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Redemption is the purchase back of something that had been lost, by the payment of a ransom.赎回的东西已经失去支付赎金,购回。The Greek word so rendered is apolutrosis, a word occurring nine times in Scripture, and always with the idea of a ransom or price paid, ie, redemption by a lutron (see Matt. 20:28; Mark 10:45).所以呈现的是希腊字apolutrosis,一个字在圣经中出现九次,并始终以支付赎金或价格的想法,即由赎回路创(见太20:28;马可福音10:45)。 There are instances in the LXX.还有的lxx的实例。Version of the Old Testament of the use of lutron in man's relation to man (Lev. 19:20; 25:51; Ex. 21:30; Num. 35: 31, 32; Isa. 45:13; Prov. 6:35), and in the same sense of man's relation to God (Num. 3:49; 18:15).路创在使用人的关系,以男子的旧约(利未记十九点20分前25:51; 21时30分,编号35:。。。版本31,32,伊萨45:13;省6: 35),并在同一意义上的人的神(民数记3:49; 18:15)。There are many passages in the New Testament which represent Christ's sufferings under the idea of a ransom or price, and the result thereby secured is a purchase or redemption (comp. Acts 20:28; 1 Cor. 6:19, 20; Gal. 3:13; 4:4, 5; Eph. 1: 7; Col. 1:14; 1 Tim. 2:5, 6; Titus 2:14; Heb. 9:12; 1 Pet. 1:18, 19; Rev. 5:9).在新约中有许多段落赎金或价格的想法代表基督的苦难,和担保的结果是购买或赎回(comp.行为20:28; 1​​肺心病6时19,20;加仑。 3:13; 4时04分,5个;弗1:7;上校1时14分,提前2时05分,6;泰特斯2点14分;希伯来书9时12分,1宠物1点18分,19。。启示录5:9)。

The idea running through all these texts, however various their reference, is that of payment made for our redemption.通过所有这些文本上运行的想法,但是各种参考,为我们赎回付款。The debt against us is not viewed as simply cancelled, but is fully paid.对我们的债务是不能看作是简单地取消,但缴足。Christ's blood or life, which he surrendered for them, is the "ransom" by which the deliverance of his people from the servitude of sin and from its penal consequences is secured.基督的血还是生活中,他为他们投降,是拯救他的百姓从罪恶的奴役和刑事后果是安全的“赎金”。It is the plain doctrine of Scripture that "Christ saves us neither by the mere exercise of power, nor by his doctrine, nor by his example, nor by the moral influence which he exerted, nor by any subjective influence on his people, whether natural or mystical, but as a satisfaction to divine justice, as an expiation for sin, and as a ransom from the curse and authority of the law, thus reconciling us to God by making it consistent with his perfection to exercise mercy toward sinners" (Hodge's Systematic Theology).它是纯圣经的学说“基督节省我们既不是单纯的权力行使,也不是他的学说,也不是他的榜样,也由他施加道德影响力,也不是任何他的人的主观影响,不论是天然的或神秘,但作为一个神圣的正义的满意度,作为一个为罪的罪过,并作为一个的诅咒和法律的权威赎金,从而调和,使他的完美保持一致,以行使走向罪人怜悯我们的上帝“(Hodge的系统神学)。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)

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Redeemer, Redemption救世主,赎回

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Though closely allied to salvation, redemption is more specific, for it denotes the means by which salvation is achieved, namely, by the payment of a ransom.虽然有密切联系的救赎,赎回更为具体,它指的是取得了其中的救赎,即通过支付赎金,手段。As in the case of salvation it may denote temporal, physical deliverance.在救恩的情况下,它可以表示时间,身体的解脱。In the OT the principal words are pada and ga'al, which are usually rendered by lytrousthai in the LXX, occasionally by rhyesthai.在催产素的主要是pada和ga'al,通常所lytrousthai呈现的lxx偶尔rhyesthai,的。 In the NT lytrousthai is the usual verb form, and nouns are lytrosis and apolytrosis.在NT lytrousthai是平常的动词形式,名词lytrosis和apolytrosis。Occasionally agorazein is used, or exagorazein, denoting the act of purchase in the market, especially the slave market.偶尔agorazein使用,或exagorazein,表示在市场上的购买行为,尤其是奴隶市场。For "ransom" lytron and antilytron are used.对于“赎金”lytron和antilytron使用。

In the OT在旧约

In ancient Israel both property and life could be redeemed by making the appropriate payment.在古代以色列的财产和生命可以作出适当的支付赎回。Since the firstborn were spared in the last plague which God visited upon Egypt, he had a special claim on these, so that the firstborn thereafter had to be redeemed by a money payment (Exod. 13:13-15).由于在上帝埃及访问的最后鼠疫幸免的长子,他有这些特殊要求,使此后的长子必须由付款(出13:13-15)赎回。 According to the Pentateuchal legislation, if a man lost his inheritance through debt or sold himself into slavery, he and his property could be redeemed if one near of kin came forward to provide the redemption price (Lev. 25:25-27, 47-54; cf. Ruth 4:1-12).据Pentateuchal立法,如果一个人失去了他的继承债务或出售自己为奴,他和他的财产可以赎回,如果近的亲属出面提供赎回价格(利未记25:25-27,47 - 54。比照露丝4:1-12)。The kinsman-redeemer was also the avenger of blood on occasion.亲属的救世主也有时血的复仇者。

God's deliverance of his people from Egypt is spoken of a redemption (Exod. 6:6; 15:13), and he is Israel's Redeemer (Ps. 78:35).上帝的拯救他的子民从埃及的发言,赎回(出6时06分,15时13分),他是以色列的救赎主(诗篇78:35)。The emphasis here may well be upon the great output of strength needed to accomplish this objective, strength which itself serves as a kind of ransom price.这里的重点很可能是根据需要完成这个目标,它本身作为一种赎价供应的强度很大的力量输出。Once again God's people are found in captivity (Babylon), and again the language of redemption is used in connection with their release (Jer. 31:11; 50:33-34).再次神的人被发现在人工饲养(巴比伦),并再次赎回的语言是用于释放他们(耶31:11; 50:33-34)。 The probable meaning of Isa. ISA的可能意义。43:3 is that the conqueror of Babylon and therefore the liberator of Judah, even Cyrus, is being promised domain in Africa as a compensation for giving up captive Judah and restoring it to its inheritance in the land of Canaan. 43:3巴比伦的征服者,因此犹大,甚至赛勒斯的解放者,是被承诺放弃圈养犹大和恢复其在继承了迦南地的补偿域在非洲。

The individual also is sometimes the object of God's redemption, as in Job 19:25, where the sufferer expresses his confidence in a living Redeemer who will vindicate him eventually, despite all present appearance to the contrary.个人也有时是神的救赎的对象​​,在约伯记19:25,患者表示,他在生活的救赎谁最终会平反他的信心,尽管所有在场的外观相反。 Prov.省。23:10-11 presents the same general cast of thought.23:10-11提出了相同的一般铸铁的思想。

It is rather surprising that redemption is verbally so little associated with sin in the OT.这是相当令人吃惊,赎回是口头上这么少,在OT罪相关。Ps.聚苯乙烯。130:8 contains the promise that Jehovah will redeem Israel from all its iniquities. 130:8包含的承诺,耶和华将赎回以色列从它的所有的罪孽。Isa.伊萨。59:20, which Paul quotes in Rom. 59:20,保罗在罗马书引号。11:26, says much the same thing in more general terms (cf. Isa. 44:22). 11时26分,说在同样的事情更多的一般条款(参见伊萨。44:22)。In Ps.在PS。49:7 the impossibility of self-ransom for one's life is emphasized.强调的是49:7的自我赎金不可能一个人的生命。It is possible that the scarcity of reference to redemption from sin in the OT is due to the ever-present proclamation of redemption through the sacrificial system, making formal statements along this line somewhat superfluous, Furthermore, redemption from the ills of life, such as the Babylonian captivity, would inevitably carry with it the thought that God redeems from sin, for it was sin which brought on the captivity (Isa. 40:2).这是可能的,参考赎回罪在旧约的稀缺性是由于赎回无时不宣布通过祭祀制度,沿着这条线的正式声明,有点画蛇添足,此外,从生活的弊病赎回,如巴比伦囚禁,难免会随身带着它认为是上帝从罪恶中赎回,因为它是罪带来的圈养(以赛亚书40:2)。

The occurrence of numerous passages in the OT where redemption is stated in terms which do not explicitly include the element of ransom has led some scholars to conclude that redemption came to mean deliverance without any insistence upon a ransom as a condition or basis.在赎回条款不明确包括赎金的元素表示旧约的许多段落的发生,导致一些学者得出结论,赎回来意味着解脱没有任何赎金后,坚持一个条件或基础。 The manifestation of the power of God in the deliverance of his people seems at times to be the sole emphasis (Deut. 9:26).神在拯救他的人民的力量的体现,有时似乎是唯一的重点(申命记9时26)。But on the other hand there is no hint in the direction of the exclusion of a ransom.但另一方面,有没有一丝在排除了赎金方向。 The ransom idea may well be an assumed factor which is kept in the background by the very prominence given to the element of power needed for the deliverance.赎金的想法很可能是一个假设的因素,这是保存在后台元素为拯救需要的电源非常突出。

In the NT在NT

This observation affords the necessary bridge to the NT use of redemption.这个观察让该赎回NT使用的必要桥梁。Certain passages in the Gospels reflect this somewhat vague use of the word as implying divine intervention in behalf of God's people without specific reference to any ransom to be paid (Luke 2:38; 24:21).在福音中的某些段落反映了这一点有些模糊的词,因为这意味着代表上帝的子民没有具体提及任何支付赎金(路加福音2:38; 24:21)神助。

Mark 10:45, though it does not contain the word "redeem," is a crucial passage for the subject, because it opens to us the mind of Christ concering his mission.马可福音10:45,虽然它不包含单词“赎回”,是一个重要的课题通过,因为它开放给我们基督的心concering他的使命。 His life of ministry would terminate in an act of self-sacrifice which would serve as a ransom for the many who needed it.他生活部将终止在自我牺牲的行为,这将成为许多人需要赎金。The largest development of the doctrine in the NT comes in the writings of Paul.在NT学说的最大的发展,在保罗的著作。Christ has redeemed from the curse of the law (Gal. 3:13; 4:5; exagorazein in both cases).基督已经从律法的咒诅(加拉太书3:13; 4:5; exagorazein在这两种情况下)赎回。In the apostle's most concentrated section on the work of Christ he couples redemption with justification and propitiation (Rom. 3:24; cf. I Cor. 1:30).在使徒的最集中的部分基督的工作,他夫妇与赎回的理由和挽回祭“(罗马书3时24分。比照,我肺心病1时30分)。One prominent feature of Paul's usage is the double reference to the word, with a present application to the forgiveness of sins based on the ransom price of the shed blood of Christ (Eph. 1:7; cf. I Pet. 1:18-19), and a future application to the deliverance of the body from its present debility and liability to corruption (Rom. 8:23).保罗的用法的一个突出的特点是双字,与目前应用的赦罪的基督流血的赎价(以弗所书1时07。CF I宠物1点18分 - 19),和未来的应用解脱的身体,从目前的衰弱和责任腐败(罗马书8:23)。This latter event is associated with the day of redemption (Eph. 4:30), not in the sense that redemption will then be operative for the first time, but that the redemption secured by Christ and applied to the soul's forgiveness is then extended to include the body as well, so that salvation is broughtto its intended consummation.后者的事件是与赎的日子来到(弗4:30),而不是在这个意义上,赎回然后将首次执行,但赎回担保基督和灵魂的宽恕,然后扩展到以及包括身体,所以得救broughtto旨在完善。

Redemption, though it includes the concept of deliverance, is a more precise term.赎回,但它包含了解脱的概念,是一种更精确的术语。Otherwise it would be expected that biblical writers would make more extensive use of words denoting deliverance per se, such as lyein or rhyesthai, to the neglect of words for redeem.否则,这将是预计,圣经作者表示解脱本身,如lyein或rhyesthai,而忽视赎回的话的话更广泛的使用。Yet such is not the case.然而,这样的情况并非如此。It is significant that Paul can content himself with the use of rhyesthai when setting forth the relation of Christ's saving work for us with respect to hostile angelic powers (Col. 1:13), yet when he passes to a contemplation of the forgiveness of our sins he must change his terminology to that of redemption (Col. 1:14).它是显著保罗内容与rhyesthai使用时自己提出基督的拯救工作,为我们与敌对天使般的权力(歌罗西书1:13)的关系,但是当他通过观照我们的宽恕罪孽,他必须改变他的术语,赎回(西1:14)。 No word in the Christian vocabulary deserves to be held more precious than Redeemer, for even more than Savior it reminds the child of God that his salvation has been purchased at a great and personal cost, for the Lord has given himself for our sins in order to deliver us from them.值得举行比的救赎更珍贵,更比救主提醒神的孩子,他的救恩已经在一个伟大的和个人的成本购买主为我们的罪自己为了没有基督教词汇的单词我们从他们提供。

EF Harrison外汇基金哈里森
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
L. Morris, The Apostolic Preaching of the Cross; J. Schneider and C. Brown, NIDNTT, III, 177ff.; O. Procksch et al., TDNT, IV, 328ff.; RJ Banks, ed., Reconciliation and Hope; V. Taylor, Forgiveness and Reconciliation; BB Warfield, The Plan of Salvation; J. Murray, Redemption, Accomplished and Applied; S. Lyonnet and L. Sabourin, Sin, Redemption, and Sacrifice.属莫里斯,十字架的使徒讲道; J. Schneider和C ·布朗,NIDNTT,三,177ff。澳Procksch等,TDNT,四,328ff。RJ银行,海关,和解和希望。五,泰勒,宽恕与和解; BB沃菲尔德,救赎计划; J.默里,赎回,完成和应用; S. Lyonnet和L. Sabourin,黄大仙,赎回和牺牲。


Catholic Information天主教信息

The restoration of man from the bondage of sin to the liberty of the children of God through the satisfactions and merits of Christ.恢复人从罪的束缚,通过基督的满意度和优点的神的儿女的自由。

The word redemptio is the Latin Vulgate rendering of Hebrew kopher and Greek lytron which, in the Old Testament means generally a ransom-price.这个词redemptio是,希伯来文kopher和希腊lytron拉丁语武加大渲染,在旧约是指一般赎金的价格。 In the New Testament, it is the classic term designating the "great price" (1 Corinthians 6:20) which the Redeemer paid for our liberation.在新约,这是典型的长期指定的“巨大代价”(哥林多前书6:20)救世主为我们的解放支付。 Redemption presupposes the original elevation of man to a supernatural state and his downfall from it through sin; and inasmuch as sin calls down the wrath of God and produces man's servitude under evil and Satan, Redemption has reference to both God and man.人赎回的前提原海拔一种超自然的状态,他的倒台通过罪,因为罪召唤神的愤怒,并产生人的奴役下的罪恶和撒旦,赎回神和人的参考。 On God's part, it is the acceptation of satisfactory amends whereby the Divine honour is repaired and the Divine wrath appeased.神的一部分,这是令人满意的修订,使神圣的荣誉,修复和平息神的愤怒的词义。On man's part, it is both a deliverance from the slavery of sin and a restoration to the former Divine adoption, and this includes the whole process of supernatural life from the first reconciliation to the final salvation.在人的一部分,它是既解救从奴役罪和恢复前神圣采用,这包括从第一和解到最后的救赎超自然的生命的​​全过程。 That double result, namely God's satisfaction and man's restoration, is brought about by Christ's vicarious office working through satisfactory and meritorious actions performed in our behalf.这种双重的结果,即上帝的满意度和人的恢复,带来基督的替代工作通过执行代表我们的理想和功勋行动的办公室。


When Christ came, there were throughout the world a deep consciousness of moral depravation and a vague longing for a restorer, pointing to a universally felt need of rehabilitation (see Le Camus, "Life of Christ", I, i).当基督来到的时候,世界各地有深层意识的道德堕落和恢复了一个模糊的向往,指向一个普遍感到康复的需要(见乐加缪,“基督的生命”,我,我)。 From that subjective sense of need we should not, however, hastily conclude to the objective necessity of Redemption.从主观意识,需要我们不应该,但是,匆匆结束到赎回的客观必然性。If, as is commonly held against the Traditionalist School, the low moral condition of mankind under paganism or even under the Jewish Law is, in itself, apart from revelation no proof positive of the existence of original sin, still less could it necessitate Redemption.如果像通常反对的传统主义的学校,低条件下异教甚至根据犹太法律是人类道德,本身,除了从启示录没有原罪的存在证明阳性,更可能有必要赎回。 Working on the data of Revelation concerning both original sin and Redemption, some Greek Fathers, like St. Athanasius (De incarnatione, in PG, XXV, 105), St. Cyril of Alexandria (Contra Julianum in PG, LXXV, 925) and St. John Damascene (De fide orthodoxa, in P. G, XCIV, 983), so emphasized the fitness of Redemption as a remedy for original sin as almost to make it appear the sole and necessary means of rehabilitation.工作的启示关于原罪和赎回,一些希腊教父圣athanasius(incarnatione,PG,二十五,105),圣亚历山大的Cyril(魂斗罗Julianum在PG,LXXV,925)和ST一样,数据约翰大马士革(真正orthodoxa,P. G,XCIV,983),因此,强调作为补救原罪赎回健身,几乎使其出现康复的唯一的和必要的手段。Their sayings, though qualified by the oft-repeated statement that Redemption is a voluntary work of mercy, probably induced St. Anselm (Cur Deus homo, I) to pronounce it necessary in the hypothesis of original sin.他们的说法,虽然再​​三重复的语句,赎回是一个仁慈的志愿工作,很可能诱发圣安瑟伦(Cur的杀出HOMO,我)发音有必要在原罪的假说资格。 That view is now commonly rejected, as God was by no means bound to rehabilitate fallen mankind.这种观点现在普遍拒绝,因为神必将恢复下跌人类没有手段。Even in the event of God decreeing, out of his own free volition, the rehabilitation of man, theologians point out other means besides Redemption, vg Divine condonation pure and simple on the sole condition of man's repentance, or, if some measure of satisfaction was required, the mediation of an exalted yet created interagent.即使在神下令,出于他自己的自由意志,人的康复的情况下,神学家点了其他手段,除了赎回,VG神圣纵容的纯粹和简单的人的悔罪的唯一条件,或者,如果一些满意的措施要求,一个尚未建立的崇高interagent调解。 In one hypothesis only is Redemption, as described above, deemed absolutely necessary and that is if God should demand an adequate compensation for the sin of mankind.仅在一个假设是,如上所述,赎回视为绝对必要的,如果上帝应该充分的赔偿要求为人类的罪。The juridical axiom "honor est in honorante, injuria in injuriato" (honour is measured by the dignity of him who gives it, offence by the dignity of him who receives it) shows that mortal sin bears in a way an infinite malice and that nothing short of a person possessing infinite worth is capable of making full amends for it. “法律公理”honorante荣誉EST,在injuriato伤害“(荣誉是由他的尊严,谁给他接收它的人的尊严的罪行测量)显示,弥天大罪的方式蕴藏着无限的恶意且无任何一个人拥有无限的价值是能够为它的全面修订。 True, it has been suggested that such a person might be an angel hypostatically united to God, but, whatever be the merits of this notion in the abstract, St. Paul practically disposes of it with the remark that "both he that sanctifieth, and they who are sanctified, are all of one" (Hebrews 2:11), thus pointing to the God-Man as the real Redeemer. True,它已经建议,这样的人可能会hypostatically美国神天使,但是,无论是这个抽象的概念的优点,圣保罗几乎处置这句话,“他成圣,和他们谁是圣洁的,都是一个“(希伯来书2:11),从而指向作为真正的救赎的神人。


The real redeemer is Jesus Christ, who, according to the Nicene creed, "for us men and for our salvation descended from Heaven; and was incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary and became man. He was also crucified for us, suffered under Pontius Pilate and was buried".真正的救赎是耶稣基督,根据尼西亚,“我们人类和我们的拯救从天而降;,是由圣灵圣母玛利亚的化身,成为男子,他也为我们钉在十字架上,遭受在本丢彼拉多手下,被埋葬“。 The energetic words of the Greek text [Denzinger-Bannwart, n.希腊文的高能字[登青格,Bannwart,N.86 (47)], enanthropesanta, pathonta, point to incarnation and sacrifice as the groundwork of Redemption. 86(47)],enanthropesanta,pathonta,指向的化身和牺牲赎回的基础。Incarnation - that is, the personal union of the human nature with the Second Person of the Blessed Trinity - is the necessary basis of Redemption because this, in order to be efficacious, must include as attributions of the one Redeemer both the humiliation of man, without which there would be no satisfaction, and the dignity of God, without which the satisfaction would not be adequate.道成肉身 - 也就是说,个人与人性的祝福三位一体的第二人称联盟 - 赎回的必要基础,因为这一点,为了有效,必须包括一个的救赎两个人的屈辱的归属,没有这一点,就没有满意的,和神的尊严,没有满意是不够的。"For an adequate satisfaction", says St. Thomas, "it is necessary that the act of him who satisfies should possess an infinite value and proceed from one who is both God and Man" (III:1:2 ad 2um). “对于一个足够满意”说,圣托马斯,“这是必要的,谁满足他的行为应具备无限的价值,要从一个人是神和人”(三:1:2广告2um)。Sacrifice, which always carries with it the idea of suffering and immolation (see Lagrange, "Religions semitiques", 244), is the complement and full expression of Incarnation.牺牲,总是带有痛苦和自焚的想法(见拉格朗日,“semitiques宗教”,244),是补充和充分表达化身。 Although one single theandric operation, owing to its infinite worth, would have sufficed for Redemption, yet it pleased the Father to demand and the Redeemer to offer His labours, passion, and death (John 10:17-18).虽然单一theandric操作,由于其无限的价值,将有足够的赎回,但它高兴的需求和救世主的父亲提供他的劳动力,激情,和死亡(约翰福音10:17-18)。 St. Thomas (III:46:6 ad 6um) remarks that Christ wishing to liberate man not only by way of power but also by way of justice, sought both the high degree of power which flows from His Godhead and the maximum of suffering which, according to the human standard, would be considered sufficient satisfaction.圣托马斯(三:46:6广告6um)的言论,基督希望不仅受到权力的方式,但也通过司法方式中解放出来的人,寻求权力的高度,从他的神性流动和苦难的最大,根据人的标准,将被视为充分满意。 It is in this double light of incarnation and sacrifice that we should always view the two concrete factors of Redemption, namely, the satisfaction and the merits of Christ.正是在这双光的化身和牺牲,我们应该始终认为赎回,即满意度和基督的优劣的两个具体因素。

A. Satisfaction of ChristA.基督的满意度

Satisfaction, or the payment of a debt in full, means, in the moral order, an acceptable reparation of honour offered to the person offended and, of course, implies a penal and painful work.满意度,或支付债务在全面,手段,在道德秩序,提供了一个可以接受的赔偿荣誉得罪人,当然,蕴涵着刑罚和痛苦的工作。It is the unmistakable teaching of Revelation that Christ offered to His heavenly Father His labours, sufferings, and death as an atonement for our sins.这是明确无误的教学的启示,基督,为我们的罪孽赎罪提供天父他的劳动力,痛苦,和死亡。The classical passage of Isaias (lii-liii), the Messianic character of which is recognized by both Rabbinical interpreters and New Testament writers (see Condamin, "Le livre d'Isaie" Paris, 1905), graphically describes the servant of Jahveh, that is the Messias, Himself innocent yet chastized by God, because He took our iniquities upon Himself, His self-oblation becoming our peace and the sacrifice of His life a payment for our transgressions.伊萨亚斯(LII - 53),这是公认的犹太教口译和新约作者的救世主字符的古典通过(见Condamin,“乐livre德Isaie”巴黎,1905年),形象地描述了Jahveh仆人,即是的messias,自己无辜,还chastized神,因为他自己上台后,我们的罪孽,他的自我奉献成为我们的和平和他的生活的牺牲为我们的过犯付款。 The Son of Man proposes Himself as a model of self-sacrificing love because He "is not come to be ministered unto, but to minister and to give his life a redemption for many" (lytron anti pollon) (Matthew 20:28; Mark 10:45).人子建议,自我牺牲的爱的典范自己,因为他“是不是来事奉祂,但部长,献出自己的生命为许多人的赎回”(lytron反pollon)(马太福音20:28,马可福音上午10时45分)。 A similar declaration is repeated on the eve of the Passion at the Last Supper: "Drink ye all of this. For this is my blood of the new testament, which shall be shed for many unto remission of sins" (Matthew 26:27, 28).重复类似的声明是在最后的晚餐上的激情前夕:“你们都喝这个,因为这是我的新约,应为你们的罪得赦流下的血。”(马太福音26:27, 28)。In view of this and of the very explicit assertion of St. Peter (1 Peter 1:11) and St. John (1 John 2:2) the Modernists are not justified in contending that "the dogma of Christ's expiatory death is not evangelic but Pauline" (prop. xxxviii condemned by the Holy Office in the Decree "Lamentabili" 3 July, 1907).鉴于本和非常明确的说法的圣彼得(彼得前书1:11)和圣约翰(约翰一书2:2)的现代​​主义是没有道理的,在百家争鸣,“基督的赎罪的死的教条,是不是福音但宝莲“(提案XXXVIII在法令的神圣办公室谴责”Lamentabili“7月3日至1907年)。 Twice (1 Corinthians 11:23, 15:3) St. Paul disclaims the authorship of the dogma.两次(哥林多前书11时23分,15时03分)圣保罗否认作者的教条。He is, however, of all the New Testament writers, the best expounder of it.他,然而,所有的新约作者,它的最佳expounder。The redeeming sacrifice of Jesus is the theme and burden of the whole Epistle to the Hebrews' and in the other Epistles which the most exacting critics regard as surely Pauline, there is all but a set theory.耶稣的救赎牺牲是希伯来书“,并在最苛刻的批评视为当然宝莲书信,几乎是一个集理论的主题和整个书信的负担。The main passage is Rom., iii, 23 sq.: "For all have sinned, and do need the glory of God. Being justified freely by his grace, through the redemption, that is in Christ Jesus, Whom God hath proposed to be a propitiation, through faith in his blood, to the shewing of his justice, for the remission of former sins."的主要通道是ROM,三,23平方米。“都犯了罪,并需要通过赎回,在基督耶稣里,神拟的神的荣耀,他的恩典自由合理。通过信仰在他的血液的挽回祭,前罪的赦免,他的公义shewing。“ Other texts, like Eph., ii, 16; Col., i, 20; and Gal., iii, 13, repeat and emphasize the same teaching.其他文字,像弗二16;上校,我20;和Gal,III,13,重复和强调同样的教学。The early Fathers, engrossed as they were by the problems of Christology have added but little to the soteriology of the Gospel and St. Paul.早期的教父,醉心基督的问题,因为他们增加了,但很少救世神学的福音和圣保禄。 It is not true, however, to say with Ritschl (" Die christliche Lehre von der Rechtfertigung und Versohnung", Bonn, 1889), Harnack ("Precis de l'histoire des dogmes", tr. Paris, 1893), Sabatier ("La doctrine de l'expiation et son evolution historique", Paris, 1903) that they viewed Redemption only as the deification of humanity through incarnation and knew nothing of Christ's vicarious satisfaction.这是不正确的的,但是,说里奇尔(“模具christliche Lehre冯DER Rechtfertigung和Versohnung”,波恩,1889),哈纳克(“PRECIS DE L'历史DES dogmes”,TR,巴黎,1893年),萨巴蒂尔(“学说DE L'赎罪等儿子演变historique“,巴黎,1903年),他们认为仅作为人类神化赎回通过的化身,知道基督的替代满意的话。"An impartial inquiry", says Riviere, "clearly shows two tendencies: one idealistic, which views salvation more as the supernatural restoration of mankind to an immortal and Divine life, the other realistic, which considers it rather as the expiation of our sins through the death of Christ. The two tendencies run side by side with an occasional contact, but at no time did the former completely absorb the latter, and in course of time, the realistic view became preponderant" (Le dogme de la redemption, p. 209). “一个公正的调查”,利维耶尔说,“清楚地表明两种倾向:一个有理想,有意见拯救人类超自然的恢复的一个不朽的和神圣的生命,其他的现实,认为通过我们的罪孽赎罪,而两种倾向一边偶尔接触运行的一面,但在任何时候都不前者完全吸收了后者,并随着时间的推移,现实的观点成为占优势“(乐dogme DE LA赎回,第基督的死。 209)。St. Anselm's famous treatise "Cur Deus homo" may be taken as the first systematic presentation of the doctrine of Redemption, and, apart from the exaggeration noted above, contains the synthesis which became dominant in Catholic theology.圣安瑟伦的著名论文“姜黄素杀出HOMO”可视为赎回学说的第一个系统地提出,除了夸张,如上所述,包含合成成为天主教神学的主导。 Far from being adverse to the satisfactio vicaria popularized by St. Anselm, the early Reformers accepted it without question and even went so far as to suppose that Christ endured the pains of hell in our place.远离不良satisfactio vicaria圣安瑟伦推广,早期的改革者,毫无疑问地接受它,竟然以假设基督忍受地狱的痛苦,在我们的地方。If we except the erratic views of Abelard, Socinus (d. 1562) in his "de Deo servatore" was the first who attempted to replace the traditional dogma of Christ's vicarious satisfaction by a sort of purely ethical exemplarism.如果我们除了阿伯拉德,Socinus(卒于1562年)在他的“德迪奥servatore”不稳定的意见是第一次尝试一种纯粹的道德exemplarism基督替代的满意度,以取代传统教条。 He was and is still followed by the Rationalist School which sees in the traditional theory all but defined by the Church, a spirit of vindictiveness unworthy of God and a subversion of justice in substituting the innocent for the guilty.他仍然是理性主义的学校所有,但由教会,斗气不配神的精神和颠覆代有罪无辜的正义定义的传统理​​论认为的。The charge of vindictiveness, a piece of gross anthropomorphism, comes from confounding the sin of revenge and the virtue of justice.斗气的收费,一块毛拟人,来自混杂的复仇和正义的美德罪。The charge of injustice ignores the fact that Jesus, the juridical head of mankind (Ephesians 1:22), voluntarily offered Himself (John 10:15), that we might be saved by the grace of one Saviour even as we had been lost by the fault of the one Adam (Romans 5:15).不公正的指控忽略了一个事实,耶稣,人类的司法头(以弗所书1:22),主动提供自己的(约翰福音10:15),我们可能会被保存,即使我们已经失去了一个救主的恩典一个亚当(罗马书5:15)故障。 It would be a crude conception indeed to suppose that the guilt or culpability of men passed from the consciences of men to the conscience of Christ: the penalty alone was voluntarily assumed by the Redeemer and, in paying it, He washed away our sins and restored us to our former supernatural state and destination.确实假设男子有罪或罪责通过从人的良心,以基督的良心:单独的刑罚是救世主,并自愿承担支付,这将是一个粗略的概念,他冲走了我们的罪和恢复我们以我们以前的超自然的状态和目标。

B. Merits of ChristB.优点基督

Satisfaction is not the only object and value of Christ's theandric operations and sufferings; for these, beside placating God, also benefit man in several ways.满意度不基督的theandric操作和痛苦的唯一对象和价值;这些,旁边安抚神,也有利于在几个方面的人。They possess, in the first place, the power of impetration or intercession which is proper to prayer, according to John, xi, 42: "And I knew that thou hearest me always."他们所拥有的,摆在首位,impetration或说情,这是正确的祈祷,根据约翰,42岁的第十一:“我知道,我总是你hearest。” However, as satisfaction is the main factor of Redemption with regard to God's honour, so man's restoration is due principally to the merits of Christ.然而,由于满意是关于神的荣耀与赎回的主要因素,所以人的恢复,主要是由于基督的优点。That merit, or the quality which makes human acts worthy of a reward at the hands of another, attaches to the works of the Redeemer, is apparent from the easily ascertained presence in them of the usual conditions of merit, namely值得,或质量,这使得人类的行为值得在另一手的奖励,重视救世主的作品,值得一般条件,即从他们很容易确定存在明显

the wayfarer state (John 1:14);状态的Wayfarer(约翰福音1:14);

moral liberty (John 10:18);道德自由(约翰福音10:18);

conformity to the ethical standard (John 8:29); and符合道德标准(约翰8:29);

Divine promise (Isaiah 53:10).神圣承诺(以赛亚书53:10)。

Christ merited for Himself, not indeed grace nor essential glory which were both attached and due to the Hypostatic Union, but accidental honour (Hebrews 2:9) and the exaltation of His name (Phil., ii, 9-10).基督值得为自己,不确实的宽限期,也没有必要的荣耀附加由于本质的联盟,但意外的荣誉(希伯来书2:9)和提高他的名字“(腓二,9-10)。 He also merited for us.他也值得我们。Such Biblical phrases as to receive "of his fulness" (John 1:16), to be blessed with His blessings (Ephesians 1:3), to be made alive in Him (1 Corinthians 15:22), to owe Him our eternal salvation (Hebrews 5:9) clearly imply a communication from Him to us and that at least by way of merit.这样的圣经短语,以收到“丰满”(约翰福音1:16),与他的祝福(弗1:3),在他(1哥林多前书15:22)活着,欠他我们永恒的祝福救赎(希伯来书5:9)显然意味着沟通从他给我们,并至少通过择优的方式。 The Council of Florence [Decretum pro Jacobitis, Denzinger-Bannwart, n.佛罗伦萨[Decretum亲Jacobitis理事会,登青格Bannwart,N.711 (602)] credits man's deliverance from the domination of Satan to the merit of the Mediator, and the Council of Trent (Sess. V, cc. iii, vii, xvi and canons iii, x) repeatedly connects the merits of Christ and the development of our supernatural life in its various phases. 711(602)]人的学分从撒旦的统治,以调解员的好处,以及安理会的遄达(Sess.五,CC三,七,十六和大炮三,X)拯救基督反复连接的优点和在其各个阶段的发展,我们的超自然的生命。 Canon iii of Session V says anathema to whoever claims that original sin is cancelled otherwise than by the merits of one Mediator, Our Lord Jesus Christ, and canon x of Session VI defines that man cannot merit without the justice through which Christ merited our justification.佳能会议第五三谁索赔,原罪的诅咒是取消非之一调解员,我们的主耶稣基督,和佳能x第六节定义,人的优点可以不值得没有了正义,通过它基督值得我们的理由。

The objects of Christ's merits for us are the supernatural gifts lost by sin, that is, grace (John 1:14, l6) and salvation (1 Corinthians 15:22); the preternatural gifts enjoyed by our first parents in the state of innocence are not, at least in this world, restored by the merits of Redemption, as Christ wishes us to suffer with Him in order that we may be glorified with Him (Romans 8:17).基督为我们的优点的对象是罪失去了超自然的礼物,就是恩典(约翰福音1:14,16)和救赎(哥林多前书15:22);超自然的礼物,我们的第一个父母享受无罪的状态都没有,至少在这个世界上,恢复赎回的优点,正如基督希望我们遭受为了他说,我们可能会与他(罗马书8:17)荣耀。 St. Thomas explaining how Christ's merits pass on to us, says: Christ merits for others as other men in the state of grace merit for themselves (III:48:1).圣托马斯解释如何基督的优点传递给我们,说:在为自己国家的宽限期值得其他男人基督为别人的优点(三:48:1)。 With us merits are essentially personal.与我们的优点是基本上是个人的。Not so with Christ who, being the head of our race (Ephesians 4:15-5:23), has, on that score, the unique prerogative of communicating to the subordinate personal members the Divine life whose source He is.与基督并非如此,我们的比赛的头(以弗所书4:15-5:23),已在该得分,独特的沟通,下属神圣的生命,其源他的个人会员的特权。 "The same motion of the Holy Ghost", says Schwalm, "which impels us individually through the various stages of grace toward life eternal, impels Christ but as the leader of all; and so the same law of efficacious Divine motion governs the individuality of our merits and the universality of Christ's merits" (Le Christ, 422). “圣灵运动”,说Schwalm,“这促使我们朝着促使基督永恒的生命,但宽限期为所有的领导者的各个阶段单独;等有效的神圣运动的相同法律管辖的个性我们的优点和基督的优点“(422)乐基督,普遍性。 It is true that the Redeemer associates others to Himself "For the perfecting of the saints, . . . for the edifying of the body of Christ" (Ephesians 4:12), but their subordinate merit is only a matter of fitness and creates no right, whereas Christ, on the sole ground of His dignity and mission can claim for us a participation in His Divine privileges.它是真正的救世主联营公司其他心想:“对于完善的圣人。。有启发性的”基督的身体(弗4:12),但其下属的优点只是一个健身的问题,并创建没有的权利,而基督,他的尊严和使命的唯一理由,可以要求我们在他的神的特权参与。

All admit, in Christ's meritorious actions, a moral influence moving God to confer on us the grace through which we merit.都承认,在基督的立功行动,在道义上的影响力,移动上帝赋予我们通过它,我们值得宽限期。Is that influence merely moral or does it effectively concur in the production of grace?是影响仅仅是道德的,它有效地生产的宽限期同意吗?From such passages as Luke, vi 19, "virtue went out from him", the Greek Fathers insist much on the dynamis zoopoios or vis vivifica, of the Sacred Humanity, and St. Thomas (III:48:6) speaks of a sort of efficientia whereby the actions and passions of Christ, as vehicle of the Divine power, cause grace by way of instrumental force.从卢克,VI 19这种通道“,凭借从他去了”,希腊教父坚持潜能zoopoios或VIS vivifica,神圣的人类,和圣托马斯(三:48:6)排序说话efficientia,即基督的行动和激情,车辆的神力,引起器乐力的宽限期。 Those two modes of action do not exclude each other: the same act or set of acts of Christ may be and probably is endowed with twofold efficiency, meritorious on account of Christ's personal dignity, dynamic on account of His investment with Divine power.这些行动两种模式,不排除对方:同一行为或基督的行为可能和可能赋予双重效率,基督的个人尊严,他神力的投资帐户的动态帐户立功。


Redemption is styled by the "Catechism of the Council of Trent" (1, v, 15) "complete, integral in all points, perfect and truly admirable".赎回的样式(1,V,15)“完整的,不可分割的所有点,完善和真正令人钦佩的”,“安理会的遄达理”。Such is the teaching of St. Paul: "where sin abounded, grace did more abound" (Romans 5:20), that is, evil as the effects of sin are, they are more than compensated by the fruits of Redemption.这是圣保罗的教学:“罪丰富的地方,宽限期也更比比皆是”(罗马书5:20),即是恶罪的影响,他们都超过赎回成果补偿。 Commenting on that passage St. Chrysostom (Hom. X in Rom., in PG, LX, 477) compares our liability to a drop of water and Christ's payment to the vast ocean.圣金口(Hom. X ROM中,在PG,LX,477)评论,通过比较我们的责任一滴水,和基督的支付汪洋大海。The true reason for the adequacy and even superabundance of Redemption is given by St. Cyril of Alexandria: "One died for all . . . but there was in that one more value than in all men together, more even than in the whole creation, for, beside being a perfect man, He remained the only son of God" (Quod unus sit Christus, in PG, LXXV, 135fi).圣西里尔的亚历山德里亚赎回的充足,甚至过剩的真正原因是:“一个对所有死亡,但在那一个更大的价值比所有的人在一起,甚至比在整个创作。 ,旁边是一个完美的人,他仍然是上帝唯一的儿子“(联合国大学坐在CHRISTUS狴,在PG,LXXV,135fi)。St. Anselm (Cur Deus homo, II, xviii) is probably the first writer who used the word "infinite," in connection with the value of Redemption: "ut sufficere possit ad solvendum quod pro peccatis totius mundi debetur et plus in infinitum".圣安瑟伦(Cur的杀出HOMO,二,18)可能是第一个使用单词“无限”,与赎回价值的作家:“UT sufficere possit广告solvendum狴亲peccatis totius蒙迪debetur等加无限” 。This way of speaking was strongly opposed by John Duns Scotus and his school on the double plea that the Humanity of Christ is finite and that the qualification of infinite would make all Christ's actions equal and place each of them on the same level with His sublime surrender in the Garden and on Calvary.这种说话的方式是强烈反对约翰邓司各脱和他上的双重认罪,基督的人性是有限和无限的资格将让所有基督的行动相等,并放置在同一水平上与他的崇高交出他们每个人的学校在花园和各各。 However the word and the idea passed into current theology and were even officially adopted by Clement VI (Extravag. Com. Unigenitus, V, IX, 2), the reason given by the latter, "propter unionem ad Verbum", being the identical one adduced by the Fathers.然而,Word和传递到目前的神学,甚至正式通过克莱门特六世(Extravag. COM。Unigenitus,第五,第九,2),由后者的理由,“propter unionem广告Verbum”的想法,相同的援引由的父亲。 If It is true that; according to the axiom "actiones sunt suppositorum", the value of actions is measured by the dignity of the person who performs them and whose expression and coefficient they are, then the theandric operations must be styled and are infinite because they proceed from an infinite person.如果这是真的;根据公理“actiones必须遵守suppositorum”,行动的价值是由执行他们的人的尊严和其表达和系数,然后theandric操作必须样式是无限的测量,因为他们要从一个无限的人。 Scotus's theory wherein the infinite intrinsic worth of the theandric operations is replaced by the extrinsic acceptation of God, is not altogether proof against the charge of Nestorianism leveled at it by Catholics like Schwane and Rationalists like Harnack.司各脱的theandric操作,其中的无限内在价值的理论取代神的外在词义,并不完全是对证明它夷为平地Schwane和理性像哈纳克天主教徒景教负责。 His arguments proceed from a double confusion between the person and the nature, between the agent and the objective conditions of the act.从人与自然之间的双重混乱之间的代理行为的客观条件,他的论点出发。The Sacred Humanity of Christ is, no doubt the immediate principle of Christ's satisfactions and merits, but that principle (principium quo) being subordinate to the Person of the Word (principium quod), borrows from it the ultimate and fixed value, in the present case infinite, of the actions it performs.在基督的神圣人类是,毫无疑问的基督的满意度和案情立即的原​​则,但这一原则(原理现状)服从的字(原理狴)的人,借用它在目前的最终和固定值,无限的情况下,它执行的行动。 On the other hand, there is in Christ's actions, as in our own, a double aspect, the personal and the objective: in the first aspect only are they uniform and equal while, viewed objectively, they must needs vary with the nature, circumstances, and finality of the act.另一方面,在基督的行动,因为在我们自己的,一个双方面的,个人和客观:第一个方面仅是他们统一的和平等的同时,观看客观,他们必须需要不同的性质,情况下,和终局性的行为。

From the adequacy and even superabundance of Redemption as viewed in Christ our Head, it might be inferred that there is neither need nor use of personal effort on our part towards the performance of satisfactory works or the acquisition of merits.从充足甚至过剩赎回基督我们的头看,它可能推断出有既不需要也不使用个人的努力,我们对表现满意的工程或收购的优点。 But the inference would be fallacious.但推论是错误的。The law of cooperation, which obtains all through the providential order, governs this matter particularly.这个问题,特别是合作,通过天赐为了获得所有的法律管辖。It is only through, and in the measure of, our co-operation that we appropriate to ourselves the satisfactions and merits of Christ.只有通过,并在衡量,我们的合作,我们适当的给自己的满意度和基督的优点。When Luther, after denying human liberty on which all good works rest, was driven to the makeshift of "fiducial faith" as the sole means of appropriating the fruits of Redemption, he not only fell short of, but also ran counter to, the plain teaching of the New Testament calling upon us to deny ourselves and carry our cross (Matthew 16:24), to walk in the footsteps of the Crucified (1 Peter 2:21), to suffer with Christ in order to be glorified with Him (Rom. viii, 17), in a word to fill up those things that are wanting to the sufferings of Christ (Colossians 1:24).当路德,后否定人的自由,其余所有的优秀作品,带动挪用赎回成果的唯一手段“基准信仰”的临时,他不仅下跌短,但也背道而驰,平原教学新约要求我们否认自己和进行交叉(马太16点24分),走的十字架(1彼得2:21)的脚步,与基督受苦,为了与他的荣耀(罗八17),在一个词来填补那些东西,想要的基督(歌罗西书1:24)的痛苦。 Far from detracting from the perfection of Redemption, our daily efforts toward the imitation of Christ are the test of its efficacy and the fruits of its fecundity.远离减损完善赎回,朝模仿基督我们的日常工作​​是测试其疗效和其繁殖力的成果。"All our glory", says the Council of Trent, "is in Christ in whom we live, and merit, and satisfy, doing worthy fruits of penance which from Him derive their virtue, by Him are presented to the Father, and through Him find acceptance with God" (Sess. XIV, c. viii) “我们所有的荣耀”说,安理会的遄达“,是在基督里,我们生活在其中,和优点,并满足,做这从他获得他们的美德值得苦修水果,由他的父亲,并通过他发现接受与神“(Sess.十四,第八C.)


Whether the effects of Redemption reached out to the angelic world or to the earthly paradise is a disputed point among theologians.赎回的影响是否达到天使般的世界或人间天堂,是一个神学家之间的争议点。When the question is limited to fallen man it has a clear answer in such passages as I John, ii, 2; I Tim.当问题是有限的堕落的人,它有一个在约翰一,二,2通道明确的答案,我添。ii, 4, iv, 10; II Cor., v, 16; etc., all bearing out the Redeemer's intention to include in His saving work the universality of men without exception.二,四,四,二,肺心病,V,16;等等,所有轴承出救世主的意图,在他的节能工作,包括男性无一例外的普遍性。 Some apparently restrictive texts like Matt., xx, 28 xxvi, 28; Rom., v, 15; Heb., ix, 28, where the words "many" (Multi), "more" (plures), are used in reference to the extent of Redemption, should be interpreted in the sense of the Greek phrase no pollon, which means the generality of men, or by way of comparison, not between a portion of mankind included in, and another left out of, Redemption, but between Adam and Christ.像马特一些看似限制性的文本,XX,26,28 28;罗,V,15; HEB,九,28日的字眼是“多”(多),“多”(plures),在参考使用。程度的赎回,应当在希腊语感没有pollon,这意味着男性的一般性的,或比较的方式解释,不包括在人类之间的部分,另一个左出,赎回,但亚当和基督之间。 In the determination of the many problems that arose from time to time in this difficult matter, the Church was guided by the principle laid down in the Synod of Quierzy [Denzinger-Bannwart n.在确定的时间在这个困难的事的时间出现的许多问题,教会主教Quierzy [登青格Bannwart N.规定的原则为指导 319 (282)] and the Council of Trent [Sess.319(282)]和安理会的遄达[SESS。VI, c.六,角iii, Denzinger-Bannwart, n.三,登青格Bannwart,N.795 (677)] wherein a sharp line is drawn between the power of Redemption and its actual application in particular cases.795(677)],其中一个尖锐的线之间绘制的赎回权,在特殊情况下的实际应用。The universal power has been maintained against the Predestinarians and Calvinists who limited Redemption to the predestinated (cf. the councils named above), and against the Jansenists who restricted it to the faithful or those who actually come to faith [prop.通用的电源一直保持对有限赎回predestinated(参见以上命名的议会)Predestinarians和加尔文主义,反对谁限制了它的忠实或那些实际上信仰[道具詹森。 4 and 5, condemned by Alexander VIII, in Denzinger-Bannwart, 1294-5 (1161-2)] and the latter's contention that it is a Semi-Pelagian error to say that Christ died for all men has been declared heretical [Denzinger-Bannwart, n.1096 (970)]. 4和5​​,亚历山大八,在登青格Bannwart,1294-5(1161-2)]和后者的论点,即它是一个半伯拉纠的错误说,基督为所有的人死亡的谴责已被宣布为邪教[登青格Bannwart,n.1096(970)]。 The opinion of Vasquez and a few theologians, who placed children dying without baptism outside the pale of Redemption, is commonly rejected in Catholic schools.瓦斯奎兹的意见和一些神学家,安置的儿童死于没有苍白的赎回洗礼外,通常是在天主教学校拒绝。In such cases no tangible effects of Redemption can be shown, but this is no reason for pronouncing them outside the redeeming virtue of Christ.赎回没有明显的效果,在这种情况下,可以显示,但是这是没有理由宣判兑换基督的美德之外。They are not excluded by any Biblical text.他们不排除任何圣经的文字。Vasquez appeals to I Tim., ii, 3-6, to the effect that those children, not having any means or even possibility to come to the knowledge of the truth, do not seem to be included in the saving will of God.巴斯克斯呼吁我添,二,3-6,效果,这些儿童中,没有任何手段,甚至可能性来对真理的认识,似乎没有被列入节省将上帝。 If applied to infants at all, the text would exclude likewise those who, as a matter of fact, receive baptism.如果应用到所有婴儿,文本也将排除那些人,事实上,接受洗礼。It is not likely that Redemption would seek adults laden with personal sins and omit infants labouring under original sin only.这是不太可能,赎回将寻求成年人充满了个人的罪,并省略婴儿只原罪下劳动。Far better say with St. Augustine: "Numquid parvuli homines non sunt, ut non pertineat ad eos quod dictum est: vult omnes salvos fieri?"更好地与圣奥古斯丁说:“Numquid parvuli homines非必须遵守,UT斯达康非pertineat广告EOS狴格言EST:vult义务齐射扣押”(Contra Julianum, IV, xiii). (魂斗罗Julianum,四,十三)。With regard to the de facto application of Redemption in particular cases, it is subject to many conditions, the principal being human liberty and the general laws which govern the world both natural and supernatural.在特殊情况下赎回时点的应用方面,它受许多条件,主要是人类的自由和统治世界自然和超自然的的一般规律。 The Universalists' contention that all should finally be saved lest Redemption be a failure is not only unsupported by, but also opposed to, the New Dispensation which far from suppressing the general laws of the natural order, places in the way of salvation many indispensable conditions or laws of a freely established supernatural order. Universalists“争,最终都应该保存,以免赎回是一个失败的不仅是不支持的通过,但也反对新的豁免,这大大抑制的自然秩序的一般规律,在许多必不可少的条件救赎之路的地方或可自由建立的超自然的秩序的法律。 Neither should we be moved by the reproaches of failure often flung at Redemption on the plea that, after nineteen centuries of Christianity, a comparatively small portion of mankind has heard the voice of the Good Shepherd (John 10:16) and a still smaller fraction has entered the true fold.我们亦不应受到责备失败的感动经常扔在赎回认罪,基督教,一个比较小的一部分,人类19世纪后,已经听到好牧人(约翰福音10:16)和小部分的声音已经进入了真正的倍。 It was not within God's plan to illumine the world with the light of the Incarnate Word at once, since he waited thousands of years to send the Desired of the Nations.这不是在神的计划,去照亮一次化身字世界,因为他等待了千百年来发送所需的国家。The laws of progress which obtain everywhere else govern also the Kingdom of God.进步的法律获得其他地方也制约着上帝的王国。We have no criterion whereby we can tell with certainty the success or failure of Redemption, and the mysterious influence of the Redeemer may reach farther than we think in the present as it certainly has a retroactive effect upon the past.我们没有标准,我们可以肯定地告诉赎回的成功或失败,以及神秘的救世主的影响可能会达到目前的更远比我们想象的,因为它肯定有过去时的追溯效力。 There can be no other meaning to the very comprehensive terms of Revelation.可没有别的意思非常全面的启示。The graces accorded by God to the countless generations preceding the Christian era, whether Jews or Pagans, were, by anticipation, the graces of Redemption.的恩宠上帝给予前基督教时代的无数代,无论是犹太人或异教徒,通过预测,赎回的青睐。There is little sense in the trite dilemma that Redemption could benefit neither those who were already saved nor those who were forever lost, for the just of the Old Law owed their salvation to the anticipated merits of the coming Messias and the damned lost their souls because they spurned the graces of illumination and good will which God granted them in prevision of the saving works of the Redeemer.在陈腐的困境是没有多大意义,赎回可以受益既不是那些已经保存,也没有那些永远失去了,旧法只是欠他们的得救预计未来弭赛亚优点和该死的失去了他们的灵魂的,因为他们唾弃上帝授予救世主节能工程预知的照明和良好意愿的青睐。


Besides the names Jesus, Saviour, Redeemer, which directly express the work of Redemption, there are other titles commonly attributed to Christ because of certain functions or offices which are either implied in or connected with Redemption, the principal being Priest, Prophet, King and Judge.救主,救赎主,直接表达救赎的工作,除了耶稣的名字,也有其他的标题通常归因于基督,由于某些功能或办事处,这是暗示或赎回,主要是牧师,先知,国王和连接法官。


The sacerdotal office of the Redeemer is thus described by Manning (The Eternal Priesthood, 1):救世主sacerdotal办公室曼宁(永恒的圣职,1)如此描述:

What is the Priesthood of the Incarnate Son?铎化身的儿子是什么?It is the office He assumed for the Redemption of the world by the oblation of Himself in the vestment of our manhood.这是办公室,他假定世界由他自己供奉在我们成年的法衣赎回。He is Altar, Victim and Priest by an eternal consecration of Himself.他是祭坛,受害者和一个永恒的奉献自己的牧师。This is the priesthood forever after the order of Melchisedek who was without beginning of days or end of life &151; a type of the eternal priesthood of the son of God.这是永远的祭司后,麦基洗德的秩序,人无天的开始或结束生命&151;一种永恒的神的儿子祭司。

As sacrifice, if not by the nature of things, at least by the positive ordinance of God, is part of Redemption, the Redeemer must be a priest, for it is the function of the priest to offer sacrifice.作为牺牲,如果不是由事物的本质,至少由上帝积极的条例,是救赎的一部分,救世主必须是祭司,是祭司的功能,提供牺牲。 In an endeavour to induce the newly converted Jews to abandon the defective Aaronic priesthood and to cling to the Great High Priest who entered heaven, St. Paul in his Epistle to the Hebrews, extols the dignity of Christ's sacerdotal office.在努力促使新转换的犹太人放弃缺陷Aaronic铎和固守进入天堂的伟大的大祭司,圣保罗在他的书信的希伯来人,颂扬基督的sacerdotal办公室的尊严。 His consecration as a priest took place, not from all eternity and through the procession of the Word from the Father, as some of the theologians seem to imply, but in the fulness of time and through the Incarnation, the mysterious unction which made Him priest being none else than the Hypostatic Union.他作为一个牧师奉献的发生,从所有永恒通过游行,来自父亲的话,一些神学家似乎暗示,但在丰满的时间和通过的化身,他祭司的神秘油膏没有其他比本质的联盟。 His great sacrificial act was performed on Calvary by the oblation of Himself on the Cross, is continued on earth by the Sacrifice of the Mass and consummated in heaven through the sacrificial intention of the priest and the glorified wounds of the victim.上各各他的伟大的牺牲行为是由自己在十字架上的祭品,是地球上继续牺牲的群众在天上牺牲的教士和受害者的荣耀伤口打算通过完善。 The Christian priesthood, to which is committed the dispensation of the mysteries of God, is not a substitute for, but the prolongation of, the priesthood of Christ: He continues to be the offerer and the oblation; all that the consecrated and consecrating priests do in their ministerial capacity, is to "show forth the death of the Lord" and apply the merits of His Sacrifice.致力于省却神的奥秘,是基督教的神职人员,不能代替,但他继续延长,基督祭司:发货人的祭品;所有的奉献和神圣牧师在他们的部长身份,是“秀提出主的死亡”,并运用他的牺牲的优点。


The title of Prophet applied by Moses (Deuteronomy 18:15) to the coming Messias and recognized as a valid claim by those who heard Jesus (Luke 7:10), means not only the foretelling of future events, but also in a general way the mission of teaching men in the name of God.标题先知摩西(申命记18:15)未来的弭赛亚,并确认为那些听到耶稣(路加福音7:10)有效索赔,意味着不仅对未来事件的预言,而且在一般在上帝的名义男人的教学任务。 Christ was a Prophet in both senses.基督是在这两个感官的先知。His prophecies concerning Himself, His disciples, His Church, and the Jewish nation, are treated in manuals of apologetics (see McIlvaine, "Evidences of Christianity", lect. V-VI, Lescoeur, "Jésus-Christ", 12e conféer.: Le Prophète).他的预言有关其本人,他的弟子,他的教会,和犹太民族,被视为护手册(见McIlvaine“基督教的证据”,lect第五和第六,Lescoeur,“耶稣 - 基督”,12E conféer。乐Prophète)。His teaching power (Matthew 7:29), a necessary attribute of His Divinity, was also an integrant part of Redemption.他的教学能力(马太福音7:29),他的神性的必要属性,这也是一个integrant赎回部分。He who came "to seek and to save that which was lost" (Luke 19:10) should possess every quality, Divine and human, that goes to make the efficient teacher.他前来“寻求和保存,这是失去了”(路加福音19:10)应具备的每一个质量,神和人,即进入高效的教师。What Isaias (Iv, 4) foretold, "Behold I have given him for a witness to the people, for a leader and a master to the Gentiles", finds its full realization in the history of Christ.伊萨亚斯(四,4)预言,“看哪,为人民的见证,我已经给他的领导者和一个外邦人的主”,认定其在基督历史的充分实现。 A perfect knowledge of the things of God and of man's needs, Divine authority and human sympathy, precept and example combine to elicit from all generations the praise bestowed on Him by His hearers - "never did man speak like this man" (John 7:46).一个的神和人的需要的东西完美的知识,神圣的权力和人类的同情,言教和例子相结合,以引起所有的赞美祂赐予他的听众世代 - “从来没有男人喜欢这个男人说话”(约翰7: 46)。


The kingly title frequently bestowed on the Messias by the Old Testament writers (Ps. ii, 0; Is. ix, 6, etc.) and openly claimed by Jesus in Pilate's Court (John 18:37) belongs to Him not only in virtue of the Hypostatic Union but also by way of conquest and as a result of Redemption (Luke 1:32).王道标题经常赋予的messias旧约作家(诗二0;九,6,等)和(约翰福音18:37)耶稣在彼拉多的法院公开宣称属于他不仅在凭借本质的联盟,但也被征服的方式和作为赎回结果(路加福音1:32)。 Whether or not the temporal dominion of the universe belonged to His royal power, it is certain that He understood His Kingdom to be of a higher order than the kingdoms of the world (John 18:36).宇宙时空的统治是否属于他的王权,可以肯定的是,他理解他的王国比世界的王国(约翰福音18:36)高阶的。The spiritual kingship of Christ is essentially characterized by its final object which is the supernatural welfare of men, its ways and means which are the Church and the sacraments, its members who are only such as, through grace, have acquired the title of adopted children of God.基督的精神汉王基本上是由它的最终目标,这是超自然的男子,其方法和手段,这是教会和圣礼福利的特点,其成员只,通过宽限期等,已取得了被收养儿童的标题神。 Supreme and universal, it is subordinate to no other and knows no limitations of either time or place.最高法院和普遍的,它是从属于没有其他知道的时间或地点没有限制。While the kingly functions of Christ are not always performed visibly as in earthly kingdoms, it would be wrong to think of His Kingdom as a merely ideal system of thought.虽然基督的王道功能并不总是在尘世王国的明显表现,那就大错特错了他的王国的思想看作仅仅是理想的系统。Whether viewed in this world or in the next, the "Kingdom of God" is essentially hierarchic, its first and last stage, that is, its constitution in the Church and its consummation in the final judgment, being official and visible acts of the King.无论是在这个世界上,或在未来看,“上帝的王国”是本质上是分层的,其第一个和最后一个阶段,也就是说,它的宪法在教会和其完善的终审判决,被国王正式和可见的行为。


The Judicial office so emphatically asserted in the New Testament (Matthew 25:31; 26:64; John 5:22 sq.; Acts 10:42) and early symbols [Denzinger-Bannwart, nn.因此强调司法办公室宣称,在新约圣经(马太福音25:31; 26:64;约翰5点22平方米;徒10:42)和早期的符号[登青格Bannwart,NN。1-41 (1-13)] belongs to Christ in virtue of His Divinity and Hypostatic Union and also as a reward of Redemption.1-41(1-13)],凭借他的神性和本质的联盟属于基督,也可以作为奖励赎回。Seated at the right hand of God, in token not only of rest after the labours of His mortal life or of glory after the humiliations of His Passion or of happiness after the ordeal of Golgotha, but also of true judicial power (St. Augustine, "De fide et symbolo", in PL, XL, 188), He judges the living and the dead.坐在神的右边,不仅休息后,他的凡人生活的屈辱之后,他的激情或各各他的磨难后的幸福荣耀的劳动力,但也真正的司法权(圣奥古斯丁的道理, “德善意等symbolo”在PL,XL,188),他法官的生活和死亡。His verdict inaugurated in each individual conscience will become final at the particular judgment and receive a solemn and definitive recognition at the assizes of the last judgment.在每一个人的良心开始他的判决将成为最终在特定的判决,并收到一个在最后审判的巡回审判庄严和明确的承认。(See ATONEMENT.)(见赎罪。)

Publication information Written by JF Sollier.由摩根富林明Sollier编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by William O'Meara.转录由威廉欧米拉。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.天主教百科全书,第十二卷。Published 1911.发布1911。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年6月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约


OXENHAM, The Atonement (London, 1881); RlVIERE, Le dogme de la Redemption (Paris 1905); HUGON, Le mystere de la Redemption (Paris, 1910); GRIMAL, Le sacerdoce et 1e sacrifice (Paris, 1911); HUNTER, Outlines of dogmatic theology (New York 1894); WILHELM AND SCANNELL, Manual of Catholic theology (London, ;901); TANQUERET, Synopsis theologiae dogmaticae specialis (Rome, Tournai Paris, 1909); with a good bibliography II, 404, and passim; RITTER, Christus der Erloser (Linz, 1903); MUTH, Heilstadt Christi als stelloertretende Genugthuung (Ratisbon, 1904).OXENHAM,赎罪(伦敦,1881年),乐dogme DE LA赎回(巴黎1905年)RlVIERE;于贡,乐mystere DE LA赎回(巴黎,1910年); GRIMAL,乐sacerdoce等1E牺牲(巴黎,1911年);猎人,教条式的神学纲要(纽约,1894年);威廉和斯坎内尔,天主教神学手册“(伦敦,901); TANQUERET,概要theologiae dogmaticae特别”(巴黎,罗马,图尔奈1909年);一个很好的书目二,404,并各处里特CHRISTUS DER Erloser(林茨,1903年); MUTH,Heilstadt斯蒂ALS stelloertretende Genugthuung(拉蒂斯邦,1904年)。

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