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Midrash (Hebrew darash,"interpretation"), term applied to Jewish expository and exegetical writings on the Scriptures.米德拉士(darash希伯来文,“解释”),任期适用于犹太人的说明性的,训诂著作“圣经”上。These writings consist of the interpretations by different rabbis of the laws and customs set forth in the Old Testament.这些著作包括由不同的拉比在旧约中规定的法律和风俗的解释。The earliest elements of the Midrashic writings appear to have been produced before 100BC by the scribes.米大示解经著作的最早的元素似乎已经100BC之前产生的文士。The material contained in the Midrash is divided into three groups; the abstract Halakah, consisting of the traditional law; the Halakic Midrash, a deduction of the traditional law from the written law; and the Haggadic Midrash (see Haggada), consisting of legends, sermons, and interpretations of the narrative parts of the Bible and concerning ethics and theology rather than law.分为三组;抽象Halakah,包括传统的法律; Halakic米德拉士,扣除从传统的书面法律法律; Haggadic米德拉士(见Haggada)的传说,在米德拉士所包含的材料,讲道,“圣经”和有关伦理的叙事部分和神学,而不是法律的解释。 The forms and styles of these writings show considerable flexibility, ranging from parables to sermons to codifications of law.这些著作的形式和风格,显示出相当的灵活性,从比喻的法律编纂的说教。

Saul Lieberman扫罗利伯曼

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The term commonly designates ancient rabbinical commentaries on the Hebrew Scriptures.这个术语通常指定古代犹太教评论对希伯来语圣经。It is the plural form of the word Midrash which is found only twice in the Old Testament (II Par. [Chronicles], xiii, 22; xxiv, 27), where it is rendered by liber (book) in the Vulgate, and by "commentary" in the Revised Version.这是米德拉士这是在旧约(二PAR [编年史],十三,22; XXIV,27)只有两次,这个词的复数形式,它是呈现LIBER(书),在武加大,并通过“评”的修订版。In rabbinical parlance, Midrash has the abstract and general sense of study, exposition of Scripture, while Midrashim are primarily the free and artificial explanations of the Sacred Text given by its ancient expositors, and secondarily the collections of such explanations in the shape of commentaries on Holy Writ.在犹太教的说法,米德拉士抽象的,一般意义上讲,研究圣经的论述,而米大示,主要是其古老的解释者赋予的神圣文本的自由和人工解释,在形状上的评论其次是这样的解释集合圣经。


After the return from Babylon, the Law was the centre of the life of the Jews at home and abroad.从巴比伦回归后,该法是在国内和国外的犹太人生活的中心。Henceforth, the one concern of the Jewish authorities was to make sure that the Mosaic precepts be accurately complied with by all, and under all circumstances, and it is from this practical standpoint that the Scribes and after them the Rabbis studied and expounded the contents of their sacred writings.此后,犹太当局关注,以确保马赛克戒律准确地遵守所有与,在任何情况下,它是从这个实际情况来看,文士和照顾他们的拉比的研究和阐述的内容其神圣的著作。 A part of these contents, viz., the enactments of the Mosaic Law, made of course directly for the purpose of promoting legal righteousness in Israel; yet, as these laws had been framed in view of concrete circumstances of the past, they had to be explained in a more or less artificial way to make them fit the altered circumstances of Jewish life, or serve as Scriptural basis or support of the various traditional observances which made up the oral law.当然这些内容的一部分,即镶嵌法的成文法则,直接的目的是促进以色列的法律义;然而,这些法律已在过去的具体情况拟定的,他们不得不解释在更多或更少人工的方式,使它们适合犹太人生活的改变的情况下,或作为圣经依据或支持的各种传统的口服法纪念活动。 All such artificial explanations of the terms of the Mosaic legislation are legal, or Halahcic, Midrashim.所有的马赛克立法的条款等人为解释法律,或Halahcic,米大示。Distinct from this general kind of Midrashim are those called homiletical, or Hagadic, which embrace the interpretation, illustration, or expansion, in a moralizing or edifying manner, of the non-legal portions of the Hebrew Bible.有别于一般的米大示一种是那些所谓homiletical,或Hagadic,拥抱的解释,插图,或扩张,非法律部分的希伯来文圣经,在一个道德说教或有启发性的的的方式。 As the object of this latter kind of Midrashim was not to determine the precise requirements of the Law, but rather to confirm in a general manner Jewish hearers in their faith and its practice, Hagadic explanations of the non-legal parts of Scripture are characterized by a much greater freedom of exposition than the Halachic Midrashim; and it may be truly said that Hagadic expositors have availed themselves of whatever material -- sayings of prominent Rabbis (eg, philosophical or mystical disquisitions concerning angels, demons, paradise, hell, Messias, Satan, feasts and fasts, parables, legends, satirical assaults on the heathen and their rites, etc.) -- could render their treatment of those portions of the Sacred Text more instructive or edifying.由于后者样的米大示的对象,以确定法“的明确要求,而是以一般的方式在他们的信仰和实践的犹太听众确认,Hagadic解释圣经的非法律部分的特点是一个更大的自由的论述比Halachic米大示,它可能真正说Hagadic解释者利用自己的任何材料 - 熟语,突出的拉比(如哲学或神秘disquisitions关于天使,恶魔,天堂,地狱,弭赛亚撒旦,节日和斋戒,寓言,传说,讽刺攻击对异教徒和他们的仪式等) - 可以使更多的启发或有启发性的的神圣文本的那些部分的待遇。Both kinds of Midrashim were at first preserved only orally; but their writing down commenced with the second century of our era, and they now exist in the shape chiefly of exegetical or homiletical works on the whole or parts of the Hebrew Bible.第一只保留口头米大示两种,但他们写下来与我们这个时代的第二个世纪开始,他们现在存在形状,主要是在训诂上的希伯来文圣经的全部或部分或homiletical工程。


The three earliest and in several respects most important Midrashic collections are: (1) the Mechilta, on a portion of Exodus, and embodying the tradition mainly of the School of Rabbi Ishmael (first century); (2) the Siphra, on Leviticus, embodying the tradition of rabbi Aqiba with additions from the School of rabbi Ishmael; (3) the Siphre on Numbers and Deuteronomy, going back mainly to the schools of the same two Rabbis.最早的三个最重要的米大示解经藏品,并在以下几个方面:(1)出埃及记的一部分Mechilta,体现的主要是学校的拉比以实玛利(世纪)的传统;(2)利未记Siphra,,从学校的拉比以实玛利的增加体现在拉比Aqiba的传统;(3)数字和申命记Siphre,回去主要是两个相同的拉比的学校。 These three works are used in the Gemaras.这三部作品都在Gemaras使用。(4) The Rabboth (great commentaries), a large collection of ten Midrashim on the Pentateuch and Megilloth, which bear the respective names of: (a) Bereshith Rabba, on Genesis (mainly from the sixth century); (b) Shemoth Rabba, on Exodus (eleventh and twelfth century); (c) Wayyiqra Rabba, on Leviticus (middle seventh Century); (d)Bamidbar Rabba, on Numbers (twelfth century); (e) Debarim Rabba, on Deuteronomy (tenth century); (f) Shir Ashshirim Rabba, on Canticle of Canticles (probably before the middle of ninth century); (g) Ruth Rabba, on Ruth (same date as foregoing); (h) Echa Rabba, on Lamentations (seventh century); (i) Midrash Qoheleth, on Ecclesiastes (probably before middle of ninth century); (j) Midrash Esther, on Esther (AD 940). (4)Rabboth,一十,承担各自的名称pentateuch和Megilloth的米大示大集合(伟大的评论):(一)Bereshith Rabba成因(主要从六世纪),(二)Shemoth Rabba ,出埃及记“(第十一届和第十二届世纪);(C)(E)Wayyiqra Rabba,利未记(中七世纪),(四)Bamidbar Rabba,数字(12世纪); Debarim Rabba申命记,(十世纪); (F)Ashshirim Rabba事儿,canticle的(可能是第九世纪中叶前)的颂歌;(G)露丝,露丝Rabba(如上述同一日期);(H)ECHA Rabba哀歌,(七世纪);( I)米德拉士Qoheleth传道书,(可能是第九世纪中叶前)(J)米德拉士以斯帖以斯帖(公元940年)。Of these Rabboth, the Midrashim on Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy are chiefly made up of homilies on the Scripture sections for the Sabbath or festival, while the others are rather of an exegetical nature.这些Rabboth,米大示出埃及记,利未记,民数记和申命记主要是由讲道的经文章节为安息日或节日,而其他的训诂性质而。 (5) The Pesiqta, a compilation of homilies on special Pentateuchal and Prophetic lessons (early eighth century); (6) Pirqe Rabbi Eliezer (not before eighth century), a Midrashic narrative of the more important events of the Penteteuch; (7) Tanchuma or Yelammedenu (ninth century) on the whole Pentateuch; its homilies consist of a Halachic introduction, followed by several proems, exposition of the opening verses, and the Messianic conclusion; (8) Midrash Shemuel, on the first two Books of Kings (I, II Samuel); (9) Midrash Tehillim, on the Psalms; (10) Midrash Mishle, on Proverbs; (11) Yalqut Shimeoni, a kind of catena extending over all the Hebrew Scriptures. (5),编制特殊Pentateuchal和先知的教训(八世纪初)的颂歌Pesiqta;(6),米大示解经叙述一个更重要的事件Penteteuch Pirqe拉比埃利泽(前八世纪);(7) Tanchuma或Yelammedenu整个摩西五(第九世纪);一个Halachic介绍几个proems,博览会的开幕诗句,和救世主的结论,其讲道;(8)米德拉士Shemuel,在第一两本书的国王(一,二塞缪尔);(11)(9)米德拉士Tehillim,诗篇;(10)米德拉士Mishle,箴言; Yalqut Shimeoni,一个系列的一种延伸对所有的希伯来圣经。


At first sight, one might think that such farrago as the Midrashic literature could be of interest and value only to a Jew as Jew, inasmuch as the Midrashim are thoroughly steeped in the spirit of Judaism, bear distinct witness to the laws customs, doctrines, aspirations of the Jewish race, and record the noblest ideas, sayings, and teachings of the Jewish sages in early times.乍一看,人们可能会认为Midrashic文学等farrago可以作为犹太人,因为作为米大示彻底沉浸在犹太教,承担鲜明见证的法律习俗,教条的精神利益和价值的唯一一个犹太人,犹太种族的愿望,并记录最崇高的思想,熟语,在早期的犹太圣人和教诲。 The more, however, he examines the contents of these ancient expository works, the more he discovers that they are an invaluable source of information to the Christian apologist, the Biblical student, and the general scholar as well.越多,然而,他检查这些古代说明性作品的内容,他越发现,他们是一个宝贵的信息来源,以基督教的代言人,“圣经”的学生,和一般学者以及。 In this body of ancient literature there is much in the line of ideas, expressions, reasonings, and descriptions, which can be used to illustrate and confirm the inspired records of Christianity and the traditional teachings of the Church, notably concerning the passages of the Old Testament to be regarded as Messianic.在这个古代文学的身体有很多行的思想,表达,推理,和描述,可以用来说明和确认灵感记录基督教和教会的传统教义,尤其是旧的通道旧约被视为救世主。 The Biblical student will at times notice in the oldest parts of the Midrashim, Scriptural readings anterior to those embodied in the Massoretic text.圣经的学生有时会发现在米大示,前体现在massoretic文本的“圣经”的读数最古老的地区。Again, "when it is borne in mind that the annotators and Punctuators of the Hebrew text, and the translators of the [most] ancient versions, were Jews impregnated with the theological opinions of the nation, and prosecuted their Biblical labours in harmony with these opinions. . . .the importance of the Halachic and Hagadic exegesis to the criticism of the Hebrew text, and to a right understanding of the Greek, Chaldee, Syriac, and other versions, can hardly be overrated."又如,“当它被铭记的希伯来文的annotators和标点符号,和[最古老的版本,翻译的犹太人浸渍与全国的神学的观点,和起诉这些和谐的圣经劳动力意见。。Halachic Hagadic训诂的重要性的希伯来文的批评,希腊,沙尔,叙利亚和其他版本的一个正确的认识,也难以被高估。“(Ginsburg, in Kitto's "Cyclop. Of Biblical Liter.", III, 173).(金斯伯格,在Kitto的“Cyclop”圣经“升”,三,173)。 Lastly the Philologist, the historian, the philosopher, the jurist, and the statesman, will easily find in the Midrashim remarks and discussions which have a direct bearing on their respective branches of study.最后,语言学家,历史学家,哲学家,法学家,和政治家,将不难发现,在研究各自的分支机构有直接关系的米大示言论和讨论。

Publication information Written by Francis E. Gigot.弗朗西斯大肠杆菌Gigot编写的出版物信息。 Dedicated to Congregation Ben Joseph in Montpelier, VT The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.专用于众奔约瑟夫在蒙彼利埃,VT的天主教百科全书,卷十,发布1911年。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约


UGLINI, Thesaurus Antiquitatum Sacrarum, vols XIV-XVI (Venice, 1752-1754); JELLINECK, Bet Ha-Midrasch (Leipzig, and Vienna, 1853-1877); SCHURER, The Jewish People in the Time of Christ (New York, 18910; ZUNE, die gottesdienstlichen Vortrage d. Juden (Frankfort, 1892); WUNSCHE, Bibliotheca Rabbinica (Leipzig, 1880-1885); Trier, 1892, 1893); GRUNHUT, Sofer Ha Likkutim (Jerusalem, (1898-1901); STRACK, Einl. id Talmud (Leipzig, 1900); OESTERLEY AND BOX, The Religion and Worship of the Synagogue (New York, 1907).UGLINI下,词库Antiquitatum Sacrarum,第一卷和第二卷第十四,十六(威尼斯,1752年至1754年); JELLINECK,赌注Midrasch(莱比锡,维也纳,1853年至1877年); SCHURER,犹太人民的时候,基督(纽约,18910 ;死亡gottesdienstlichen Vortrage D. Juden(法兰克福,1892年); WUNSCHE,书目Rabbinica(莱比锡,1880至1885年);特里尔,1892年,1893年); GRUNHUT,ZUNE,Sofer厦Likkutim(耶路撒冷,(1898年至19​​01年);施特拉克Einl ID塔木德(莱比锡,1900年); OESTERLEY和箱子,宗教和宗教的犹太教堂(纽约,1907年)。

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