Orthodox Church Listing of Synods and Councils东正教主教会议和议会 上市

General Information一般资料

Council at Jerusalem (not counted in the Councils) 48-51 AD理事会在耶路撒冷 (没有算在市政局)48-51公元
About Judaisers.关于Judaisers。Saints James, Peter, Paul, and Barnabas were involved.圣徒詹姆斯,彼得,保罗和巴拿巴参与。Described in the Acts of the Apostles [15:6-29].中所述行为的使徒[15:6-29]。Led by Saint James ("the brother of the Lord"), bishop of Jerusalem.LED圣詹姆斯(“主的兄弟”),耶路撒冷主教。Determined that Gentile converts did not have to embrace Judaism to be Christians.詹蒂莱转换没有拥抱犹太教是基督徒。

Council at Carthage local Council, 251 AD公元251 迦太基地方议会理事会
About the lapsed.关于失效。Novatianism was defended by Navatius, condemned by Saint Cyprian.Novatianism保卫Navatius,圣塞浦路斯谴责。Set requirements for readmission to Church of those who had lapsed during persecutions.设置再次失效那些在迫害教会的要求。Declared baptisms by heretics were worthless (no "baptisms" outside the Church).异端声明洗礼毫无价值(没有教会之外的“洗礼”)。Required baptism for entry into the Church by those "baptised" by heretics (outside the Church).要求那些“洗礼”异端(教会以外)进入教会的洗礼。Forbade re-baptism of those who had received Church baptism, then fallen into heresy who sought readmission.禁止那些收到教会的洗礼,然后下降到异端,谁寻求收回未获授权逗留人士的重新洗礼。

252 AD. 252公元。Reduced requirements for readmission of lapsed who showed serious penance.重新接纳已失效,表现出严重的苦修的需求减少。Repeated decisions regarding baptism of previous year.反复做决定上年的洗礼。

255 AD. 255公元。Repeated decisions regarding baptism of 251 and 252.反复关于251和252的洗礼的决定。 Determined that clerics falling into heresy should be received back into the Church as laymen.原住民神职人员成异端,应作为外行接收到教会。

256 AD. 256公元。Rejected decisions by Pope Stephen regarding "baptism" outside the Church.拒绝教皇斯蒂芬的决定,关于教会之外的“洗礼”。Re-affirmed previous decisions regarding baptism.再次确认先前的决定,关于洗礼。

256 AD. 256公元。Repeated decisions made earlier in year, rejecting Pope Stephen's teaching.反复作出的决定早在一年中,拒绝教皇斯蒂芬的教学。Declared there were no sacraments outside the Church.宣布有教会之外没有圣礼。

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Council at Elvira local Council, never accepted by Orthodox 300-306 AD 埃尔维拉地方议会理事会 ,从来没有接受东正教300-306公元
Imposed celibacy on clergy.强加给神职人员独身。Established canon forbidding converts from heresy to ever become clergy.成立佳能禁止从异端的转换日益成为神职人员。

Council at Ancyra local Council, 314 AD理事会在安该拉当地政府,公元314
About the lapsed.关于失效。First synod following the end of persecutions.迫害结束后的第一主教会议。Condemned as liars, those who publicly proclaimed adherence to the national religion (paganism) in order to receive an official document that allowed them to avoid persecution.谴责骗子,公然宣称遵守国家的宗教(异教),以收到正式文件,使他们能够避免遭受迫害。Established punishments for these lapsed.这些失效的处罚。Also established punishments for various types of sexual immorality.还设立了各类淫乱的处罚。

Council at Neo-Caesaria local Council, c.理事会在新Caesaria地方议会,C. 315 AD 315公元
Established punishments for various types of sexual immorality.建立各类淫乱的处罚。 Established qualifications for clergy.神职人员的资格。

First Council at Nicaea - First Ecumenical (Imperial) Council , 325 AD 第一届理事会第一合一(英制)理事会 ,公元325年在尼西亚-
Convened regarding Arianism, Paulianism, defended by Arius, condemned by Saint Athanasius.关于阿里乌斯教,Paulianism,阿里乌斯辩护,谴责圣亚他那修召开。Condemned the teaching of Arius who claimed the Lord Jesus Christ was created by God, denying His divinity.谴责阿里乌斯教学声称主耶稣基督是上帝创造的,否认他的神性。Virtually all those assembled were horrified upon hearing Arius' teaching, but debate arose over terminology.几乎所有这些组装听后阿里乌斯“教学感到震惊,但争论的术语出现。Despite resistance because it was an unbiblical word, the Fathers embraced the philosophical term homoousios ('of the same essence') as the only term the Arians were unable to distort into compatibility with their heresy.尽管阻力,因为它是不符合圣经的字,父亲拥抱作为唯一长期的arians无法兼容性扭曲他们的异端哲学术语 homoousios(“相同的本质”) 。Established Symbol of Faith (Nicene Creed) .象征的信仰(尼西亚)。

Determined formula for determining Pascha (Easter).逾越节(复活节)确定的公式确定。Condemned mandatory celibacy for all ranks of clergy.谴责强制独身神职人员队伍。Established regulations on moral issues and church discipline.对道德问题和教会纪律制定规章。Required Paulianists to be baptised upon entry to Church, even if baptised by Paulianists.所需Paulianists在进入教堂接受洗礼,即使Paulianists受洗。Determined prayers on Sundays should be offered standing.在周日的决心祈祷应该得到的地位。

Nicene Creed尼西亚

I believe in one God.我相信在一个上帝。The Father Almighty.全能的父。Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible.制造商的天地,和所有有形和无形的的东西。
And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only begotten, begotten of the Father before all ages.而在一主耶稣基督,上帝的儿子,独生子,父亲之前,所有年龄段的出师不利。Light of Light; true God of true God; begotten not made; of one essence with the Father, by whom all things were made.光灯;真神真神;独生子,没有一个父亲的本质,所有的事情,由谁来作了。
Who for us men and for our salvation came down from heaven, and was incarnate of the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary, and became man.前来为我们人类和我们的拯救从天上降下来,圣灵和圣母玛利亚的化身,而​​成为人。
And He was crucified for us under Pontius Pilate, and suffered, and was buried.他钉在十字架上为我们在本丢彼拉多手下,并深受其害,和被埋没了。
And the third day He rose again according to the Scriptures.第三天,他再次上升,根据圣经。
And ascended into heaven, and sits at the right hand of the Father; and he shall come again with glory to judge the living and the dead; whose Kingdom shall have no end.升天,坐在父的右边;他应再次拿出荣耀判断活人与死人的王国应没有结束。

Synod at Gangra local Council, 340 ADGangra地方会主教在公元340
The synod of Gangra dealt with a local sectarian group.主教的Gangra处理与当地的宗派集团。 The group condemned marriage altogether (rather like the Cathari, several centuries later).该集团完全谴责婚姻(而不是像卡塔利,几个世纪以后)。They also condemned eating meat, refused to be obedient to lawful authorities (considered their own authority the only thing to be obeyed), they encouraged women to dress as men (clothes and haircuts), they encouraged parents to abandon their children (to go live the 'pure' life) and children to abandon their parents (for the same reason).他们还谴责吃肉,不听话认为自己的权威必须遵守的唯一合法当局,他们鼓励妇女装扮成男子(衣服和理发),他们鼓励家长放弃自己的孩子(去住“纯粹的”生命)和儿童放弃他们的父母出于同样的原因。 It was this group that the synod condemned.这是本组的主教谴责。The other notable thing the synod did was to condemn fasting on Sundays (which became a major issue later).其他显着的事情主教谴责在星期日禁食(后来成为一个重大问题)。

Council at Antioch local Council, 341 AD理事会在安提阿当地政府公元341
Reinforced Nicaea I's ruling on Pascha.复活节钢筋尼西亚我的裁决。Established regulations regarding clergy, the organisation of the local churches, church discipline, and use of canonical letters (used by travelling Christians as proof of being Christians in good standing).制定规章关于神职人员,组织当地的教堂,教会纪律,以及使用规范的字母(旅行基督徒作为在信誉良好的基督徒的证明)。

Council at Sardica 347 AD理事会Sardica 347 AD
Established canons concerning church order and discipline.成立有关教会秩序和纪律的大炮。 Reaffirmed the Symbol of Faith from Nicaea I.重申一尼西亚信仰的象征

Council at Laodicaea local Council, 364 AD理事会Laodicaea地方议会公元364
Established canons concerning church order and discipline.成立有关教会秩序和纪律的大炮。

First Ecumenical Council at Constantinople - Second Ecumenical (Imperial) Council , 381 AD首先在君士坦丁堡大公会议-二合一(英制)理事会 ,公元381
Convened regarding Macedonianism, Apollinarians, Eunomians, Eudoxians, Sabellians, Marcellians, Photinians.召开关于Macedonianism,Apollinarians,Eunomians,Eudoxians,Sabellians,Marcellians,Photinians。

Macedonius defended the issues, and Saint Gregory the Theologian (aka St Gregory of Nazianzus) and Saint Gregory of Nyssa were champions of Orthodoxy. Macedonius的问题进行了辩护,和圣格雷戈里的神学家(又名圣格雷戈里的nazianzus)和圣格雷戈里的nyssa东正教的冠军。

Condemned Arianism.谴责阿里乌斯教。Condemned Macedonianism which denied divinity of the Holy Spirit.Macedonianism谴责否认圣灵的神圣性。Defined the Holy Trinity as one God in Three Persons, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit each fully God of the same essence.定义为一个三位一体的神,父,子,每个相同的本质完全的神和圣灵三位一体的。Expanded Symbol of Faith from Nicaea I into what is now commonly labelled 'Nicene Creed' but is more properly known as the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed.扩展符号尼西亚我的信仰,到现在通常被称为“尼西亚信经”,但更恰当Constantinopolitan尼西亚信条。 As expanded, this Symbol of Faith has remained the basic proclamation of the Christian Faith.由于扩大,这种信仰的象征,至今仍是基督教信仰的基本宣布。Condemned Apollinarianism which taught the Lord Jesus Christ possessed the divine Logos in place of a human mind and was therefore fully divine, but not fully human.谴责Apollinarianism教导主耶稣基督拥有在一个人的心灵的神圣标志,因此,完全神圣的,但不是完全的人。 Condemned Eunomians (an extreme form of Arianism), the Eudoxians (semi-Arians), the Sabellians (who taught the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit were three modes of manifestation of the one God, denying the distinction of Three Persons), the Marcellians (who taught the Logos was an impersonal divine power that issued from God and entered into a relationship with Jesus to make him the Son of God), and the Photinians (who taught that Jesus was a mere man upon whom the Logos rested).谴责Eunomians(阿里乌斯教的一个极端形式),Eudoxians(半亚利安),Sabellians(谁教圣父,圣子,圣灵是三一神的表现模式,否认三人的区别), Marcellians(谁教的标识是一种客观的神力从上帝发出,进入到一个与耶稣的关系使他的神的儿子),和Photinians(教导,耶稣是一个单纯的人,休息后,其中的标志)。

Ranked relative importance of the five patriarchates with Old Rome first and New Rome (Constantinople) second.与旧的罗马第一和新罗马(君士坦丁堡)第二五牧首辖区中排名相对重要性。Established regulations for church discipline, including standing during prayer on Sundays and the days of Pentecost.为教会纪律,制定规章,包括站立在上周日祷告和圣灵降临节的日子。Established manner in which heretics were to be received into the Church.成立方式异教​​徒接收到教会。

Addition to the Nicene Creed除了以尼西亚

And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the Giver of Life, who proceeds from the Father, Who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified; Who spoke by the Prophets.而在圣灵,主,生命的赐予者,谁收益来自父亲,与父亲和儿子在一起,谁崇拜和荣耀;先知发言。
In One Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church.在罗马教廷,天主教和使徒教会。
I acknowledge One Baptism for the remission of sins.我承认赦罪的洗礼。
I look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come.我期待死人的复活,和世界的生命来。Amen.阿门。

Council in Constantinople local Council, 394 AD安理会在君士坦丁堡地方议会,394 AD
Established various regulations, including the requirement of at least three bishops to ordain a bishop.建立了各项规章制度,包括要求至少有三个主教祝圣一位主教。

Council at Carthage local Council, 419-424 AD理事会在迦太基地方议会,419-424 AD
Convened regarding Pelagianism and Donatism, which were defended by Pelagius, Celestius, and Donatus.召开有关的伯拉纠主义和Donatism,这是由伯拉纠,Celestius,和那图斯辩护。Orthodoxy was championed by Bishop Aurelius.奥勒留主教倡导正统。

Established regulations for clergy, including excommunication for clerics lower than bishop who appealed decisions outside of Africa (specifically mentioning 'across the sea', ie the pope of Rome).制定规章,包括低于主教世卫组织呼吁非洲以外的决定(特别提到“隔海相望”, 罗马教皇)为神职人员逐出教会神职人员。Denied jurisdiction of pope of Rome in African church.拒绝非洲教会在罗马教皇的管辖范围。Enumerated canon of Scripture (OT & NT).枚举佳能的经文(OT及新界)。Set requirements for Donatists received into the Church, including prohibition of rebaptising those baptised as Donatists.到教会收到的多纳徒,包括禁止rebaptising多纳徒受洗者设置的要求。

Established canon requiring baptism where proof of previous baptism was not available.成立佳能要求的洗礼是不可用以前的洗礼证明。Condemned beliefs of Pelagians: that Adam was created mortal, that infants need not be baptised because they are not subject to the consequences of Adam's sin, that grace is not needed to avoid sin, and that grace only enables us to recognise sin but does not assist us in avoiding sin.谴责信仰的Pelagians:,宽限期,亚当被创造的凡人,,婴儿需要不受洗,因为他们都没有受到亚当的罪的后果,无需以避免罪,和,宽限期只让我们来认识罪,但不协助我们避免罪。

Council at Ephesus - Third Ecumenical (Imperial) Council , 431 AD 在以弗所-理事会第三合一(英制)理事会公元431
Convened regarding Nestorianism, defended by Nestorius, and condemned by Saint Cyril of Alexandria召开有关景教,捍卫涅斯,谴责圣亚历山大的Cyril

Condemned Nestorianism which taught a separation between the Lord Jesus Christ's divinity and humanity.景教谴责教导主耶稣基督的神性和人性之间的分离。Nestorianism manifested this in the rejection of the traditional term 'Theotokos' (literally, 'God Birth-Giver'), claiming Mary only gave birth to the Lord's humanity and should thus be called 'Christotokos'.景教表现在传统的长期排斥“Theotokos”(从字面上看,“神出生者”),声称玛丽生下主的人类,因此应称为“Christotokos”。 Defined that the Lord Jesus Christ was a single person who was fully God and fully human and that since mother's give birth to persons (not natures), Mary should be known as 'Theotokos', thus insisting on the unity of the two natures in the one person of Christ.定义,主耶稣基督是一个单人谁是充分的神和完全的人,并因为母亲给出生人士(不性质),玛丽应该被作为“Theotokos”已知的,因此的的两个性质在统一的坚持一个人的基督。 Upheld Christology of Saint Cyril of Alexandria.坚持基督的圣亚历山大的Cyril。The Symbol of Faith (Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed) was affirmed and changes to it were forbidden with punishment of deposition for clerics and excommunication for laity prescribed.肯定和信仰的象征(尼西亚- Constantinopolitan信条),它的变化与沉积教士和俗人逐出教会规定的处罚禁止。Established that the rights of each province should be preserved and inviolate (ie bishops from one province have no rights over other provinces).确定每个省的权利应予以保留和不可侵犯的(即从一个省主教比其他省份没有权利)。

Council at Constantinople local, 448 AD安理会在君士坦丁堡当地公元448
Convened regarding Eutychianism (Monophysitism), which was defended by Eutyches and condemned by Saint Flavian.召开关于Eutychianism(基督一),这是捍卫Eutyches和圣弗拉维安谴责。Eutyches, who rejects the 'union'; of 'two natures' in 'one person' is condemned. Eutyches,拒绝“联盟”,“两个性质”,在“一个人”的谴责。

Council at Ephesus Heretical (known historically as 'Robber Council' 449 AD 以弗所邪教理事会 (历史上称为“强盗会”449广告
After Eutyches appeals to the patriarch of Alexandria (Dioscorus) who exonerates him (although it was against canon law to do so), a council is called which restricts the number of Flavian's supporters allowed to attend whilst augmenting the number of Eutyches' supporters, is chaired by Dioscorus who refuses to allow Flavian to speak in his own defence, refuses to hear Saint Leo of Rome's Tome of Leo (his response to reports of the Synod of 448). Eutyches上诉亚历山大(Dioscorus)谁开脱他的族长(虽然它反对佳能法律这样做是)后,一个议会被称为限制允许出席,同时增强Eutyches“的支持者人数弗拉维安的支持者人数,是Dioscorus拒绝让弗拉维安发言为自己辩护,拒绝听到圣罗马的狮子座圣多美的狮子座(448主教报告他的回应)主持。 Eutyches is exonerated, Saint Flavian deposed (and shortly thereafter beaten to death by supporers of Eutyches), all who confess 'two natures' in the Lord Jesus Christ's Person are declared anathema. Eutyches是免除了,圣弗拉维安废黜(此后不久Eutyches supporers殴打致死),所有被宣布承认“两个性质”在主耶稣基督的人诅咒。

Council of Chalcedon - Fourth Ecumenical (Imperial) Council , 451 AD 安理会的迦克墩-第四合一(英制)理事会 ,451 AD
Convened regarding Eutychianism (Monophysitism), which was defended by Eutyches and Dioscorus, and condemned by Saint Leo (the Great) of Rome.召开关于Eutychianism(基督一),这是Eutyches和Dioscorus辩护,并谴责罗马的圣狮子座(大)。 Annulled and invalidated 'Robber Council' of 449 in Ephesus.废止和无效以弗所强盗会“449。 Condemned Eutyches and Dioscorus.谴责Eutyches和Dioscorus。Affirmed canons of previous three Ecumenical (Imperial) Councils.肯定前三个合一(英制)议会的大炮。Condemned Monophysitism.谴责基督一性。After examination of the Tome of Leo affirmed it as 'the faith of the Fathers'. 利奥圣多美审核后确认为“信仰的父亲”。Affirmed completeness of the two natures of the Lord Jesus Christ: divinity and humanity (perfect God and perfect man).肯定完整性主耶稣基督的两个性质:神性和人性化(完美的上帝和完美的男人)。Condemned Nestorianism and those 'who divide the one and only-begotten Son'.谴责景教和那些“划分一个独生子”。Condemned simony, reaffirmed prohibitions of bishops acting outside their territory, reaffirmed New Rome (Constantinople) as second in honour (following Old Rome) of the patriarchates.谴责买卖圣职,重申禁止在其领土以外署理主教,重申在荣誉的牧首辖区(以下旧罗马)第二新罗马(君士坦丁堡)。


Therefore, following the Holy Fathers, we all with one accord teach men to acknowledge one and the same Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, at once complete in Godhead and complete in manhood, truly God and truly man, consisting also of a reasonable soul and body; of one substance with the Father as regards his Godhead, and at the same time of one substance with us as regards his manhood; like us in all respects, apart from sin; as regards his Godhead, begotten of the Father before the ages, but yet as regards his manhood begotten, for us men and for our salvation, of Mary the Virgin, the Theotokos, one and the same Christ, Son, Lord, only-begotten, recognised in two natures, without confusion, without change, without division, without separation; the distinction of natures being in no way annulled by the union, but rather the characteristics of each nature being preserved and coming together to form one person and subsistence, not as parted or separated into two persons, but one and the same Son and only-begotten God the Word, Lord Jesus Christ; even as the prophets from earliest times spoke of Him, and our Lord Jesus Christ Himself taught us, and the creed of the Fathers has handed down to us.因此,下面的神父,我们所有教同心合意的男人承认在一次完整的神格和同一个儿子,我们的主耶稣基督,并完成在成年,真正的上帝和真正的男人,组成一个合理的灵魂也和机构;一个物质与父亲至于他的神性,并同时在一个与我们的物质,至于他的男子汉气概;像我们在各方面,除了罪,至于他的神性的独生子,父亲的年龄之前但是,但至于他的气概独生子,为我们人类和我们的拯救,玛丽的处女,Theotokos,一个相同的基督,圣子,主,在两个性质的独生子认可,没有混乱,没有变化,没有分工,没有分离;在没有办法废止工会的性质,而是每个性质的保留,并撞在了一起,形成一个人的生存,还不如分开或分离成两个人的特点的区别,但一相同的儿子,上帝的独生子在Word,主耶稣基督,甚至从最早的时候,他说话的先知,和我们的主耶稣基督教导我们,和信条的父亲已经传给我们。

Council of Orange local Council, never accepted in East, 529 AD Orange的地方议会, 理事会从来没有在东接受,529 AD
Convened regarding Pelagianism.召开关于伯拉纠主义。Condemned various beliefs of Pelagianism: that humans are unaffected by Adam's sin, that a person's move towards God can begin without grace, that an increase of faith can be attained apart from grace, that salvation can be attained apart from the Holy Spirit, that man's free will can be restored from its destruction apart from baptism, that 'merit' may precede grace, that man can do good and attain salvation without God's help,死刑犯的伯拉纠主义的各种信念:人类是亚当的罪不会影响,认为一个人对神此举可以开始无宽限期,,增加了信仰可以被实现从雍容除了,,救恩可以被实现从圣灵分开,那人的自由意志可以从恢复其销毁除了洗礼,“功德”可能之前的宽限期,那个男人可以做的好,没有神的帮助实现救赎,


we must, under the blessing of God, preach and believe as follows.神的祝福下,我们必须鼓吹,相信如下。The sin of the first man has so impaired and weakened free will that no one thereafter can either love God as he ought or believe in God or do good for God's sake, unless the grace of divine mercy has preceded him.第一人的罪,使受损和削弱了自由意志,以后没有人可以爱上帝,他应该相信神或做的好,在上帝的份,除非神圣慈悲的恩典,他之前。

According to the catholic faith we also believe that after grace has been received through baptism, all baptised persons have the ability and responsibility, if they desire to labour faithfully, to perform with the aid and cooperation of Christ what is of essential importance in regard to the salvation of their soul.根据天主教的信仰,我们也相信后已通过洗礼收到的宽限期,所有受洗的人有能力和责任,如果他们愿意劳动,忠实执行方面具有根本的重要性,与基督的援助和合作拯救他们的灵魂。 We not only do not believe that any are foreordained to evil by the power of God, but even state with utter abhorrence that if there are those who want to believe so evil a thing, they are anathema.我们不但不相信,是注定邪恶的神的力量,但即使完全深恶痛绝的状态,如果有那些不愿相信这样邪恶的事情,他们的诅咒。 We also believe and confess to our benefit that in every good work it is not we who take the initiative and are then assisted through the mercy of God, but God himself first inspires in us both faith in him and love for him without any previous good works of our own that deserve reward, so that we may both faithfully seek the sacrament of baptism, and after baptism be able by his help to do what is pleasing to him.我们也相信,承认我们的利益,在每一个良好的工作,它不是我们主动然后通过协助神的怜悯,但上帝自己首先激励着我们在他的两个信仰和对他的爱没有任何以前的好我们自己的作品,值得奖励,使我们既可以忠实地寻求洗礼,洗礼后由他的帮助下能够做什么令人高兴的是他。

The complicated background to Constantinople II复杂的背景,以君士坦丁堡二
Large areas of the Empire were under the influence of Monophysitism.基督一性的影响下大面积的帝国。The Monophysites strongly rejected Theodore of Mopsuestia, Theodoret of Cyrus, and Ibas of Edessa as Nestorian heretics.该monophysites强烈反对西奥多的摩普绥提亚,居鲁士Theodoret,IBAS的埃德萨景教异端。 The orthodox emperor, Justinian, seeking to placate the Monophysites, issued an edict condemning the person and writings of Theodore of Mopsuestia, certain writings of Theodoret of Cyrus, and the letter of Ibas to Maris.正统的皇帝,查士丁尼,试图安抚该monophysites,颁布一项法令,谴责摩普绥提亚西奥多人的著作,赛勒斯Theodoret的某些著作,和信马里斯IBAS。 The Christology of Justinian's edict was perfectly orthodox.查士丁尼的诏书基督是完全正统的。

Since the three writers were long dead and their writings had not been condemned by the Council at Chalcedon, there was great reluctance to agree to Justinian's edict.由于三位作家早就死了,他们的著作尚未在Chalcedon委员会谴责,是极不情愿的同意查士丁尼的诏书。Moreover, there was no heresy arising from these writings and condemning them was to side with the Monophysites who were opposed to Chalcedon.此外,从这些著作中所产生的谴责,他们反对以迦克墩基督一方没有异端。 After not a little coercion, the bishops in the East did agree with Justinian and condemned the three writers.经过不小的胁迫,在东方的主教没有同意与查士丁尼和谴责三位作家。

Pope Vigilus was unwilling to accept Justinian's edict for the same reasons it had been resisted in the East.教皇Vigilus是不愿接受同样的原因,它已在东抵制查士丁尼的诏书。Justinian summoned Vigilus to Constantinople.查士丁尼传唤Vigilus君士坦丁堡。Due to learning more about the writings condemned by Justinian's edict and/or persuasion/coercion of Justinian, Vigilus agreed to accept the edict.由于学习更多关于由查士丁尼的诏书和/或说服/胁迫查士丁尼谴责的著作,Vigilus同意接受该法令。This about-face prompted a synod in North Africa to excommunicate Vigilus, for the metropolitanates of Milan and Aquileia to break communion with Rome, and for criticisms to be issued by the bishops of Gaul.这篇文章提示主教在北非破门Vigilus,米兰和Aquileia metropolitanates打破与罗马的共融,高卢主教发出的批评。Faced with such strong opposition in the West, Vigilus withdrew his agreement to Justinian's edict.面对这种在西方国家的强烈反对,Vigilus查士丁尼的诏书撤回了他的同意。This second about-face by Vigilus created great confusion and compelled Justinian to call an Ecumenical (Imperial) Council.这第二个由Vigilus造成极大的混乱,并迫使查士丁尼调用合一(英制)理事会。Initially, Vigilus rejected the legitimacy of the council, but later relented, accepted the condemnation of the three writers, and was reconciled to the Church. ,Vigilus最初拒绝了安理会的合法性,但后来心软了,接受了三位作家的谴责,并不甘心教会。

Second Ecumenical Council of Constantinople - Fifth Ecumenical (Imperial) Council , 553 AD君士坦丁堡第二次大公会议-第五合一(英制)理事会,553 AD
Convened regarding Monophysitism (Nestorianism) and Origenism.召开关于基督一性(景教)和Origenism。Nestorius, Theodore of Mopsuestia, Eutyches, and Origen defended these issues, which were condemned by Emperor (Saint) Justinian (the Great)涅斯,西奥多的摩普绥提亚,Eutyches,和奥利捍卫这些问题,这是由皇帝(圣)查士丁尼(大)谴责

Condemned the person and writings of Theodore of Mopsuestia, who had been Nestorius' teacher and declared the Logos to be a different God than the one called Christ and who taught the Lord Jesus Christ was troubled by desires of human flesh and passions of the human soul.谴责人西奥多的摩普绥提亚,已涅斯“老师宣布的标志,是一个不同的神,比称为基督的教导主耶稣基督是人类灵魂的人肉的欲望和激情的困扰和著作。 Condemned writings of Thedoret of Cyrus which rejected Saint Cyril of Alexandria's Christology.赛勒斯Thedoret圣西里尔亚历山大的基督拒绝谴责著作。Condemned Ibas of Edessa's letter to Maris the Persian for its Nestorian tone.谴责IBAS的埃德萨马里斯波斯景教音的信。 Condemned writings of Diodorus of Tarsus as Nestorian.谴责景教狄奥多罗斯著作大数。Repeated condemnations from previous councils of Arius, Eunomius, Macedonius, Apollinaris, Nestorius, and Eutyches.反复从以前的议会谴责阿里乌斯,Eunomius,Macedonius,Apollinaris,涅斯,和Eutyches。 Condemned Origen, Didymus, and Evagrius for teaching the pre-existence of souls, re-incarnation, the ultimate salvation of demons, that heavenly bodies possessed souls, and other errors.奥利,Didymus和Evagrius,谴责教学的预先存在的灵魂的化身,恶魔的最终救赎,天体具有灵魂,和其他错误。

No canons were produced by this Council.没有大炮,由本会。

Council of Todelo (Spain) heretical, local Council, 589 AD 理事会Todelo(西班牙)邪教,当地政府,公元589年
In an effort to combat Arianism in Spain by making the Son like the Father in all things (specifically, being a source of the Holy Spirit's procession although this subordinated the Holy Spirit), added the additional phrase 'and the Son' (the Filioque ) to the Nicene-Constantinoplitan Creed despite declarations of previous Ecumenical (Imperial) Councils that no changes were to be made in perpetuity.在以打击使得一切事物的儿子像爸爸(具体地说,是一个圣灵的游行,虽然这服从的圣灵源)在西班牙阿里乌斯教,添加了额外的短语“和的儿子”(在Filioque) Constantinoplitan尽管以前合一(英制)议会没有改变永久的声明尼西亚信条。It was this belief in a 'double procession' of the Holy Spirit that led to the eventual separation between Orthodoxy in the East and Roman Catholicism in the West.正是这种信念在“双游行”圣灵,导致最终在东部东正教和罗马天主教在西方之间的分离。

Third Ecumenical Council of Constantinople - Sixth Ecumenical (Imperial) Council , 680-681 AD君士坦丁堡-第六合一(英制)理事会 ,680-681 AD 的第三次大公会议
Convened regarding Monothelitism, representing Sergius, Pyrrhus, Paul, Peter, Pope Honorius, and Cyrus.召集有关Monothelitism,代表谢尔盖,皮勒斯,保罗,彼得,教皇挪,和Cyrus。

Condemned Monothelitism (a belief that the Lord Jesus Christ had only one will and one energy).谴责Monothelitism(相信主耶稣基督,只一会和一个能源)。Condemned as Monothelite heretics Sergius, Pyrrhus, Paul, and Peter (Patriarchs of Constantinople); Pope Honorius; Patriarch Cyrus of Alexandria, and others.谴责Monothelite异端谢尔盖,皮勒斯,保罗和彼得(君士坦丁堡的始祖);教皇挪;祖师居鲁士,亚历山大和其他。 Affirmed that the Lord Jesus Christ, though but one person, after His incarnation possessed two natural wills and two natural energies, just as He possessed two natures.申明后,他的化身,主耶稣基督,虽然只有一个人拥有两个天然遗嘱和两个自然能量,就像他拥有两个性质。
No canons were produced by this Council.没有大炮,由本会。

Council in Trullo (Constantinople) - Conclusion of Sixth Council (aka 'Quinsext' to indicate it was a summation of Fifth & Sixth Councils. , 692 AD 在Trullo理事会(君士坦丁堡) -第六届理事会(又名“Quinsext'表明这是一个总结第五和第六届议会 692公元结论
This Council was held in Constantinople (aka in Trullo , literally, 'under the dome' because of the building used) It was convened due to the lack of canons from Fifth and Sixth Ecumenical Councils, Called by Emperor to promulgate canons necessary to correct issues still outstanding from the previous Councils.本会在君士坦丁堡(又名Trullo,从字面上看,“穹顶下”,因为建筑用)举行,这是由于缺乏大炮从第五和第六的基督教议会召开的呼吁,由皇帝颁布必要的纠正问题的大炮从以前的政局仍然突出。 Professed faith in all the previous Ecumenical Councils and anathematised those who did not 'hold and embrace' the dogmas promulgated by these Councils.在以前所有的基督教议会宣称信仰和anathematised那些没有“拥抱”由两个市政局颁布的教条。Prohibited ordination of man married more than once or married to previously married woman; deposition of any clergy discovered to be guilty of same or marrying after ordination (although approving marriage before ordination to diaconate or priesthood and ordering that deacons or priests who separated from his wife to be deposed).禁止结婚多过一次或以前已婚妇女结婚的人协调;沉积任何神职人员发现犯相同或协调后结婚(虽然批准前协调diaconate或祭司的婚姻和排序,执事或妻子分居祭司被废黜)。 Declared the patriarch of New Rome (Constantinople) should have equal privileges as the patriarch of Old Rome.宣布新罗马(君士坦丁堡)族长应该有平等的特权的旧罗马元老。Established monastic regulations.建立寺院的法规。Enacted canon permitting only the Liturgy of the Pre-Sanctified (a vespers service where communion is received from that which was previously consecrated) on days of Lent because these are days of fasting (Saturdays, Sundays, and the Feast of the Annunciation excluded).制定佳能只允许前神圣(共融的地方,这是以前奉献收到一个晚祷服务)礼仪在四旬期的日子,因为这些都是禁食的日子(星期六,星期日,排除报喜节)。 Enacted canons regarding fasting (prohibition of fasting on Saturdays or Sundays, except Holy Saturday; prohibition of eggs and cheese).制定关于空腹(禁止空腹周六或周日,圣周六除外;禁止鸡蛋和奶酪)的大炮。Enacted canon mandating excommunication for one week for laymen administering the Divine Mysteries when a bishop, priest, or deacon present.制定佳能授权管理的神圣奥秘的外行人一个星期被逐出教会的主教,牧师,或执事目前。Condemned soothsaying, fortune-telling, casting of spells, superstition, etc. Prohibited marriage to heretics.谴责预言,占卜,施法,迷信,禁止以异端的婚姻。Made assisting in abortion or having abortion equivalent to murder.协助流产或堕胎相当于谋杀。Established procedures for accepting heretics into the Church.建立到教会接受异端的程序。

Council in Constantinople heretical Council, 754 AD 安理会在君士坦丁堡邪教理事会,公元754
After many years of persecution by the Iconoclast Emperor Leo III and his son, the Iconoclast Emperor Constantine V, a council was called to 'determine' if images were proper.经过多年的迫害孤星叛逆者皇帝利奥三世和他的儿子,孤星叛逆者皇帝康斯坦丁V,一个议会被称为“确定”,如果图像是正确的。 The patriarchates of Rome, Antioch, Alexandria, and Jerusalem refused to participate.在罗马,安提阿,亚历山大,和耶路撒冷的牧首辖区拒绝参加。The bishops who were compelled to attend, accepted the heresy of Iconoclasm under pressure from the emperor.从皇帝的压力下被迫出席的主教,接受的反传统的异端邪说。This false council anathematised Saint John of Damascus and Saint Germanus of Constantinople for idolatry of images.这种虚假理事会anathematised图像偶像崇拜的圣约翰大马士革和君士坦丁堡的圣Germanus。

Second Ecumenical Council of Nicaea - Seventh Ecumenical (Imperial) Council , 787 AD第二次尼西亚大公会议-第七届大公(英制)理事会 ,787 AD
Convened regarding Iconoclasm.召开关于破除迷信。The decisions of the council of 754 were never accepted by the faithful and was resisted by the monasteries (despite fierce persecution from the government).从未接受过754委员会的决定是由信徒和寺庙抵制(尽管从激烈的政府迫害)。Upon the death of the Iconoclast Emperor Leo IV (son of Constantine V, grandson of Leo III) and the beginning of the regency of Empress Irene, the reign of Iconoclasm came to an end.死亡的孤星叛逆者皇帝利奥四(康斯坦丁V时,利奥三世的孙子的儿子)和摄政皇后艾琳开始后,破除迷信的统治宣告结束。 This council annulled the council of 754 and condemned Iconoclasm.本会废止的754委员会和谴责破除迷信。Affirmed veneration (but not adoration, which was for God alone) of images.肯定崇拜(但不崇拜,这是只有上帝)的图像。Germanus and John of Damascus proclaimed saints.Germanus和约翰大马士革宣布圣人。Condemned simony.谴责买卖圣职。Decreed that those secretly keeping Jewish customs (eg keeping the Sabbath) but pretending to be Christians should live as Jews openly, but be excluded from the Church.下旨那些偷偷保持犹太人的习俗(例如守安息日),但假装是基督徒应该为犹太人居住公开,但是从教会中排除。Established monastic regulations.建立寺院的法规。


We define that the holy icons, whether in colour, mosaic, or some other material, should be exhibited in the holy churches of God, on the sacred vessels and liturgical vestments, on the walls, furnishings, and in houses and along the roads, namely the icons of our Lord God and Saviour Jesus Christ, that of our Lady the Theotokos, those of the venerable angels and those of all saintly people.我们定义神圣的图标,无论是在色彩,马赛克,或其他一些材料,应在神的圣洁的教堂,神圣的船只和礼仪的法衣,在墙壁上,家具,房屋和沿道路,展出,即图标,我们的主神和救主耶稣基督,我们的夫人Theotokos,这些古老的天使和所有圣洁的人。 Whenever these representations are contemplated, they will cause those who look at them to commemorate and love their prototype.每当这些表示正在考虑,他们会导致那些看他们,以纪念和爱他们的原型。We define also that they should be kissed and that they are an object of veneration and honour [ timitiki proskynisis ], but not of real worship [ latreia ], which is reserved for Him Who is the subject of our faith and is proper for the Divine Nature.我们还定义,他们应该被吻和他们的崇拜和荣誉timitiki proskynisis],但不是真正的崇拜[latreia],这是预留给他的人是我们的信仰的主题是神圣的正确的对象自然。 The veneration accorded to an icon is in effect transmitted to the prototype; he who venerates the icon, venerated in it the reality for which it stands.图标的崇拜是在传输到原型的效果;他者崇敬的图标,崇敬它代表的现实。

Council in Frankfurt heretical, local Council, 794 AD 理事会在法兰克福邪教,当地政府,794 AD
Opposed decisions of Nicaea II, denying it had been an ecumenical council.第二尼西亚反对的决定,否认它一直是基督教会。Pope Hadrian condemned for supporting Nicaea II.教皇哈德良谴责支持尼西亚第二。The worship of images, under the terms worship, adoration, and service of any kind, was forbidden.崇拜图像,崇拜,崇拜,和任何形式的服务下,被禁止的。Destruction of images was also opposed, inasmuch as the synod did not condemn depictions as decorations or tools for instructing the illiterate, only the worship or adoration of depictions.销毁的图像也反对,因为主教没有谴责描绘指示文盲,只有崇拜或崇拜的描写作为装饰品或工具。

Council in Aachen heretical, local Council, 809 AD在亚琛的邪教,当地会理事会 ,809 AD
Decreed that belief in the Filioque was necessary for salvation.下旨Filioque的信仰是必要的救赎。

Council in Constantinople local Council, 861 AD安理会在君士坦丁堡地方议会,861 AD
Established regulations for monasticism, including requiring local bishop's permission to build monastery.制定规章修道,包括要求当地主教的权限,建立寺院。Condemned castration.谴责阉割。Established regulations for clergy.神职人员制定规章。

Council in Constantinople local Council, 867 AD安理会在君士坦丁堡地方议会,867 AD
Tension begun by Frankish missionaries in Bulgaria, acting as Pope Nicholas' emissaries, began to introduce the Symbol of Faith with the addtion of the Filioque .法兰克传教士开始在保加利亚,作为教皇尼古拉“使者的紧张,开始引进 Filioque此外信仰的象征。Escalated by desire on part of Rome and Constantinople to have jurisdiction in Bulgaria.升级由罗马和君士坦丁堡的一部分在保加利亚有管辖权的愿望。Triggered by Pope Nicholas, who in 865 for the first time put forward the never-before-heard claim that the Pope had authority 'over all the earth, that is, over every Church.'触发由罗马教皇尼古拉斯,他在第一次865以前从未听到声称,教皇的权威提出“在全地上,就是在每一个教会。” This council, convened by Saint Photius and including archbishops of Treves, Cologne and Ravenna from the West, excommunicated and anathematised Pope Nicolas本会,从西圣Photius和特雷韦斯,科隆和拉韦纳包括大主教召开,逐出教会和anathematised教皇尼古拉斯

Council in Constantinople considered a heretical Council by the Orthodox Church, 869-870 AD在君士坦丁堡理事会审议通过东正教邪教会,869-870 AD
Only 12 bishops attended at first, and attendance never exceeded 103.起初只有12主教出席,出席从来没有超过103。The legates of Pope Adrian II presided.该legates教皇阿德里安二世主持。Saint Photius had already been condemned, without a hearing, at a Roman synod and Pope Adrian, taking advantage of political changes in Constantinople, pressed for a council.圣Photius已经受到谴责,没有举行听证会,在罗马的主教和教皇阿德里安,利用按下一个议会,政治的变化,在君士坦丁堡。 Saint Photius' defense was cut short, and when he refused to sign his own condemnation, he was excommunicated.圣Photius的防守是剪短,当他拒绝签署自己的谴责,他被逐出教会。The result of these councils was to intensify the bitterness between East and West.这些评议会的结果是加强了东方与西方之间的辛酸。Not regarded as 'Ecumenical' by Roman Catholicism until 11th or 12th century, it has never been accepted by Orthodoxy.不被视为罗马天主教为“合一”,直到11或12世纪,它从来没有被接受正统。

Fourth Ecumenical Council in Constantinople - Eighth Ecumenical (Imperial) Council 879-880 AD第四,在君士坦丁堡大公会议-第八届合一(英制)理事会 879-880 AD
Resolved scandals between East and West regarding Bulgaria.解决的东方与西方关于保加利亚之间的丑闻。Expelled those who did not recognise Nicaea II as Seventh Ecumenical Council.驱逐出境的人谁不承认第七次大公会议尼西亚第二。 Outlawed and repudiated local councils of Rome and Constantinople against Saint Photius.取缔和否定的地方议会反对罗马和君士坦丁堡的圣Photius。Established that the Symbol of Faith from Constantinople I (the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed) was to be forever 'un-innovated' and 'immutable'.成立,我从君士坦丁堡(Constantinopolitan尼西亚信条)信仰的象征,是永远“联合国创新”和“不可改变的”。 Required those excommunicated by Rome to be treated as such by Constantinople and vice-versa.罗马逐出教会,君士坦丁堡反之亦然要这样对待的那些。(Accepted by all five patriarchates, including Pope John VIII)(所有5个牧首辖区,包括教皇约翰八世接受)

Council in Constantinople local Council, 1082 AD安理会在君士坦丁堡地方议会,1082 AD
Convened regarding John Italus.关于约翰Italus召开。Condemned those who seek to discover exactly how the Word was joined to His human substance; Greek doctrines of the soul, heaven, earth, and creation; the destruction of the soul after death; those who say that creation is eternal or immutable; those who do not accept the miracles of Christ, the Theotokos, and all his saints; those who think Greek philosophy true; that creation is not the result of God's free will; the pre-existence of souls; those who deny that creation is created ex nihilo ; those who say that hell is temporary or that all of creation will be restored; and those who understand the Kingdom of Heaven to be temporary.谴责那些试图发现究竟是如何在Word加入到他的人类物质;希腊的灵魂,天堂,地球,和创造的学说;死后的灵魂的毁灭,那些说创造是永恒的或一成不变的,那些做不接受基督,在Theotokos,和所有他的圣徒的奇迹;那些谁认为希腊哲学的真实;,创造上帝的自由意志的结果;的灵魂前存在;谁否认,创建是创建无中生有那些说,地狱是暂时的,将恢复所有的创作和那些理解是暂时的天堂王国的。

Synod of Blachernae, in Constantinople local Synod, 1157 AD 主教Blachernae,在当地主教君士坦丁堡 ,1157 AD
Convened regarding Basilakes and Soterichus.召集有关Basilakes和Soterichus。 Condemned those who say Christ offered His sacrifice to the Father alone, and not to himself and to the Holy Spirit; those who say the sacrifice of the Divine Liturgy is only figuratively the sacrifice of Christ's body and blood; those who deny that the sacrifice in the Liturgy is one and the same as that of Christ on the cross; those who say men were reconciled to the Son through the incarnation and to the Father through the passion; those who think the deification of Christ's humanity destroyed his human nature; those who deny that his deified human nature is worthy of worship; those who say that, since the human nature of Christ was swallowed up into Divinity, his passion was an illusion; those who say that characteristics of Christ's human nature (creaturehood, circumscription, mortality, and blameless passions) exist only hypothetically, when one considers Christ's human nature in abstraction, and not really and truly.谴责那些谁说基督提供他的牺牲的父亲独自,并没有以自己和圣灵;谁说牺牲神的仪式是只比喻基督的身体和血的牺牲,谁否认,在牺牲在礼仪的基督在十字架上的相同;谁说男子是不甘心通过的化身和对父亲给儿子通过的激情;那些谁认为神化基督的人性摧毁了他的人性;那些否认的是他神化人类的本质值得崇拜;那些谁说,因为基督的人性被吞噬成神起来,他的激情是一种假象;谁说基督的人性,特点(creaturehood,界限,死亡率,和无可指责的激情)只存在于假设,当一个人认为基督的人性的抽象,而不是实实在在。

Council in Constantinople local Council, 1166 AD安理会在君士坦丁堡地方议会,1166 AD
Convened regarding Constantine the Bulgarian.召开关于君士坦丁保加利亚。Condemned those who maintain that 'My father is greater than I' refers only to Christ's human nature, taken in abstraction and who explain the statement in various ways, one of which is that the statement refers to the fact that Christ's human nature retained its properties in the hypostatic union.谴责那些谁维护,“我的父亲是更大的比我”,是指只有基督的人类的性质,在抽象的和谁解释各种方法,其中之一,语句是指这样的事实,基督的人性保留其属性的声明在本质的联盟。

Second Council of Lyons Failed 'reunion Council', 1274 AD 里昂第二届理事会失败“团圆会”公元1274
Motivated by a desire of popes to gain recognition of primacy and by a desire of emperors to receive material and martial aide.动机的教皇渴望获得承认的首要地位,由皇帝的愿望,收到材料和武术助手。Emperor Michael basically compelled the few Orthodox bishops in attendance to rubber-stamp papal claims.皇帝迈克尔基本上迫使一些东正教会主教出席橡皮图章教皇索赔。Rejected throughout the East and regarded as meaningless.整个东拒绝,并认为是无意义。Emperor Michael's sister stated: 'Better my brother's empire should perish than the purity of the Orthodox faith.'皇帝迈克尔的妹妹说:“我弟弟的帝国灭亡比信仰东正教的纯洁性。”Repudiated by Michael's successor.驳斥迈克尔的继任者。

Council at Constantinople local Council, 1285 AD理事会君士坦丁堡地方议会,1285 AD
Convened regarding the Procession of the Holy Spirit.召开有关游行的圣灵。Clarified the teaching on the Holy Spirit's origin.阐明了圣灵的起源教学。


It is recognised that the very Paraclete shines and manifests Himself eternally by the intermediary of the Son, as light shines from the sun by the intermediary of rays; but that does not mean that He comes into being through the Son or from the Son.人们认识到,非常圣灵眼前一亮,体现自己永远子的中介,从射线中介的太阳光线照射, 但是,这并不意味着他通过儿子或从儿子。

Council at Constantinople - Ninth Ecumenical (Imperial) Council , 1341, 1349, 1351 AD安理会在君士坦丁堡-第九届合一(英制)会 ,1341,1349,1351的AD
Convened regarding Barlaam the Calabrian and Acindynus.召集有关Barlaam的卡拉布里亚和Acindynus。Condemned Barlaam the Calabrian and Acindynus.卡拉布里亚和Acindynus谴责Barlaam。Condemned those who think the light of Christ's Transfiguration was an apparition, or the essence of God and those who do not believe the divine light is the uncreated grace and energy of God which proceeds from God's essence; those who do not recognise the undivided distinction between God's essence and his energy; those who deny the energy of God is uncreated; those who say the distinction between energy and essence implies that God is not simple and uncompounded; those claim the term 'Godhead' should only be applied to the essence of God, and not to the divine energy; and those who maintain the Divine Essence can be communicated.谴责那些谁认为基督的变形,一个幽灵,或神和谁做不相信的神圣光的非受造的恩典和神的能量这从上帝的本质收益的本质;谁做不认识的不可分割的区别之间上帝的本质和他的能量;谁否认神的能量是自存;谁说,能源和本质的区别意味着,上帝是不会简单和uncompounded;的索赔'神性'应该只被应用到神的本质,而不是神圣的能量;保持神圣本质的那些可以传达。

Council of Constance Roman Catholic Council, 1414-1418 AD 康斯坦茨罗马天主教会理事会 ,1414年至1418年公元
It deposed John XXIII and Benedict XIII whilst the third pope, Gregory XII, resigned.它被废黜约翰二十三世和本笃十三,而第三个教皇格雷戈里十二,辞职。This settled the division of mutliple claimants to the papacy and cleared the way for the Council's election of Martin V. Taught that a general council was highest authority (higher than pope) and required regular meeting of bishops in general council.此落户复式索赔人分工教皇和清除安理会的马丁五,选举的方式教,总理事会是最高权力机构(教皇)和主教在总理事会的要求定期会晤。

Council of Basel Roman Catholic Council, 1431 AD ff公元1431 FF 巴塞尔罗马天主教会理事会
Met in accordance with decree of Constance.会见按照法令的康斯坦茨。Re-affirmed that a general council was superior in authority to a pope.再次确认,一般会是在教皇的权威,以优越。Pope demanded the council be transferred to Ferrara, but only a minority of bishops complied with most continuing to meet in Basel.教皇要求会转移到费拉拉,但只有少数符合最持续,以满足在巴塞尔主教。

Council of Ferrara Failed 'reunion Council', 1438 AD; moved to Florence, 1438 - 1443费拉拉失败“团聚会”,1438 AD ;搬到佛罗伦萨,第1438 - 1443
Motivated by a desire of popes to gain recognition of primacy and by a desire of emperors to receive material and military assistance.动机的教皇渴望获得承认的首要地位,并通过一个皇帝的愿望,接收物资和军事援助。Began in Ferrara, was subsequently transferred to Florence.在费拉拉开始,后来转移到佛罗伦萨。Primary focus: Filioque.主要重点:Filioque。Ended with most Orthodox bishops accepting addition of Filioque, claims of papal primacy, and accepting Latin notion of Purgatory.截至大多数东正教会主教接受Filioque此外,声称教皇的首要地位,并接受拉丁美洲的概念炼狱。Upon return to East, most bishops renounced agreement which had been forced on them by Emperor John.回国后到东,最主教皇帝约翰他们已被迫放弃协议。Soundly rejected by Orthodox faithful throughout Roman Empire and Slavic areas.一片反对之声,整个罗马帝国和斯拉夫地区东正教徒。Officially repudiated by Constantinople Patriarchate in 1472. Served as model for Roman Catholicism's Uniates.君士坦丁堡东正教会在1472年正式否定,担任罗马天主教的Uniates模式

Ending of Ferrara-Florence in Rome 1443-1444 AD 费拉拉佛罗伦萨在罗马结束的1443年至1444年公元
Conclusion of Ferrara-Florence after Orthodox departure (1439)结论东正教离境后的费拉拉,佛罗伦萨(1439)

Synod of Jerusalem Pan-Orthodox Council, 1583 AD耶路撒冷泛东正教会主教 ,1583 AD
Convened regarding various Roman Catholic beliefs.召开关于各种罗马天主教信仰。

The 1583 Synod of Jerusalem condemned the following: 1.1583耶路撒冷主教谴责以下几点:1。 those who do not believe the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father alone in essence, and from Father and Son in time;谁也不相信圣灵收益来自父亲,在本质上单独,从时间的父亲和儿子;
2. 2。those who believe the Lord Jesus Christ used unleavened bread at the Last Supper;那些相信主耶稣基督在最后的晚餐使用无酵饼;
3.3。those who believe in Purgatory;相信那些在炼狱;
4.4。those who believe the pope, rather than the Lord Jesus Christ is head of the Church;相信,而不是主耶稣基督的教皇,是教会的头;
5.5。those who use the Gregorian calendar and its new Paschalion.那些使用公历和新Paschalion。

In addition, this synod re-affirmed adherence to the decisions of Nicaea I (Ecumenical/Imperial #1 (AD 325)).此外,本主教会议重新肯定坚持我的尼西亚(大公/英制#1(公元325年))的决定。

Council at Iasi (Romania) local Council, 1642 AD雅西(罗马尼亚)地方议会理事会 ,1642 AD
Re-affirmed as 'genuine parts of scripture': 1 Esdras (3 Esdras in the Vulgate), Tobit, Judith, three books of the Maccabees, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus (Ben Sira), Baruch and the Letter of Jeremiah.再次确认为“圣经”的原厂零件:1埃斯德拉斯(3埃斯德拉斯,在武加大),Tobit回归,朱迪思,3马加书籍,智慧,Ecclesiasticus(本西拉),巴鲁克和耶利米书。 Approved revised version of Confession of Peter of Moghila corrected for its Roman Catholic errors (purgatory, the claim that the change in the eucharistic bread and wine occurs at the 'words of institution'.罗马天主教错误纠正Moghila彼得供述批准的修订版(炼狱,声称在圣体圣事的面包和酒的变化发生在“机构的话”。

Council of Jerusalem - Pan-Orthodox Council 1672 AD耶路撒冷委员会-泛东正教会 1672公元
Convened regarding Cyril Lukaris.关于西里尔Lukaris召开。Condemned Calvinism of Cyril Lukaris.西里尔Lukaris谴责加尔文主义。Re-affirmed procession of the Holy Spirit from Father alone.重新肯定从父亲只有圣灵的游行。Condemned 'justification through faith alone'.谴责“通过信仰的理由孤军奋战”。Explicitly listed Wisdom, Judith, Tobit, The History of the Dragon, Susanna, Maccabees, and Sirach as 'genuine parts of Scripture'.明确列出的智慧,朱迪思,Tobit回归,龙,苏珊娜,马加的历史,和西拉奇为“真正的圣经部分”。Denied unregenerate man is totally depraved.拒绝unregenerate人是完全堕落。


We believe a man to be not simply justified through faith alone, but through faith which works through love, that is to say, through faith and works.我们相信,一个人不能简单地仅通过信仰合理,但通过通过爱的信仰,这是说,通过信仰和工程。

But we regard works not as witnesses certifying our calling, but as being fruits in themselves, through which faith becomes efficacious, and as in themselves meriting, through the Divine promises, that each of the faithful may receive what is done through his own body, whether it is good or bad.但我们认为不作为证人,证明我们的呼吁,但作为自己的水果,通过它的信仰变得有效,并作为对自己,通过神圣的承诺,值得的忠实,每个人都可以接受通过自己的身体做的是什么,无论是好还是坏。

Council at Constantinople local Council, 1755 AD 公元1755年君士坦丁堡当地政府委员会
Convened regarding Baptism.召开关于洗礼。Decreed that all Westerners -- Latin or Protestant -- had invalid sacraments and were only to be admitted into the Orthodox Church through Baptism.颁布法令,所有西方人 - 拉丁美洲或新教 - 无效的圣礼和只承认东正教借着洗礼。

Council at Constantinople local Council, 1772 AD 公元1772年君士坦丁堡当地政府委员会
Convened regarding Purgatory.召开关于炼狱。Condemned the innovation of purgatory.谴责炼狱创新。


We the godly, following the truth and turning away from such innovations, confess and accept two places for the souls of the dead, paradise and hell, for the righteous and sinners, as the holy Scripture teaches us.我们的敬虔,真理,这种创新的承认和接受两地死了,天堂与地狱的灵魂,为正义和罪人,圣经教导我们。We do not accept a third place, a purgatory, by any means, since neither Scripture nor the holy Fathers have taught us any such thing.我们不接受一个第三名,一个炼狱,以任何方式,因为既不是圣经,也不是神圣的父亲告诉我们任何这样的事情。However, we believe these two places have many abodes 但是,我们认为这两个地方有许多住处
None of the teachers of the Church have handed down or taught such a purgatory, but they all speak of one single place of punishment, hades, just as they teach about one luminous and bright place, paradise.教会的教师都没有流传下来或教这样一个炼狱,但他们都讲一个位置的惩罚,阎王,就像一个发光,明亮的地方,天堂教。 But both the souls of the holy and the righteous go indisputably to paradise and those of the sinners go to hades, of whom the profane and those who have sinned unforgivably are punished forever and those who have offended forgivably and moderately hope to gain freedom through the unspeakable mercy of God.但无论是灵魂的圣洁和正义的天堂和那些罪人去无可争议去冥府,其中的亵渎和永远受到惩罚那些犯了罪不可原谅,和那些谁得罪forgivably和适度希望获得通过的自由难言的怜悯的神。 For on behalf of such souls, that is of the moderately and forgivably sinful, there are in the Church prayers, supplications, liturgies, as well as memorial services and almsgiving, that those souls may receive favour and comfort.对于代表这样的灵魂,是中度及forgivably罪孽深重,也有在教堂祈祷,恳求,礼仪,以及纪念服务和施舍,那些灵魂可能会收到赞成和舒适性。 Thus when the Church prays for the souls of those who are lying asleep, we hope there will be comfort for them from God, but not through fire and purgatory, but through divine love for mankind, whereby the infinite goodness of God is seen.因此,当堂那些躺在睡着的灵魂祈祷,我们希望将有来自上帝,而不是通过消防和炼狱他们的舒适,但通过对人类的神圣的爱,即看到神的无限善良。

Council at Constantinople local Council, 1819 AD 公元1819年君士坦丁堡当地政府委员会
Endorsed the teaching of the Kollyvades monks (frequent communion, the empirical experience of hesychasm against metaphysical speculations and rationalism, etc.)赞同Kollyvades僧侣的教学(频繁的共融,hesychasm反对形而上学的猜测和理性主义的实际经验,等等。)

Council at Constantinople local Council, 1872 AD公元1872年在君士坦丁堡地方议会理事会
Convened regarding Phyletism.召开关于Phyletism。Condemned Phyletism, the heresy that the organisation of the Church should be along racial (ethnic) lines in the same geographical area.谴责Phyletism,异端教会组织应沿着种族(民族)在同一地理区域线。

Council at Constantinople Inter-Orthodox Congress, 1923 AD理事会在 1923 君士坦丁堡东正教间国会,公元
Authorised local churches to use the Revised Julian calendar whilst maintaining the traditional Paschalion.授权地方教会使用,同时保持了传统Paschalion的经修订的儒略历。

Information provided by TR ValentineTR情人节提供的信息

Also, see:此外,见:
Roman Catholic Church Listing of Councils罗马天主教教会上市议会

Nicene Creed (Symbol of Faith)尼西亚(象征真诚)

Athanasian Creed阿他那修信经信条
Apostles' Creed使徒们的信条

Council of Basel巴塞尔议会
Council of Chalcedon理事会chalcedon
Council of Constance安理会的人Constance
Councils of Constantinople议会的君士坦丁堡
Council of Ephesus理事会以弗所
Council of Ferrara-Florence安理会的费拉拉-佛罗伦萨
Councils of Nicaea校董会的尼西亚
Photius photius

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