illness, death, and the natural elements.此外,耶稣是被视为无所不知(2:8; 5时32分,39; 6点48分,8点17分,9时04分,33; 11:2,14; 12时09分,13时12分)在恶魔无所不能,疾病,死亡和自然元素。Yet at the same time Mark stressed his humanity: his compassion (1:41; 6:34; 8:2), indignation (3:5; 9:19; 10:14), and his distress and sorrow (14:33-36).然而,在同一时间,马克强调他的人性:他的同情心(1时41分,6时34分; 8:2),愤慨(3时05分,9时19分; 10:14),和他的痛苦和悲伤(14时33 -36)。Jesus "sighs" (7:34; 8:12) and shows anger (1:43; 3:5); he becomes weary (4:38) and admits limitations regarding miracles (6:5-6) and knowledge (13:32).(1点43分; 3:5)耶稣“的感叹”(7点34分; 8:12),并显示愤怒,他变得厌世(4时38分),并承认限制奇迹(6:5-6)和知识(13 :32)。The balance between these is important and demonstrates that Mark is probably trying to present a balanced picture in order to correct an overly enthusiastic stress on the supernatural aspects.之间的平衡是重要的的和演示,马克可能是试图提出一个平衡的图片,以正确的超自然方面的过分热情的压力。

Mark's favorite designation is "Son of man," a term which undoubtedly was Jesus' own self-designation but which also went beyond to picture the heavenly figure of Dan.马克的最喜欢的名称是“人子”一词,这无疑是耶稣自己的自我定位,但也超出了图片天上丹图。7:13.7:13。In Mark it speaks of his humanity (2:10, 27-28); his betrayal, suffering, and death (the passion predictions of 9:12; 14:21, 41); and his exaltation and future reign (13:26).马克说,他的人性(2:10,27-28);他的背叛,痛苦,和死亡(的激情预测,9时12分,14时21分,41​​);他的提高和未来的统治(13时26分)。 It is obvious that here we have the correction of misunderstandings regarding his purpose and personhood, especially since it occurs primarily in the second half of the Gospel, where Jesus begins to correct the disciples' views.很明显,我们在这里有关于他的目的和人格的误解的修正,特别是因为它主要发生在下半年的福音,耶稣开始纠正弟子的意见。 It seems definite that Mark wishes to combine a theologia crucis with a theologia gloria.这似乎明确,马克的愿望结合起来,一个theologia凯莱一个theologia crucis。Therefore the so-called messianic secret centers upon the fact that the cross is the path to glory and that Jesus' live exaltation can be understood only by comprehending the significance of his suffering.因此,所谓的弥赛亚秘密中心的事实,十字架是荣耀和耶稣的生活提高的路径后,是可以理解的,只有通过理解他的痛苦的意义。

The final aspect of Mark's emphases is Jesus as teacher.马克的最后一个方面的重点是耶稣为师。In the past this designation was usually attributed only to Matthew, but recently it has been more and more recognized that Mark gives Jesus' teaching office prime place in his work.这个称号是在过去通常只归咎于马修,但近来也有越来越多的承认,马克给耶稣的教学办公室在他的工作的首要位置。The one who performs such great and mighty deeds is demonstrated as the one who teaches; in fact, the first is subordinate to the second, for it is in his activity as teacher (4:38; 5:35; 9:17, 38; 10:51; 11:21) that both the disciples and the opponents are confronted with the reality of the Christ event.一个执行的伟大和强大的事迹证明谁教;事实上,首先是从属于第二,在他的活动是作为老师(4时38分,5点35分,9点17分,38十时51; 11:21)的弟子和对手面临着与现实的基督事件。It is in his teaching that true authority is manifest (1:22), and therefore this may well be the major stress.在他的教学,它是真正的权威清单(1:22),因此这很可能是主要的压力。

Cosmic Conflict宇宙冲突

In Mark, Christ is presented as the one who "binds" Satan (3:27).马克,基督是作为一个“结合”撒旦(3:27)。Where Matthew centers upon healing miracles, Mark stresses exorcism.凡马修中心后愈合的奇迹,马克强调驱魔。This is nowhere seen better than by comparing Mark and Matthew with respect to the healing of the demon-possessed/ epileptic child.这是无处可见,而不是由马克和马修比较尊重的恶魔附身/癫痫的孩子的愈合更好。Matthew mentions the demon only at the point of the miracle (17:14-18), while Mark relates an amazingly detailed narrative with four separate descriptions of the effects of the possession (9:18, 20, 22, 26).马修只提到在奇迹(17:14-18)点的恶魔,而马克涉及四个独立的占有的影响的说明(九时十八分,20,22,26)一个令人惊讶的详细的叙述。 Jesus is pictured as one who violently assaults sin and the cosmic forces of evil.耶稣描绘成一个暴力侵犯罪和邪恶的宇宙力量。 Moreover, he passes on this eschatological ministry to the disciples, who participate with him in his victory (3:15; 6:7, 13; for the problem of 9:18 see below).此外,他通过这个末世论部,参加他的胜利与他的弟子(3:15; 6:7,13; 9:18问题见下文)。Implicit in 3:27 also is the idea of "plundering" Satan's realm.隐含在3时27分,也就是“掠夺”撒旦的境界的理念。This is certainly the thrust of the exorcism miracles (1:23-26; 3:11-12; 5:6-13; 9:14-27).这当然是驱魔奇迹(1:23-26; 3:11-12; 5:6-13; 9:14-27)的推力。When the demons utter Jesus' name, they are not unwittingly acting as his "PR" agents, but rather are trying to gain control of him.当恶魔完全耶稣的名字,他们是不是不知不觉中充当他的“公关”的代理,而是试图获得他的控制。In the ancient world (as in many tribal areas today) one would gain power over a spirit-creature by learning his "hidden name."在古代世界(如今天在许多部落地区)的人会获得通过学习他的力量“隐藏的名称。”过度的精神生物When Jesus forced silence upon them (1:25, 34; 3:12) or made them reveal their own names (5:9) this signified his mastery over the satanic forces.当耶稣后,他们被迫沉默(1:25,34; 3:12),或让他们透露自己的名字(5:9),这标志着他在撒旦的势力掌握。The authority and other blessings given Jesus' followers are the spoil from that victory.由于耶稣的追随者的权力和其他祝福溺爱就是胜利。


Many have stated that Mark is primarily a proponent of a futuristic eschatology, perhaps even calling the church to the imminent parousia in Galilee (Marxsen).很多人说,马克主要是一个未来的末世论的支持者,甚至呼吁教会即将在加利利parousia(Marxsen)。 Yet the Markan emphasis goes beyond this.然而Markan强调超越。According to 1:15, the kingdom has already come, and the time of fulfillment is here.据到1:15,王国已经来了,和履行的时间是在这里。Jesus' deeds and words demonstrate the presence of the kingdom within history, and Jesus will continue to mediate this end-time power until the final consummation of the divine plan (8:38; 13:24-27; 14:62).耶稣的事迹和文字展示内的历史王国的存在,耶稣将继续调解,直到最后圆满的神圣计划(8点38分; 13:24-27; 14:62)结束时间的力量。Therefore the disciple exists in present hope, and Mark's eschatology is "inaugurated" rather than final, ie, it recognizes the "beginning" of the "end" and the fact that the believer lives in a state of tension between the two.因此,门徒存在于目前的希望,而马克的末世论“,而不是决赛,即”揭牌,它承认的“终结”“开始”和信徒生活在两者之间的紧张状态的事实。

At the same time we must acknowledge the stress on the future parousia in Mark.与此同时,我们必须承认在马克的未来parousia的压力。The three passages mentioned above (8:33; 13:26; 14:62) show that the suffering of Christ could be understood properly only in light of his coming glory at both the resurrection/exaltation and parousia.上述三个通道(8点33; 13:26; 14:62)显示正确的复活/超升和parousia基督的痛苦可以理解,只有在他未来的荣耀。One event that illustrates the connection between the resurrection and the eschaton is the transfiguration (9:2-8); when one realizes that it is surrounded by passages on suffering, the point made here becomes clear.一个事件,说明了复活和eschaton之间的连接是变身(9:2-8),当一个人意识到它是由通道上的痛苦包围,点这里变得清晰。 the same is true of the Olivet discourse (ch. 13), which demonstrates once more that suffering and persecution lead to glory.相同的是真实的科特话语(章13),这再次表明,痛苦和迫害,导致荣耀。Yet even here we are not free of the strong realized stress, for it is seen in the great accent on watchfulness (13:5, 9, 23, 33, 35, 37) which permeates the chapter.然而,即使在这里,我们不强强调实现,因为它是伟大的警觉口音(13时05分,9,23,33,35,37),它贯穿本章。 The true disciple will be characterized by an expectant alertness in light of the imminent inbreaking of the final kingdom.的特点将是最终王国即将inbreaking期待的警觉性,真正的门徒。

The Miracles and Soteriology的奇迹和救世神学

One cannot ignore the centrality of the miracle stories, for they form one fifth of the Gospel and 47 percent of the first ten chapters.一个不能忽视的奇迹故事的中心地位,为他们形成的福音和47%的前十章的五分之一。The basic word, as in all the Synoptics, is "power" (dynamis), which points to the power of God operative in his Son.基本单词,因为在所有的福音,是“权力”(潜能),这点在他儿子的力量神的手术。Mark, however, is careful to stress that the miracles do not form apologetic proof that Jesus is the Christ.马克,但是,仔细强调的奇迹并不构成歉疚证明耶稣是基督。The central theme in Mark is that they can be known only by faith; they cannot produce faith.在马克的中心主题是,他们可以只有通过信仰,他们不能产生信心。The disciples misunderstand them (4:40; 6:52; 8:17-18), and their effect is diminished by the apparent humanity of Jesus himself (6:1-3; cf. 3:19-21).门徒误解(4点40; 6时52; 8:17-18),其效果是由人类耶稣自己(6:1-3;比照3:19-21)明显减少。With the presence of many miracle workers, many of them false prophets (13:22), the common people could draw only erroneous conclusions.随着许多奇迹的工人,其中许多假先知(13:22)存在,老百姓可以只绘制错误的结论。 Therefore, they needed his teaching and his person to understand properly (1:37-38; 2:5; 4:40; 5:34).因此,他们需要他的教学和他的人(1:37-38; 2:5; 4点40; 5时34分)正确理解。Mark was stressing the hiddenness of God in Jesus and wished to demonstrate that even his miracles were only glimmers of the true reality and as such comprehensible only by faith.马克是强调耶稣的神hiddenness,并希望证明,甚至他的奇迹,只有微弱的真正的现实,这样的理解只能由信仰。 Further, they are symbols of God's forgiveness; as the miracle is performed, the spiritual need is met (4:35-41; 6:45-52; 7:31-37; 8:22-26).此外,他们是上帝的宽恕的象征;是奇迹,精神需要的是满足(4:35-41; 6:45-52; 7:31-37; 8:22-26)。

The connection of the miracles with faith and forgiveness leads to the further point: when faith is present, the miracles point to the salvific power of God in Christ.信仰和宽恕的奇迹,导致进一步的一点:当信仰目前,奇迹点神在基督的救赎力量。By actualizing the power and authority of God in the situation, they make the reader cognizant of the radical demands of God.actualizing神的力量和权威的情况,使读者认识到神的激进要求。It has often been said that Mark has no true soteriology.人们常常说,马克有没有真正的救世神学。Yet that is to deny the implication of such key passages as 10:45, which presents Christ as the one who gave his life "as a ransom for many."然而,这是否认为10:45,基督作为一个谁给他的生活等​​重点段落的含义“作为一个多人的赎价。”Mark seeks to drive men to decision, which he accomplishes by setting two scenes in contrast, thereby highlighting the issues and demanding encounter with God (eg, 3:7-12, where the demons acknowledge him, and 3:20-35, where Jesus is called Beelzebub; or 11:12-21, which shows that the cleansing of the temple prefigured the "curse" of God upon Israel).马克旨在推动男性决定,这是他通过设置两个场景中的对比,从而突出的问题,并要求与神(例如,3:7-12,恶魔承认他的地方,并3:20-35,其中遇到,完成耶稣被称为魔王;或11:12-21,这表明,洁净圣殿,预示着“诅咒”,呼吁以色列神)。 Mark constantly shows men, common people, leaders, and disciples, in the conflict of decision.马克不断显示男,老百姓,领导,和弟子,在冲突的决定。


The final emphasis in Mark, and in some ways the major emphasis along with Christology, is the discipleship motif.马克最终强调,而且在某些方面的主要重点,是与基督一起门徒图案。Again there is certainly controversy here, as some have argued that Mark has a negative thrust intended to show the error of the disciples (Weeden).同样有一定的争议,如一些人认为,马克有一个负的推力,目的是显示错误的弟子(Weeden)。However, this is hardly true of the Gospel as a whole.然而,这是很难真正作为一个整体的福音。Mark does wish to stress the radical nature of the call and the difficulties of achieving the goal.马克确实想强调的激进性的号召和实现这一目标的困难。However, the reader is expected to identify with the disciples in this dilemma, and it indeed forms the heart of the Gospel.然而,读者预计,以确定在这种困境中的弟子,它确实形成了心脏的福音。

At the beginning of Mark's Gospel, Jesus fulfills his own message of repentance (1:15) by calling the disciples to be "fishers of men" (cf. Matt. 4:18-22 and Luke 5:1-11, where it comes much later).在马克的福音开始,耶稣呼吁门徒“的男性渔民履行”他的忏悔自己的消息(1:15)(参太4:18-22,路加福音5:1-11,它来得晚得多)。 Then after the conflict narratives (2:1-3:6) Jesus cements his "withdrawal" (3:7) by turning to the disciples and commissioning them (3:13-19), in a scene filled with election terminology and centering upon their authority and responsibility. (2:1-3:6),然后冲突的叙述后,耶稣水泥转向门徒和调试他们(3:13-19),他的“退出”(3:7),在一个现场充满选举术语和定心经他们的权力和责任。 Finally, the first segment of the Gospel concludes with a missions scene in which Jesus "sends" his disciples, again with authority and in complete dependence upon God (6:7-13).最后,福音的第一部分的结论与耶稣“发送”他的弟子,又具有权威性和完全依赖后,神(6:7-13)特派团的现场。 From here, however, the relationship seems to deteriorate, and the central section of Mark (6:7-8:30) has two themes, the withdrawal of Jesus from the crowds combined with his time with the twelve, and the failure of the disciples to comprehend his teaching.然而,从这里,关系似乎恶化,和马克的中央部分(6:7-8:30)有两个主题,耶稣与他的时间与12相结合的人群撤出,失败的弟子领悟他的教学。 They are amazingly obtuse with respect to all aspects of his teaching and are both uncomprehending (6:52; 7:18; 8:17-18) and even "hardened" (6:52; 8:17), a startling term in light of its theological connotations and its presence after the two feeding miracles.他们令人惊讶的是尊重他的教学的各个方面,都是不理解(六时52分,7时18分; 8:17-18),甚至“硬化”(6点52分; 8:17),一个令人吃惊的长期钝光其神学的内涵及其后两个喂养奇迹的存在。

However, once more this failure is not the final point, although it is certainly stressed at the very end, especially if Mark ends at 16:8.然而,一旦更多的这种故障是不是最后一点,虽然它肯定是在最后强调,尤其是如果马克在16时08分结束。Yet in the last section of the Gospel before the passion (8:31-10:52), the solution is seen in the presence of Jesus the teacher, who patiently and lovingly instructs them.然而,在福音的激情(8:31-10:52)前的最后一节,该解决方案被认为是耶稣的老师,耐心和精心指示他们的存在。 Note that in 8:31 Jesus "began to teach" them, an act clearly linked to their failure to understand (8:32-33), which is countered by his instruction (8:34-38).请注意,在8时31耶稣“开始教”他们的行为,显然与他们不明白(8:32-33),这是他的指令(8:34-38)反驳。 This in itself follows the important healing of the blind man (8:22-26), a two-stage miracle which may have been intended to prefigure a two-stage overcoming of the disciples' blindness (cf. 8:17-21) via first Peter's confession (partial sight, as seen in 8:31-33) and then by the transfiguration, which solidified the revelation of God to the disciples.这是继本身瞎子(8:22-26)重要的愈合,分两个阶段的奇迹可能已经预示分两个阶段克服弟子“失明(参8:17-21)通过第一彼得的自白(部分视线,在8:31-33),然后变身,凝固了上帝的启示门徒。 The passion predictions are followed by very serious failures on their part, and at the healing of the demonpossessed child this comes to a crisis when the disciples are unable to perform that which previously had been a significant sign of their authority (cf. 9:18 with 6:13).激情预测之后对他们非常严重的失败,并在愈合的demonpossessed孩子,这涉及到一个危机时的弟子都无法执行,这以前一直是他们的权力的显着标志(参见9时18与6:13)。 The solution is seen in awakened faith (9:24) and its response, prayer (9:29).解决的办法是唤醒信仰(9:24)和它的响应,祈祷(9:29)。Steps of this growing awakening are seen in the passion narrative, and there the core of the problem becomes even more evident: discipleship is a call to the cross, and it cannot be understood until the cross.激情的叙述中看到这一日益觉醒的步骤,并有最核心的问题变得更加明显:门徒是一个交叉的呼叫,它无法理解,直到跨。The triumphal entry is an incognito message regarding Jesus' true mission, and it is followed by the judgment on the temple (ch. 11).凯旋的条目是一个隐姓埋名的消息,关于耶稣的真正使命,它是由寺庙的判决(章11)。In three major scenes Jesus begins to lift further the veil, and the disciples are called to understanding, the anointing at Bethany (14:3-9), the eucharistic words at the Last Supper (14:22-25), and Gethsemane (14: 32ff.).在三个主要场景,耶稣开始进一步解除面纱,门徒被称为了解,在伯大尼(14:3-9),在最后的晚餐(14:22-25)圣体圣事的话,和客西马尼的恩膏( 14:32ff)。Finally, at the resurrection failure is still seen (16:8, with most scholars realizing that the women are to be identified with the disciples), but it is obviated by the promise of Jesus' presence (16:7).最后,在复活的失败仍是看到(16时08分,多数学者认识到,妇女要确定与弟子),但它是由耶稣的存在(16:7)的承诺省却。 As the reader identifies first with the problem of discipleship and then with Jesus (the solution), victory becomes an act of faith.正如读者发现第一个问题,然后再与门徒与耶稣(解决方案),胜利成为一种信仰的行为。

GR Osborne遗传资源奥斯本
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
P. Achtemeier, Mark and "'He Taught Them Many Things': Reflections on Marcan Christology," CBQ 42:465-81; GR Beasley-Murray, "Eschatology in the Gospel of Mark," SwJT 21:37-53, and "The Parousia in Mark," SwJT 21:565-81; E. Best,"The Miracles in Mark," RE 75:539-54, and Following Jesus: Discipleship in the Gospel of Mark; JL Blevins, "The Christology of Mark," RE 75:505-17; WD Carroll, "The Jesus of Mark's Gospel," BT 103:2105-12; RT France, "Mark and the Teaching of Jesus," in Gospel Perspectives, I, ed.P. Achtemeier,马克和“他教给他们很多东西”:Marcan基督的思考,“CBQ的42:465-81; GR比斯利 - 默里,”末世马可福音“21:37-53 SwJT,并“马克Parousia,”SwJT 21:565-81; E.最好的是,“在马克的奇迹,”重新75:539-54,并跟随耶稣的门徒在马可福音; JL Blevins,“基督的马克,“可再生能源75:505-17; WD卡罗尔,”马克福音的耶稣,“BT 103:2105-12; RT法国,”马克和耶稣的教学,“在福音观点,我,主编。RT France and D. Wenham; JJ Kilgallen, "The Messianic Secret and Mark's Purpose," BTB 7:62-65; R. Martin, Mark: Evangelist and Theologian; W. Marxsen, Mark the Evangelist; RP Meye, Jesus and the Twelve; NP Petersen, ed., Perspectives on Mark's Gospel; PS Pudussery, "The Meaning of Discipleship in the Gospel of Mark," Jeev 10:93-110; Q. Quesnell, The Mind of Mark; D. Rhoads and D. Michie, Mark as Story; J. Rohde, Rediscovering the Teaching of the Evangelists; D. Senior, "The Gospel of Mark," BT 103:2094-2104; RC Tannehill, "The Disciples in Mark: The Function of a Narrative Role," JR 57:386-405; TJ Weeden, Mark, Traditions in Conflict; W. Wrede, The Messianic Secret.RT法国和D.威翰;林俊杰Kilgallen,“救世主秘密和马克的目的,”的BTB 7:62-65; R.马丁,马克:传播者和神学家; W. Marxsen,标记的传播者; RP Meye,耶稣和十二位,NP彼得森,海关,马克的福音的观点; PS Pudussery,“门徒在马可福音的意义,”米哈辛10:93-110;问Quesnell,马克的头脑; D.罗兹和D米基,作为故事马克J ·罗德,重新发现的福音教学; D.高级,“马可福音”的BT 103:2094-2104 RC坦尼希尔,“在马克的弟子:叙事角色的功能“JR 57:386-405; TJ Weeden,马克,冲突中的传统; W. Wrede,弥赛亚的秘密。

Also, see:此外,见:
Theology of Matthew神学的马修。
Theology of Luke神学路加福音
Theology of John神学的约翰。
New Testament Theology新约圣经神学

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