Resurrection of the Dead复活死

General Information一般资料

In the OT在旧约

Several considerations moved OT thought away from the early, universal, animistic ideas about postmortem survival which underlay necromancy (I Sam. 28:8-9), funeral provisions, directions for the dead, and Sheol/Hades, the shadowy underworld of ghosts (Ezek. 32:17-32).有几个考虑移动OT认为,从早期的,普遍的,万物有灵的思想对死后的生存,底图巫术(我心。28:8-9),葬礼的规定,对死者的方向,和阴间/阎王,神出鬼没的鬼黑社会(以西结书32:17-32)。

Everyday observation, plus the belief that God made man's body in his own image, led to the conviction that man was not "soul" imprisoned within a physical frame but embodied spirit, a unity of body and living self.日常的观察,加上相信上帝造人的身体,在他自己的形象,导致信念,即人不是在一个物理帧,但体现的精神,团结的身体和生活的自我囚禁的“灵魂”。 Sheol's disembodiment in forgetfulness, hopelessness, without knowledge or relationships (II Sam. 12:23; Job 7:9ff.; 10:20-22; Ps. 30:9; Eccles. 9:2, 5, 10) therefore struck horror, as subhuman.阴间的disembodiment健忘,绝望,没有知识或关系(II萨姆12时23分;作业7点09法郎; 10:20-22;诗30:9;埃克尔斯9时02分,5,10),因此恐怖袭击非人。Hence Israel's care for the bodies of the dead (Gen. 23; 50:2, 25; Jer. 8:1ff.; 14:16).因此,照顾死者的尸体以色列(创23; 50:2,25;耶8时01 FF。14:16)。

At first Yahweh's rule did not extend beyond death (Pss. 6:5; 88:10-12, Isa. 38:18), until prophetic insistence on his universal sovereignty claimed Sheol also within his jurisdiction (Ps. 139:7-8).在第一耶和华的统治并没有超出死亡(Pss. 6:5; 88:10-12,伊萨38:18),直到对他的普遍主权的预言坚持声称阴间其管辖范围内(诗篇139:7-8 )。The emphasis of Jeremiah and Ezekiel on individual relationships with God led to more religious conceptions of the afterlife (Pss. 16:8-11; 73:23-26).耶利米和以西结书强调个人与神的关系,导致更多的宗教来世的观念(Pss. 16:8-11; 73:23-26)。No shadow existence could sustain divine fellowship, but only restoration to full personality in resurrection (Matt. 22:31).无阴影的存在,可以维持神圣的奖学金,但只恢复复活(马太福音22点31分)个性十足。

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Longing for acquittal from the accusation that great suffering implies great sin made Job contemplate waiting in Sheol until God's wrath be past and he, released, would live again (Job 14:7-15).向往无罪释放从指控巨大痛苦意味着大罪作业考虑在阴间等待,直到神的忿怒过去和他释放,会再活(约伯记14:7-15)。 Despite its difficulties, Job 19:25-27 likewise appears to anticipate immortality in some bodily form.尽管有困难,就业19:25-27同样出现,预计在一些身体形式的不朽。Pss.PSS。73:17; 49:14-15; Isa.73:17; 49:14-15;伊萨。53:10ff. 53:10 FF。similarly relieve the injustice of suffering by the hope of life with God beyond Sheol.同样减轻患超越阴间之神的生命与希望的不公正。

Some think the promises of national vindication and prosperity in the day of the Lord, unless confined to "the final generation," first prompted thoughts of resurrection of intervening generations, although Hos.有些人认为国家的平反和繁荣,在主的日子,除非局限于承诺“的最后一代,”先提示干预几代人的复活的想法,虽然居者有其屋计划。 6:2; 13:14; Ezek.6:2; 13:14;以西结书。37:1-14 use resurrection language as already familiar.37:1-14使用复活已经熟悉的语言。 Isa.伊萨。24-27 (especially 25:6-8; 26:19ff.) and Dan.24-27(尤其是25:6-8; 26:19 FF)和丹。12:1-4 anticipate the return of men in bodily integrity to share Israel's glory. 12:1-4预期的男性身体完整性分享以色列的荣耀返回。Isa.伊萨。26:14 denies resurrection to foes; Daniel includes resurrection "to life" (for Jews faithful under persecution), and "to everlasting contempt" (for Jews who joined the persecutors, 11:32ff.).26:14否认复活的敌人;丹尼尔包括复活“生命”(下迫害犹太人的忠实),和“永恒的蔑视”(加入的迫害的犹太人,11:32 FF。)。No general resurrection is implied: here, too, justice is the argument.没有一般的复活是暗示:这​​里也,正义的说法。

Zoroastrian, Egyptian, Assyrian, and Babylonian allusions may be either sources or parallels to developing Jewish thought.琐罗亚斯德教,埃及,亚述和巴比伦的典故,既可以是源或平行发展犹太人的思想。

Intertestamental Apocalyptic ThoughtIntertestamental世界末日思想

Intertestamental apocalyptic ranged widely.Intertestamental世界末日的范围广泛。Some writers applied moral distinctions within Sheol, with reward and punishment implying some degree of judgment.有些作家适用于阴间的道德区别,奖励和处罚意味着某种程度的判断。Promises to the faithful, especially martyrs, included earthly glory; justice would likewise resurrect oppressors (with their deformities) to be recognized and punished (II Apoc. Bar.; cf. Mark 9:42ff.).承诺忠实,尤其是烈士,包括俗世的荣耀,正义同样会复活压迫者(其畸形)予以确认和处罚(II载脂蛋白C酒吧。比照马克9:42 FF)。

Hellenized Judaism preferred immortality of the soul, more richly conceived, to resurrection of the body.希腊化犹太教首选不朽的灵魂,更丰富的构思,复活的身体。Palestinian Judaism clung to resurrection.巴勒斯坦犹太教坚持复活。"Garments of glory" (of life) were required for life beyond death (I-II Enoch), "nakedness" (disembodiment) being abhorred.(生活)“荣耀的服装”超越死亡的生命(I - II期诺),“赤身露体”(disembodiment)憎恶。 Some speak of a spiritual body, counterpart to the physical and coexistent with it.一些灵性的身体,对口发言的物理和与它共存。I Enoch says the body buried will rise "glorious"; II Apoc.我伊诺克说身体掩埋将崛起“光荣”,二载脂蛋白C。Bar.酒吧。resembles I Cor.类似于我肺心病。 15:35ff.15时35 FF。but holds the transformation comes later; most speak of the risen body as "like angels made of the light and glory of God"; others of its needing neither food nor marriage.但持有改造是后话,大部分发言的复活的身体为“像天使 光神的荣耀”,其需要既不是食品,也不是婚姻的其他。

Those raised to share Messiah's temporary (earthly) or final (supernatural) kingdom will be righteous (Jews).这些提出分享弥赛亚(尘世)临时或最终(超自然)王国将是正义的(犹太人)。Other writers assume a general resurrection; II Esdras, a resurrection of Messiah and all men after the messianic age.其他作家承担一般的复活;二埃斯德拉斯,弥赛亚时代后复活的弥赛亚和所有男人。In I Enoch 22 those already punished remain in Sheol; those not punished move to torturing Gehenna; I Enoch 67 has some wicked raised for judgment.在我伊诺克22那些已经惩罚留在阴间;那些没有受到惩罚来折磨地狱;我伊诺克67对判决提出了一些恶人的。Apocalyptists invent various stages of judgment, kingdom, resurrection.Apocalyptists发明的各个阶段的判断,王​​国,复活。。Benj.Benj。10:6ff.10:6 FF。makes patriarchs rise first, then sons of Jacob, then all men.使始祖先上升,然后雅各的儿子,然后所有的人。II Macc., perhaps following hints of Isa.二MACC,或许伊萨以下提示。24-27 and Daniel, suggests martyrs deserve priority.24-27和丹尼尔,建议烈士值得优先。

By the first century most Jews held to general resurrection; rabbis argued Abraham so believed (Heb. 11:19).由第一世纪最一般的复活;拉比犹太人举行辩称亚伯拉罕相信(希伯来书11:19)。 Pharisees expected resurrection of the just (Acts 23:8), so probably did Essenes and Qumran covenanters.法利赛有望复活刚(徒23:8),所以大概没有爱色尼和库姆兰盟约。Sadducees denied resurrection as not "Mosaic," and possibly as a foreign idea (Mark 12:18; Josephus says they believed the soul died with the body).为不撒都该人否认复活“马赛克”,并可能作为一个外来的想法(12时18马克;约瑟夫说,他们相信灵魂与身体的死亡)。 A few, holding matter evil, denied resurrection altogether.几下,无论邪恶的,完全否认复活。

In the NT在NT

New Christian contributions include新基督教贡献包括:

Johannine reflection moves even nearer than Paul's toward incorporeal immortality.约翰反射动作,甚至比保罗走向无形的不朽接近。Eternal life is experienced now (John 3:36); the faithful never see death (8:51); believers have already "crossed over" from death to life (5:24), as have those who love (I John 3:14).现在是经验丰富的永生(约翰福音3:36);忠实再也看不到死亡(8时51),信徒已“越过”从死亡的生命(5:24),为那些爱(约翰一书3: 14)。Faced with Martha's talk about resurrection at the last day, Jesus replies that he himself, and relationship to him, constitute the resurrection and the life (11:25; 17:3) just as belief in him avoids judgment and unbelief is judgment (John 3:18-21).面对玛莎在最后一天的复活的谈话,耶稣回答说,他本人和他的关系,构成了复活和生命(11:25; 17:3),就像在他的信念,避免判决和不信的判断(约翰3:18-21)。As Christ's own life (preexistent, earthly, postmortem) passes through death unquenched, so believers will never die (8:51).由于基督自己的生命(先在尘世,死后)通过死亡淬灭的推移,使信徒必永远不死(8时51)。Those who disobey the Son do not see life (3:36).那些违抗儿子看不到生活(3:36)。As does Paul, John appears to discount physical resurrection, yet 5:25, 28ff.保罗,约翰似乎折扣身体复活,但5时25分,28ff。 declare a general resurrection, and 6:39-40, 44, 54 a resurrection of believers "at the last day", hardly an accommodation to earlier views or interpolation, since Lazarus's restoration to this life and Christ's physical resurrection mean so much to John.申报一般的复活,并6:39-40,44,54复活的信徒“最后一天”,几乎没有一个住宿早期的意见或插值,因为拉撒路这种生活和基督的身体复活的恢复意味着这么多的John 。Faith was still exploratory.信仰仍在探索。

Further Developments进一步发展

Later thought further illustrates the tension between Hebrew and Greek emphases.后来的思想,进一步说明了在希伯来文和希腊重点之间的紧张。Gnostic dualism infiltrated Christian teaching about God, Christ, and morality with the alien Greek principle that matter is inherently evil and must be destroyed, resurrection being impossible.诺斯底二元论与外来的希腊的原则,无论是天生邪恶渗透基督教关于上帝,基督,教学和道德,必须予以销毁,复活不可能。 But (except in asceticism) the church rejected dualism.但是,(在禁欲主义除外)教会拒绝的二元论。I and II Clement, Barnabas ("a general resurrection"), and Tertullian ("the soul inherently immortal and death unnatural, yet the same body will be raised") express the orthodox view.第一和第二克莱门特,巴拿巴(“复活”),特土良(“不朽的灵魂本质上和非正常死亡,但会引发同样的身体”)表示正统的观点。 Ignatius follows John: Christ is eternal life, but "flesh and spirit" will be raised through the Eucharist ("medicine of immortality") and the Spirit.伊格内修如下约翰:基督是永恒的生命,但“肉体和精神”将通过圣体圣事(“不死药”)和精神提出的。Origen insists that the natural body is dissolved into dust, but will be raised and "advance to a spiritual body", so striving to reconcile Hebrew and Platonic ideas.奥利坚持认为,纯天然的身体是灰尘溶解,但将提高和“高级灵性的身体”,所以努力调和希伯来语和柏拉图思想。Aquinas, too, held our fleshly bodies rise and remain fleshly; like Tertullian, he finds spiritual uses for redundant physical organs.阿奎那,也举行了我们的肉体团体崛起,并保持肉体;如良,他发现精神利用多余的身体器官。

A typical modern statement runs: "The term immortality is preferable. The argument that religious experience implies personal survival points to the immortality of the soul and its values rather than to resurrection of the body."一个典型的现代语句运行:“长期不朽是可取的论点,宗教经验意味着个人的生存点不朽的灵魂和自己的价值观,而不是复活的身体。” This attracts many, who do not always realize the values conserved by the traditional resurrection emphasis: the permanence not only of abstract personality and values but of the individual, with consciousness, relationships, memories, and love, against theories of absorption ("a drop in the eternal ocean of being"), racial survival ("continuing to contribute to ongoing humanity"), or sentimental immortality ("to live in the hearts of those we love is not to die").这吸引了众多的,谁不始终把实现由传统的复活强调保守的价值观:不仅是抽象的个性和价值观,但个人的持久性,对吸收的理论与意识的关系,回忆,和爱,(“一滴在永恒的海洋之中“),种族的生存(”继续推动正在进行的人类“),或感伤的不朽(”住在那些我们所爱的心是不会死“)。 Essentially, Christians believe that he who called men into being and into fellowship with himself can sustain all persons under eternal conditions, in complete and enriched humanity, in such bodily garment as eternal life requires.从本质上讲,基督徒相信,他叫进,并与自己的奖学金在完整和丰富的人类永恒的条件下可以承受所有的人,在这样的身体的服装,作为永恒的生命需要的人。

REO White选举事务处白
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
DS Russell, Between the Testaments; J. Baillie, And the Life Everlasting; JH Leckie, World to Come and Final Destiny; Tertullian, On the Resurrection of the Flesh.副局长罗素之间的圣经的J.贝利和生命永恒的; JH莱基,未来世界和最终归宿;德尔图良在肉体的复活,。

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