Orthodox Church Beliefs东正教信仰

General Information一般资料

The Basic Doctrines的基本教义

Councils and Confessions议会和信仰

All Orthodox credal formulas, liturgical texts, and doctrinal statements affirm the claim that the Orthodox Church has preserved the original apostolic faith, which was also expressed in the common Christian tradition of the first centuries.所有东正教credal公式,礼仪文本,和理论语句肯定,东正教会保留原来的使徒信仰的说法,这也是在第一世纪的基督教传统的共同表达。 The Orthodox Church recognizes as ecumenical the seven councils of Nicaea I (325), Constantinople I (381), Ephesus (431), Chalcedon (451), Constantinople II (553), Constantinople III (681), and Nicaea II (787) but considers that the decrees of several other later councils also reflect the same original faith (eg, the councils of Constantinople that endorsed the theology of St. Gregory Palamas in the 14th century).东正教教堂承认合一我尼西亚(325),我君士坦丁堡(381),以弗所(431),迦克墩(451),君士坦丁堡第二(553)第三,君士坦丁堡(681),和尼西亚第二(787)7局但认为,其他几个后来议会的法令,也反映了相同的原始信仰(例如,君士坦丁堡议会赞同圣格雷戈里利帕拉玛斯在14世纪的神学)。 Finally, it recognizes itself as the bearer of an uninterrupted living tradition of true Christianity that is expressed in its worship, in the lives of the saints, and in the faith of the whole people of God.最后,它认识到自己作为一个真正的基督教,是表示其崇拜的不间断的生活传统的旗手,在圣人的生活,并在神整个人的信心。

In the 17th century, as a counterpart to the various "confessions" of the Reformation, there appeared several "Orthodox confessions," endorsed by local councils but, in fact, associated with individual authors (eg, Metrophanes Critopoulos, 1625; Peter Mogila, 1638; Dosítheos of Jerusalem, 1672).在17世纪,作为对应的不同“口供”的改革,出现了几个“东正教的供述中,”由地方议会通过,但事实上,与作者个人相关(例如,Metrophanes Critopoulos,1625;彼得莫吉拉1638;耶路撒冷,1672 Dosítheos)。None of these confessions would be recognized today as having anything but historical importance.这些供词没有被确认今天有什么,但重要的历史意义。When expressing the beliefs of his church, the Orthodox theologian, rather than seeking literal conformity with any of these particular confessions, will rather look for consistency with Scripture and tradition, as it has been expressed in the ancient councils, the early Fathers, and the uninterrupted life of the liturgy.当表达的信念,他的教会,东正教的神学家,而不是寻求与这些特定的口供文字符合,而是看圣经和传统的一致性,因为它已经在古老的议会,早期教父,和表达不间断的生活礼仪。 He will not shy away from new formulations if consistency and continuity of tradition are preserved.他不会回避的新配方,如果被保留了传统的一致性和连续性。

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What is particularly characteristic of this attitude toward the faith is the absence of any great concern for establishing external criteria of truth - a concern that has dominated Western Christian thought since the Middle Ages. 是什么,尤其是这种对信仰的态度的特征是没有任何真理建立外部条件的极大关注-一个西方基督教中世纪以来的思想占据了主导地位的关注。 Truth appears as a living experience accessible in the communion of the church and of which the Scriptures, the councils, and theology are the normal expressions.真理作为生活体验,在教会的共融访问的圣经,市政局和神学是正常的表达式。Even ecumenical councils, in the Orthodox perspective, need subsequent "reception" by the body of the church in order to be recognized as truly ecumenical.即使是合一议会,在东正教的角度来看,教会的身体需要后续的“接待”,才能被认可为真正的合一。Ultimately, therefore, truth is viewed as its own criterion: there are signs that point to it, but none of these signs is a substitute for a free and personal experience of truth, which is made accessible in the sacramental fellowship of the church.因此,归根结底,事实是视为自己的标准:有迹象表明,指向它,但没有这些标志是一个真理,这是在教会的圣事联谊会访问的自由和个人经验的替代品。

Because of this view of truth, the Orthodox have traditionally been reluctant to involve church authority in defining matters of faith with too much precision and detail. This reluctance is not due to relativism or indifference but rather to the belief that truth needs no definition to be the object of experience and that legitimate definition, when it occurs, should aim mainly at excluding error and not at pretending to reveal the truth itself that is believed to be ever present in the church. 由于这种观点的真理,东正教历来不愿意参与教会的权威,在信仰的定义太多的精度和细节事项。这种不情愿是不是由于相对或冷漠,而是相信真理需要没有定义经验和合法定义的对象,当它发生时,目标应该主要是排除错误,而不是故作揭示真理本身,被认为是有史以来在教会目前的。

God and Man上帝和人

The development of the doctrines concerning the Trinity and the incarnation, as it took place during the first eight centuries of Christian history, was related to the concept of man's participation in divine life.关于三位一体的化身,因为它发生在基督教历史上的第一个8世纪的学说的发展,是关系到人的参与在神圣的生命的概念。

The Greek Fathers of the church always implied that the phrase found in the biblical story of the creation of man (Gen. 1:26), according to "the image and likeness of God," meant that man is not an autonomous being and that his ultimate nature is defined by his relation to God, his "prototype."教会的希腊教父总是暗示,发现在人的创造(创1:26)圣经故事,根据短语“神的形象和肖像,”意味着人是不是一个自治的福祉,并他的终极性的定义是由他的神,他的“原型的关系。” In paradise Adam and Eve were called to participate in God's life and to find in him the natural growth of their humanity "from glory to glory."亚当和夏娃在天堂被称为参与在神的生命,他找到了他们的人性的自然增长“从辉煌走向辉煌。”To be "in God" is, therefore, the natural state of man.是“神”,因此,人的自然状态。This doctrine is particularly important in connection with the Fathers' view of human freedom.这一学说的父亲“人的自由是特别重要的。For theologians such as Gregory of Nyssa (4th century) and Maximus the Confessor (7th century) man is truly free only when he is in communion with God; otherwise he is only a slave to his body or to "the world," over which, originally and by God's command, he was destined to rule.格雷戈里的果树(4世纪)和Maximus的神学家的人是真正的自由,只有当他是在与天主共融的忏悔(公元7世纪),否则他是唯一一个从他的身体或“世界”,超过,原本和上帝的命令,他是注定要统治。

Thus, the concept of sin implies separation from God and the reduction of man to a separate and autonomous existence, in which he is deprived of both his natural glory and his freedom.因此,罪的概念意味着从神和人减少到一个独立的和自主的存在,他是他的自然的荣耀和他的自由被剥夺的分离。He becomes an element subject to cosmic determinism, and the image of God is thus blurred within him.他成为一个元素受宇宙确定性,和神的形象,因此,在他模糊。

Freedom in God, as enjoyed by Adam, implied the possibility of falling away from God.上帝,亚当享有的自由,暗示远离上帝下降的可能性。This is the unfortunate choice made by man, which led Adam to a subhuman and unnatural existence.这是不幸的人,一个非人的和非自然存在而导致亚当选择。The most unnatural aspect of his new state was death.他的新国家的最非自然的方面是死亡。In this perspective, "original sin" is understood not so much as a state of guilt inherited from Adam but as an unnatural condition of human life that ends in death.从这个角度来看,“原罪”的理解不是作为一个从亚当继承内疚的状态,但作为人类生命的非自然条件,在死亡结束了这么多。 Mortality is what each man now inherits at his birth and this is what leads him to struggle for existence, to self-affirmation at the expense of others, and ultimately to subjection to the laws of animal life.死亡率是现在每个人在他出生的继承,这是导致他为生存而奋斗,自我肯定,在牺牲他人,并最终遭受动物生活的法律。The "prince of this world" (ie, Satan), who is also the "murderer from the beginning," has dominion over man. “这世界的王”(即撒旦),也是“从起初是杀人的,”对人的统治。From this vicious circle of death and sin, man is understood to be liberated by the death and Resurrection of Christ, which is actualized in Baptism and the sacramental life in the church.从这个死亡和罪恶的恶性循环中,人是了解死亡和复活的基督,这是现实的洗礼和教会的圣事生活中解放出来。

The general framework of this understanding of the God-man relationship is clearly different from the view that became dominant in the Christian West--ie, the view that conceived of "nature" as distinct from "grace" and that understood original sin as an inherited guilt rather than as a deprivation of freedom.这种认识的神人关系的总体框架,显然是从不同的观点,成为西方基督教占主导地位 - 即,认为把“性质”不同的“宽限期”,理解为一种原罪继承,而不是作为一个剥夺自由的内疚。In the East, man is regarded as fully man when he participates in God; in the West, man's nature is believed to be autonomous, sin is viewed as a punishable crime, and grace is understood to grant forgiveness.在东方,人是被视为完全的人,当他在神参与;在西方,人的本性被认为是自主,是罪受到惩罚的罪行视为,宽限期了解给予宽恕。 Hence, in the West, the aim of the Christian is justification, but in the East, it is rather communion with God and deification.因此,在西方,基督教的目的有理无理,但在东方,它是与神和神化而共融。In the West, the church is viewed in terms of mediation (for the bestowing of grace) and authority (for guaranteeing security in doctrine); in the East, the church is regarded as a communion in which God and man meet once again and a personal experience of divine life becomes possible.在西方,教堂被认为调解(赐予的恩典)管理局(保证安全学说);在东方,教会是作为一个共融的神和人再次见面和神圣的生命的个人的经验成为可能。

Christ基督

The Orthodox Church is formally committed to the Christology (doctrine of Christ) that was defined by the councils of the first eight centuries.东正教的正式承诺,是由前八世纪的议会定义的基督(基督的教义)。Together with the Latin Church of the West, it has rejected Arianism (a belief in the subordination of the Son to the Father) at Nicaea (325), Nestorianism (a belief that stresses the independence of the divine and human natures of Christ) at Ephesus (431), and Monophysitism (a belief that Christ had only one divine nature) at Chalcedon (451).加上西方拉丁教会,它已拒绝阿里乌斯教(在儿子的父亲的从属的信念)在尼西亚(325),景教(一个信念,即强调基督的神和人的本性的独立性)以弗所(431),和基督一迦克墩(451)(一种信仰,基督只有一个神圣的性质)。 The Eastern and Western churches still formally share the tradition of subsequent Christological developments, even though the famous formula of Chalcedon, "one person in two natures," is given different emphases in the East and West.东部和西部教会正式份额随后基督发展的传统,即使迦克墩著名的公式,“一个人在两个性质”,是在东,西不同的侧重点。The stress on Christ's identity with the preexistent Son of God, the Logos (Word) of the Gospel According to John, characterizes Orthodox Christology.强调基督的先在与神的儿子,根据约翰福音的标志(字)的身份,东正教基督的特点。On Byzantine icons, around the face of Jesus, the Greek letters '' --the equivalent of the Jewish Tetragrammaton YHWH, the name of God in the Old Testament--are often depicted.在拜占庭式的图标,面对各地的耶稣,希腊字母“ - 相当于犹太Tetragrammaton耶和华,神在旧约的名称 - 经常被描述。Jesus is thus always seen in his divine identity.因此,耶稣总是出现在他的神圣身份。Similarly, the liturgy consistently addresses the Virgin Mary as Theotokos (the "one who gave birth to God"), and this term, formally admitted as a criterion of orthodoxy at Ephesus, is actually the only "Mariological" (doctrine of Mary) dogma accepted in the Orthodox Church.同样,礼仪始终地址作为Theotokos圣母玛利亚(“生下神”),这个词,在以弗所的正统标准正式承认,实际上是唯一的“Mariological”(玛丽学说)的教条接受东正教。 It reflects the doctrine of Christ's unique divine Person, and Mary is thus venerated only because she is his mother "according to the flesh."它反映了基督的神人独特的学说,从而崇敬和玛丽,不仅因为她是他的母亲“按肉体。”

This emphasis on the personal divine identity of Christ, based on the doctrine of St. Cyril of Alexandria (5th century), does not imply the denial of his humanity.圣西里尔亚历山大(第五世纪)的学说的基础上,基督神圣的个人身份的强调并不意味着他的人性的拒绝。The anthropology (doctrine of man) of the Eastern Fathers does not view man as an autonomous being but rather implies that communion with God makes man fully human.东部父亲人类学(男子学说)不能查看被作为一个独立的人,而是意味着与天主共融,使人充分人类。Thus the human nature of Jesus Christ, fully assumed by the divine Word, is indeed the "new Adam" in whom the whole of humanity receives again its original glory.耶稣基督的圣言完全承担,因此,人性确实是整个人类在其中接收其原有的辉煌再次的“新亚当”。Christ's humanity is fully "ours"; it possessed all the characteristics of the human being--"each nature (of Christ) acts according to its properties," Chalcedon proclaimed, following Pope Leo--without separating itself from the divine Word.基督的人性是完全“我们”,它拥有人类的所有特征 - “每个性质(基督)的行为,根据其属性,”迦克墩宣布,教皇利奥 - 没有脱离圣言。Thus, in death itself--for Jesus' death was indeed a fully human death--the Son of God was the "subject" of the Passion.因此,在死亡本身 - 耶稣的死的确是一个完整的人的死亡 - 神的儿子的“主体”的激情。The theopaschite formula ("God suffered in the flesh") became, together with the Theotokos formula, a standard of orthodoxy in the Eastern Church, especially after the second Council of Constantinople (553). theopaschite公式(“上帝在肉身遭受”)成为Theotokos公式,在东方教会的正统标准,特别是在第二届理事会君士坦丁堡(553)。 It implied that Christ's humanity was indeed real not only in itself but also for God, since it brought him to death on the cross, and that the salvation and redemption of humanity can be accomplished by God alone--hence the necessity for him to condescend to death, which held humanity captive.它意味着不仅在本身,而且还为上帝基督的人性确实是真实的,因为它带来了他在十字架上的死亡,并认为人类的救恩和赎回可以独自完成神 - 因此有必要为他屈尊死亡,其中举行的人类的俘虏。

This theology of redemption and salvation is best expressed in the Byzantine liturgical hymns of Holy Week and Easter: Christ is the one who "tramples down death by death," and, on the evening of Good Friday, the hymns already exalt his victory.拜占庭圣周及复活节礼仪赞美诗赎回和救恩的神学是最好的表达:基督是一个人“践踏下来死亡,死亡”,耶稣受难日傍晚,赞美诗已经发扬他的胜利。 Salvation is conceived not in terms of satisfaction of divine justice, through paying the debt for the sin of Adam--as the medieval West understood it--but in terms of uniting the human and the divine with the divine overcoming human mortality and weakness and, finally, exalting man to divine life.救恩是不神圣的正义的满意方面的设想,通过支付债务为亚当的罪 - 中世纪西方的理解 - 但在团结的人力和神圣克服人类死亡率和弱点和神圣最后,高举人神圣的生命。

What Christ accomplished once and for all must be appropriated freely by those who are "in Christ"; their goal is "deification," which does not mean dehumanization but the exaltation of man to the dignity prepared for him at creation.基督一次完成,并为所有自由必须拨出谁是“在基督”;他们的目标是“神化”,这并不意味着非人待遇,但提高到人的尊严为他准备在创建。 Such feasts as the Transfiguration or the Ascension are extremely popular in the East precisely because they celebrate humanity glorified in Christ--a glorification that anticipates the coming of the Kingdom of God, when God will be "all in all."变身或升天这样的节日是在东极受欢迎,正是因为他们庆祝在基督荣耀的人性 - “一切的一切”的颂扬,预计未来上帝的王国,当神将

Participation in the already deified humanity of Christ is the true goal of Christian life, and it is accomplished through the Holy Spirit.参加在基督已经神化的人类是基督徒生活的真正目的,它是通过圣灵来完成。

The Holy Spirit圣灵

The gift of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost "called all men into unity," according to the Byzantine liturgical hymn of the day; into this new unity, which St. Paul called the "body of Christ," each individual Christian enters through Baptism and "chrismation" (the Eastern form of the Western "confirmation") when the priest anoints him saying "the seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit."圣灵在五旬节的礼物“成团结所有的人,所谓”根据拜占庭礼仪一天的赞歌;到这个新的统一,其中圣保禄所谓的“基督的身体,”每一个人的基督徒借着洗礼后, “chrismation”(东方西方的“确认”的形式)的牧师anoints时,他说:“圣灵的恩赐印章。”

This gift, however, requires man's free response.然而,这件礼物,需要人的自由响应。Orthodox saints such as Seraphim of Sarov (died 1833) described the entire content of Christian life as a "collection of the Holy Spirit."萨罗夫的塞拉芬(死于1833年),如东正教圣人形容为基督徒生活的全部内容“圣灵的集合。”The Holy Spirit is thus conceived as the main agent of man's restoration to his original natural state through Communion in Christ's body.因此,圣灵是视为人的恢复到他原来通过圣餐的基督的身体的自然状态的主剂。 This role of the Spirit is reflected, very richly, in a variety of liturgical and sacramental acts.这种精神的作用是反映非常丰富,各种礼仪和圣事行为。Every act of worship usually starts with a prayer addressed to the Spirit, and all major sacraments begin with an invocation to the Spirit.每崇拜的行为,通常在开始时的精神祈祷,和所有主要圣礼开始与一个调用的精神。 The eucharistic liturgies of the East attribute the ultimate mystery of Christ's Presence to a descent of the Spirit upon the worshipping congregation and upon the eucharistic bread and wine.东圣体礼仪属性基督的存在,最终神秘的圣灵降临后,崇拜众后,圣体圣事的面包和酒。The significance of this invocation (in Greek epiklesis) was violently debated between Greek and Latin Christians in the Middle Ages because the Roman canon of the mass lacked any reference to the Spirit and was thus considered as deficient by the Orthodox Greeks.这个调用的意义(希腊epiklesis)被剧烈的辩论之间的希腊语和拉丁语的基督徒在中世纪,因为群众的罗马佳能没有任何的精神,因而缺乏考虑由希腊东正教。

Since the Council of Constantinople (381), which condemned the Pneumatomachians ("fighters against the Spirit"), no one in the Orthodox East has ever denied that the Spirit is not only a "gift" but also the giver--ie, that he is the third Person of the holy Trinity.由于安理会​​的君士坦丁堡(381),其中谴责Pneumatomachians(“对精神战士”),在东正教地区没有一个人曾经否认的精神不仅是一份“礼物”,而且还送礼 - 即,他是三位一体的第三人。The Greek Fathers saw in Gen. 1:2 a reference to the Spirit's cooperation in the divine act of creation; the Spirit was also viewed as active in the "new creation" that occurred in the womb of the Virgin Mary when she became the mother of Christ (Luke 1:35); and finally, Pentecost was understood to be an anticipation of the "last days" (Acts 2:17) when, at the end of history, a universal communion with God will be achieved.希腊教父看到在创世记1:2提到圣灵的造物行为的合作精神也积极看待发生在子宫内的圣母玛利亚的“新创造”,当她成为母亲基督(路加福音1:35),最后,圣灵降临节被理解为“最后的日子”(徒2:17)时,在历史的终结,一个普遍的共融与神将达到预期。 Thus, all the decisive acts of God are accomplished "by the Father in the Son, through the Holy Spirit."因此,所有的神的决定性行为都做到了“父在子通过圣灵。”

The Holy Trinity三位一体的

By the 4th century a polarity developed between the Eastern and Western Christians in their respective understandings of the Trinity.到了第四世纪,东方和西方之间在各自的理解三位一体的基督徒一个极性。In the West God was understood primarily in terms of one essence (the Trinity of Persons being conceived as an irrational truth found in revelation); in the East the tri-personality of God was understood as the primary fact of Christian experience.在西方神的理解,主要是在一个本质(三位一体人事设想在启示录中发现了一个不合理的真理);在东方神三个性理解基督徒经验的主要事实。 For most of the Greek Fathers, it was not the Trinity that needed theological proof but rather God's essential unity.对于大多数的希腊教父,这是不是三位一体的需要神学的证明,而是神的基本统一。The Cappadocian Fathers (Gregory of Nyssa, Gregory of Nazianzus, and Basil of Caesarea) were even accused of being tri-theists because of the personalistic emphasis of their conception of God as one essence in three hypostases (the Greek term hypostasis was the equivalent of the Latin substantia and designated a concrete reality).卡帕多西亚教父(格雷戈里的果树,格雷戈里的nazianzus撒利亚罗勒),甚至指责,因为他们神的概念作为一个本质personalistic重点在三个位格(希腊文原质相当于三有神论拉丁美洲substantia,并指定一个具体的现实)。 For Greek theologians, this terminology was intended to designate the concrete New Testamental revelation of the Son and the Spirit, as distinct from the Father.希腊神学家,这个术语的目的是要指定新的具体子和圣灵,从父Testamental启示。

Modern Orthodox theologians tend to emphasize this personalistic approach to God; they claim that they discover in it the original biblical personalism, unadulterated in its content by later philosophical speculation.现代东正教神学家往往强调这personalistic上帝,他们声称,他们发现原来圣经的人格,其内容搀杂后期的哲学思辨。

Polarization of the Eastern and the Western concepts of the Trinity is at the root of the Filioque dispute. The Latin word Filioque ("and from the Son") was added to the Nicene Creed in Spain in the 6th century. 极化是在东方和西方概念的三位一体的Filioque纠纷的根源 。拉丁词Filioque(“和子”)添加到公元6世纪在西班牙尼西亚。 By affirming that the Holy Spirit proceeds not only "from the Father" (as the original creed proclaimed) but also "from the Son," the Spanish councils intended to condemn Arianism by reaffirming the Son's divinity.肯定圣灵不仅收益“从父”(原来的信条宣布),但也“从儿子,”西班牙议会谴责阿里乌斯教重申儿子的神。Later, however, the addition became an anti-Greek battle cry, especially after Charlemagne (9th century) made his claim to rule the revived Roman Empire.后来,然而,除了成为反希腊的战斗口号,尤其是在查理曼(9世纪),他的索赔统治复兴的罗马帝国。The addition was finally accepted in Rome under German pressure.德国的压力下,除了终于在罗马接受。It found justification in the framework of Western conceptions of the Trinity; the Father and the Son were viewed as one God in the act of "spiration" of the Spirit.它发现在西方三位一体的概念框架的理由;作为一个神的“圣灵”spiration的行为视为父亲和儿子。

The Byzantine theologians opposed the addition, first on the ground that the Western Church had no right to change the text of an ecumenical creed unilaterally and, second, because the Filioque clause implied the reduction of the divine persons to mere relations ("the Father and the Son are two in relation to each other, but one in relation to the Spirit").拜占庭式的神学家反对此外,先在地面上,西方教会无权改变文本合一信条单方面,第二,因为在Filioque条款所隐含的神圣的人减少,单纯的关系(下称“父亲和儿子都在相互关系中的两个,但在有关的精神“)。 For the Greeks the Father alone is the origin of both the Son and the Spirit.对于希腊人,父亲单独子和圣灵的起源。Patriarch Photius (9th century) was the first Orthodox theologian to explicitly spell out the Greek opposition to the Filioque concept, but the debate continued throughout the Middle Ages.祖师Photius(9世纪)是第一个东正教的神学家明确阐明希腊反对Filioque概念,但整个中世纪继续辩论。

The Transcendence of God神的超越

An important element in the Eastern Christian understanding of God is the notion that God, in his essence, is totally transcendent and unknowable and that, strictly speaking, God can only be designated by negative attributes: it is possible to say what God is not, but it is impossible to say what he is. 在东部基督徒对上帝的理解的一个重要因素是上帝,在他的本质,是完全超然和不可知的,严格来说,神只能由负属性指定的概念:它可以说上帝不是什么但它是不可能的,说他是什么。

A purely negative, or "apophatic" theology--the only one applicable to the essence of God in the Orthodox view - does not lead to agnosticism, however, because God reveals himself personally - as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit - and also in his acts, or "energies."一个纯粹消极的,或“apophatic”神学 - 只有一个适用于神的正统观点的精髓 - 不不可知论,但是,因为上帝揭示亲自 - 圣父,圣子和圣灵 - 和也在他的行为,或“能量。”Thus, true knowledge of God always includes three elements: religious awe; personal encounter; and participation in the acts, or energies, which God freely bestows on creation.因此,真正的上帝的知识总是包括三个要素:宗教的敬畏;个人遇到和参与的行为,或能量,上帝在创建自由赋予。

This conception of God is connected with the personalistic understanding of the Trinity.这种神的概念是连接personalistic三位一体的理解。It also led to the official confirmation by the Orthodox Church of the theology of St. Gregory Palamas, the leader of Byzantine hesychasts (monks devoted to divine quietness through prayer), at the councils of 1341 and 1351 in Constantinople.这也导致正式确认由圣格雷戈里利帕拉玛斯神学,拜占庭hesychasts领导人(致力于通过祈祷神圣的寂静的僧侣)的东正教教堂,在1341和1351在君士坦丁堡议会。 The councils confirmed a real distinction in God, between the unknowable essence and the acts, or "energies," which make possible a real communion with God.理事会确认一个真正的区别,在神之间的不可知的本质和行为,或“能量”,可能与神真正的共融。The deification of man, realized in Christ once and for all, is thus accomplished by a communion of divine energy with humanity in Christ's glorified manhood.在基督一劳永逸的实现,是人的神化,从而完成了与人类在基督的荣耀成年的神圣能量的交流。

Modern Theological Developments现代神学的发展

Until the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks (1453), Byzantium was the unquestioned intellectual centre of the Orthodox Church.直到征服君士坦丁堡由土耳其人(1453),拜占庭是不容置疑的东正教的知识产权中心。Far from being monolithic, Byzantine theological thought was often polarized by a Humanistic trend, favouring the use of Greek philosophy in theological thinking, and the more austere and mystical theology of the monastic circles.从单一,拜占庭式的神学思想往往是由人文趋势两极化,有利于使用希腊哲学在神学思想,修道界更加严峻和神秘的神学。 The concern for preservation of Greek culture and for the the political salvation of the empire led several prominent Humanists to adopt a position favourable to union with the West.希腊文化的保护和关注,为帝国的政治救赎,带领几个突出的人文主义,采取有利于与西方联盟的立场。The most creative theologians (eg, Symeon the New Theologian, died 1033; Gregory Palamas, died 1359; Nicholas Cabasilas, died c. 1390), however, were found rather in the monastic party that continued the tradition of patristic spirituality based upon the theology of deification.然而,最有创意的神学家(例如,Symeon的新神学家,死亡1033;高利帕拉玛斯,死亡1359尼古拉斯Cabasilas,死于C. 1390),被发现,而在寺院的党,继续教父的灵性神学为基础的传统神化。

The 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries were the dark age of Orthodox theology. 16日,17日和18世纪的东正教神学的黑暗时代。Neither in the Middle East nor in the Balkans nor in Russia was there any opportunity for independent theological creativity.两个在中东,也不在俄罗斯在巴尔干地区,也不是有任何独立的神学创造力的机会。Since no formal theological education was accessible, except in Western Roman Catholic or Protestant schools, the Orthodox tradition was preserved primarily through the liturgy, which retained all its richness and often served as a valid substitute for formal schooling. Most doctrinal statements of this period, issued by councils or by individual theologians, were polemical documents directed against Western missionaries.由于没有正式的神学教育是访问,但在西方罗马天主教或新教学校,东正教的传统被保留下来,主要是通过礼仪,保留其丰富性和经常作为一个正规的学校教育有效替代,大部分教义此期间的发言, 由议会发出,或由个别神学家,是针对西方传教士的论战文件。

After the reforms of Peter the Great (died 1725), a theological school system was organized in Russia.彼得的改革后,大(死于1725年),神学院系统是在俄罗斯举办。Shaped originally in accordance with Western Latin models and staffed with Jesuit-trained Ukrainian personnel, this system developed, in the 19th century, into a fully independent and powerful tool of theological education.形最初是在按照西方拉丁模型,并与耶稣训练有素的乌克兰人员组成,该系统开发,在19世纪,进入一个完全独立的神学教育和强大的工具。 The Russian theological efflorescence of the 19th and 20th centuries produced many scholars, especially in the historical field (eg, Philaret Drozdov, died 1867; VO Klyuchevsky, died 1913; VV Bolotov, died 1900; EE Golubinsky, died 1912; NN Glubokovsky, died 1937).俄罗斯在19世纪和20世纪的神学风化产生的许多学者,特别是在历史领域(例如,Philaret DROZDOV,死亡1867人; VO Klyuchevsky,死亡1913维维Bolotov,死亡1900 EE的Golubinsky,死亡1912 NN Glubokovsky,死亡1937)。Independently of the official theological schools, a number of laymen with secular training developed theological and philosophical traditions of their own and exercised a great influence on modern Orthodox theology (eg, AS Khomyakov, died 1860; VS Solovyev, died 1900; N. Berdyayev, died 1948), and some became priests (P. Florensky, died 1943; S. Bulgakov, died 1944).独立的官方神学学校,与世俗培训外行开发自己的神学和哲学传统和现代东正教神学(例如,AS Khomyakov行使了很大的影响,死亡1860人; VS Solovyev,死亡1900;北路Berdyayev死于1948),有的成了祭司(体育Florensky,死亡1943人; S ·布尔加科夫,死亡1944)。A large number of the Russian theological intelligentsia (eg, S. Bulgakov, G. Florovsky) emigrated to western Europe after the Russian Revolution (1917) and played a leading role in the ecumenical movement.一个俄罗斯神学知识分子(例如,S.布尔加科夫,G. Florovsky)的大量移民到西欧,俄国革命后(1917年)和合一运动中发挥了主导作用。

With the independence of the Balkans, theological schools were also created in Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria, and Romania.随着巴尔干地区的独立,也创造了希腊,塞尔维亚,保加利亚,罗马尼亚和神学学校。Modern Greek scholars contributed to the publication of important Byzantine ecclesiastical texts and produced standard theological textbooks.现代希腊学者提供重要的拜占庭式的教会文本的出版,制作标准的神学教科书。

The Orthodox diaspora - the emigration from eastern Europe and the Middle East - in the 20th century has contributed to modern theological development through their establishment of theological centres in western Europe and America.东正教散居 - 来自东欧和中东的移民 - 在20世纪的现代神学的发展做出了贡献,通过其在西欧和美国的神学中心成立。

Orthodox theologians reacted negatively to the new dogmas proclaimed by Pope Pius IX: the Immaculate Conception of Mary (1854) and papal infallibility (1870).东正教神学家反对由教皇庇护九世宣布的新教条:玛丽(1854)和教皇infallibility(1870年)的圣母无原罪。 In connection with the dogma of the Assumption of Mary, proclaimed by Pope Pius XII (1950), the objections mainly concerned the presentation of such a tradition in the form of a dogma.在圣母升天的教条,宣布教皇Pius XII(1950年),主要涉及这样的传统教条的形式介绍了反对。

In contrast to the recent general trend of Western Christian thought toward social concerns, Orthodox theologians generally emphasize that the Christian faith is primarily a direct experience of the Kingdom of God, sacramentally present in the church. Without denying that Christians have a social responsibility to the world, they consider this responsibility as an outcome of the life in Christ. 在西方基督教对社会的关注认为近期大势所趋,东正教神学家一般强调,基督教的信仰主要是直接的经验,sacramentally目前在教会的神的王国 。没有否认,基督徒有社会责任感的世界上,他们认为这个责任,作为一个在基督里的生命的结果。This traditional position accounts for the remarkable survival of the Orthodox Churches under the most contradictory and unfavourable of social conditions, but, to Western eyes, it often appears as a form of passive fatalism.这在最矛盾和不利的社会条件下,但是,西方的眼睛,它往往作为一种被动宿命论形式出现的东正教教堂的显着生存的传统地位帐户。


Orthodox Church Beliefs东正教信仰

Advanced Information先进的信息

Tradition in the Orthodox Church传统东正教

Terminology and Meaning.术语和含义。

The term "tradition" comes from the Latin traditio , but the Greek term is paradosis and the verb is paradido . “传统”一词来自拉丁文traditio,但希腊的长期 paradosis和动词 paradido 。 It means giving, offering, delivering, performing charity.这意味着给予,提供,交付,执行慈善机构。In theological terms it means any teaching or practice which has been transmitted from generation to generation throughout the life of the Church.在神学而言,它意味着整个教会生活的一代又一代已发送任何教学或实践。More exactly, paradosis is the very life of the Holy Trinity as it has been revealed by Christ Himself and testified by the Holy Spirit. paradosis更确切地说,是三位一体的生活,因为它已被发现基督自己和圣灵作证。

The roots and the foundations of this sacred tradition can be found in the Scriptures.这个神圣的传统的根和的基础,可以发现在“圣经”。For it is only in the Scriptures that we can see and live the presence of the three Persons of the Holy Trinity, the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit.它只有在圣经中,我们可以看到和现场存在的圣父,圣子和圣灵三位一体,三人。St. John the Evangelist speaks about the manifestation of the Holy Trinity: "For the Life was manifested, and we have seen it, and bear witness, and show unto you that eternal life, which was with the Father, and was manifested unto us" (1 John 1:2).圣约翰的传播者谈三位一体的体现:“为生命表现,我们已经看到它,并见证,你们表明,永恒的生命,这是与父,并告诉我们表现“(约翰一书1:2)。

The essence of Christian tradition is described by St. Paul, who writes: "But now in Christ Jesus, you that used to be so far apart from us have been brought very close, by the blood of Christ. For He is peace between us, and has made the two into one and broken down the barrier which used to keep them apart, actually destroying in His own person the hostility caused by the rules and decrees of the Law. This was to create one single man in Himself out of the two of them and by restoring peace through the Cross, to unite them both in a single body and reconcile them with God. In His own person He killed the hostility. . . Through Him, both of us have in one Spirit our way to come to the Father" (Ephes. 2:13-14).基督教传统的本质是由圣保罗写道:。“但是,现在在基督耶稣里,你曾经是除了我们至今已带来非常接近基督的血,因为他是我们之间的和平,并已成为一个两个,并打破了障碍,让他们分开,实际上是在他自己的人破坏造成的规则和法律法令的敌意,这是创建一个单一的人在自己的他们通过交叉恢复和平,团结在一个单一的机构,他们和他们与神调和在他自己的人,他杀害的敌意。。通过他,我们俩在一个精神有我们的方式来父亲“(Ephes. 2:13-14)。He also makes clear that this Trinitarian doctrine must be accepted by all Christians: "If any man preach any other gospel to you than you have received ( parelavete ) let him be condemned" (Gal. 1:8-9).他还明确必须由所有的基督徒所接受,这三位一体的教义:“如果任何人鼓吹你比你有收到任何其他的福音 (parelavete)让他受到谴责”(加拉太书1:8-9)。Speaking about the Holy Eucharist, which is a manifestation of the Holy Trinity, he writes: "For I have received ( parelavon ) of the Lord that which I also delivered to you" ( paredoka ) (1 Cor. 11:23).在谈到圣体圣事,这是一个三位一体的体现时,他写道:“因为我已经收到的主,我也向您提供(parelavon)”(paredoka)(1肺心病11时23分)。 Again speaking about the death, burial and resurrection of Jesus Christ, St. Paul writes: "For I delivered to you ( paredoka ) first of all that which I also received" ( parelavon ).再次对耶稣基督的死,埋葬和复活说,圣保罗写道:“对于我交付给你(paredoka)首先,我也收到了”(parelavon)Finally he admonishes: "Brethren, stand fast and hold the traditions ( tas paradoseis ) which you have been taught, whether by word or our epistle" (1 Thessal. 2:15).最后,他告诫:“弟兄们,坚守和保持传统(TAS paradoseis)你被教导,无论是字或我们的书信”(1 Thessal 2点15分) 。The sole source and cause and principle of the Trinitarian unity is the Father Himself (Ephes. 4:4-6).的唯一来源和三位一体的统一事业和原则,是父亲自己(Ephes. 4:4-6)。

The Apostolic Tradition使徒传统

Theologians call this teaching of the Scriptures "the Apostolic Tradition."神学家称此教学圣经“使徒传统”。It encompasses what the Apostles lived, saw, witnessed and later recorded in the books of the new Testament.它包括使徒生活,所看到的,在新约圣经的书籍后目睹和记录。The bishops and presbyters, whom the Apostles appointed as their successors, followed their teaching to the letter.主教和长老,其中使徒任命为他们的继承人,他们的教学落到实处。Those who deviated from this apostolic teaching were cut off from the Church.从这个使徒教学偏离那些被切断,从教会。They were considered heretics and schismatics, for they believed differently from the Apostles and their successors, thus separating themselves from the Church.他们被视为异端和schismatics,他们认为从使徒和他们的继承人不同,从而脱离自己的教会。This brings into focus the Church as the center of unity of all Christians.这将成为关注的焦点作为团结所有基督徒的中心的教会。 This is the ecclesiastical or ecclesiological characteristic of Tradition.这是传统的教会或教会学的特点。The Church is the image and reflection of the Holy Trinity since the three persons of the Holy Trinity live, indwell, and act in the Church.教会是自indwell,三位一体的生活,和教会的行为三人三位一体的形象和反映。 The Father offers His love, the Son offers His obedience, the Holy Spirit His comfort.父亲提供他的爱,儿子提供他服从他的安慰,圣灵。Only in the historical Church can we see, feel, and live the presence of the Holy Trinity in the World.只有在历史的教会,我们可以看到,感觉,和生活在世界三位一体的存在。In describing this reality St. Paul writes: "So he came and proclaimed the good news: peace to you who were far off, and peace to those who were near by; for through him we both alike have access to the Father in the one Spirit. Thus you are no longer aliens in a foreign land, but fellow-citizens with God's people, members of God's household. You are built upon the foundation laid by the Apostles and prophets, and Christ Jesus Himself is the cornerstone. In him the whole building is bonded together and grows into a holy temple in the Lord. In him you too are being built with all the rest into a spiritual dwelling of God" (Ephes. 2:17-22).在描述这一现实圣保罗写道:“等他回来向你宣布一个好消息:和平不远了,和那些附近的和平,通过他,我们双方都在一个访问父精神。因此,您在异乡没有较长的外国人,但与上帝的子民,神的家庭成员。您是在使徒和先知奠定基础后建,和基督耶稣自己的同胞公民的基石。在他的整个建筑是粘合在一起,并生长成在主的圣殿,在他身上,你也正在修建,其余所有成神的精神栖居“(Ephes. 2:17-22)。

The unity of the Holy Trinity, being the fundamental reality in the Church and of the Church, also requires a real unity among all its members.三位一体的统一,在教会和教会的基本现实,还需要其所有成员之间的真正团结。All the members of the Church live in the bond of love and unity through the Holy Trinity.所有的教会的成员居住在通过三位一体的爱和团结的纽带。This truth is described by St. Peter: "But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, God's own people, that you may declare the wonderful deeds of Him who called you out of the darkness into His marvelous light. Once you were no people, but now you are God's people; once you had not received mercy, but now you have received mercy."这个真理是由圣彼得描述:“但你选定的种族,君尊的祭司,是圣洁的民族,上帝自己的人,你可以声明他的精彩事迹的黑暗叫你到他的奇妙的光。一旦你没有人,但现在你是上帝的人,一旦你没有收到的怜悯,但现在你已经收到怜悯“。 (1 Peter 2: 9-10). (彼得前书2:9-10)。This Church was established as a historical reality on the day of Pentecost, with the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles: "While the day of Pentecost was running its course they were all together in one place, when suddenly there came from the sky a noise like that of a strong driving wind, which filled the whole house where they were sitting. And there appeared to them tongues like flames of fire, dispersed among them and resting on each one. And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and began to talk in other tongues, as the Spirit gave them power of utterance" (Acts 2: 1-4).本教会成立后使徒后裔的圣灵就在五旬节的历史现实,:“虽然在五旬节运行其的过程中,他们一起在一个地方的时候,突然从天上来这样的一个强大动力风,充满了整个房子,他们在那里坐着,似乎有像火焰的舌头,噪音,分散在他们和休息,在每一个他们都与圣灵充满开始讲方言,作为精神给他们的话语权“(使徒2:1-4)。

Only in this Church, where the Holy Trinity lives and acts constantly could the teaching of Christ, the very revelation of truth, as received and transmitted by the Apostles, abide and be sustained.只有在这个教堂,三位一体的生活和行为,不断基督的教学,真理的启示,作为接收和传送由使徒,遵守和维持。Thus truth in its fullness does not exist outside the Church, for there is neither Scripture, nor Tradition.因此,在其丰满的真理不存在教会之外,既不是圣经,也不传统。This is why St. Paul admonishes the Galatians that even if an angel from heaven preaches another gospel to them, he must be condemned: "If any man preach any other gospel to you than that you have received ( parelavete ) let him be condemned" (1:8-9).这是为什么圣保禄告诫加拉太,即使一个天使从天上宣扬另一个福音给他们,他必须受到谴责:“如果任何人鼓吹你比你收到任何其他的福音(parelavete)让他受到谴责“ (1:8-9)。And he writes to his disciple Timothy to follow strictly the "precepts of our faith" and the "sound instructions" he received from him and avoid "godless myths" (1 Tim. 4: 4-7).他写信给他的弟子蒂莫西遵循严格的“我们信仰的戒律”和“健全的指示”,他收到他和避免“不信神的神话”(1添4:4-7)。 He also admonishes the Colossians to avoid "merely human injunctions and teachings" (2: 22), and to follow Christ: "Therefore, since Jesus was delivered to you as Christ and Lord, live your lives in union with Him. Be rooted in Him; be built in Him; be consolidated in the faith you were taught; let your hearts overflow with thankfulness. Be on your guard; do not let your minds be captured by hollow and delusive speculations, based on traditions of man-made teaching and centered on the elemental spirits of the universe and not on Christ. For it is in Christ that the complete being of the Godhead dwells embodied, and in Him you have been brought to completion" (Col. 2: 6-8).他还告诫歌罗西书,以避免“只是人类的禁令和教诲”(2:22),并跟随基督:“因此,因为耶稣是提供给您作为基督和主联盟与他住在你的生活,是植根于。他建在他在你被教导的信仰合并;,让你的心与感恩溢出警惕,不要让你的头脑被捕获空洞和虚妄的猜测,基于传统的人造教学和元素的宇宙和基督精神为中心,它是在基督里,体现完整的神正住,和他你已经完成“(歌罗西书2:6-8)。

This teaching or Apostolic Tradition was transmitted from the Apostles themselves to their successors, the bishops and the presbyters.这种教学或使徒传统是从使徒自己传送给他们的继承人,主教和长老。St. Clement, Bishop of Rome (second century AD), and probably a disciple of the Apostles himself, described this historical truth: "The Apostles preached to us the Gospel received from Jesus Christ, and Jesus Christ was God's Ambassador. Christ, in other words, comes with a message from God, and the Apostles with a message from Christ. Both these orderly arrangements, therefore, originate from the will of God. And so, after receiving their instructions and being fully assured through the Resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ, as well as confirmed in faith by the word of God, they went forth, equipped with the fullness of the Holy Spirit, to preach the good news that the Kingdom of God was close at hand. From land to land, accordingly, and from city to city they preached; and from among their earliest converts appointed men whom they had tested by theSpirit to act as bishops and deacons for the future believers" ( Letter to the Corinthians, ch. 42).圣克莱门特(公元二世纪),罗马的主教,可能是使徒自己的弟子,描述这个历史的真相:“使徒教我们收到来自耶稣基督的福音,和耶稣基督是上帝的大使基督,在。换句话说,是来自上帝的消息,并与从基督的消息使徒。这两个有序安排,因此,来自神的旨意。因此,在收到他们的指示,并完全通过我们的主复活放心耶稣基督,以及在信仰上帝的话证实,他们去了,配备了丰满的圣灵,传福音,上帝的王国近在咫尺,从土地的土地,因此,从城市到城市,他们宣讲;他们最早将任命他们通过theSpirit测试,以作为未来的信徒“(给哥林多教会的信,CH 42)的主教和执事的男子。One can clearly see how the message of salvation originating from God the Father was taught by Jesus Christ, witnessed to by the Holy Spirit, preached by the Apostles and was transmitted by them to the Church through the clergy they themselves appointed.人们可以清楚地看到,救恩的信息,从神原产父亲是耶稣基督教,目睹圣灵,使徒讲道,并转达了他们通过他们自己任命的神职人员,教会。 This became the "unerring tradition of the Apostolic preaching" as it was expressed by Eusebius of Caesarea, bishop of the fourth century, who is considered the "father" of Church History ( Church History, IV, 8).这成了因为它是由尤西比乌斯的凯撒利亚主教的第四个世纪,被认为是“父亲”的教会历史( 教会历史,,8)表示“无误的使徒的说教的传统“。

The Patristic Tradition教父的传统

From what has been said so far, it can be seen that there is no theological distinctions or differences or divisions within the Tradition of the Church.从已表示,到目前为止,可以看出,没有神学的区别或在教会的传统的差异或分歧。It could be said that Tradition, as an historical event, begins with the Apostolic preaching and is found in Scriptures, but it is kept, treasured, interpreted, and explained to the Church by the Holy Fathers, the successors of the Apostles.可以说这一传统,作为一个历史事件,开始与使徒的说教,是在圣经中发现的,但它是保持,珍惜,解释,并解释教会的圣教父们,宗徒们的继承人。 Using the Greek term Pateres tes Ecclesias , the Fathers of the Church, this "interpretive" part of the Apostolic preaching is called "Patristic Tradition."使用希腊的长期Pateres TES Ecclesias,教会的父亲,这个“解释”使徒的说教的部分被称为“教父传统。“

The Fathers, men of extraordinary holiness and trusted orthodoxy in doctrine, enjoyed the acceptance and respect of the universal Church by witnessing the message of the Gospel, living and explaining it to posterity.父亲,非凡的圣洁和值得信赖的正统学说的人,所享有的接受和尊重普世教会见证福音的信息,生活和解释后人。Thus, Apostolic Preaching or Tradition is organically associated with the Patristic Tradition and vice versa. This point must be stressed since many theologians in the Western churches either distinguish between Apostolic Tradition and Patristic Tradition, or completely reject Patristic Tradition.因此,使徒说教或传统的有机关联的教父的传统,反之亦然。,这一点必须强调因为在许多西方教会的神学家,要么区分使徒传统和教父传统,或者完全拒绝教父的传统。

For the Orthodox Christian, there is one Tradition, the Tradition of the Church, incorporating the Scriptures and the teaching of the Fathers.为正统基督教,有一个传统,教会的传统,结合圣经和教学的父亲。This is "the preaching of the truth handed down by the Church in the whole world to Her children" (St. Irenaeus, Proof of the Apostolic Preaching , 98).这是(圣爱任纽, 证明使徒的说教,98)“在整个世界教会孩子交给真理的说教“。St. Athanasius, the Great "Pillar of Orthodoxy," who was bishop of Alexandria during the fourth century, gives the most appropriate definition of the Church's Tradition: "Let us look at the very tradition, teaching, and faith of the catholic Church from the very beginning, which the Logos gave ( edoken ), the Apostles preached ( ekeryxan ), and the Fathers preserved ( ephylaxan ). Upon this the Church is founded" ( tethemeliotai ).大的“正统的支柱,圣athanasius,”谁是亚历山大的主教,在第四世纪,教会的传统中最合适的定义:“让我们看起来很传统,教学,和天主教的信仰,从开始的时候,这标志了(edoken),使徒所宣扬(ekeryxan),保存的父亲(ephylaxan)经本教会成立“(tethemeliotai)(St. Athanasius, First Letter to Serapion , 28).(圣athanasius, 第一个字母谢拉皮翁 ,28)。In retrospect, Tradition is founded upon the Holy Trinity, it constantly proclaims the Gospel of Christ, it is found within the boundaries of the Christian Church, and it is expounded by the Fathers.回想起来,成立后三位一体的传统,它不断地宣扬基督的福音,这是发现的基督教教会的界限内,它是由神父阐述。

Universality and Timelessness of Tradition传统的普遍性和永恒

Another characteristic still needs to be added, namely that the Tradition of the Church is universal in space and time.另一个特点仍然需要加以补充,即教会的传统是在时间和空间的普遍。St. Vincent of Lerins, a bishop and writer in France during the fifth century, writes that "we must hold what has been believed everywhere, always, and by all" ( Common , 2).圣文森特Lerins,在第五世纪的主教和法国作家,写,说:“我们必须持有一直认为无处不在,总是和所有”(通用,2) 。Indeed, the Church with all her members, always, from the time of her inception until the end of time, accepts and teaches everywhere the redemptive work of Christ.事实上,教会她所有的成员,始终,她,直到结束的时候开始的时间,接受并教导无处不在基督的救赎工作。This does not mean that the Church and Her Tradition move within numerical, geographical or chronological limits.这并不意味着,教会和她的传统移动数值,地域或时间限制内。The Church and Her Tradition, although they live in history, are beyond history.教会和她的传统,虽然他们住在历史上,超越历史。 They have eternal value, because Christ, the Founder of the Church, has no beginning and no end.他们有永恒的价值,因为基督,教会的创始人,没有开始也没有结束。In other words, when the universality of the Church Tradition is mentioned, it refers to the gift of the Holy Spirit, which enables the Church to preserve until the end of time the Apostolic truth unadulterated, unbroken, and unaltered.换句话说,当教会传统的普遍性所提到的,它是指圣灵的礼物,使教会保持到结束的时间,直到使徒的真理十足的,完整的,并没有改变。 This is true because Tradition expresses the common Orthodox mind ( phronema ) of the whole Church against all heresies and schisms of all times.这是真实的,因为传统对整个教会对所有时代所有的异端邪说和分裂东正教的共同心态( phronema)。

It is important to emphasize both the temporality as well as the timelessness, two fundamental aspects of Holy Tradition.重要的是要强调的时间性以及永恒,圣传的两个基本方面。The late Fr.已故的神父。Georges Florovsky wrote that "Tradition is not a principle striving to restore the past, using the past as a criterion for the present. Such a conception of tradition is rejected by history itself and by the consciousness of the Orthodox Church. . . Tradition is the constant abiding of the Spirit and not only the memory of words. Tradition is a charismatic, not a historical event" ("The Catholicity of the Church" in Bible, Church, Tradition , p. 47).乔治Florovsky写道:“传统不是一个原则,努力恢复过去,过去使用目前的标准。拒绝这样一个传统的概念是由历史本身和东正教的自觉性。传统恒定的守法精神,不仅是单词的记忆。传统是一个有魅力的的,不是一个历史事件“(”共通性的教会“圣经”,教会 ,传统,第47页)。In other words, Tradition is a gift of the Holy Spirit, a living experience, which is relived and renewed through time.换句话说,传统是圣灵,生活体验,这是重温和通过时间延长的礼物。It is the true faith, which is revealed by the Holy Spirit to the true people of God.它是真正的信仰,这是圣灵上帝的真正的人透露。

Tradition, therefore, cannot be reduced to a mere enumeration of quotations from the Scriptures or from the Fathers.传统,因此,不能降低到单纯从圣经或报价从父亲枚举。It is the fruit of the incarnation of the Word of God, His crucifixion and resurrection as well as His ascension, all of which took place in space and time.这是神的话语的化身,他的被钉十字架和复活以及升天,所有这一切都发生在时间和空间发生的水果。Tradition is an extension of the life of Christ into the life of the Church.传统是基督的生命延长到教会生活。According to St. Basil, it is the continuous presence of the Holy Spirit: "Through the Holy Spirit comes our restoration to paradise, our ascension into the kingdom of heaven, our return as adopted sons, our liberty to call God our Father, our being made partakers of the grace of Christ, our being called children of light, our sharing in eternal glory, and, in a word, our being brought into a state of a "fullness of blessing" (Rom. 15: 29), both in this world and in the world to come. . ."据圣罗勒,它是持续存在的圣灵:“我们借着圣灵恢复的天堂,我们进入天国的提升,我们的回报作为养子,我们的自由通话神我们的父,我们的正在有分基督的恩典,我们被称为光明之子,我们永恒的荣耀分享,并在一个字,我们被带进了一个“丰满的祝福”(罗马书15:29)的状态,无论是在这个世界上和在世界来。“ (St. Basil of Caesaria, On the Holy Spirit , XV.).(圣巴索Caesaria, 在圣灵 ,第十五)。

Tradition and traditions传统与传统

This description by St. Basil gives the true "existential" dimensions of the Holy Tradition of the Church.这圣罗勒的说明提供了真正的“存在”教会的圣传的尺寸。For the Orthodox, therefore, Tradition is not a static set of dogmatic precepts, or the uniform practices of the liturgical ritual of the Church.为正统,因此,传统不是一个静态的设置,教条式的戒律或教会的礼仪祭祀的统一做法。Although Church Tradition includes both doctrinal and liturgical formulas and practices, it is more properly the metamorphosis, the continuous transfiguration of the people of God, through the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, the love of God the Father and the communion of the Holy Spirit, as experienced in the daily life of the Church.虽然教会的传统教义和礼仪的配方和做法,是比较正常的变态,神人不断变身,通过我们的主耶稣基督的恩典,天父上帝的爱和圣灵的共融在教会的日常生活经验。 This does not mean that Tradition is something abstract and theoretical or that it ignores the daily needs of human nature.这并不意味着,传统是一些抽象的理论,它忽视了人性的日常需要。On the contrary, the "rule of faith" becomes every day the "rule of worship."相反,“信仰的法则”成为每天的“崇拜的规则。” Doctrine, prayer, moral guidance, and liturgical practices are indispensable parts of Holy Tradition.教义,祈祷,道德的指导,和礼仪的做法是神圣的传统的不可缺少的部分。Some theologians speak about traditions with a small " t ," as being the written or unwritten practices of the daily Christian life, in contrast with Tradition with capital " T ," which encompasses the basic doctrines of revelation and our salvation in Christ.有些神学家谈与小传统“T”,作为日常的基督徒生活的成文或不成文的做法, 传统资本“T”,其中包括基本教义的启示和我们在基督里的救恩相反。

This type of distinction is rather misleading.这种类型的区别是相当误导。Tradition and traditions are the integral parts of the life of the Church and they express the totality of the Christian way of life which leads to salvation.传统与传统的教会生活的组成部分,他们表达了全部得救的基督徒生活的方式。The doctrine of incarnation, the historical truth of the crucifixion and resurrection, the Eucharist, the sign of the cross, the threefold immersion in the baptismal font, the honor and respect due to the Virgin Mary and to the saints of the Church, are all important for the Christian, who wants to find himself in the "perimeter" of salvation in Christ.化身的教义,受难和复活的历史真相,圣体,交叉的符号,在三倍浸泡的洗礼,由于圣母玛利亚和教会圣人的荣誉和尊重,都为基督徒,想找到自己的“雷池”在基督里的救恩的重要。 This is what the Church has taught through the centuries.这是百年来教导教会。"Therefore we must consider the Tradition of the Church trustworthy," St. John Chrysostom writes, "it is Tradition, seek no more" ( Second Letter to Thessal.: Homily ). “因此,我们必须考虑在教会守信的传统,”圣约翰金口写道,“这是传统,寻求更多的”(第二封信Thessal:讲道) 。

The Ecumenical Councils基督教议会

As has already been noted, the authority, the power, and the impact of Tradition are found in the Scriptures and the Patristic teaching as a total and unified expression of the revelation of the Holy Trinity in the world.正如已经指出的,权威,权力,和传统的影响,发现在圣经和教父的教学作为一个在世界上的三位一体的启示的总​​的和统一的表达。 Christ, as the ultimate and supreme Teacher, Shepherd and King, exercises His authority in the Holy Spirit through the Apostles and their successors.基督,为最终和最高的教师,牧羊人和国王,行使他在圣灵透过使徒和他们的继承人的权力。The Apostles, their successors and the whole people of God are the Body of Christ extending throughout the ages.使徒,他们的继承人和整个人神是基督的身体,整个年龄段的延长。"There is no private teaching save the common doctrine of the Catholic Church," wrote St. Maximos the Confessor (seventh century; Migne PG , 90, 120C). “圣Maximos忏悔(公元七世纪,写道:”有没有私人保存的天主教教会的共同理论教学; 米涅 PG,90,120C) 。In the reply to Pope Pius IX in 1848, the Eastern Patriarchs wrote that "the Defender of the faith is the very Body of the Church, that is the people, who want their faith kept constantly unvarying and in agreement with the Fathers."在教皇庇护九世于1848年的答复,东始祖写道:“信仰的捍卫者,是教会的机构,即是人,谁不想自己的信仰不断保持不变,并在与父亲的协议。” Thus the clergy and the laity are both responsible for the preservation of the authentic and genuine Holy Tradition in and through the life of the Church.因此僧侣和俗人都负责维护并通过教会生活的真实和真正的圣传。 In this context, particularly, the Ecumenical Councils of the Church, and more generally, the Local Councils of the Church are of great importance.特别是,在这种情况下,教会的合一议会,更普遍的地方议会,教会是非常重要的。The first Council Synod of the Church was the Apostolic Synod, which took place in Jerusalem in 51 AD Later, bishops used to meet either locally, or on the "ecumenical" or universal, the all-encompassing level of the universal Christian empire, the oikoumene , in order to discuss and solve serious dogmatic and canonical issues which had arisen.第一届理事会的教会主教是使徒主教了公元51年发生在耶路撒冷后,用来满足本地主教,或“合一”的或普遍的,无所不包的水平普遍基督教帝国, oikoumene,以讨论和解决严重的和教条式的规范出现了问题。

The Orthodox Church accepts the following seven Ecumenical Councils:东正教教堂接受以下七个基督教议会:

  1. The Council of Nicea in 325 , which discussed and condemned Arianism. 理事会在325尼西亚 ,讨论和谴责阿里乌斯教。
  2. The Council of Constantinople in 381 which principally condemned Apollinarianism.理事会在381 君士坦丁堡主要谴责Apollinarianism。
  3. The Council of Ephesus in 431, which condemned Nestorianism. 431 安理会的以弗所 ,谴责景教。
  4. The Council of Chalcedon in 451, which condemned Monophysitism.在451 安理会的迦克墩 ,谴责基督一性。
  5. The Second Council of Constantinople , in 553, which condemned Origen and other heretics.第二届理事会君士坦丁堡 ,在553,谴责奥利和其他异教徒。
  6. The Third Council of Constantinople in 680-81, which condemned Monothelitism. 第三届理事会君士坦丁堡在680-81,谴责Monothelitism。
  7. The Second Council of Nicea , in 787, which condemned Iconoclasm. 第二届理事会尼西亚 ,在787,谴责破除迷信。

The Orthodox Church also assigns ecumenical status to The Council in Trullo in 692, which took place in Constantinople.东正教教堂也将Trullo会合一的状态,到692年,发生在君士坦丁堡。Eastern bishops took part in it, and they passed disciplinary canons to complete the work of the Fifth and the Sixth Ecumenical Councils and, thus, it is known as the Fifth-Sixth ( Quinisext or Penthekti ).发生在东部主教的一部分,他们通过纪律大炮完成第五和第六基督教议会的工作,因此,它被称为第五,第六(Quinisext或 Penthekti) 。

These Ecumenical Councils became instruments for formulating the dogmatic teachings of the Church, for fighting against heresies and schisms and promoting the common and unifying Tradition of the Church which secures her unity in the bond of love and faith.这些基督教议会成为制定教会的教条式的教导,对抗异端邪说和分裂,促进教会固定在她的爱和信仰的债券团结的共同和统一的传统乐器。 Although convened by the emperors, the Church Fathers who participated came from almost all the local dioceses of the Roman Empire, thus expressing the faith and practice of the Universal Church.虽然由皇帝召集,谁参加教会的神父来自罗马帝国几乎所有的当地教区,从而表达普世教会的信仰和实践。Their decisions have been accepted by the clergy and the laity of all times, making their validity indisputable.由神职人员和所有时代的俗人,他们的决定已被接受,其有效性不争的。The Fathers followed the Scriptures as well as the Apostolic and Patristic Tradition in general, meeting under the guidance of the Holy Spirit.父亲随后的圣经以及一般使徒和教父传统,圣灵的指导下举行会议。St. Constantine the Great, who convened the First Ecumenical Council at Nicea, wrote that "the resolution of the three hundred holy bishops is nothing else than that the determination of the Son of God, especially of the Holy Spirit, pressing upon the minds of such great men brought to light the divine purpose."圣君士坦丁大帝,召开了第一次在尼西亚大公会议,写道:“三百年的神圣主教的决议是没有别的比,神的儿子,特别是圣灵,决心,按下后的头脑这些伟人败露神圣的目的。“ (Socrates, Church History , 1:9).(苏格拉底, 教会历史 ,1:9)。In the Fourth Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon, it was stated that "The Fathers defined everything perfectly; he who goes against this is anathema; no one adds, no one takes away" ( Acta Concil. II, 1).四迦克墩大公会议,与会者指出,“父亲定义的一切完全;他针对这是诅咒,没有人补充说,没有人带走”(ACTA Concil二,1)Sabas, the bishop of Paltus in Syria in the fifth century, speaking about the Council of Nicea said: "Our Fathers who met at Nicea did not make their declarations of themselves but spoke as the Holy Spirit dictated." Sabas,Paltus在叙利亚主教在第五世纪,尼西亚理事会发言说:“我们的父辈们在尼西亚会面并没有使他们对自己的声明,但讲的圣灵口授。” "Following the Fathers . . " becomes a fixed expression in the minutes and the declarations of the Ecumenical Councils as well as of the local ones.“以下的父亲。”变成固定在分钟和基督教议会的声明以及当地的表达。 Thus, the Ecumenical Councils and also some local councils, which later received universal acceptance, express the infallible teaching of the Church, a teaching which is irrevocable.因此,基督教议会和一些地方议会,后来得到普遍接受,表达教会的犯错的教学,教学是不可撤销的。

Are the Ecumenical Councils of the Church the only infallible and correct instruments in proclaiming and implementing the faith of the Church?教会唯一犯错的和正确的工具,在宣布和实施教会的信仰基督教议会?Certainly, no bishops by themselves, no local churches, no theologians can teach the faith by themselves alone.当然,没有自己,没有地方教会主教,没有神学家可以自己单独教信仰。The Ecumenical Councils are among the most important means which inscribe, proclaim, and implement the faith of the Church, but only in conjunction with Scripture, and the Tradition.基督教议会落款,宣告,落实教会的信仰之中,最重要的手段,但只有在与圣经的结合,和传统。The Ecumenical Councils are an integral part of the ongoing Tradition of the Church.基督教议会是一个正在进行的教会传统的组成部分。Thus, the Orthodox Church claims that she has kept intact the faith of the first seven Ecumenical Councils.因此,东正教声称,她已经保持完好的首七个月基督教议会的信心。

Other Councils and Confessions of Faith其他议会和信仰的自白

There are also other means of re-affirming the universality of the Orthodox faith.也有其他方式的重新肯定信仰东正教的普遍性。There are, for instance, Councils which were convened during the fourteenth century in Constantinople dealing with the Palamite controversy, that is, the teaching of Gregory Palamas concerning the distinction between divine essence and divine energy.例如,有议会召开了在君士坦丁堡在14世纪处理的Palamite争议,就是关于格雷戈里神圣本质和神圣的能量之间的区别利帕拉玛斯教学。 These councils are accepted as having ecumenical status.这些委员会接受合一的状态。There are the writings and Confessions of Faith written by great teachers of the Church during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.在十七,十八世纪由教会伟大的教师编写的著作和信仰的自白。Examples might include the letter of Mark of Ephesus (1440-1441) to all Orthodox Christians; the correspondence of Patriarch Jeremiah II of Constantinople with the German Reformers (1573-1581); the council of Jerusalem (1672) and the Confession of Faith by Patriarch Dosítheos of Jerusalem (1672), and the writings of St. Nicodemos of the Holy Mountain, who published the Rudder, a book of great canonical and theological importance (1800).例子可能包括所有东正教徒的信以弗所马克(1440年至1441年);祖师耶利米第二君士坦丁堡与德国改革者(1573年至1581年)的对应关系;安理会的耶路撒冷(1672年)和信条耶路撒冷(1672年),祖师Dosítheos的圣山,他出版的舵,一个很大的规范和神学的重要性(1800)的书圣Nicodemos的著作。 Also to be included are the encyclical letters of the Ecumenical patriarchate and the other Orthodox patriarchates dealing with important and significant issues of the Church.也应包括在内的普世牧首和处理教会的重要和重大的问题的其他东正教牧首辖区的通谕字母。A collection of most of these Orthodox documents with ecumenical importance has been made and published by Professor John Karmires, a distinguished Orthodox theologian in Greece.已经取得了大多数东正教合一的重要性这些文件的集合,和一位杰出的希腊东正教神学家约翰教授Karmires出版。 There is still no English translation of this important collection.目前还没有这一重要集合的英语翻译。

In sum, the Ecumenical Councils, together with the Scriptures and the Patristic writings, are the universal voice of the Church.总之,基督教议会,连同圣经和教父的著作,是教会的普遍呼声。The position of the Ecumenical Councils in the Church and their universal authority is enhanced by the fact that they issued not only dogmatic definitions of faith, but also formulated important canons of the Church which concern Orthodox spiritual life and help the individual in the growth of his life in Christ.在教会的基督教议会和其普遍性的权威地位提高的事实,他们发出的信念,不仅教条式的定义,但也制定了教会的重要大炮关注东正教的精神生活和帮助他成长的个人生活在基督里。 Not all these canons have the same value today as they had when first written; still, they are like compasses which direct our lives toward a Christian lifestyle and orient us towards a high spiritual level.并非所有这些大炮具有相同的值,因为他们今天第一次写入时,他们仍然像一个基督徒的生活方式和东方我们朝着高的精神层面,直接走向我们的生活的指南针。 Canons which concern our moral life, fasting, and Holy Communion are indeed important for our daily life as good Orthodox Christians.关注我们的道德生活,禁食,和圣餐的大炮这的确很重要,对我们的日常生活良好的东正教徒。

The Living Tradition of the Eucharist圣体生活的传统

It is interesting to emphasize another form of the Synodical system, which accentuates the importance of Tradition: the Eucharist itself.有趣的是,强调Synodical系统的另一形式,突出传统的重要性:圣体圣事本身。In the Eucharist, all Orthodox Christians meet together and in absolute agreement, in doctrine and practice witness the presence of the Holy Trinity on the altar of the Church.在圣体圣事,所有东正教基督徒相聚在绝对的协议,在理论和实践的见证三位一体教会的祭坛上。The bishop and the priest pray to God the Father to send the Holy Spirit and transform the bread and wine into the very body and blood of Christ.主教和牧师向上帝祈祷,爸爸送圣灵非常身体和基督的血转化成的面包和酒。 All the faithful present are called to receive Communion and become active members of the Body of Christ.所有的忠实目前被称为接受圣餐,并成为基督的身体的活跃成员。In the liturgy, as it was instituted by the Lord Himself, the whole Church meets every day to proclaim and live the oneness and the unity of faith in Jesus Christ.在礼仪,因为它是由主自己提起,整个教会满足每天宣讲和生活的统一性和信仰耶稣基督的团结。In the Orthodox liturgy, we see all the history of Tradition embodied in the body and blood of Christ.在东正教礼仪,我们看到所有的传统体现在身体和基督的血的历史。St. Gregory Palamas writes the following in connection with the Holy Eucharist: "We hold fast to all the Traditions of the Church, written and unwritten, and aboveall to the most mystical and sacred celebration and communion and assembly ( synaxis ), whereby all other rites are made perfect . . . " ( Letter to Dionysius , 7).圣格里高利帕拉玛斯圣体圣事中写入以下内容:“我们坚守所有教会的传统,成文和不成文的,并aboveall最神秘和神圣的庆祝和交流大会(synaxis),使所有其他仪式是完美的。。“( 信狄奥尼修斯 ,7)。This emphasis on the Eucharist shows that Tradition is a dynamic way of life unfolding continuously in the liturgical framework of the Church.这种强调圣体显示,传统是一个动态的方式生活在教会的礼仪框架不断展开。By participating in the Eucharist, we proclaim our Tradition as living and active members of the Church.参与圣体圣事,我们宣布教会的生活和积极的成员,我们的传统。

Of course, to live according to the Traditions of the Orthodox Church, to participate, fully, in the life of Tradition is not an easy task.当然,根据东正教的传统生活,充分参与,在传统的生活,不是一件容易的事。We need the imparting of the Holy Spirit, in order to live in a mystical and mysterious way the life of Christ.我们需要圣灵的传授,以一种神秘的,神秘的方式生活在基督的生命。As St. Gregory Palamas wrote: "All those dogmas which are now openly proclaimed in the Church and made known to all alike, were previously mysteries foreseen only by the prophets through the Spirit. In the same way the blessings promised to the saints in the age to come are at the present stage of the Gospel dispensation still mysteries, imparted to and foreseen by those whom the Spirit counts worthy, yet only in a partial way and in the form of a pledge" ( Tomos of the Holy Mountain, Preface).由于圣格里高利帕拉玛斯写道:“所有这些现在公开宣布在教会的教条,这是知道都是一样的,以前只有通过圣灵的先知预见的奥秘,以同样的方式祝福承诺在圣人。年龄来是在现阶段仍奥秘的福音免除,传授给那些人的精神计数值得预见的,但只在部分的方式,并在承诺的形式“(圣山Tomos,前言) 。

Thus, the Tradition of the Church is a living reality, which the Orthodox Christian must live daily in a mystical way.因此,传统的教会是一个活生生的现实,东正教必须每天生活在一个神秘的方式。 By adhering to the teaching of the Scriptures, the Ecumenical Councils, and the Patristic writings, by observing the canons of the Church, by frequently participating in the Eucharist, where Tradition becomes an empirical reality, we are members of the Body of Christ and are led to the "contemplation of God" to repeat a beautiful expression of St. Neilos (fifth century).坚持教学的圣经,基督教议会,和教父的著作,通过观察教会的大炮,经常参加在圣体圣事,传统成为经验现实,我们是基督的身体的成员,并“神的沉思”重复美丽的圣Neilos表达(第五世纪)。 St. Gregory Palamas, in summing up the Patristic doctrine of Christian life, suggests that the ultimate purpose of man's life is theoptia, that is, seeing God.圣格雷戈里利帕拉玛斯,在总结的基督徒生活的教父学说,表明,人的生命的最终目的是 theoptia,就是见神。 ( In Defense of the Hesychasts , 1, 3, 42) or to use St. Gregory of Nyssa's words, man's life is a strenuous and endless ascent towards God, that is, deification ( theosis ). (国防部Hesychasts,1,3,42)或使用圣格雷戈里的果树的话,人的生命是一个艰苦和无尽的上升,对神,神化(theosis)( On the Life of Moses , ed. by W. Jaeger, 112ff.).在摩西的生命 。W.积,112ff。)

Orthodox Tradition, therefore, is not a dead letter, a collection of dogmas and practices of the past.东正教传统,因此,是不是一纸空文,过去教条和实践的集合。It is the history of salvation.这是救恩史。It is the life of the Holy Spirit, who constantly illuminates us in order for all Orthodox Christians to become sons and daughters of God, living in the Divine light of the All-blessed Trinity.它是圣灵,不断照亮我们为了让所有的东正教徒,成为神的儿子和女儿,生活中的所有祝福三位一体的神圣之光的生活。

George S. Bebis Ph.D.乔治S Bebis博士
Holy Cross School of Theology圣十字学院神学

Bibliography 参考书目
G. Florovsky, Bible, Church, Tradition: An Eastern Orthodox View, Belmont, Mass., 1972.; V. Lossky, "Tradition and Traditions", in In The Image and Likeness of God , ed.G. Florovsky, 圣经,教会,传统的东正教看来,贝尔蒙,马萨诸塞州,1972年,五Lossky,“传统与传统”, 在神 ,编辑的形象和肖像JH Erickson and TE Bird, Crestwood, NY, 1974, pp. 141-168.; J. Meyendorff, "The Meaning of Tradition," in Living Tradition , pp. 13-26.; GS Bebis, "The Concept of Tradition in the Fathers of the Church," Greek Orthodox Theological Review , Spring 1970, Vol.JH Erickson和TE鸟,Crestwood,纽约,1974年,第141-168页;。J. Meyendorff,“对传统的意义,” 在生活的传统,第13-26页;。GS Bebis,“对传统的概念教父,“ 希腊东正教神学回顾 1970年春季卷。XV, No. 1, pp. 22-55.; C. Scouteris, "Paradosis: The Orthodox Understanding of Tradition," Sobornost-Eastern Churches Review , Vol.十五,1号,第22-55页; C. Scouteris,“Paradosis:东正教的传统认识,”Sobornost东方教会评论 ,Vol 。4, No. 1, pp. 30-37. 4,第1期,第30-37页。



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