Theology of Matthew马太福音 神学

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In the literature of the church that remains from the first three centuries the Gospel most often referred to is Matthew's.最经常被提及的福音,在文学的教堂,从第一三个世纪依然是马修的。Its place in the order of the canon as the first Gospel probably reflects the church's estimation of its priority theologically rather than chronologically.其作为第一个福音佳能为了地可能反映了教会的估计,其优先级的神学,而不是按时间顺序。

In order to understand the theology of Matthew's Gospel it is helpful to begin at the ending.为了了解马太的福音神学是有帮助的开始结束。Its climatic conclusion, the Great Commission (28:16-20), has been called the key to the Gospel's theology.其气候的结论,大使命(28:16-20),被称为福音的神学的关键。Several important themes are brought together in these verses.几个重要的主题都汇集在这些经文。

First is the focus on the resurrected Christ.首先是复活的基督的焦点。Each of the Gospel writers portrays a facet of Jesus' life and ministry.福音作家描绘了耶稣的生命和事奉的方方面面。Prominent in Matthew's Gospel is the picture of Jesus as the Christ, the messianic Son of God who was also the suffering servant.突出的是在马太福音耶稣是基督,谁也受苦的仆人弥赛亚神的儿子的照片。

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At this baptism Jesus told John that his ministry was "to fulfill all righteousness" (3:15).在这个洗礼耶稣告诉约翰,他的部是“尽诸般的义”(3:15)。Righteousness in Matthew is a term meaning covenant faithfulness, obedience to God.在马太福音义是一个长远的意义公约的忠诚,服从上帝。An angel told Joseph that Jesus "will save his people from their sins" (1:21).天使告诉约瑟,耶稣“将保存他的人从他们的罪孽”(1:21)。Later Jesus told his disciples that he had come "to give his life as a ransom for many" (20:28).后来,耶稣告诉他的门徒说,他是来“作为许多赎金给他的生命”(20:28)。The prayer of this righteous Son in Gethsemane, "not my will but yours be done" (26:39), was fulfilled on the cross and affirmed by the Roman soldier's confession, "Surely he was the Son of God" (27:54).这个自以为是的儿子在客西马尼园的祷告,“不是我的,但你可以做”(窦21,39),在十字架上完成由罗马士兵的供述肯定,“当然,他是神的儿子”(27:54 )。Christ had fulfilled all righteousness.基督已经履行所有正义。He had been perfectly obedient to the Father's will.他已经完全顺从父亲的意志。It was this resurrected Christ, possessing the regal authority of God (13:37-42; 26:64), who appeared to the disciples to commission them.正是这种复活的基督,拥有神(13:37-42; 26:64)富豪的权力,委员会他们的弟子出现。

Another aspect of Matthean Christology is the affirmation of Christ's spiritual presence with the disciples.Matthean基督的另一个方面是基督的门徒的精神风貌的肯定。Jesus assured the disciples, "I will be with you" (28:20).耶稣向门徒说:“我将与你同在”(28:20)。The first of a series of OT texts cited by Matthew is Isaiah's prophecy of Immanuel (Isa. 7:14).首先是一系列由马修引用旧约经文以赛亚的预言伊曼纽尔(以赛亚书7:14)。Its significance is made clear in the phrase "God with us" (1:23; Isa. 8:10).它的意义是一语中的“神与我们同在”(1时23分;伊萨8点10)。Christ's presence continues.继续基督的存在。Jesus' promise to the disciples, "Where two or three come together in my name, there am I with them" (18:20), was additional confirmation of his presence.耶稣的门徒“的承诺,”凡两个或三个都在我的名字在一起,我与他们有我“(18:20),进一步确认他的存在。 Matthew wanted his readers to know that the regal ascended Christ was also spiritually present with his disciples (cf. Eph. 1:22-23).马修希望他的读者知道富豪登上基督也是在精神上与他的弟子目前的(参弗1:22-23)。。

This relates also to the Gospel's ecclesiology, the doctrine of the church.这也涉及到福音的教会学,教会的教义。Alone among the Gospels Matthew used the word "church" (Gr. ekklesia, 16:18; 18:17).单独使用单词“教会”(希腊语ekklesia,16时18; 18时17分)之间的福音马修。Not without reason has this been called "a pastoral Gospel."不是没有原因的被称为“牧区的福音。”Matthew saw that much of what Jesus had taught the disciples was applicable to the church of his own day.马修看到耶稣教过的弟子是适用于自己一天的教堂多。Of great importance in this regard was the commission to make disciples of all nations (28:19).在这方面是非常重要的委员会,使所有国家的门徒(28:19)。

Jesus preached the good news (4:23) to Jews (Galilee and Judea, 4:25) and Gentiles (Decapolis, 4:25).耶稣宣扬对犹太人的好消息(4:23)(加利利和犹太,4:25)和外邦人(Decapolis 4:25)。His disciples and the church which they founded (16:18) were to do the same.他的弟子和他们创办的教会(16:18)做同样的。John's Gospel records Jesus' self-confession, "I am the light of the world" (John 8:12).约翰福音记录耶稣的自我表白,“我是世界的光”(约翰福音8:12)。Matthew, on the other hand, underscored the disciples' missionary responsibility by recording Jesus' statement, "You are the light of the world" (5:14).马修,另一方面,强调弟子的声明,“你是世界的光”(5:14)“记录耶稣的传教责任。

The disciples, and the church, were to continue the ministry of Christ.门徒,教会,继续基督的职事。

They were to make disciples of all nations.他们使所有国家的弟子。Israel, indeed, had been temporarily displaced as God's chosen instrument of ministry (21:43).事实上,以色列已经暂时流离失所作为上帝的选择仪器部(21点43)。But this displacement was not permanent (19:28; 23:39).但这种位移是不是永久性的(19时28分,23时39分)。However hard of heart most Jews might be to the gospel, the mission to Israel was to continue alongside the mission to the Gentiles until Christ returned at the end of the age (10:23; 28:20; cf. Rom. 11:11-12, 25-26).不过硬的心脏大部分犹太人可能是福音,对以色列的使命是继续沿着外邦人的使命,直到基督的时代结束返回(10时23分; 28:20;比照ROM 11点11分。 -12日,25日至26日)。

Making disciples involved more than preaching the gospel, however.弟子参与传福音,但是。Matthew recorded Jesus' commission to make disciples by "teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you" (28:20).马太记录耶稣的佣金,使弟子“教训他们遵守我所吩咐你们的”(28:20)的一切。A disciple was to be righteous, to be obedient to God.一个弟子是正义的,要顺服神。

The model for the disciple was Jesus, the perfect Son who fulfilled all righteousness by rendering complete obedience to the Father's will (4:4, 10).弟子模型是耶稣,完美的儿子,履行所有正义渲染完全服从父的旨意(4时04分,10)。That same righteousness was to characterize the disciple (5:20).这义是表征的门徒(5:20)。Obedience to God was to be a priority in the disciple's life (6:33).顺服神弟子的生活(6:33)优先。Complete devotion to the Father was the goal (5:48).完全奉献父目标(5:48)。

The will of the Father was made known in the teaching of Jesus.天父的旨意是在耶稣的教学。Matthew devoted a considerable portion of his Gospel to the record of Jesus' teaching.马修相当一部分投入了他的福音记录耶稣的教导。In addition to five distinct units (5-7, 10, 13, 18, 23-25), Jesus' instruction is repeatedly featured in the Gospel elsewhere (eg, 9:12-17).除了五个不同单位(5-7,10,13,18,23-25​​),耶稣的指令是反复特色的福音其他地方(例如,9:12-17)。

But Matthew was under no illusion that knowledge alone would lead to righteousness.但马修是不抱任何幻想,知识仅会导致正气。Teaching was essential, but it had to be met with faith.教学是必要的,但它必须满足与信仰。Despite their scrupulous observance of the law, Jesus had excoriated the Pharisees for lack of faith (23:23).尽管他们对法律的严格遵守,耶稣曾痛斥法利赛人缺乏信心(23:23)。The righteousness recognized by God was first of all inward and spiritual (6:4, 6, 18; cf. Rom. 2:28-29).所有抵港及精神的第一(6:4,6,18;被确认由神的义。比照罗2:28-29)。Those who believed in Jesus had their lives transformed (8:10; 9:2, 22, 29).那些相信耶稣了自己的生命转化(8时10分,9时02分,22,29)。Not so much the greatness but the presence of faith was important (17:20).没有那么多的伟大,但重要的是信仰的存在(17:20)。

Where faith existed, however, it might be weak and wavering.信仰存在,但是,它可能是软弱和摇摆不定。Matthew reminded his readers that even in the presence of the resurrected Christ, some of the disciples doubted (28:17).马修提醒他的读者,即使在复活的基督,存在一些怀疑的弟子(28:17)。Frequently Jesus addressed the disciples as ones of "little faith" (6:30; 8:26; 16:8).常见耶稣“小信”(6:30; 8点26分,16时08分)的弟子。This was exemplified in Peter's experience.这是体现在彼得的经验。He boldly responded to Jesus' call to come to him on the water but then wavered in his faith because of the fearful circumstances (14:30).他大胆地回应耶稣的呼叫来的水给他,但后来在他的信念动摇,因为可怕的情况下(14:30)。 Without the intervention of Jesus he might have perished.如果没有耶稣的干预,他可能已经遇难。

Matthew likely saw an application in this for his readers.马修可能看到他的读者在此应用程序。Jesus had warned his disciples of the persecution facing those who proclaimed the gospel (5:11-12; 10:24-25).耶稣曾告诫他的弟子的迫害,面对那些自称福音(5:11-12; 10:24-25)。They would be opposed by Jew and Gentile (10:17-18).他们将反对犹太人和外邦人(10:17-18)。The natural response in the face of such opposition was fear (10:26-31).在面对这样的反对自然反应是恐惧(10:26-31)。 Self-preservation led to denial of Christ (10:32-33).自我保护的领导拒绝基督(10:32-33)。This was what Peter had done at Jesus' trial (26:69-74).这是什么彼得曾在耶稣的审判(26:69-74)。

Jesus responded to Peter's failure on the sea by rescuing him.耶稣回应海彼得未能挽救他。In the same way, failures of faith among the disciples and the sin that resulted should be met not with condemnation but with forgiveness and restoration (18:10-14).以同样的方式,信仰之间的弟子的罪恶,导致失败的,应当满足不谴责,但宽恕和恢复(18:10-14)。

The designation "little ones" in 18:6, 10, 14 may refer to disciples like Peter whose faith was weak in the midst of difficult circumstances.指定的“小家伙”在18时06分,10,14可参考弟子像彼得的信仰是在困难的情况下下弱。In 10:41-42 Matthew recorded Jesus' description of prophets and righteous men as "little ones." 10:41-42,马太记录耶稣的先知和义人的说明“小家伙”。The next verses relate the imprisonment of John the Baptist and his question about Jesus as Messiah (11:2-3).接下来的经文与施洗约翰和他有关耶稣为弥赛亚(11:2-3)的问题的监禁。Jesus met John's doubts with assuring words (11:4-6) and went on to commend him (11:7-19).保证字(11:4-6)耶稣会见了约翰的疑虑,并赞扬他(11:7-19)。That was the model for ministry to those in need (cf. 10:42; 25:34-40) and the spirit in which the Great Commission could be carried out.这是为有需要的人士(参见10时42分; 25:34-40)部的模型和大委员会可以开展的精神。

This mission was to continue until the "end of the age" (28:20).这个任务是继续,直到“世界的末了”(28:20)。When the gospel had been preached to all nations, then the end would come (24:14) and Christ would reign as king (25:31-34).当福音一直鼓吹所有国家,那么最终会来(24:14),基督将统治为王(25:31-34)。Reference to a kingdom recurs throughout the Gospel.参考整个福音王国复发。The beginning verses link Jesus to David the king (1:1, 6).开始的诗句连结耶稣大卫王(1:1,6)。Unlike the other Gospels, Matthew uses the phrase "kingdom of heaven" far more frequently (thirty-three times) than the phrase "kingdom of God" (four times).不像其他的福音,马修使用的“天国”远远比一句“神的国”(四次)更频繁(三十三次)。The expressions are probably equivalent with a possible difference in emphasis only.表达式可能相当于在可能只强调差异。 The "kingdom of heaven" may stress the spiritual nature of the kingdom.“天国”强调王国的精神本质。

The term "kingdom" seems to have a spiritual and a physical aspect to its meaning.长期的“王国”,似乎有一种精神和物理方面的意义。The spiritual aspect was present in the ministry of Jesus (12:28) but the physical consummation is anticipated at his return (19:28).精神方面是在耶稣(12:28)部,但在他的回归(19时28)预期的物理圆满。The kingdom of heaven about which Jesus preached was entered by repentance (4:17).哪些耶稣宣讲天国进入悔改(4:17)。 Forgiveness was based ultimately on Christ's death (26:28).宽恕是基于最终在基督的死(26:28)。

Opposed to the kingdom of heaven is the kingdom of Satan (4:8-9; 12:26), from whom those with faith in Christ are delivered (12:27-28).反对天国是撒旦的王国(4:8-9; 12时26分),从他们那些信仰基督交付(12:27-28)。While Satan is powerless before the Spirit of God (12:28), nonetheless he will actively hinder and counterfeit the work of God until the consummation (13:38-39).虽然撒旦上帝的灵前是无能为力的(12:28)尽管如此,他将积极阻碍和假冒神的工作,直到圆满(13:38-39)。

The ministry of the kingdom carried on by Christ is continued by the church (16:18).基督的王国部是由教会(16:18)继续。The Spirit who enabled Christ to carry out his work (12:28) will enable the disciples to continue it (10:20).使基督开展他的工作(12:28)的精神,使弟子继续(10:20)。The ministry of the church is thus a phase of the kingdom program of God.教会部,是神的国度方案阶段。Ultimately God's program with Israel would also be compelted with a positive response to the gospel of the kingdom (19:28; 23:39; cf. Rom. 9:4-6; 11:25-27).最终,神与以色列的计划也将compelted积极响应王国的福音(19时28分,23时39分;比照罗9:4-6;。11:25-27)。 Then the "end of the age" (28:20) will come.然后会来的“年龄”(28:20)。The king will separate the righteous from the unrighteous (7:21-23), the sheep from the goats (25:31-46), the wheat from the tares (13:37-43).国王将独立于不义(7:21-23),羊,山羊(25:31-46),稗子(13:37-43)小麦正气。 Those who have not done the Father's will (7:21), who have not believed in Christ (18:6), will merit eternal punishment (13:42; 25:46).那些没有做父的旨意(7:21),那些不相信在基督里(18时06分)的,值得永恒的惩罚(13点42分; 25:46)。 The righteous will enter into eternal life (13:43; 25:46).义将进入永恒的生命(13时43分; 25:46)。Until then, the followers of Christ were to "make disciples of all nations" (28:19).直到那时,基督的追随者“使所有国家的门徒”(28:19)。

DK Lowery DK洛厄
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
EP Blair, Jesus in the Gospel of Matthew; PF Ellis, Matthew: His Mind and His Message; RH Gundry, Matthew: A Commentary on His Literary and Theological Art; D. Hill, The Gospel of Matthew; JD Kingsbury, Matthew: Structure, Christology, Kingdom; JP Meier, The Vision of Matthew; E. Schweizer, The Good News According to Matthew; REO White, The Mind of Matthew.耶稣在马太福音EP布莱尔,埃利斯犯规,马修:他的头脑和他的消息; RH Gundry,马修:一个对他的文学和神学艺术评论; D.山,马太福音; JD金斯伯里,马修:结构基督王国太平绅士,视觉的马修迈尔; E.施韦策,好消息,据马修,选举事务处白,马修心中。



Also, see:此外,见:
Theology of Mark神学的标志
Theology of Luke神学路加福音
Theology of John神学的约翰。
New Testament Theology新约圣经神学


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