New Testament Theology新约神学

Advanced Information先进的信息

New Testament Theology is that branch of the Christian disciplines which traces themes through the authors of the NT and then amalgamates those individual motifs into a single comprehensive whole.新约神学是基督教学科的痕迹通过新台币的作者主题,然后合并成一个单一的综合性整体的个别图案的分支。Thus it studies the progressive revelation of God in terms of the life situation at the time of writing and the delineates the underlying thread which ties it together.因此,它在生活状况方面的研究在写作时神的渐进启示和描绘底层线程联系在一起。This discipline centers upon meaning rather than application, ie, the message of the text for its own day rather than for modern needs.本学科中心后的意义,而不是应用程序,即消息文本,而不是现代的需求为自己的一天。The term employed most frequently for the current state of biblical theology is "crisis," due to the growing stress on diversity rather than unity and the failure to attain any consensus whatever as to methodology or content.受聘为圣经神学的当前状态最频繁的字眼是“危机”,由于多样性,而不是团结,未能达到任何共识,无论作为方法或内容越来越大的压力。 However, this is hyperbolic.然而,这是双曲线。

Historical Survey历史调查

In the centuries following the apostolic era dogma dominated the church and biblical theology was forced to take a subordinate role.在使徒时代的教条世纪占主导地位的教会和圣经神学是被迫采取的从属地位。The "rule of faith," or the magisterium of the church, was the guiding principle.“信仰”,或教会的训导,是指导原则。The change began with the Reformation, when sola Scriptura replaced dogma as the hermeneutic of the church.改变开始与宗教改革时,唯独圣经阐释教会的教条取代。The true beginning of "biblical theology" came after the Enlightenment within German pietism. “圣经神学”的真正开始后在德国虔敬启蒙。The mind replaced faith as the controlling factor, and the historical-critical method developed.头脑取代信仰作为控制因素,并在历史关键的方法开发。JF Gabler in 1787 defined the approach in purely descriptive terms, and after him critics treated the Bible like any other book.摩根富林明高布乐“定义在纯粹的描述性术语的方法,并在1787年后,他像对待任何其他的书”圣经“的批评。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息来源
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects

我们2300 宗教科目名单
E-mail电子邮件
In Tubingen, FC Baur in 1864 developed "tendency criticism," which reconstructed NT history under Hegel's thesis (Petrine church), antithesis (Pauline church), and synthesis (the later church of the second century).蒂宾根,FC鲍尔在1864年开发“的倾向的批评,”重建下黑格尔的论文(伯多禄教堂),对仗(宝莲教会),与合成(后来的第二个世纪的教堂)新台币历史。 Later in the century the history of religions school with Wilhelm Bousset and William Wrede looked at the sources of Christianity in terms of the surrounding religions.后来在本世纪历史的宗教学校与威廉Bousset和威廉Wrede看着周围的宗教基督教的来源。From that time the basis of NT theology was said to be the early church rather than Jesus.从那个时候,新台币神学的基础上被说成是耶稣,而不是早期的教会。The conservative reaction, via Schlatter and Zahn in Germany, the Cambridge trio (Lightfoot, Westcott, and Hort), and the Princetonians (Hodge, Machen, Warfield, and Vos) argued for the interdependence of biblical theology with exegesis and systematics.通过施拉特和赞恩在德国,剑桥三重奏(娜莱,韦斯科特,和园艺),以及Princetonians,保守的反应(Hodge的,玛沁,沃菲尔德和Vos)认为圣经神学的相互依存关系与训诂和系统性。

Karl Barth and dialectical theology (1919) rescued the old liberalism after its collapse following the First World War.卡尔巴特和辩证神学(1919年)第一次世界大战后,救出后,其崩溃的旧自由主义。He said that God speaks to man through the Bible.他说,上帝透过圣经向人说话。Therefore the testaments were studied along theological rather than historical-critical lines.因此,圣经研究沿神学,而不是历史的关键线路。Oscar Cullmann with his salvation-history approach represented the conservative wing, and Rudolf Bultmann with his demythologization and existential interpretation controlled the liberal faction.奥斯卡Cullmann与他的救恩历史的方法为代表的保守派,和鲁道夫布特曼与他的demythologization存在的解释自由派控制。 Following Bultmann, Ernst Fuchs and Gerhard Ebeling developed the new hermeneutic, and influential school which considered the Bible to be encounter or "word-event."继布特曼,安永会计师事务所Fuchs和格哈德埃贝林开发的新的解释学,认为“圣经”遇到或“字事件和有影响力的学校。” They reacted against the Bible as propositional truth and said that in it man is called to a new relationship with God.他们的反应对“圣经”为命题的真理,并说,在它的人被称为与神的新关系。

There are several more recent approaches, such as Wolfhart Pannenberg's return to the historical approach as a scientific discipline and Brevard Childs's canon process, which considers the Bible as a unity and states that biblical theology must begin with the final canonical form rather than the developing stages of the biblical books.有几个更近的方法,如Wolfhart潘内伯格的的一个科学的纪律和布里瓦德蔡尔兹的佳能过程,它认为,作为一个团结和国家“圣经”,圣经神学必须开始的最终规范的形式,而不是的发展阶段,历史的方法, “圣经”的书籍。The major characteristic, however, has been disunity.的主要特点,但一直不团结。No voice has gained ascendancy and no single system dominates as did Baur, Bousset, or Bultmann in the past.没有发言权已获得优势,并没有一个单一的系统一样鲍尔,Bousset,或布特曼在过去占主导地位。However, the interest is greater than ever before, and several voices, notably those of the canon-critical camp, are turning interest back to biblical theology.然而,利息比以往更大的,和几个声音,特别是佳能关键阵营,正在转向利息圣经神学。Relationship to Other Disciples.与其他弟子的关系。To Systematic Theology.系统神学。Since biblical theology began as a reaction against dogmatics, there has always been tension between the two.由于圣经神学作为对教义的反应开始,一直存在着两​​者之间的紧张局势。Many like Ernst Kasemann have argued that the fragmentary nature of the NT data makes any attempt to unify the diverse theologies impossible.像恩斯特凯士曼许多人认为,零碎的性质新台币数据使得任何企图统一多样神学不可能。However, this is doubtful (see below), and the two are interdependent.然而,这是值得怀疑的(见下文),以及两者相互依存。Biblical theology forces systematics to remain true to the historical revelation, while dogmatics provides the categories to integrate the data into a larger whole.圣经神学势力系统性保持真实的历史启示,而教义提供类别的数据集成到一个更大的整体。However, the organization itself stems from the text; Scripture must determine the integrating pattern or structure.然而,该组织本身源于文本;经文必须确定相结合的模式或结构。Biblical theology is descriptive, tracing the individual emphases of the sacred writers and then collating them to ascertain the underlying unity.圣经神学是描述性的,跟踪的神圣作家的个别重点,然后整理他们确定的基本统一。Systematics takes this material and reshapes it into a confessional statement for the church; it bridges the gap between "what it meant" and "what it means."系统分类采用这种材料,它改造成一个教堂的忏悔声明,桥梁之间“是什么意思”的差距,“这是什么意思。”At the same time, systematics provides the preunderstanding that guides the interpreter, so the two disciplines interact in a type of "hermeneutical circle" as each informs and checks the other.与此同时,系统学提供preunderstanding导游翻译,所以这两个学科在“诠释学循环”互动为每个通知,并检查其他。

To Exegesis为了训诂

There is a constant tension within biblical theology between diversity and unity, and a holistic consideration of the biblical material is a necessary corrective to a fragmented approach to the Bible.圣经神学之间的多样性和统一性内有一个恒定的张力,和通盘考虑的“圣经”的材料是一个必要的纠正到“圣经”的片面做法。 Thus biblical theology regulates exegesis (Gaffin).因此,圣经神学规范训诂学(加芬)。Yet exegesis also precedes biblical theology, for it provides the data with which the latter works.然而,训诂也圣经神学之前,它提供的数据,其中后者的作品。The theologian correlates the results of the exegesis of individual texts in order to discover the unity between them.神学家关联训诂学个别文本的结果,以发现它们之间的团结。Therefore the hermeneutical circle is now a three-way enterprise.因此,诠释学循环现在是一个三路的企业。

To Historical Theology历史神学

"Tradition" controls not only Roman Catholic dogma but Protestant thinking as well. “传统”控制不仅是罗马天主教的教条,而是新教思想以及的。All interpreters find their data base in their community of faith.所有口译找到他们的数据的基础上,在他们的信仰的社会。Historical theology makes the theologian aware of the ongoing dialogue and thus functions both as a check against reading later ideas into a passage and as a store of knowledge from which to draw possible interpretations.历史神学使得神学家知道正在进行的对话,从而作为对读入一个段落后思想的检查和存储的知识,从中可以得出可能的解释功能。 This discipline also enters the hermeneutical circle, within which the text challenges our preunderstanding and both draws upon and reforms our tradition-derived beliefs.本学科也进入诠释学循环,文本挑战我们preunderstanding都提请并改革我们的传统衍生的信念。

To Homiletical TheologyHomiletical神学

Nearly every theologian realizes that theology dare not merely describe the past thinking of the biblical authors.几乎每一个神学家意识到神学不敢只是描述了过去的“圣经”的作者的思想。It must demonstrate the relevance of those ideas for contemporary needs.它必须证明这些想法当代需求的相关性。This is the task of homiletical theology.这是homiletical神学的任务。Of course, no one is either a theologian or a homiletician; in a very real sense the two converge.当然,没有一个是神学家或homiletician;在一个非常现实的的意义上的两个衔接。Yet it is still valid to differentiate the levels at which we work, so long as we realize that true interpretation must blend all five aspects, biblical, systematic, exegetical, historical, and homiletical.然而,它仍然是有效的区分我们的工作水平,只要我们认识到,真正的解释,必须混合所有五个方面,圣经,系统化,训诂,历史,和homiletical。 The task itself has been explained best by missiology's "contextualization."任务本身已经解释传教学的最佳“语境。”The preacher/missionary takes the results of the first four disciplines and communicates this to the current "context" of the church/mission field.牧师/传教士的前四个学科的成果和通信,这是当前的“上下文”教会/团场。

Specific Problem Areas具体的问题领域

Unity and Diversity统一性和多样性

Many argue that the biblical books are circumstantial and linked to irreversible historical contingency; therefore there was no true unifying theology.许多人认为“圣经”的书籍是间接的链接以不可逆转的历史应急,因此有没有真正的统一神学。Some go so far as to state there was no true "orthodoxy" in the earliest church but only a series of different groups struggling for control.有些走这么远的状态是没有真正的“正统”,在最早的教堂,但只有一个控制挣扎的不同群体的系列。Certainly there is tremendous diversity in the Bible, since most of the books were written to defend God's will for his people against various aberrations.肯定是有巨大的多样性,在“圣经”,因为大部分的书籍被写入他的人对各种像差捍卫神的旨意。Further, there is a great variety of expressions, eg, Paul's "adoption" motif or John's "newborn" imagery.此外,还有种类繁多的表情,例如,保罗的“领养”的图案或约翰的“新生儿”意象。However, this does not mean that it is impossible to compile divergent traditions into a larger conceptual whole (cf. Eph. 4:5-6).然而,这并不意味着它是不可能的,编译成一个较大的概念整体(弗4:5-6)。发散的传统。Through all the diverse expressions a unified perspective and faith shine through.通过多样化表达一个统一的观点和信念,彪炳。 The key is linguistic/semantic; the differences can often be understood as metaphors which point to a larger truth.关键是语言/语义的差异,往往可以理解为指向一个更大的真理的隐喻。At this level we can detect unity.在这个层面上,我们可以检测的统一。

Tradition-History传统的历史

Many believe that doctrines and traditions developed in stages, and that inspiration should be applied to the originating event, the stages in the subsequent history of the community, and the final stage in which it was "frozen" into the canon.许多人相信,分期开发的教义和传统,灵感应适用于原始事件,在随后的社会历史阶段,最后阶段,在其被“冻结”到佳能。 This makes detection of any biblical theology very difficult and usually leads to multiple interpretations.这使得检测非常困难的,通常会导致多种解释,任何圣经神学。However, there is another way, which depends upon the final form and traces only that which is evident in the text.然而,还有另一种方式,这取决于最终形成的痕迹,这是显而易见的文本后。Moreover, we must not allow a concept of tradition to replace the search for a unifying center.此外,我们不能让一个传统的概念,以取代寻找一个统一的中心。Tradition-critical speculation becomes an end in itself, with very little in the way of fruitful results.传统临界投机成为目的本身,用非常少的丰硕成果的方式。Still, when placed within the context of the whole process, the method can highlight individual emphases, eg, in the four Gospels.不过,当整个过程中内放置,该方法可以突出个人的侧重点,例如,在四福音。

Analogia Fidei and Progressive RevelationAnalogia Fidei和进步的启示

When one places too much stress on unity, "parallelomania" can result, ie, the tendency to apply any parallel (even if a wrong one) to a text.当一个地方团结的压力太大,可能会导致“parallelomania”,即适用于任何平行的倾向(即使一个错误)一文。 Actually, as evidenced even in the Reformers, "the faith" or dogma can control our exegesis.事实上,即使在改革者证明,“信仰”或教条可以控制我们的训诂。A better phrase would be analogia Scriptura, "Scripture interpreting Scripture."一个更好的短语将analogia圣经“,圣经解释圣经”。Here too we must exercise care and stress a proper use of parallels, studying the use of the terms in both passages in order to determine whether the meanings truly overlap.在这里,我们必须小心,并强调了正确使用的Parallels,研究使用两个通道的条款,以确定是否真正的含义重叠。 Progressive revelation ties together the seemingly disparate notions of tradition-history and analogia Scriptura.渐进启示联系在一起的传统,历史和analogia圣经看似不同的概念。One must trace the historical process of revelation and determine the continuities between individual parts.一个必须追踪的历史进程中的启示,并确定各个部件之间的的连续性。

History and Theology历史和神学

James Barr says that ambiguity about the connection between revelatory events and historical causation and between revelation and the biblical text itself causes problems for the possibility of biblical theology.詹姆斯巴尔说,约之间的启示事件和历史的因果关系和启示和经文本身之间的连接的含糊不清的原因圣经神学的可能性问题。 Yet history is necessary for theology.然而,历史是为神学所必需的。While there is theology in narrative sections like the Gospels, this does not obviate the historical core.虽然是在叙述部分像福音神学,这并不排除历史的核心。Lessing's "ugly broad ditch" between "accidental truths of history" and "necessary truths of reason" is based upon the philosophical skepticism of the Enlightenment.莱辛的“丑陋的广泛沟”,“偶然真理的历史”和“理性的必然真理”之间的启蒙哲学的怀疑是基于。In the post-Einsteinian age this position is no longer viable.在这个位置后,爱因斯坦的年龄已不再可行。There is no reason that theology must be divorced from the possibility of revelation in history.有没有神学,在历史的启示的可能性,必须从离婚的原因。Indeed, history and its interpretation are united, and recent approaches to historiography demonstrate not only the possibility of seeing God's revelation in history but the necessity of doing so.事实上,历史和它的解释是统一的,而最近的史学方法证明不仅在历史上看到神的启示的可能性,但这样做的必要性。In Kings-Chronicles or the Gospels, for instance, history and theology are inseparable.在国王的编年史或福音,例如,历史和神学是分不开的。We know Jesus as he has been interpreted for us through the sacred evangelists.我们知道耶稣,因为他已经为我们解释,通过神圣的布道者。

Language, Text, and Meaning语言,文字和意义

Recent theorists have drawn such a sharp contrast between modern conditions and the ancient world that the interpreter seems forever separated from the intended meaning of the text.最近的理论家们得出这样一个现代条件和古代世界,从文本的原意解释似乎永远分离之间形成鲜明的对比。They assert that a text once written becomes autonomous from the author, and the interpreter cannot get behind his or her preunderstanding to make an "objective" reading.他们断言,一次写入一个文本从作者的自治,并解释不能他或她preunderstanding的背后,“客观”的阅读。 The world of the interpreter cannot interpenetrate the world of the Bible.世界的翻译不能渗透的“圣经”的世界。Gadamer argues for a fusion of horizons between the interpreter and the text, and Ricoeur speaks of the "world-referential" dimension, ie, Scripture draws the reader into its own world.伽达默尔认为融合之间的翻译和文字的视野,和利科的“世界参照”维说话,即经文提请读者走进自己的世界。More recent approaches such as structuralism go beyond the text to stress the "deeper structure" beneath it, ie, the universal patterns of the mind which speak to every generation.更近的方法,如结构,超越文本去强调它下面的“深层结构”,即发言每一代人的心灵的普遍模式。It is said that we are moving further and further from the original meaning of Scripture.这是说,我们正在从圣​​经的本义上越走越远。However, this is not necessarily the case.然而,这并不一定是如此。Wittgenstein talked of the "language games" which language plays, and ED Hirsch speaks of the "intrinsic genre" of the text, ie, the rules of the language game which narrow the possibilities and facilitate interpretation.维特根斯坦谈到“语言游戏”哪个语言扮演,海关赫希谈到“内在流派”的文字,即语言游戏规则,缩小的可能性和方便解释。 Meaning in the text is open to the interpreter, who must place his preunderstanding "in front of" the text (Ricoeur) and enter its own language game.文本的意义是开放的翻译,必须把他的preunderstanding“在前面”的文本(利科),并输入自己的语言的游戏。 Within this the original meaning is a possible goal.在这个本义是一个可能的目标。When we recognize the NT as stating propositional truth, the intended meaning becomes a necessary enterprise.当我们认识到新台币,说明命题真理的本意成为必要的企业。

OT and NT OT和NT

Any true biblical theology must recognize the centrality of the relationship between the testaments.任何真正的圣经神学必须承认之间约的关系中的核心地位。Again the issue is diversity vs. unity.同样的问题是多样性与统一性。The various strata of both must be allowed to speak, but the unity of these strata must be recognized.各阶层都必须允许说话,但必须认识到这些阶层的团结。Several aspects demand this unity: the historical continuity between the testaments; the centrality of the OT for the NT; the promise-fulfillment theme of the NT; the messianic hope of the OT and its place as a "pedagogue" (Gal. 3).几方面需求的这种统一性之间见证历史的连续性;新台币OT的中心地位;新台币的承诺履行的主题;救世主的希望OT和它的位置作为一个“教育家”(加拉太书3) 。Many, from Marcion to Bultmann, have posited an absolute dichotomy between the testaments, yet to do so is to separate the NT from its historical moorings and to cause it to founder in a sea of historical irrelevance.许多从马吉安布特曼,都假定一个绝对的二分法之间的约,但这样做,是独立于它的历史系泊新台币海的历史无关,并导致以创始人。 Others elevate OT over NT (AA van Ruler) or take a purely Christological approach to the OT (Hengstenberg, Vischer).其他提升超过新台币OT(AA面包车标尺),或采取一个纯粹的基督方法催产素(韩斯坦堡,Vischer)。None does full justice to the two testaments.没有完全公正的两个见证。For instance, while a completely Christological approach guards against the tendency to historicize the OT away from promise-fulfillment, it leads to a subjective spiritualizing of the OT which denies its intended meaning.举例来说,对历史化的倾向,对OT远离承诺实现完全基督方法卫士,它导致了催产素的主观spiritualizing否认其本意。 Therefore, I would posit "patterns of unity and continuity" (Hasel) as the OT looks forward to the NT and the NT depends upon the OT for its identity.因此,我断定“模式的统一性和连续性”(哈塞尔)OT期待NT和NT取决于其身份后,催产素。Both are valid aspects of God's ongoing redemptive activity in history.都是上帝的正在进行的历史救赎活动的有效方面。

Theology and Canon神学和佳能

Brevard Childs has made the final form of the canon the primary hermeneutical tool in determining a biblical theology.布里瓦德童车佳能的最终形式确定一个圣经神学的首要诠释学工具。He believes that the parts of Scripture must maintain a dialectical relationship with the whole of the canon.他认为圣经的部分必须保持与整个佳能的辩证关系。Therefore there is no true biblical theology when only the individual voices of the various strata are heard.因此,只有各​​阶层的个人的声音被听到时,有没有真正的圣经神学。However, many critics demur, saying that biblical authority and inspiration are dynamic rather than static, centering not only upon the final form of the text but also upon the individual stages within the tradition process, both before the "final" form and after it, even up to the present day.然而,许多评论家提出异议,说圣经的权威和灵感是动态而不是静态的的,不仅取决于文本的最后形式,但还呼吁在传统流程中的各个阶段前的“最后”的形式后,围绕甚至高达至今。 Childs responds that while the tradition process has validity, any true theology must depend upon the canon itself and not upon the speculative results of historical criticism.蔡尔兹响应,而传统的过程的有效性,任何真正的神学必须依靠佳能本身和历史的批评后,投机的结果。Childs's concern is valid, but there are certain problems.蔡尔兹的关注是有效的,但也存在一定问题。First, both the original community and the current interpreter have priority over the author and text.首先,原有的社会和当前翻译,有优先的作者和文本。

Second, Childs admits that with his approach the original meaning of the text cannot be recovered.二,蔡尔兹承认,他的做法与文本本义不能收回。Many canon critics see the true meaning as encompassing not only the canonical thrust but also the meaning of the original event/saying, subsequent developments, and current interpretations.许多佳能批评家看到不仅包括规范推力的真正意义,而且原始事件/说,随后的事态发展,和目前的诠释的意义。 The text is reduced to a mere voice in a cacophony of sounds.文本减少到仅仅在一个不和谐的声音的声音。Third, many other critics reduce Scripture to a "canon within the canon" (eg, Kasemann).三,其他许多评论家减少圣经“佳能在佳能”(例如,凯士曼)。One chooses a theme as center and stresses only those passages which fit this so-called core of Scripture.为中心,选择一个主题,并强调只有那些符合圣经的这个所谓的核心段落。This reduction must be avoided and the whole of Scripture allowed to speak.必须避免这种减少和整个圣经的允许发言。

Authority管理局

Since biblical theology is descriptive, dealing with "what it meant," critical scholars deny its authority.自圣经神学是描述性的,处理“是什么意思,”批判学者否认其权威。True biblical authority, it is said, rests upon its "apostolic effectiveness" in fulfilling its task (Barrett) or upon the community behind it (Knight) or its content (Achtemeier).真正的圣经的权威,这是说,掌握在履行其任务(巴雷特)或经社会背后(​​骑士)或它的内容(Achtemeier)后,其“使徒成效”。 In actuality the authority of Scripture transcends all these; as the revelation of God, it has propositional authority; as the revelation of God to man, it has existential authority.实际上圣经的权威超越了所有这些,为上帝的启示,它命题权威;作为人类神的启示,它已存在的权威。The text is primary, and the authority of the interpreter is secondary, ie, it derives its authority from the text.文本是第一性的,权威的解释是次要的,即,其权威来自文本。Theology as interpreted meaning has authority only to the extent that it reflects the true message of the inspired Scriptures.神学解释的含义,唯一有权力的程度,它反映的灵感来自圣经的真实信息。The Barthian separation between the living Word and the written Word, with the latter having only instrumental authority, is an inadequate mode, for it fails to understand properly the claims of Scripture for itself. Barthian之间的生活Word和文字分离,后者只有器乐管理局,是一个不足的模式,因为它没有正确理解的经文本身的索赔。The Bible is both propositional revelation and the dynamic instrument of the Holy Spirit. “圣经”是命题的启示和圣灵的充满活力的文书。The authority of biblical theology stems not just from the fact that it speaks to the contemporary situation (which is the task of systematics and homiletics) but from the fact that it communicates divine truth.权威圣经神学茎不只是从事实说话,以当代的情况(这是任务的系统性和homiletics),而是从事实,即它传达神的真理。

A Proper Methodology一个适当的方法论

The Synthetic Method traces basic theological themes through the strata of Scripture in order to note their development through the biblical period.合成方法的痕迹,通过圣经的阶层的基本神学的主题,要注意通过“圣经”时期的发展。Its strength is stress on the unity of Scripture.它的强度是统一的圣经上的压力。Its weakness is its tendency toward subjectivity: one can force an artificial pattern upon the NT material.其缺点是对主观性倾向:一是可以迫使新台币材料后的人工模式。

The Analytical Method studies the distinctive theology of individual sections and notes the unique message of each.分析方法研究的各个部分,并注意到每个唯一的消息独特的神学。The strength is the emphasis upon the individual author's meaning.实力是强调个人作者的意思后。The weakness is the radical diversity, which results in a collage of pictures with no cohesiveness.弱点是激进的多样性,导致没有凝聚力的图片拼贴。

The Historical Method studies the development of religious ideas in the life of God's people.历史方法研究宗教思想的发展在神的百姓的生活。Its value is the attempt to understand the community of believers behind the Bible.它的价值是试图了解社会背后的“圣经”的信徒。 Its problem is the subjectivity of most reconstructions, in which the scriptural text is at the mercy of the theorist.它的问题是大多数重组,圣经文本是在理论家的摆布的主体。

The Christological Method makes Christ the hermeneutical key to both testaments.基督方法使基督都圣经诠释学的关键。Its strength is its recognition of the true center of the Bible.它的强度是其承认的“圣经”真正的中锋。Its weakness is its tendency to spiritualize passages and force interpretations foreign to them, especially in terms of the OT experience of Israel.其缺点是其spiritualize通道和力量诠释外国对他们的倾向,特别是在旧约以色列的经验。One should not read everything in the OT or NT as a "type of Christ."人们不应该作为一个读一切“基督的类型。”OT或NT

The Confessional Method looks at the Bible as a series of faith statements which are beyond history.忏悔的方法看起来在“圣经”,一系列超越历史的信仰陈述。Its value is its recognition of creed and worship in NT faith.它的价值在于它承认的信仰和崇拜新台币信仰。Its danger is its radical separation between faith and history.它的危险是其信仰和历史之间的激进分离。

The Cross-Section Method traces a single unifying theme (eg, covenant or promise) and studies it historically by means of "cross-sections" or samplings of the canonical record. 截面法的痕迹一个统一的主题(例如,公约或承诺)和研究它历史上通过的“横截面”或规范记录取样。Its strength is the understanding of major themes that it provides.它的长处是,它提供的两大主题的认识。Its weakness is the danger of arbitrary selection.其缺点是任意选择的危险。If one selects the wrong central theme, other themes can be forced into harmony with it.如果选择了错误的中心主题,其他主题可以被迫与大自然和睦相处。

The Multiplex Method (Hasel) combines the best of these and proceeds hermeneutically from text to theory.多重方法 (哈塞尔)结合这些最佳收益hermeneutically从文本到理论。 It begins with grammatical and historical analysis of the text, attempting to unlock the meaning of the various texts within their life settings.它从语法和历史的文本分析,试图解开他们的生活范围内设置的各种文本的含义。Here a sociological analysis is also helpful, since it studies those life settings in terms of the social matrix of the believing communities.这里的社会学分析也很有帮助,因为它研究那些生活环境,相信社区的社会矩阵。 As the data are collected from this exegetical task, they are organized into the basic patterns of the individual books and then further of the individual authors.从这个训诂任务收集的资料是,它们组织成个人的书籍,然后进一步的个别作者的基本模式。At this stage the interpreter has delineated the emphases or interlocking forces in the strata.在这一阶段,翻译已划定在地层中的重点或联锁部队。Once these various traditions (eg, Markan, Johannine, Pauline) have been charted, the student looks for basic principles of cohesion between them, for metaphorical language which discloses larger patterns of unity between the authors.一旦这些各种传统(例如,Markan,约翰,宝莲)已经指明,学生看起来他们之间的凝聚力的基本原则,隐喻的语言,披露作者之间的团结模式。 One must seek the unified whole behind statements of election and universal salvific will, on the one hand, or behind realized and final eschatology, on the other.我们必须寻求选举和普遍救恩的陈述背后,一方面,或背后的实现和最终末世另一方面,统一的整体。Paul's stress on justification by faith will be united with John's use of new-birth language.保罗强调的因信的理由是美国约翰的出生的新语言的使用These larger unities are charted on two levels, first with respect to overall unity and second concerning the progress of revelation.这些更大的统一是绘制在两个层面上,首先就整体统一性和第二个关于启示的进展。Finally, these motifs are compiled into major sections and subsections, following a descriptive (biblical) method rather than an artificial reconstruction.最后,这些图案汇编成主要章节和小节,下面的一个描述性的(圣经)的方法,而不是人工重建。In other words, the data rather than the dogmatic presuppositions of the interpreter control the operation.换句话说,数据的解释器,而不是教条式的前提,控制操作。From this will emerge a central unifying theme around which the other subthemes gather themselves.这将出现一个中央的统一的主题,围绕它的其他次主题收集自己。Within this larger unity the individual themes maintain complementary yet distinct roles.在这个大团结的个别主题保持互补而独特的作用。The larger cohesive unity must result from rather than become the presupposition of the theological enterprise, ie, the texts determine the patterns.更大的凝聚力团结的结果必须从而不是神学的企业,即成为前提,文本确定的模式。

Themes in NT Theology在NT神学的主题

These final two sections will apply the above proposals first to the basical theological messages of individual NT authors and then to the quest for a unifying central theme in the NT.这最后两节将适用于上述建议先个别NT作者basical神学消息,然后寻求在NT为一个统一的中心主题。Since there are separate articles in this volume on the theologies of Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, and Paul, we will present here the rest of the NT corpus, namely the themes of the general epistles and of Revelation.由于在本卷中有单独条款,马太,马克,路加,约翰和保罗神学,我们将在座其余新台币语料库,即一般书信和启示录的主题。

Hebrews was written to a group of Jewish Christians, perhaps in Rome, who were in danger of "apostasizing" due to persecution.希伯来书是书面一群犹太基督徒,也许在罗马,“apostasizing”由于迫害的危险。As a result, the author stresses the pilgrimage aspect of the Christian life (see Kasemann).因此,笔者强调朝圣的基督徒生活方面(见凯士曼)。The believer is to recognize that he or she lives between two worlds, the present age of trouble and the future age of salvation.信徒承认,他或她生活在两个世界之间,目前的麻烦年龄和未来的救赎年龄。The key is a faith which makes hope a concrete reality (11:1) and makes the "powers of the age to come" a present reality (6:4-5).关键是一种信仰,这使得希望一个具体的现实(11:1)和“年龄的权力来”目前的现实(6:4-5)。 In light of the superiority of Christ over the old Jewish economy, the Christian must cling to the high priest "after the order of Melchizedek" (7:1-2).在基督的旧犹太经济的优越性,基督教必须固守的大祭司“后,麦基洗德的命令”(7:1-2)。While many have made the high priestly Christology the major theme of Hebrews, it is more likely that the pilgrimage aspect, rooted in the exhortation passages, is central.虽然许多大祭司基督的希伯来书的主要主题,它更有可能朝圣方面,扎根在劝勉段落,是中央的。

James, probably the first NT book written, is addressed to a Jewish Christian audience, perhaps in Palestine.詹姆斯,可能第一个NT的书,给一个犹太基督教的观众,也许在巴勒斯坦。The church was poor, without influence, and passing through a time of persecution in which wealthy Jews were confiscating their property (2:6, 5:1-6).教会是穷人,没有影响力,并通过一个受迫害的时间,在富裕的犹太人,没收他们的财产(2时06分,5:1-6)。The book is immensely practical, dealing in a pastoral way with weak believers and their tendencies.这本书是巨大的实际,在一个牧民薄弱的信徒和他们的倾向方式处理。It draws upon wisdom themes regarding trials and temptation, social concern, the problem of the tongue, and interpersonal conflicts to underscore the necessity of putting one's faith into practice in the practical Christian life.它汲取智慧的主题,关于审判和诱惑,社会关注,舌头的问题,以及人与人之间的冲突,强调一个人的信仰付诸实践,在实际的基督徒生活的必要性​​时。

I Peter utilizes a great deal of creedal or catechetical material, ie, formal statements on Christian doctrine composed by the apostles for the early church, to speak to a further situation of persecution on behalf of a mixed church of Jewish and Gentile Christians in northern Galatia.彼得利用大量的creedal或教理讲授的材料,即基督教教义,正式报表由早期教会的使徒组成,发言代表一个犹太和外邦基督徒的混合教会的迫害进一步的情况,在北部加拉太。 It combines an eschatological perspective (ie, the end has begun and glory is near) with an ethical emphasis (ie, exemplary behavior must result from the experience of God's salvation in light of the world's opposition).它结合了伦理强调(即模范行为必须造成世界的反对,从神的救恩经验)末世论的角度(即已经开始,结束和荣耀是附近)。 Christ is the model of the righteous sufferer (3:18), and his exaltation is shared by the one who endures similar hostility.基督是正义的患者的模型(3:18),和他的提高是由一个人忍受类似的敌意共享。Therefore, in the midst of this evil world the believer is an alien whose true citizenship is in heaven and who rejoices even when suffering (1:6-7) because it is a participation in the humiliation/exaltation of Christ.因此,在这个邪恶的世界中的信徒是一个陌生的真正的是天上的国民,谁高兴,甚至痛苦(1:6-7),因为它是一个在参与基督的屈辱/提高。

II Peter and Jude are sister epistles written to combat false teaching of the Gnostic type which rejected the lordship of Christ (II Pet. 2:1) and the parousia (II Pet. 3:3-4) and degenerated into immorality (Jude 4).彼得和裘德书面姐姐书信,打击虚假的诺斯底类型拒绝基督(二宠物。2:1)和parousia(二宠物。3:3-4)的主权和堕落到不道德(裘德4教学)。 In light of this, there is a decided emphasis upon the primacy of apostolic teaching (II Pet. 1:16, 20-21; 3:2) and upon the return of Christ in judgment (II Pet. 3:3-4; Jude 5-6).鉴于此,有一个使徒教学的首要地位后决定重点(二宠物1:16,20-21; 3时02分)和判断返回基督(二宠物后3:3-4。裘德5-6)。The coming day of the Lord is central in II Peter, and the judgment of those who oppose God, either human or angelic/demonic, comes to the fore in Jude.主日是中央彼得,和那些反对上帝的判决,无论是人类或天使/恶魔,裘德脱颖而出。Both stress the stringent responsibility of the church to oppose the false teachers.均强调教会的严格责任,反对假教师。

Unifying Themes统一主题

Five criteria are necessary to the search for a central motif that binds together the individual emphases and diverse doctrines of the NT: (1) the basic theme must express the nature and character of God; (2) it must account for the people of God as they relate to him; (3) it must express the world of mankind as the object of God's redemptive activity; (4) it must explain the dialectical relationship between the testaments; (5) it must account for the other possible unifying themes and must truly unite the theological emphases of the NT.五个标准是必要的,以搜索为核心主题,结合在一起的个别重点和多样新台币学说:(1)基本主题必须表达神的性质和特征;(2)必须考虑到人民的上帝因为它们涉及他;(3)它必须表达上帝的救赎活动的对象世界的人类;(4)它必须解释的的遗嘱之间的辩证关系;(5)它必须在其他可能的统一主题占和必须真正团结新台币神学重点。 Many proposed themes will fit one or another of the strata of OT and NT, eg, the narrative or the poetic or the prophetic or the wisdom or the epistolary portions, but will fail to summarize all.许多建议的主题,将适合一个OT和NT,例如,叙事或诗意或预言或智慧或书信部分阶层或其他,但将无法概括所有。This theme must balance the others without merely lifting one above its fellow motifs.这个主题必须平衡别人,不只是取消上述研究员图案之一。

The Covenant (Eichrodt, Ridderbos) has often been utilized to express the binding relationship between God and his people.公约 “(艾希罗特,Ridderbos)经常被用来表达上帝和他的人民之间的绑定关系。It includes both the legal contract and the eschatological hope which results, both the universal dimension of the cosmic God who creates as well as sustains and the specific communion which results.它包括法律合同和结果的末世论的希望,无论是宇宙之神的普遍性创建以及维持和具体共融的结果。The problem is that this is not universally attested in the testaments as the central core.问题是,这不是普遍为核心的遗嘱证明。A better theme might be "election" as expressing the act of God or "promise" as the hope which results (see below).一个更好的主题可能是“选举”,表达上帝希望的结果(见下文)或“承诺”的行为。

God and Christ (Hasel) have been stressed a great deal lately, noting the theocentric character the NT.上帝和基督 (哈塞尔)已经强调了很大近来,注意到theocentric字符新台币。This is much better than stressing aspects, such as the holiness or lordship or kingship of God, and better than making either God or Christ the center, which would do a disservice to OT or NT respectively.这是强调的方面,如神的圣洁或贵族身份或王权,远优于,比上帝或基督的中心,这将分别做对不起OT或NT。 However, while we may view the theme dynamically to allow for the individual expression of subthemes, this too may be narrow since the community of God's people is not a natural part of it.然而,虽然我们可以动态查看主题允许个人表达的分主题,这也可能是狭隘的,因为神的人的社会不是一个自然的一部分。

Existential Reality or Communion has been stressed (Bultmann et al.) as the true purpose of the Bible.一直强调存在主义的现实或圣餐 (布特曼等)的“圣经”的真正目的。Proponents argue that this ties together the other themes and expresses the dynamic work of God among his people.支持者认为,这种联系在了一起其他的主题,并表示他的人民之间的神的充满活力的工作。Yet as expressed by many it ignores too readily the propositional and creedal content of Scripture.然而,作为对许多人来说,忽略太容易圣经的命题和creedal内容。While communion is certainly a primary motif, it is not the unifying theme.虽然共融肯定是一个主要的主题,这是不统一的主题。

Eschatological Hope (Kaiser) is often stressed, in either the sense of promise or of hope.末世论的希望 (凯泽)经常强调,无论是在意义上的承诺或希望。The strength of this is the way it unites the testaments, since both look to the future consummation of God's activity in history.这种力量是团结的见证的方式,因为既要看看未来的神在历史上的活动圆满。It also unifies the other three above, which can be said to express aspects of this hope.它还结合其他三个以上,这可以说是表达这种希望的各个方面。Its weakness, as often noted by various scholars, is the absence of stress on this in many portions of Scripture, eg, the wisdom literature or the Johannine writings.经常通过各种学者指出,它的弱点,是应力在此情况下的经文,例如,智慧文学或约翰的著作中的许多部分。Again, this is a major emphasis but not the unifying theme.再次,这是一个主要重点,但没有统一的主题。

Salvation History (von Rad, Cullmann, Ladd) may be the best of the positions, for it recognizes God's/Christ's redemptive activity on behalf of mankind, in terms of both present and future communion.救恩史 (冯RAD,Cullmann,拉德)可能是最好的位置,因为它承认神/基督的代表人类的救赎活动,无论是现在和未来的共融。More than the others above, it subsumes each of the categories into itself.超过以上的人,它归入到自身的每个类别。Those who oppose this as the unifying theme argue from two directions: (1) its artifical nature, since there is no single instance in OT or NT where it is directly stated; and (2) the lack of emphasis upon it in the entire NT, eg, it fits Luke-Acts but not John.作为统一的主题,反对认为,从两个方向:(1)人工自然的,因为没有OT或NT的单个实例,它是直接表示;(2)后,它缺乏重视,在整个NT例如,它适合卢克行为,但不是约翰。 However, any "unifying theme" is by its very nature artifical, since it is a principle derived from the individual themes of Scripture.然而,任何“统一的主题”,其本质人工​​,,因为它是从圣经的个别主题派生的原则。Also, while it is not "central" to every book, it is behind those diverse motifs and is thereby able to bind them together.此外,虽然它不是“中央”的每一本书,它的背后是这些不同的图案,从而能够将它们绑定在一起。Every theme here has a viable claim, so we must see which of the five best summarizes the others.这里每个主题有一个可行的索赔,因此,我们必须看到的最好的五个总结其他。Therefore, salvation-history has the best claim to the title "unifying theme."因此,拯救历史最好的标题声称“统一的主题。”

GR Osborne遗传资源奥斯本
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
J. Barr, The Scope and Authority of the Bible; CK Barrett, "What is NT Theology? Some Reflections," Horizons in Biblical Theology 3; H. Boers, What is NT Theology?研究的范围和圣经的权威巴尔; CK巴雷特,“什么是新台币神学的几点思考,”圣经神学3的视野; H.布尔,新台币神学是什么?B. Childs, Biblical Theology in Crisis; R. Gaffin, "Systematic Theology and Biblical Theology," The NT Student and Theology a III, ed JH Skilton; D. Guthrie, NT Theology; G. Hasel, NT Theology: Basic Issues in the Current Debate; U. Mauser, ed., Horizons in Biblical Theology: An International Dialogue; E. Kasemann, "The Problem of a NT Theology," NTS 19:235-45; GE Ladd, A Theology of the NT; R. Morgan, The Nature of NT Theology: The Contributions of William Wrede and Adolf Schlatter; JD Smart, The Past, Present, and Future of Biblical Theology; G. Vos, Biblical Theology.二,危机中的圣经神学童车; R.加芬,“系统神学和圣经神学,”新界学生和神学三,编辑JH Skilton; D.格思里,新台币神学; G.哈塞尔,新台币神学:基本问题当前的辩论; U.毛瑟,海关,圣经神学的视野:国际对话,大肠杆菌凯士曼,“新台币神学的问题,”新界南总区19:235-45; GE拉德,新台币神学,R。摩根,新台币神学的性质:威廉Wrede和阿道夫施拉特的贡献; JD智能,圣经神学的过去,现在,和未来; G.沃斯,圣经神学。



Also, see:此外,见:
Theology of Matthew神学的马修。
Theology of Mark神学的标志
Theology of Luke神学路加福音
Theology of John神学的约翰。


This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语



Send an e-mail question or comment to us:发送电子邮件的问题或意见给我们:E-mail电子邮件

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at:的, 主要相信网页(和索引科目),是在:
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
http://mb-soft.com/believe/beliecha.html