Mu'tazilah, Mu'tazilite School, Mu'tazilites, Mutazili Mutazili 神学

General Information一般资料

Doctrines教义

The Mu'tazilite school of theology emerged out of the question raised by the Kharijites whether works are integral to faith or independent of faith. On the question of the relationship between faith and works, the Mu'tazilites adopted the position that someone who commits a grave sin without repenting occupies a middle state between being a Muslim and not being a Muslim. Mu'tazilite的神学学校,涌现出工程是否不可或缺的信仰或信仰独立的Kharijites提出的问题。信仰和作品之间的关系问题,穆尔太齐赖派所采取的立场的人触犯了严重的罪过不悔改,占据了一个穆斯林,而不是作为一个穆斯林之间的中间状态。

A second doctrine concerned the nature of God.第二个学说有关神的本性。God is pure Essence and, therefore, without eternal attributes such as hands.上帝是纯粹的本质和,因此,没有永恒的属性,如手。 Passages in the Qur'an that ascribe human or physical properties to God are to be regarded as metaphorical rather than literal.在“古兰经”的经文,上帝赋予人类或物理性质,化学性质都被作为隐喻,而不是文字。

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The Mu'tazilites also argued that the Qur'an was created and not eternal.穆尔太齐赖派还认为,“古兰经”是创建和不是永恒的。The basis of this doctrine was the claim that the eternal coexistence of the Qur'an beside Allah gave the impression of another god beside Allah.这一学说的基础是声称旁边安拉古兰经永恒共存了旁边的另一位神安拉的印象。

Human acts are free and, therefore, people are entirely responsible for their decisions and actions.人类的行为都是免费的,因此,人们都为他们的决定和行动负全部责任。Divine predestination is incompatible with God's justice and human responsibility.神圣的宿命是不符合上帝的正义和人类责任。 God, however, must of necessity act justly; it follows from this that the promises of reward that God has made in the Qur'an to righteous people and the punishments he had issued to evildoers must be carried out by him on the day of judgement.神,但是,必须公正的必要性行为;从这个如下奖励,神在“古兰经”的正义之士和惩罚,他到作恶者发出的承诺,必须由他进行审判的日子。

Mu'tazilites are generally seen as responsible for the incorporation of Greek philosophical thought into Islamic theology.穆尔太齐赖派通常被视为希腊哲学思想在伊斯兰神学纳入负责。This is particularly apparent in their belief that knowledge of God can be acquired through reason as well as revelation.在他们的信仰的原因,以及作为启示的神识可以通过收购,这是尤为明显。

History历史

The term Mu'tazilah derives from the Arabic al-mu'tazilah, which means the one who separated.长期Mu'tazilah来自阿拉伯语的al - mu'tazilah,这意味着谁分开。It was applied to the school established in Iraq by Wasil b.这是适用于在伊拉克建立Wasil B.学校'Ata (699-749), a student of the distinguished scholar Hasn al-Basri (642-728).“ATA(699-749),著名学者Hasn AL -巴斯里(642-728)的学生。

At the time of the rise of the 'Abbasids in 750 the Mu'tazilites began to become prominent in the Islamic world.在“阿巴斯王朝在750年的兴起时间Mu'tazilites开始成为伊斯兰世界中的的突出。 In the 9th century the 'Abbasid caliph, al-Ma'mun, raised Mu'tazilah doctrine to the status of the state creed.在9世纪的“阿拔斯王朝的哈里发,AL - Ma'mun,提出Mu'tazilah主义国家信条的地位。Openly supported by the caliphate, the Mu'tazilites became increasingly intolerant and began to persecute their opponents.哈里发公开支持,穆尔太齐赖派越来越不宽容和迫害他们的对手开始。On one occasion the eminent Sunni scholar and founder of one of the four orthodox jurisprudential schools, Ahmad b.在一次著名的逊尼派学者和四大正统法理学校之一的创始人,艾哈迈德B.Hanbal (d.855), was subjected to flogging and imprisonment for his refusal to subscribe to the Mu'tazilite doctrine that the Qur'an was created in time.罕百里(d.855),遭到鞭打和监禁他拒绝订阅“古兰经”是在创建时间Mu'tazilite学说。

Always unpopular with the ordinary people, the Mu'tazilites' power gradually began to wane.Mu'tazilites“权力总是与普通百姓的欢迎,逐渐开始消退。They lost the support of the caliphs and by the 10th century the Traditionist (Sunni majority) opposition to Mu'tazilah found a spokesman in Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari (d.935), who himself had previously been a Mu'tazilite.他们失去了哈里发的支持和Traditionist(逊尼派占多数)反对Mu'tazilah 10世纪发现了自己以前被穆“阿布 - 哈桑阿什阿里(d.935),发言人tazilite。Al-Ash'ari's new school of theology and the school of Abu Mansur al-Maturidi (d.945) provided the new basis of orthodox Islamic theology, leading to the complete disappearance of the Mu'tazile movement.铝阿什阿里的神学和阿布曼苏尔AL - Maturidi(d.945)学校新校提供正统的伊斯兰神学的新的基础上,领先的Mu'tazile运动完全消失。

Symbols符号

Mu'tazilah does not identify itself through the use of any symbol system.Mu'tazilah无法识别通过使用任何符号系统本身。

Adherents遗民

The school has no contemporary adherents.学校有没有当代信徒。

Headquarters / Main Centre总部/主要中心

When the school was in existence its main centres were in Basra and Baghdad.当学校的存在是其主要的中心,在巴士拉和巴格达。

Bülent Þenay比伦特埃杰Þenay
Overview of World Religions Project世界宗教项目概述



Also, see:此外,见:
Islam, Muhammad伊斯兰教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an可兰经,可兰经
Pillars of Faith支柱的信仰
Abraham 亚伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham全书亚伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari启示-h adiths从第一册的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari信仰-h adiths从第二册的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari知识-h adiths从第三册的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari时代的祈祷-h adiths从书展1 0个基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari缩短祈祷(在taqseer ) -h adiths从书展2 0铝布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari朝圣(朝觐) -h adiths从书展2 6铝布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari争取事业的阿拉(杰哈德) -h adiths图书5 2铝布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari同一性,独特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths图书9 3铝布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanafiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni)malikiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni)shafi'iyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanbaliyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni)maturidiyyah神学(逊尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni)ash'ariyyah神学(逊尼派)
Mutazilah Theologymutazilah神学
Ja'fari Theology (Shia)ja'fari神学(什叶派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia)nusayriyyah神学(什叶派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia)zaydiyyah神学(什叶派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia)伊玛目(什叶派)
Druze 德鲁兹
Qarmatiyyah (Shia)qarmatiyyah (什叶派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail伊斯梅尔,司马义。
Early Islamic History Outline早在伊斯兰历史纲要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿维森纳
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone天房,黑石头
Ramadan 斋月
Sunnites, Sunni逊尼派,逊尼派
Shiites, Shia什叶派,什叶派
Mecca 麦加
Medina 麦迪
Sahih, al-Bukharisahih ,铝-布哈里
Sufism 苏非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主义
Abu Bakr阿布巴克尔
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭马亚王朝
Fatima 法蒂玛
Fatimids (Shia)法蒂玛王朝(什叶派)
Ismailis (Shia)伊斯玛仪教派(什叶派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 萨拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar伊斯兰日历
Interactive Muslim Calendar互动穆斯林日历


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