Scripture九号 圣经

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The rendering of graphe, a Greek term occurring in the NT in reference to the canonical OT literature.graphe渲染,一个希腊词,发​​生在NT参考规范旧约文学。Its plural form denotes the entire collection of such compositions (Matt. 21:42; I Cor. 15:3-4), but when used in the singular, graphe can mean either a specified passage (Mark 12:10) or the constituent body of writings (Gal. 3:22).它的复数形式表示整个集合(太二十一点42分,我林前15:3-4)等组成,但在奇异使用时,graphe意味着指定的通道(马可福音12:10)或成份身体著作(加拉太书3:22)。 The (Holy) Scriptures were referred to by the term hiera grammata on one occasion (II Tim. 3:15), while in the Pauline literature the word gramma ("writing") refers consistently to the Hebrew Torah or law. (圣)经文被称为长期hiera一次grammata(二添。3:15),而在宝莲文献字gramma(“写”),是指始终如一地的希伯来托拉或法律。 The content of a particular verse, or group of verses, is sometimes described as to gegrammenon (Luke 20:17; II Cor. 4:13).有时被描述为一个特定的诗句,或集团的诗句,内容gegrammenon(卢克20时17分;二肺心病。四点13分)。

The term "book" can describe a single composition (Jer. 25:13; Nah. 1:1; Luke 4:17), while the plural could indicate a collection of prophetic oracles (Dan. 9:2; II Tim. 4:13), both forms being used as a general designation of Scripture.长期的“书”可以描述一个单一成分(耶25:13; NAH 1:1;路加福音4时17分),而复数可能表明先知的神谕集合(但以理书9时02分; II添4。 :13),作为一般的圣经指定使用两种形式。 The divine author of this material is the Holy Spirit (Acts 28:25), and the writings that are the result of divine revelation and communication to the various biblical authors are said to be inspired (theopneustos, II Tim. 3:16).这种材料的神圣的作者是圣灵(徒28:25),并说是神的启示和沟通,以不同的圣经作者的著作中得到启发(二添。theopneustos,3:16)。 Though grammatically passive, this term is dynamic in nature, meaning literally "God-breathed" in an outward rather than an inward direction.虽然语法被动,这个词是动态的性质,意思字面意思是“神呼出”,而不是一个向内的方向向外。 God has "breathed out" Scripture as a function of his creative activity, making the revealed word of God authoritative for human salvation and instruction in divine truth.上帝有“呼出”经文作为他的创作活动的功能,使神为拯救人类和神圣真理的指令权威透露字。

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Scripture圣经

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Scripture invariably in the New Testament denotes that definite collection of sacred books, regarded as given by inspiration of God, which we usually call the Old Testament (2 Tim. 3:15, 16; John 20:9; Gal. 3:22; 2 Pet. 1:20).在新约圣经不约而同地表示,神圣的书籍,有一定的收集,视为神的启示,我们通常所说的旧约(2添3:15,16;约翰20时09分;加拉太3时22分; 2彼前1:20)。It was God's purpose thus to perpetuate his revealed will.这是神的目的,从而延续他透露将。 From time to time he raised up men to commit to writing in an infallible record the revelation he gave.他不时提出男子承诺,在写作的启示,他给一个犯错的记录。The "Scripture," or collection of sacred writtings, was thus enlarged from time to time as God saw necessary.“圣经”,或神圣writtings的集合,从而扩大不时为上帝看到必要的。We have now a completed "Scripture," consisting of the Old and New Testaments.现在我们已经完成的“圣经”旧约和新约组成。 The Old Testament canon in the time of our Lord was precisely the same as that which we now possess under that name.旧约佳能在我们的主的时候,正是我们现在拥有该名称相同。He placed the seal of his own authority on this collection of writings, as all equally given by inspiration (Matt. 5:17; 7:12; 22:40; Luke 16: 29, 31).他把这一著作的集合,他自己的权威印章,同样的灵感(马太福音5时17分; 7:12; 22点40分;路加福音16:29,31)。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Scripture圣经

Catholic Information天主教信息

Sacred Scripture is one of the several names denoting the inspired writings which make up the Old and New Testament.圣经是表示灵感的著作,从而弥补了旧约和新约的几个名字之一。

I. USE OF THE WORDi.使用的Word

The corresponding Latin word scriptura occurs in some passages of the Vulgate in the general sense of "writing"; eg, Ex., xxxii, 16: "the writing also of God was graven in the tables"; again, II Par., xxxvi, 22: "who [Cyrus] commanded it to be proclaimed through all his kingdom, and by writing also".发生相应的拉丁字圣经在一般意义上的“书面”的武加大一些段落,例如,当然,三十二,16:“写神也被刻在表”;再次,二杆,三十六。 ,22:“谁赛勒斯指挥宣布通过他的王国,并通过写作也”。In other passages of the Vulgate the word denotes a private (Tob., viii, 24) or public (Ezra 2:62; Nehemiah 7:64) written document, a catalogue or index (Ps. lxxxvi, 6), or finally portions of Scripture, such as the canticle of Ezechias (Isaiah 38:5), and the sayings of the wise men (Ecclus., xliv, 5).在其他段落的武加大词是指私人(Tob.,第八,24)或公共(2:62以斯拉,尼希米7:64)的书面文件,目录或索引“(诗篇捌拾,6),或最后部分圣经,如颂歌埃泽希亚什(以赛亚书38:5),和智者“(Ecclus.,四十四,5)的格言。 The writer of II Par., xxx, 5, 18, refers to prescriptions of the Law by the formula "as it is written", which is rendered by the Septuagint translators kata ten graphen; para ten graphen, "according to Scripture".第二杆,XXX,5,18,作家是指公式“,因为它是写”,这是由译本翻译的卡塔十个graphen呈现;第十个graphen法“处方”,根据圣经“。 The same expression is found in I Esdr., iii, 4, and II Esdr., viii, 15; here we have the beginning of the later form of appeal to the authority of the inspired books gegraptai (Matthew 4:4, 6, 10; 21:13; etc.), or kathos gegraptai (Romans 1:11; 2:24, etc.), "it is written", "as it is written".相同的表达式是在我Esdr发现,三,四,Esdr二,八,15。在这里,我们有权威的启发书gegraptai(马太福音4:4,6上诉后形成的开始, 10; 21时13分;等),或kathos gegraptai(罗马书1:11; 2时24分,等),“写入”,“因为它是书面”。

As the verb graphein was thus employed to denote passages of the sacred writings, so the corresponding noun he graphe gradually came to signify what is pre-eminently the writing, or the inspired writing.作为动词graphein表示神圣的著作通道,使他graphe逐步相应的名词来表示什么是突出的写作,或灵感写作。 This use of the word may be seen in John, vii, 38; x, 35; Acts, viii, 32; Rom., iv, 3; ix, 17; Gal., iii, 8; iv, 30; II Tim., iii, 16; James, ii, 8; I Pet., ii, 6; II Pet., i, 20; the plural form of the noun, ai graphai, is used in the same sense in Matt., xxi, 42; xxii, 29; xxvi, 54; Mark, xii, 24; xiv, 49; Luke, xxiv, 27, 45; John, v, 39; Acts, xvii, 2, 17; xviii, 24, 28; I Cor., xv, 3, 4.这词的使用可以看出,在约翰,七,38,X,35岁;行为,八,32;罗马书3,四,九,17; GAL,三,八;四,30;二添。三,16;詹姆斯,二,8,我宠物,二,六;二,宠物,我,20;的复数形式的名词,AI graphai,是在同一意义上使用在马特,二十一世纪,42。 22,29 26,54;马克,十二,24,14,49,路加福音,二十四,27,45;约翰,V,39岁;行为,第十七条,2,17;十八,24,28,我肺心病。十五,3,4。 In a similar sense are employed the expressions graphai hagiai (Romans 1:2), ai graphai ton propheton (Matthew 26:56), graphai prophetikai (Romans 16:26).在类似的意义上是雇用的表达graphai hagiai(罗马书1:2),AI graphai吨propheton(马太福音26:56),graphai prophetikai(罗马书16:26)。The word has a somewhat modified sense in Christ's question, "and have you not read this scripture" (Mark 12:10).这个词已经在基督的问题略加修改的意义上说,“你有没有读过这经文”(马可福音12:10)。In the language of Christ and the Apostles the expression "scripture" or "scriptures" denotes the sacred books of the Jews.在基督的语言和使徒的“经文”或“经文”,是指犹太人神圣的书籍。The New Testament uses the expressions in this sense about fifty times; but they occur more frequently in the Fourth Gospel and the Epistles than in the synoptic Gospels.新约圣经使用的表达,在这个意义上约五十次,但他们更频繁地出现在第四福音和书信比在天气福音。At times, the contents of Scripture are indicated more accurately as comprising the Law and the Prophets (Romans 3:21; Acts 28:23), or the Law of Moses, the Prophets, and the Psalms (Luke 24:44).有时,圣经的内容更准确地表示,包括法律和先知(罗马书3点21;徒28:23),摩西的律法,先知,和诗篇(路加福音24:44)。 The Apostle St. Peter extends the designation Scripture also to tas loipas graphas (2 Peter 3:16), denoting the Pauline Epistles; St. Paul (1 Timothy 5:18) seems to refer by the same expression to both Deuteronomy 25:4 and Luke 10:7.使徒圣彼得指定的经文也延伸到TAS loipas graphas(2彼得3:16),表示的宝莲书信圣保罗(提摩太前书5时18分),似乎是指相同的表达式都申命记25:4路加福音10:7。

It is disputed whether the word graphe in the singular is ever used of the Old Testament as a whole.它是有争议的,在奇异的字graphe是否是曾经作为一个整体的旧约。Lightfoot (Galatians 3:22) expresses the opinion that the singular graphe in the New Testament always means a particular passage of Scripture.莱特富特(加拉太书3:22)表示认为,在新约中的奇异graphe总是意味着一个特别的经文通过。But in Rom., iv, 3, he modifies his view, appealing to Dr. Vaughan's statement of the case.但罗,四,三,他修改他认为,吸引沃恩博士的声明的情况下。He believes that the usage of St. John may admit a doubt, though he does not think so, personally; but St. Paul's practice is absolute and uniform.他认为,圣约翰的使用可能会承认一个疑问,虽然他不这么认为,个人,但圣保罗的做法是绝对的,统一的。Mr. Hort says (1 Peter 2:6) that in St. John and St. Paul he graphe is capable of being understood as approximating to the collective sense (cf. Westcott, "Hebr.", pp. 474 sqq.; Deissmann, "Bibelstudien", pp. 108 sqq., Eng. tr., pp. 112 sqq., Warfield, "Pres. and Reform. Review", X, July, 1899, pp. 472 sqq.).园艺说先生(1彼得2时06分),他在圣约翰和保罗graphe是能够被理解为近似的集体意识(参见韦斯科特,的,SQQ - 474“黑布尔。”;戴斯曼“Bibelstudien”,第108 SQQ,工程TR,第112 SQQ,沃菲尔德,“压力和改革。检讨”,X,1899年7月,第472 SQQ)。Here arises the question whether the expression of St. Peter (II, Pet., iii, 16) tas loipas graphas refers to a collection of St. Paul's Epistles.这里出现的问题是否表达的圣彼得大教堂(二,宠物,三,16)TAS loipas graphas指圣保禄书信的集合。Spitta contends that the term graphai is used in a general non-technical meaning, denoting only writings of St. Paul's associates (Spitta, "Der zweite Brief des Petrus und der Brief des Judas", 1885, p. 294).施皮塔争辩说,长期graphai是在一般的非技术性的意义,只表示,圣保罗联营(施皮塔,“明镜zweite简介DES佩特鲁斯和DER简介DES犹大”,1885年,第294页)的著作。 Zahn refers the term to writings of a religious character which could claim respect in Christian circles either on account of their authors or on account of their use in public worship (Einleitung, pp. 98 sqq., 108).赞恩是指一词是宗教性质的,可以声称尊重作者的帐户或使用公共崇拜的帐户(导论,SQQ - 98,108)在基督教界的著作。But Mr. FH Chase adheres to the principle that the phrase ai graphai used absolutely points to a definite and recognized collection of writings, ie, Scriptures.但FH大通所坚持的原则,这句话AI graphai使用绝对点到著作明确和公认的的收集,即圣经。The accompanying words, kai, tas loipas, and the verb streblousin in the context confirm Mr. Chase in his conviction (cf. Dict. of the Bible, III, p. 810b).陪同的话,单仲偕,TAS loipas,并在确认大通先生在他的信念(参见快译通。“圣经”,三,第810B)中的动词streblousin。

II.二。NATURE OF SCRIPTURE圣经的性质

A. According to the JewsA.根据犹太人

Whether the terms graphe, graphai, and their synonymous expressions to biblion (Nehemiah 8:8), ta biblia (Dan., ix, 2), kephalis bibliou (Psalm 39:8), he iera biblos (2 Maccabees 8:23), ta biblia ta hagia (1 Maccabees 12:9), ta iera grammata (2 Timothy 3:15) refer to particular writings or to a collection of books, they at least show the existence of a number of written documents the authority of which was generally accepted as supreme.无论是graphe,graphai,biblion(尼希米记8时08分),TA biblia(但以理书,IX,2),kephalis bibliou(诗篇39:8),他iera biblos(2马加比8:23)的代名词表达式其中,TA biblia TA圣索菲亚大教堂(1马加比12:9),TA iera grammata(提摩太后书3点15分)是指特定著作或收集到的书籍,他们至少说明存在着数量的书面文件的权威被普遍接受为最高法​​院。The nature of this authority may be inferred from a number of other passages.这种权力的性质可以推断,从其他通道。According to Deut., xxxi, 9-13, Moses wrote the Book of the Law (of the Lord), and delivered it to the priests that they might keep it and read it to the people; see also Ex., xvii, 14; Deut., xvii, 18-19; xxvii, 1; xxviii, 1; 58-61; xxix, 20; xxx, 10; xxxi, 26; 1 Samuel 10:25; 1 Kings 2:3; 2 Kings 22:8.据申,三十一,9-13,摩西写律法书(主),并交付给祭司,他们可能保持它,读它的人也看到前,第十七条,14。申,18日至19日,十七,二十七,1;二十八,1; 58-61; XXIX,20 XXX,10,三十一,26; 1塞缪尔10时25分,1国王2:3; 2国王22。 8。It is clear from 2 Kings 23:1-3, that towards the end of the Jewish kingdom the Book of the Law of the Lord was held in the highest honour as containing the precepts of the Lord Himself.这是从2国王队23:1-3清楚,对犹太王国年底耶和华的律法书包含的上帝的戒律举行的最高荣誉。That this was also the case after the Captivity, may be inferred from II Esdr., viii, 1-9, 13,14, 18; the book here mentioned contained the injuctions concerning the Feast of Tabernacles found in Lev., xxiii, 34 sq.; Deut., xvi, 13 sq., and is therefore identical with the pre-Exilic Sacred Books. ,这也被掳后的情况下,可能会推断二Esdr,八,1-9,13,14,18;这里提到的这本书载有关于在列夫发现的住棚节的injuctions,二十三,34。平方米;申,十六,13平方米,并因此与前放逐的圣书相同。 According to I Mach., i, 57-59, Antiochus commanded the Books of the Law of the Lord to be burned and their retainers to slain.据我马赫,我57-59安提阿哥伊指挥,被烧毁的主及其家臣到被杀的法律书籍。We learn from II Mach., ii, 13, that at the time of Nehemias there existed a collection of books containing historical, prophetical, and psalmodic writings; since the collection is represented as unifrom, and since the portions were considered as certainly of Divine authority, we may infer that this characteristic was ascribed to all, at least in some degree.我们从二马赫,II,13,内赫米亚斯时间存在一个集合包含历史,预言,和psalmodic著作的书籍;以来收集unifrom代表,并自部分被认为是神圣的作为肯定权威,我们可以推断,这种特性被归因于所有至少在一定程度上。 Coming down to the time of Christ, we find that Flavius Josephus attributes to the twenty-two protocanonical books of the Old Testament Divine authority, maintaining that they had been written under Divine inspiration and that they contain God's teachings (Contra Appion., I, vi-viii).即将下来的时候,基督,我们发现,弗拉菲乌斯约瑟夫斯属性的的旧约圣经的神圣权威的二十二个protocanonical书籍,保持神的启示下,他们已书面它们包含神的教诲(魂斗罗Appion。,我, VI - VIII)。The Hellenist Philo too is acquainted with the three parts of the sacred Jewish books to which he ascribes an irrefragable authority, because they contain God's oracles expressed through the instrumentality of the sacred writers ("De vit. Mosis", pp. 469, 658 sq.; "De monarchia", p. 564). Hellenist斐洛太熟悉他归咎irrefragable管理局神圣的犹太书籍的三个部分,因为它们包含神的神谕​​通过工具的神圣作家表示(“德VIT。MOSIS”,第469页,658平方米,“德monarchia”,564页)。

B. According to Christian LivingB.根据基督教生活

This concept of Scripture is fully upheld by the Christian teaching.这经文的概念是完全坚持基督教教义。Jesus Christ Himself appeals to the authority of Scripture, "Search the scriptures" (John 5:39); He maintains that "one jot, or one tittle shall not pass of the law, till all be fulfilled" (Matthew 5:18); He regards it as a principle that "the Scripture cannot be broken" (John 10:35); He presents the word of Scripture as the word of the eternal Father (John 5:33-41), as the word of a writer inspired by the Holy Ghost (Matthew 22:43), as the word of God (Matthew 19:4-5; 22:31); He declares that "all things must needs be fulfilled which are written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms, concerning me (Luke 24:44). The Apostles knew that "prophecy came not by the will of man at any time: but the holy men of God spoke, inspired by the Holy Ghost" (2 Peter 1:21); they regarded "all scripture, inspired of God" as "profitable to teach, to reprove, to correct, to instruct in justice" (2 Timothy 3:16). They considered the words of Scripture as the words of God speaking in the inspired writer or by the mouth of the inspired writer (Hebrews 4:7; Acts 1:15-16; 4:25). Finally, they appealed to Scripture as to an irresistible authority (Rom., passim), they supposed that parts of Scripture have a typical sense such as only God can employ (John 19:36; Hebrews 1:5; 7:3 sqq.), and they derived most important conclusions even from a few words or certain grammatical forms of Scripture (Galatians 3:16; Hebrews 12:26-27). It is not surprising, then, that the earliest Christian writers speak in the same strain of the Scriptures. St. Clement of Rome (I Cor., xlv) tells his readers to search the Scriptures for the truthful expressions of the Holy Ghost. St. Irenæus (Adv. haer., II, xxxviii, 2) considers the Scriptures as uttered by the Word of God and His Spirit. Origen testifies that it is granted by both Jews and Christians that the Bible was written under (the influence of) the Holy Ghost (Contra Cels., V, x); again, he considers it as proven by Christ's dwelling in the flesh that the Law and the Prophets were written by a heavenly charisma, and that the writings believed to be the words of God are not men's work (De princ., iv, vi). St. Clement of Alexandria receives the voice of God who has given the Scriptures, as a reliable proof (Strom., ii).耶稣基督呼吁圣经的权威“,搜寻经文”(约翰福音5:39);他认为,“一记,一丝毫不差,不得通过法律,都要成全”(马太福音5:18) ;他视为一个“圣经不能断”的原则(约翰福音10:35),他提出的永恒之父的字(约翰福音5:33-41)字的经文,作为一个作家的字灵感来自圣灵(马太22时43分),作为上帝的话(马太福音19:4-5; 22时31分);他宣称:“所有的事情都必须需要履行这是写在摩西的律法,并在先知和诗篇,关于我的(路加福音24:44)使徒知道“预言并非在任何时候来的人的意志:但神的圣洁的男人发言,灵感来自圣灵”(彼得后书1:21),他们认为“所有的经文,灵感来自”神“有利可图教,责备,纠正,指导司法”(提摩太后书3:16),他们认为圣经的话。神的话来说,作家的灵感或作家的灵感口(希伯来书4:7;徒1:15-16; 4:25)最后,他们呼吁以不可抗拒的权威经文(罗马书,各处。 ),他们应该圣经的部分地区有典型意义上的,如只有上帝可以聘请(约翰19时36希伯来书1:5; 7:3 SQQ),和他们派生的最重要的结论,即使从几句话或一定的语法圣经(加拉太书3:16;希伯来书12:26-27)的形式。也就不足为奇了,那么,最早的基督教作家发言一脉相承的“圣经”中圣克莱门特的罗马(我肺心病,XLV)。告诉他的读者寻找圣灵的真实表现“圣经”。圣irenæus(Adv. haer,二,三十八,2)认为圣经由上帝和他的灵的话语说出。奥利证明,这是两个犹太人和基督徒,“圣经”为根据的影响,在罗马教廷鬼。魂斗罗CELS,V,x书面授予;再次,他认为,作为证明,在肉体基督的住宅,在法律和先知被写了一个天堂般的魅力,并认为是神的话的著作是不是男人的工作(德princ,四,六)。圣克莱门特的亚历山德里亚收到上帝的声音,是谁给了“圣经”作为一个可靠的,证明(Strom.,二)。

C. According to Ecclesiastical DocumentsC.根据教会的文件

Not to multiply patristic testimony for the Divine authority of Scripture, we may add the official doctrine of the Church on the nature of Sacred Scripture.不乘圣经的神圣权威的教父的证词,我们可能会增加对圣经的性质教会的官方学说。The fifth ecumenical council condemned Theodore of Mopsuestia for his opposition against the Divine authority of the books of Solomon, the Book of Job, and the Canticle of Canticles.第五次大公会议谴责他的神圣的权力,对所罗门,约伯记的书籍,canticle的canticles反对西奥多的摩普绥提亚。 Since the fourth century the teaching of the Church concerning the nature of the Bible is practically summed up in the dogmatic formula that God is the author of Sacred Scripture.自第四世纪教会的教学关于“圣经”的性质,实际上是在上帝的教条公式是圣经的作者总结了。According to the first chapter of the Council of Carthage (AD 398), bishops before being consecrated must express their belief in this formula, and this profession of faith is exacted of them even today.根据理事会的迦太基(公元398年),之前被奉献主教第一章必须表达他们在这个公式的信念,即使在今天这种信仰是他们的付出。 In the thirteenth century, Innocent III imposed this formula on the Waldensians; Clement IV exacted its acceptance from Michael Palaeologus, and the emperor actually accepted it in his letter to the Second Council of Lyons (1272).在13世纪,英诺森三世施加的韦尔这个公式;克莱门特四付出迈克尔Palaeologus接受,皇帝居然接受了他的信,里昂的第二届理事会(1272)。 The same formula was repeated in the fifteenth century by Eugenius IV in his Decree for the Jacobites, in the sixteenth century by the Council of Trent (Sess. IV, decr. de can. Script.), and in the nineteenth century by the Vatican Council.在15世纪,在他的法令Jacobites,安理会的遄达(Sess.四,DECR DE可以脚本。),在16世纪,在十九世纪由梵蒂冈叶夫根尼四重复同样的公式会。What is implied in this Divine authorship of Sacred Scripture, and how it is to be explained, has been set forth in the article INSPIRATION.什么是隐含在这个神圣的圣经作者,它是如何来加以解释,一直在文章灵感规定。

III.三。COLLECTION OF SACRED BOOKS收集神圣的书籍

What has been said implies that Scripture does not refer to any single book, but comprises a number of books written at different times and by different writers working under the inspiration of the Holy Ghost.说了些什么,意味着圣经并没有提及任何单一的书,但包括在不同的时间和圣灵的启示下工作的不同作家写的书。Hence the question, how could such a collection be made, and how was it made in point of fact?因此,问题,怎么会这样一个集合,它是如何在实际上呢?

A. Question of RightA.右的问题

The main difficulty as to the first question (quoestio juris) arises from the fact that a book must be Divinely inspired in order to lay claim to the dignity of being regarded as Scripture.出现的第一个问题的主要困难(quoestio法学)从一本书必须以奠定声称被作为圣经的尊严神启示的事实。 Various methods have been suggested for ascertaining the fact of inspiration.确定的灵感其实已经提出的各种方法。It has been claimed that so-called internal criteria are sufficient to lead us to the knowledge of this fact.它一直宣称所谓的内部标准,足以导致我们对这一事实的知识。But on closer investigation they prove inadequate.但仔细调查,他们被证明是不够的。

Miracles and prophecies require a Divine intervention in order that they may happen, not in order that they may be recorded; hence a work relating miracles or prophecies is not necessarily inspired.需要为了一个神圣的干预,他们可能会发生的奇迹和预言,不是为了他们可能会被记录,因此有关工作的奇迹或预言不一定是启发。

The so-called ethico-aesthetic criterium is inadequate.所谓的伦理审美绕圈是不够的。It fails to establish that certain portions of Scripture are inspired writings, eg, the genealogical tables, and the summary accounts of the kings of Juda, while it favours the inspiration of several post-Apostolic works, eg, of the "Imitation of Christ", and of the "Epistles" of St. Ignatius Martyr.它未能建立圣经的某些部分是灵感的著作,例如,家谱表,并犹大诸王的汇总账户的,同时有利于几个使徒后的作品,如“模仿基督的启示”, ,“书信”圣依纳爵烈士。

The same must be said of the psychological criterium, or the effect which the perusal of Scripture produces in the heart of the reader.同样必须指出的心理绕圈,或细读圣经读者的心脏产生的效果。Such emotions are subjective, and vary in different readers.这种情绪是主观的,并在不同读者的不同。The Epistle of St. James appeared strawlike to Luther, divine to Calvin.书信的圣雅各福群会出现strawlike神路德,加尔文。

These internal criteria are inadequate even if they be taken collectively.这些内部条件不足,即使他们采取集体。Wrong keys are unable to open a lock whether they be used singly or collectively.错误的钥匙都无法打开锁,是否可用于单独或集体。

Other students of this subject have endeavored to establish Apostolic authorship as a criterium of inspiration.其他学生对这个问题一直在努力建立使徒作者的灵感绕圈。But this answer does not give us a criterium for the inspiration of the Old Testament books, nor does it touch the inspiration of the Gospels of St. Mark and St. Luke, neither of whom was an Apostle.但这个答案并没有给我们一个绕圈旧约书的灵感,也没有触摸圣马克和圣卢克福音的灵感,既不是其中一个使徒。Besides, the Apostles were endowed with the gift of infallibility in their teaching, and in their writing as far as it formed part of their teaching; but infallibility in writing does not imply inspiration.此外,使徒被赋予的礼物infallibility在自己的教学,并在他们的写作尽可能形成自己的教学的一部分,但在写作犯错误并不意味着灵感。 Certain writings of the Roman pontiff may be infallible, but they are not inspired; God is not their author.罗马教皇的某些著作可能犯错,但他们没有灵感;神是不是他们的作者。Nor can the criterium of inspiration be placed in the testimony of history.灵感绕圈也不能放置在历史的见证。For inspiration is a supernatural fact, known only to God and probably to the inspired writer.对于灵感是一种超自然的事实,只有上帝和可能的,作家的灵感。Hence human testimony concerning inspiration is based, at best, on the testimony of one person who is, naturally speaking, an interested party in the matter concerning which he testifies.因此,人类的证词关于灵感,充其量是基于一个人的证词是谁,自然而言,利害关系人在关于他证明的问题。The history of the false prophets of former times as well as of our own day teaches us the futility of such testimony.前假先知的历史以及我们自己的一天,教导我们这些证词是徒劳的。It is true that miracles and prophecy may, at times, confirm such human testimony as to the inspiration of a work.这是真正的奇迹和预言可能,有时,确认工作的灵感如人类的证词。But, in the first place, not all inspired writers have been prophets or workers of miracles; in the second place, in order that prophecies or miracles may serve as proof of inspiration, it must be clear that the miracles were performed, and the prophecies were uttered, to establish the fact in question; in the third place, if this condition be verified, the testimony for inspiration is no longer merely human, but it has become Divine.但是,摆在首位,不是所有的启发作家已经创造奇迹的先知或职工;在第二位,以预言或奇迹,可以作为证明的灵感,它必须明确的奇迹进行,并预言一声,建立问题的事实;在第三位,如果这个条件得到验证,寻找灵感的证词已不再仅仅是人类的,但它已经成为神圣的。 No one will doubt the sufficiency of Divine testimony to establish the fact of inspiration; on the other hand, no one can deny the need of such testimony in order that we may distinguish with certainty between an inspired and a non-inspired book.没有人会怀疑神的证词自给自足建立灵感的事实;,另一方面,没有人可以否认的需要等的证词,以鼓舞和启发非书之间的确定性,我们可以区分。

B. Question of FactB.事实问题

It is a rather difficult problem to state with certainty, how and when the several books of the Old and the New Testament were received as sacred by the religious community.这是一个相当困难的问题,肯定状态,如何和何时收到旧的几本书和新约圣经是神圣的宗教社会。Deut., xxxi, 9, 24 sqq., informs us that Moses delivered the Book of the Law to the Levites and the ancients of Israel to be deposited "in the side of the ark of the covenant"; according to Deut., xvii, 18, the king had to procure for himself a copy of at least a part of the book, so as to "read it all the days of his life".申,三十一,9,24 SQQ,告诉我们,摩西交付存入“约柜方”的利和以色列古人法书;根据申,第十七条。 ,18,国王不得不为自己购买一份至少一书的部分,以“读他的生活天”。Josue (xxiv, 26) added his portion to the law-book of Israel, and this may be regarded as the second step in the collection of the Old Testament writings.若苏埃(24,26),增加了他的部分以色列的法律书籍,这可能是在旧约的著作收集第二步。According to Is., xxxiv, 16, and Jer., xxxvi, 4, the prophets Isaias and Jeremias collected their respective prophetic utterances.根据是,三十四,16,哲,三十六,4,先知伊萨亚斯和赫雷米亚斯收集各自的先知的话语。The words of II Par., xxix, 30, lead us to suppose that in the days of King Ezechias there either existed or originated a collection of the Psalms of David and of Asaph.第二杆,二十九,30的话,导致我们假设埃泽希亚什国王天,或者存在或源于大卫和亚萨的诗篇集合。From Prov., xxv, 1, one may infer that about the same time there was made a collection of the Solomonic writings, which may have been added to the collection of psalms.从省,二十五,1,可以推断,大约在同一时间,有所罗门的著作,它可能已被添加到收集的诗篇集合。In the second century BC the Minor Prophets had been collected into one work (Ecclus., xlix, 12) which is cited in Acts, vii, 42, as "the books of the prophets".在公元前二世纪的小先知已收集到一个工作“(Ecclus.,XLIX,12)为”先知书“,这是引行为,七,42。 The expressions found in Dan., ix, 2, and I Mach., xii, 9, suggest that even these smaller collections had been gathered into a larger body of sacred books.发现于丹的表达。九,2,我和马赫,第十二,9,建议,已聚集成一个神圣的书籍,较大的机身甚至这些较小的集合。Such a larger collection is certainly implied in the words II Mach., ii, 13, and the prologue of Ecclesiasticus.二马赫,II,13,和Ecclesiasticus序幕的话肯定是隐含在这样一个更大的集合。Since these two passages mention the main divisions of the Old-Testament canon, this latter must have been completed, at least with regard to the earlier books, during the course of the second century BC由于这两个段落提到的旧全书佳能的主要部门,后者必须已完成,至少对于早期的书籍,在公元前二世纪的过程中

It is generally granted that the Jews in the time of Jesus Christ acknowledged as canonical or included in their collection of sacred writings all the so-called protocanonical books of the Old Testament.它一般授予在耶稣基督的犹太人公认的规范,或在他们神圣的著作包括所有所谓的旧约protocanonical书籍。 Christ and the Apostles endorsed this faith of the Jews, so that we have Divine authority for their Scriptural character.耶稣和使徒赞同这一犹太人的信仰,让我们为他们的“圣经”的性格神圣的权力。As there are solid reasons for maintaining that some of the New-Testament writers made use of the Septuagint version which contained the deuterocanonical books of the Old Testament, these latter too are in so far attested as part of Sacred Scripture.也有充分的理由保持一些新旧约作家septuagint版本,其中包含旧约次经书籍,这些后者使用至今证实圣经的一部分。 Again, II Pet., iii, 15-16, ranks all the Epistles of St. Paul with the "other scriptures", and I Tim., v, 18, seems to quote Luke, x, 7, and to place it on a level with Deut., xxv, 4.再次,宠物二,三,15-16,居“等经文”的所有圣保禄的书信,我添,V,18日,似乎报价卢克,X,7,和地方上的水平与申,二十五,4。 But these arguments for the canonicity of the deuterocanonical books of the Old Testament, of the Pauline Epistles, and of the Gospel of St. Luke do not exclude all reasonable doubt.但正规的宝莲书信,旧约次经书籍和圣卢克福音这些论点不排除一切合理怀疑。Only the Church, the infallible bearer of tradition, can furnish us invincible certainty as to the number of the Divinely inspired books of both the Old and the New Testament.只有教会,传统的万无一失的承载,可以提供我们无论是旧神启示的书籍和新约中立于不败之地确定性。See CANON OF THE HOLY SCRIPTURES.见佳能的圣经。

IV.四。DIVISION OF SCRIPTURE圣经的处

A. Old and New TestamentsA.旧约和新约

As the two dispensations of grace separated from each other by the advent of Jesus are called the Old and the New Testament (Matthew 26:28; 2 Corinthians 3:14), so were the inspired writings belonging to either economy of grace from the earliest times called books of the Old or of the New Testament, or simply the Old or the New Testament.恩典的两个相互分离的耶稣的来临特许叫老和新约圣经(马太福音26:28;哥林多后书3:14),所以从最早的经济之一宽限期的灵感著作有时也称为旧的或新约,或者干脆旧或新约圣经的书籍。 This name of the two great divisions of the inspired writings has been practically common among Latin Christians from the time of Tertullian, though Tertullian himself frequently employs the name "Instrumentum" or legally authentic document; Cassiodorus uses the title "Sacred Pandects", or sacred digest of law.从德尔图良的拉丁基督徒之间的这两个部门的启发著作的伟大的名字几乎已经共同,虽然特土良自己经常采用的名称“Instrumentum”或法律正宗的文件; Cassiodorus使用的标题是“神圣Pandects”,或神圣消化了法律。

B. Protocanonical and DeuterocanonicalB. Protocanonical和次经

The word "canon" denoted at first the material rule, or instrument, employed in various trades; in a metaphorical sense it signified the form of perfection that had to be attained in the various arts or trades. “佳能”这个词表示第一的材料规则,或仪器,在各行业的就业;在比喻意义,它象征着完美的形式,在各种艺术或行业实现。In this metaphorical sense some of the early Fathers urged the canon of truth, the canon of tradition, the canon of faith, the canon of the Church against the erroneous tenets of the early heretics (St. Clem., "I Cor.", vii; Clem. of Alex., "Strom.", xvi; Orig., "De princip.", IV, ix; etc.).在这个隐喻意义的一些早期教父敦促真理的佳能​​,佳能的传统,信仰的佳能,佳能教会对早期的异端(圣克莱姆。错误的原则,“我肺心病。”七;克莱姆亚历克斯,“斯特罗姆。”十六;原价,“德普林西普。”,四,九;等)。 St. Irenæus employed another metaphor, calling the Fourth Gospel the canon of truth (Adv. haer., III, xi); St. Isidore of Pelusium applies the name to all the inspired writings (Epist., iv, 14).圣irenæus采用另一种比喻,调用第四福音真理佳能(Adv. haer,三,十一);圣Pelusium伊西多尔的名称适用于所有灵感的著作“(Epist.,四,14)。About the time of St. Augustine (Contra Crescent., II, xxxix) and St. Jerome (Prolog. gal.), the word "canon" began to denote the collection of Sacred Scriptures; among later writers it is used practically in the sense of catalogue of inspired books.关于开始的圣奥古斯丁(魂斗罗红新月会,二,三十九)和圣杰罗姆(Prolog.加仑),“佳能”字时表示收集圣经的,后来的作家中,它实际上是用在意义上的启发书目录。 In the sixteenth century, Sixtus Senensis, OP, distinguished between protocanonical and deuterocanonical books.在16世纪,Sixtus Senensis,OP,区分protocanonical和次经书籍。This distinction does not indicate a difference of authority, but only a difference of time at which the books were recognized by the whole Church as Divinely inspired.这种区别并不表明一个权威的差异,但只有一个时间差,在整个教会是由神启示承认的书籍。Deuterocanonical, therefore, are those books concerning the inspiration of which some Churches doubted more or less seriously for a time, but which were accepted by the whole Church as really inspired, after the question had been thoroughly investigated.次经,因此,那些书的灵感,其中一些教堂或多或少严重怀疑了一段时间,但整个教会真正的启发,接受了彻底调查后,问题已。 As to the Old Testament, the Books of Tobias, Judith, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, I, II, Machabees, and alos Esther, x, 4- xvi, 24, Daniel, iii, 24-90, xiii, 1-xiv, 42, are in this sense deuterocanonical; the same must be said of the following New- Testament books and portions: Hebrews, James, II Peter, II, III John, Jude, Apocalypse, Mark, xiii, 9-20, Luke, xxii, 43-44, John, vii, 53-viii, 11.至于旧约,托比亚斯,朱迪思,智慧,Ecclesiasticus,巴鲁克,我,二,Machabees,ALOS以斯帖,X,4丛书 - 十六,24日,丹尼尔,三,24-90,十三,1第十四42,在这个意义上说次经,同样必须以下的新约圣经的书籍和部分说:希伯来人,詹姆斯,彼得,二,三,约翰,犹大,启示,马克,十三,9日至20日,卢克, 53 - VIII,22,43-44,约翰,七,11。Protestant writers often call the deuterocanonical Books of the Old Testament the Apocrypha.新教作家经常打电话旧约伪经次经书籍。

C. Tripartite Division of TestamentsC.三方司的圣经

The prologue of Ecclesiasticus shows that the Old-Testament books were divided into three parts, the Law, the Prophets, and the Writings (the Hagiographa).序幕Ecclesiasticus表明,旧全书书籍被分为三个部分,法,先知,和著作(Hagiographa)。 The same division is mentioned in Luke, xxiv, 44, and has been kept by the later Jews.同一部门中提到卢克,24,44,并一直保持后来犹太人。The Law or the Torah comprises only the Pentateuch.法律或托拉包括只有五经。The second part contains two sections: the former Prophets (Josue, Judges, Samuel, and Kings), and the latter Prophets (Isaias, Jeremias, Ezechiel, and the Minor Prophets, called the Twelve, and counted as one book).第二部分包含两部分:前先知(若苏埃,法官,萨穆埃尔,和国王),而后者先知(伊萨亚,赫雷米亚斯,Ezechiel,和小先知,被称为十二,计为一本书)。 The third division embraces three kinds of books: first poetical books (Psalms, Proverbs, Job); secondly, the five Megilloth or Rolls (Canticle of Canticles, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther); thirdly, the three remaining books (Daniel, Esdras, Paralipomenon).第三分部,包含3种图书:第一个诗意的书籍(诗篇,箴言,作业);第二,五Megilloth或劳斯莱斯(canticle的颂歌,露丝,哀歌,传道书,以斯帖);第三,三(丹尼尔,其余书籍,埃斯德拉斯,Paralipomenon)。 Hence, adding the five books of the first division to the eight of the second, and the eleven of the third, the entire Canon of the Jewish Scriptures embraces twenty-four books.因此,加入五本书的第一师,第二个八,第三十,整个犹太圣经佳能拥抱二十四本书。Another arrangement connects Ruth with the Book of Judges, and Lamentations with Jeremias, and thus reduces the number of the books in the Canon to twenty-two.另一个安排连接露丝与法官的书,赫雷米亚斯哀歌,从而减少了在佳能的书籍二十二个。The division of the New-Testament books into the Gospel and the Apostle (Evangelium et Apostolus, Evangelia et Apostoli, Evangelica et Apostolica) began in the writings of the Apostolic Fathers (St. Ignatius, "Ad Philad.", v; "Epist. ad Diogn., xi) and was commonly adopted about the end of the second century (St. Iren., "Adv. haer.", I, iii; Tert., "De praescr.", xxxiv; St. Clem. of Alex., "Strom.", VII, iii; etc.); but the more recent Fathers did not adhere to it. It has been found more convenient to divide both the Old Testament and the New into four, or still better into three parts. The four parts distinguish between legal, historical, didactic or doctrinal, and prophetic books, while the tripartite division adds the legal books (the Pentateuch and the Gospels) to the historical, and retains the other two classes, ie, the didactic and the prophetic books.在使徒教父的著作(圣依纳爵,划分成的福音和使徒(Evangelium等Apostolus Evangelia等Apostoli,Evangelica等Apostolica)新约圣经的书籍开始,V“Philad广告”。“Epist广告Diogn,西安),并普遍采用的第二个世纪(圣伊伦,“高级haer。”我,三月底,叔,“德praescr。”,三十四;圣克莱姆。亚历克斯“神池”,第七,第三;等);但更近的父亲没有坚持,它已经发现了更多的方便分旧约和新的四成,或仍然更好地融入三部分组成,法律,历史,说教或较浓,和先知书四部分区分,三方分工,同时增加了法律书籍(五经和福音)的历史,并保留其他两个类,即,说教预言书。

D. Arrangement of BooksD.安排图书

The catalogue of the Council of Trent arranges the inspired books partly in a topological, partly in a chronological order.安理会的遄达目录安排的启发书,部分拓扑,部分按时间顺序。In the Old Testament, we have first all the historical books, excepting the two books of the Machabees which were supposed to have been written last of all.在旧约中,我们首先所有的历史书籍,除了被认为已被写入最后Machabees的两本书。These historical books are arranged according to the order of time of which they treat; the books of Tobias, Judith, and Ester, however, occupy the last place because they relate personal history.这些历史书是根据他们对待时间的顺序排列;托比亚斯,朱迪思,和酯的书籍,然而,占据了最后的地方,因为它们涉及的个人历史。 The body of didactic works occupies the second place in the Canon, being arranged in the order of time at which the writers are supposed to have lived.说教作品的主体,占据第二的位置,在佳能的作家都应该有生活的时间顺序排列。The third place is assigned to the Prophets, first the four Major and then the twelve Minor Prophets, according to their respective chronological order.第三位的是分配给先知,第一的四大然后的十二小先知,根据各自的时间顺序。The Council follows a similar method in the arrangement of the New- Testament books.会如下类似的方法在安排新旧约的书籍。 The first place is given to the historical books, ie, the Gospels and the Book of Acts; the Gospels follow the order of their reputed composition.第一个地方是考虑到历史的书籍,即福音和使徒行传福音遵循其被誉为组成的顺序。The second place is occupied by the didactic books, the Pauline Epistles preceding the Catholic.第二位的是被占领的教学书籍,天主教前的宝莲书信。The former are enumerated according to the order of dignity of the addresses and according to the importance of the matter treated.前者是根据地址尊严的顺序,并根据处理此事的重要性,列举。Hence results the series: Romans; I, II Corinthians; Galatians; Ephesians; Philippians; Colossians; I, II, Thessalonians; I, II Timothy; Titus; Philemon; the Epistle to the Hebrews occupies the last place on account of its late reception into the canon.因此,结果系列:罗马人;我,哥林多后书加拉太书;以弗所书,腓;歌罗西书;我,二,帖撒罗尼迦前书;我,提摩太,提图斯;腓利门书;书信的希伯来人,占据了其后期接待的帐户最后的地方进入佳能。 In its disposition of the Catholic Epistles the Council follows the so- called western order: I, II Peter; I, II, III John; James; Jude; our Vulgate edition follows the oriental order (James; I, II, III, John; Jude) which seems to be based on Gal., ii, 9.理事会在其天主教教会的处置如下所谓的西方秩序:Ⅰ,Ⅱ彼得;一,二,三,约翰詹姆斯,裘德,我们的武加大版如下东方秩序(詹姆斯一,二,三,约翰裘德)似乎要基于GAL,二,9。 The Apocalypse occupies in the New Testament the place corresponding to that of the Prophets in the Old Testament.启示录中占有相应的地方,在旧约的先知,在新约。

E. Liturgical DivisionE.礼仪部

The needs of liturgy occasioned a division of the inspired books into smaller parts.礼仪的需要,引起了划分成较小的部分灵感书籍。At the time of the Apostles it was a received custom to read in the synagogue service of the sabbath-day a portion of the Pentateuch (Acts 15:21) and a part of the Prophets (Luke 4:16; Acts 13:15, 27).在使徒的时候,它是收到的自定义阅读安息日天的犹太教堂服务的一个部分的pentateuch(徒15:21)和先知(路加福音4时16分的一部分;使徒13点15分, 27)。Hence the Pentateuch has been divided into fifty-four "parashas" according to the number of sabbaths in the intercalary lunar year.因此,摩西五分为已根据第五十四条“parashas”安息日在农历闰。To each parasha corresponds a division of the prophetic writings, called haphtara.每个parasha对应一个师的预言著作,所谓haphtara。The Talmud speaks of more minute divisions, pesukim, which almost resemble our verses.塔木德讲多分钟部门,pesukim,几乎类似于我们的诗句。The Church transferred to the Christian Sunday the Jewish custom of reading part of the Scriptures in the assemblies of the faithful, but soon added to, or replaced, the Jewish lessons by parts of the New Testament (St. Just., "I Apol.", lxvii; Tert., "De praescr.", xxxvi, etc.).教会转移到基督教礼拜的阅读圣经的忠实集会的一部分犹太习俗,但很快就加入到或更换,部分的新约圣经(圣而已。犹太人的教训,“我APOL。 LXVII;叔,“德praescr”,三十六,等)。Since the particular churches differed in the selection of the Sunday readings, this custom did not occasion any generally received division in the books of the New Testament.由于特定的教堂在周日读数的选择不同,没有这一习俗之际收到任何新约圣经的书籍一般分工。Besides, from the end of the fifth century, these Sunday lessons were no longer taken in order, but the sections were chosen as they fitted in with the ecclesiastical feasts and seasons.此外,从第五世纪结束时,这些礼拜的教训,不再采取,但部分被选择为他们配备教会节日和季节。

F. Divisions to facilitate reference楼分部,以方便参考

For the convenience of readers and students the text had to be divided more uniformly than we have hitherto seen.为方便读者和学生的文本进行划分更均匀,比我们迄今看到。Such divisions are traced back to Tatian, in the second century.这样的划分追溯到塔蒂安,在第二个世纪。Ammonius, in the third, divided the Gospel text into 1162 kephalaia in order to facilitate a Gospel harmony. Ammonius,在第三,分为1162 kephalaia福音文本,以便福音和谐。Eusebius, Euthalius, and others carried on this work of division in the following centuries, so that in the fifth or sixth the Gospels were divided into 318 parts (tituli), the Epistles into 254 (capitula), and the Apocalypse into 96 (24 sermones, 72 capitula).在接下来的几个世纪中,在第五或第六的福音,使被划分成318部分(tituli)到254(投降)的书信,和启示成96(24尤西比乌斯,Euthalius,以及其他对本司的工作进行sermones,72投降)。 Cassiodorus relates that the Old Testament text was divided into various parts (De inst. div. lit., I, ii).Cassiodorus涉及旧约文本划分成各个部分(德研究所的div。点燃。一,二)。But all these various partitions were too imperfect and too uneven for practical use, especially when in the thirteenth century concordances (see CONCORDANCES) began to be constructed.但是,所有这些不同的分区太不完善,太实际使用中的不平衡,尤其是在十三世纪语词索引(见语词索引)时开始兴建。 About this time, Card.大约在这个时候,卡。Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury, who died 1228, divided all the books of Scripture uniformly into chapters, a division which found its way almost immediately into the codices of the Vulgate version and even into some codices of the original texts, and passed into all the printed editions after the invention of printing.斯蒂芬兰顿,坎特伯雷大主教,死亡1228人,分为经文的所有书籍统一成章节,几乎立即发现成武加大版本的抄本,甚至到一些抄本原文表决,并传递到所有印刷术的发明后的印刷版。 As the chapters were too long for ready reference, Cardinal Hugh of St. Cher divided them into smaller sections which he indicated by the capital letters A, B, etc. Robert Stephens, probably imitating R. Nathan (1437) divided the chapters into verses, and published his complete division into chapters and verses first in the Vulgate text (1548), and later on also in the Greek original of the New Testament (1551).由于章节随时参考太长,枢机主教的圣雪儿休分为更小的部分,他的大写字母A,B等,可能模仿R.弥敦道(1437年)罗伯特斯蒂芬斯分为经文章节,并首先在武加大文本(1548)成章节和诗句出版他的完整的分工,后来在希腊的新约(1551)原。

V. SCRIPTURE五,经文

Since Scripture is the written word of God, its contents are Divinely guaranteed truths, revealed either in the strict or the wider sense of the word.因为圣经是上帝的文字,神保证其内容的真理,揭示在严格或更广泛的意义上的字。Again, since the inspiration of a writing cannot be known without Divine testimony, God must have revealed which are the books that constitute Sacred Scripture.同样,因为不能没有神圣的证词写作的灵感,神必须有透露这是构成圣经的书籍。Moreover, theologians teach that Christian Revelation was complete in the Apostles, and that its deposit was entrusted to the Apostles to guard and to promulgate.此外,神学教,基督教的启示是在使徒完成后,其存款被委托使徒民警卫队和颁布。Hence the apostolic deposit of Revelation contained no merely Sacred Scripture in the abstract, but also the knowledge as to its constituent books.因此,其组成的书籍的启示使徒存款中没有抽象的纯粹的圣经,也是知识。Scripture, then, is an Apostolic deposit entrusted to the Church, and to the Church belongs its lawful administration.经文,然后委托给教会的使徒存款,教会属于其依法行政。This position of Sacred Scripture in the Church implies the following consequences:圣经在教会的这一立场意味着以下后果:

(1) The Apostles promulgated both the Old and New Testament as a document received from God.(1)使徒们收到一份文件,从神颁布的旧约和新约。It is antecedently probable that God should not cast his written Word upon men as a mere windfall, coming from no known authority, but that he should entrust its publication to the care of those whom he was sending to preach the Gospel to all nations, and with whom he had promised to be for all days, even to the consummation of the world.它是antecedently可能的,神对男人不应该投他的书面圣言作为一个单纯的暴利,没有已知的权威,但他应该照顾他派遣传福音给所有国家委托其出版,他曾许诺要为所有天,甚至到了圆满的世界。 In conformity woth this principle, St. Jerome (De script. eccl.) says of the Gospel of St. Mark: "When Peter had heard it, he both approved of it and ordered it to be read in the churches".这一原则,在符合woth圣杰罗姆(。脚本传道书)圣马克福音说:“当彼得听到它,他批准,并命令它在教会读”。 The Fathers testify to the promulgation of Scripture by the Apostles where they treat of the transmission of the inspired writings.父亲作证颁布的圣经的使徒,他们对待传输的启发著作。

(2) The transmission of the inspired writings consists in the delivery of Scripture by the Apostles to their successors with the right, the duty, and the power to continue its promulgation, to preserve its integrity and identity, to explain its meaning, to use it in proving and illustrating Catholic teaching, to oppose and condemn any attack upon its doctrine, or any abuse of its meaning. (2)传输的启发著作包括在圣经的使徒到他们的继承人的权利,责任,权力,继续它的颁布,以保护其完整性和身份,来解释其含义的交付,使用证明和说明天主教教学,反对和谴责任何攻击后,其学说,或任何滥用其含义。 We may infer all this from the character of the inspired writings and the nature of the Apostolate; but it is also attested by some of the weightiest writers of the early Church.从字符的启发著作和使徒的性质,我们可以推断这一切,但它也是由早期教会的一些weightiest作家证明。St. Irenæus insists upon these points against the Gnostics, who appealed to Scripture as to private historical documents.圣irenæus坚持对诺斯替教,世卫组织呼吁为私人历史文献圣经这些点。He excludes this Gnostic view, first by insisting on the mission of the Apostles and upon the succession in the Apostolate, especially as seen in the Church of Rome (Haer., III, 3-4); secondly, by showing that the preaching of the Apostles continued by their successors contains a supernatural guarantee of infallibility through the indwelling of the Holy Ghost (Haer., III, 24); thirdly, by combining the Apostolic succession and the supernatural guarantee of the Holy Ghost (Haer., IV, 26).他排除了这种诺斯底视图,首先坚持的使徒使命,并呼吁在使徒的继承,特别是在罗马教会(Haer.,三,3-4);其次,通过展示,宣扬其继任者继续在使徒包含通过留置的圣灵“(Haer.,三,24)超自然犯错误的保证;第三,结合使徒继承和圣灵超自然的保证(Haer.,四,26 )。It seems plain that, if Scripture cannot be regarded as a private historical document on account of the official mission of the Apostles, on account of the official succession in the Apostolate of their successors, on account of the assistance of the Holy Ghost promised to the Apostles and their successors, the promulgation of Scripture, the preservation of its integrity and identity, and the explanation of its meaning must belong to the Apostles and their legitimate successors.它似乎平原,如果圣经不能算是一个私人的使徒官方使命而历史文件,对在其继任使徒正式继承而因圣灵的协助下,承诺向使徒和他们的后继者,颁布的经文,维护其完整性和身份,并解释其含义必须属于使徒和他们的合法接班人。 The same principles are advocated by the great Alexandrian doctor, Origen (De princ., Praef.).伟大的亚历山大医生,奥利(德princ,Praef。)同样的原则主张。"That alone", he says, "is to be believed to be the truth which in nothing differs from the ecclesiastical and Apostolical tradition".“那孤军奋战”,他说,“被认为是真理,没有从教会和使徒的传统不同,”。In another passage (in Matth. tr. XXIX, n. 46-47), he rejects the contention urged by the heretics "as often as they bring forward canonical Scriptures in which every Christian agrees and believes", that "in the houses is the word of truth"; "for from it (the Church) alone the sound hath gone forth into all the earth, and their words unto the ends of the world".在另一段(Matth。TR二十九,N. 46-47),他拒绝争敦促异端“,经常为他们带来了规范的圣经中,每一个基督徒的同意,并相信”,即在房屋“真理的道“;”(教会)的声音已经深入到所有地提出,并赐给世界的两端的话“。 That the African Church agrees with the Alexandrian, is clear from the words of Tertullian (De praescript., nn, 15, 19).非洲教会与亚历山大同意,明确从德尔图良(德praescript,NN,15,19)的话。He protests against the admission of heretics "to any discussion whatever touching the Scriptures".他抗议接纳异端“任何讨论任何接触圣经”。"This question should be first proposed, which is now the only one to be discussed, `To whom belongs the faith itself: whose are the Scriptures'?. . .For the true Scriptures and the true expositions and all the true Christian traditions will be wherever both the true Christian rule and faith shall be shown to be". “这个问题应该首先提出,这是现在唯一一个将要讨论的,其中属于信仰本身的”圣经“”对于真正的圣经和真实的论述和所有真正的基督教传统。只要双方真正的基督徒规则和信仰应是“。 St. Augustine endorses the same position when he says: "I should not believe the Gospel except on the authority of the Catholic Church" (Con. epist. Manichaei, fundam., n. 6).圣奥古斯丁赞同相同的位置时,他说:“我不应该相信福音,除天主教的权威”(Con. epist Manichaei,fundam,N. 6。)。

(3) By virtue of its official and permanent promulgation, Scripture is a public document, the Divine authority of which is evident to all the members of the Church. (3)凭借其官方和永久的颁布,圣经是一份公开文件,神圣的权力,这是有目共睹的所有教会的成员。

(4) The Church necessarily possesses a text of Scripture, which is internally authentic, or substantially identical with the original. (4)教会必然拥有圣经的文本,这是内部正宗,或在相当程度上与原来的相同。Any form or version of the text, the internal authenticity of which the Church has approved either by its universal and constant use, or by a formal declaration, enjoys the character of external or public authenticity, ie, its conformity with the original must not merely be presumed juridically, but must be admitted as certain on account of the infallibility of the Church.任何形式或文本的版本,内部的真实性,教会已批准其普遍性和经常使用,或由一个正式的声明,享有外部或​​公共的真实性,即其符合与原来的字符不能仅仅在法律上被推定,但必须承认某些教会犯错误的帐户。

(5) The authentic text, legitimately promulgated, is a source and rule of faith, though it remains only a means or instrument in the hands of the teaching body of the Church, which alone has the right of authoritatively interpreting Scripture. (5)作准文本,合法的颁布,是信仰的来源和规则,但它仍然只是一种手段或仪器的教会,这仅具有权威性解释圣经权利的教学机构手中。

(6) The administration and custody of Scripture is not entrusted directly to the whole Church, but to its teaching body, though Scripture itself is the common property of the members of the whole Church. (6)圣经的管理和保管没有直接委托到整个教会,但其教学机构,虽然圣经本身是整个教会成员的共同财产。While the private handling of Scripture is opposed to the fact that it is common property, its administrators are bound to communicate its contents to all the members of the Church.虽然圣经的私人处理反对的事实,这是共同财产,其管理员势必教会的所有成员沟通其内容。

(7) Though Scripture is the property of the Church alone, those outside her pale may use it as a means of discovering or entering the Church. (7)虽然圣经是教会的财产,仅外她苍白的可以使用它作为发现或进入教会的一种手段。But Tertullian shows that they have no right to apply Scripture to their own purposes or to turn it against the Church.但德尔图良表明,他们没有权利申请圣经,以达到自己的目的,或对教会。He also teaches Catholics how to contest the right of heretics to appeal to Scripture at all (by a kind of demurrer), before arguing with them on single points of Scriptural doctrine.他还教导如何比赛异端诉权圣经与他们争论的圣经教义的单点之前,所有的异议的天主教徒。

(8) The rights of the teaching body of the Church include also that of issuing and enforcing decrees for promoting the right use, or preventing the abuse of Scripture.(8)教会的教学机构的权利,也包括颁布和实施促进使用权的法令,或防止滥用的经文。Not to mention the definition of the Canon (see CANON), the Council of Trent issued two decrees concerning the Vulgate, and a decree concerning the interpretation of Scripture (see EXEGESIS, HERMENEUTICS), and this last enactment was repeated in a more stringent form by the Vatican Council (sess. III, Conc. Trid., sess. IV).更何况佳能(见佳能)的定义,安理会的遄达发出了两项法令,关于武加大了一项法令,关于圣经的解释(见注释,诠释学),这最后制定更严格的形式反复梵蒂冈理事会(sess.第三,浓。TRID,SESS四)。 The various decisions of the Biblical Commission derive their binding force from this same right of the teaching body of the Church.圣经委员会的各项决定,推导出其约束力,从这个教会的教学机构同等的权利。(Cf. Stapleton, Princ. Fid. Demonstr., X-XI; Wilhelm and Scannell, "Manual of Catholic Theology", London, 1890, I, 61 sqq.; Scheeben, "Handbuch der katholischen Dogmatik", Freiburg, 1873, I, 126 sqq.).(参见芮,Princ FID Demonstr,X - 11;威廉和斯坎内尔“天主教神学手册”,伦敦,1890年,我61 SQQ; Scheeben,“手册下载DER katholischen Dogmatik”,弗赖堡,1873年,我,126 SQQ)。

VI.六。ATTITUDE OF THE CHURCH TOWARDS THE READING OF THE BIBLE IN THE VERNACULAR读白话圣经的教会的态度

The attitude of the Church as to the reading of the Bible in the vernacular may be inferred from the Church's practice and legislation.教会的“圣经”中的白话阅读的态度可以推断,从教会的实践和立法。It has been the practice of the Church to provide newly-converted nations, as soon as possible, with vernacular versions of the Scriptures; hence the early Latin and oriental translations, the versions existing among the Armenians, the Slavonians, the Goths, the Italians, the French, and the partial renderings into English.教会提供新转换的国家,它一直的做法,尽快与“圣经”的白话版本,因此早期的拉美和东方翻译,现有版本之间的亚美尼亚人,Slavonians,哥特,意大利,法国,和部分渲染成英文。 As to the legislation of the Church on this subject, we may divide its history into three large periods:至于关于这个问题的教会的立法,我们可以分为三个大的时期它的历史:

(1) During the course of the first millennium of her existence, the Church did not promulgate any law concerning the reading of Scripture in the vernacular. (1)在她的存在的第一个千年的过程中,教会没有颁布任何法律有关的经文读白话。The faithful were rather encouraged to read the Sacred Books according to their spiritual needs (cf. St. Irenæus, "Adv. haer.", III, iv).而鼓励教友们读的圣书,根据他们的精神需求(参见圣Irenæus,“高级haer。”,三,四)。

(2) The next five hundred years show only local regulations concerning the use of the Bible in the vernacular.(2)今后五百年来只显示有关白话“圣经”中使用的地方性法规。On 2 January, 1080, Gregory VII wrote to the Duke of Bohemia that he could not allow the publication of the Scriptures in the language of the country. 1月2日,1080,格雷戈里七写信给波希米亚公爵,他不能容许的“圣经”,在该国的语言出版。The letter was written chiefly to refuse the petition of the Bohemians for permission to conduct Divine service in the Slavic language.写这封信主要是拒绝的权限进行神圣的服务,在斯拉夫语的波希米亚人的请愿书。The pontiff feared that the reading of the Bible in the vernacular would lead to irreverence and wrong interpretation of the inspired text (St. Gregory VII, "Epist.", vii, xi).教宗担心,读“圣经”中的白话,会导致不敬和灵感的文字错误的解释(圣格雷戈里第七,“Epist。”,第七,第十一)。 The second document belongs to the time of the Waldensian and Albigensian heresies.第二份文件属于Waldensian Albigensian歪理邪说的时间。The Bishop of Metz had written to Innocent III that there existed in his diocese a perfect frenzy for the Bible in the vernacular.梅茨的主教曾写信给英诺森三世,在他的教区存在白话“圣经”中的一个完美的狂潮。In 1199 the pope replied that in general the desire to read the Scriptures was praiseworthy, but that the practice was dangerous for the simple and unlearned ("Epist., II, cxli; Hurter, "Gesch. des. Papstes Innocent III", Hamburg, 1842, IV, 501 sqq.). After the death of Innocent III, the Synod of Toulouse directed in 1229 its fourteenth canon against the misuse of Sacred Scripture on the part of the Cathari: "prohibemus, ne libros Veteris et Novi Testamenti laicis permittatur habere" (Hefele, "Concilgesch", Freiburg, 1863, V, 875). In 1233 the Synod of Tarragona issued a similar prohibition in its second canon, but both these laws are intended only for the countries subject to the jurisdiction of the respective synods (Hefele, ibid., 918). The Third Synod of Oxford, in 1408, owing to the disorders of the Lollards, who in addition to their crimes of violence and anarchy had introduced virulent interpolations into the vernacular sacred text, issued a law in virtue of which only the versions approved by the local ordinary or the provincial council were allowed to be read by the laity (Hefele, op. cit., VI, 817).在1199教皇回答说,在一般情况下,读“圣经”的愿望是值得赞扬的,但简单,没有学问(“Epist,二,cxli; Hurter”的做法是危险Gesch DES Papstes诺森三世“,汉堡。 ,1842年,四,501 SQQ)诺森三世去世后,主教图卢兹的指示在1229打击滥用圣经卡塔利的一部分第十四佳能:“prohibemus,NE libros Veteris等诺维Testamenti laicis主教的塔拉戈纳permittatur habere“(黑弗勒,”Concilgesch“,弗赖堡,1863年,伏,875)在1233年发行的第二佳能类似的禁令,但同时这些法律只适用于国家的司法管辖区打算第三牛津主教,1408年,由于Lollards,除了自己的罪行的暴力和无政府状态引入白话神圣的文本剧毒插值障碍,各自的主教(黑弗勒,同上,918)。发出其中仅当地普通或省议会批准的版本被允许读俗人(黑弗勒,同上,第六章,817)在德法。

(3) It is only in the beginning of the last five hundred years that we meet with a general law of the Church concerning the reading of the Bible in the vernacular. (3)它是仅在过去五年一百多年的开始,我们满足一般是教会的有关法律,读“圣经”中的白话。On 24 March, 1564, Pius IV promulgated in his Constitution, "Dominici gregis", the Index of Prohibited Books. 3月24日碧岳四,1564年,在他的“宪法”颁布,“Dominici gregis”,禁止书籍指数。According to the third rule, the Old Testament may be read in the vernacular by pious and learned men, according to the judgment of the bishop, as a help to the better understanding of the Vulgate.根据第三条规则,可阅读旧约白话虔诚和有学问的人,根据主教的判决,作为一个以帮助更好地了解武加大。The fourth rule places in the hands of the bishop or the inquisitor the power of allowing the reading of the New Testament in the vernacular to laymen who according to the judgment of their confessor or their pastor can profit by this practice.主教或打破砂锅允许读白话新约外行的权力手中的第四条规则的地方,根据他们的忏悔或牧师的判决这种做法可以获利。 Sixtus V reserved this power to himself or the Sacred Congregation of the Index, and Clement VIII added this restriction to the fourth rule of the Index, by way of appendix.Sixtus V保留这项权力,以自己或指数神圣的会众,克莱门特八附录的方式,加入这个指数的第四条规则的限制。Benedict XIV required that the vernacular version read by laymen should be either approved by the Holy See or provided with notes taken from the writings of the Fathers or of learned and pious authors.本笃十四外行读白话版应批准教廷或教训和虔诚的父亲的著作采取的笔记或作者提供。It then became an open question whether this order of Benedict XIV was intended to supersede the former legislation or to further restrict it.然后,它成为一个开放的问题,这是否为了本笃十四是旨在取代前立法或进一步限制。 This doubt was not removed by the next three documents: the condemnation of certain errors of the Jansenist Quesnel as to the necessity of reading the Bible, by the Bull "Unigenitus" issued by Clement XI on 8 Sept., 1713 (cf. Denzinger, "Enchir.", nn. 1294-1300); the condemnation of the same teaching maintained in the Synod of Pistoia, by the Bull "Auctorem fidei" issued on 28 Aug., 1794, by Pius VI; the warning against allowing the laity indiscriminately to read the Scriptures in the vernacular, addressed to the Bishop of Mohileff by Pius VII, on 3 Sept., 1816.这无疑是不删除由接下来的三个文件:谴责某些错误的简森派克内尔阅读“圣经”的必要性,Unigenitus“牛”9月8日发出克莱门特十一,1713年(参见登青格, “Enchir。”,NN 1294年至1300年);谴责主教的皮斯托亚保持同样的教学,公牛“Auctorem fidei发布的”1794年8月28日,由庇护六世;反对让俗人的警告乱读白话圣经,给Mohileff主教碧岳七,1816年9月3。But the Decree issued by the Sacred Congregation of the Index on 7 Jan., 1836, seems to render it clear that henceforth the laity may read vernacular versions of the Scriptures, if they be either approved by the Holy See, or provided with notes taken from the writings of the Fathers or of learned Catholic authors.但神圣的会众,1836年1月7指数发出的法令似乎呈现明确表示,今后俗人读“圣经”的白话版本,如果他们被批准教廷,或采取票据提供从著作的父亲或了解到的天主教作家。 The same regulation was repeated by Gregory XVI in his Encyclical of 8 May, 1844.格里高利十六世在他的通谕,1844年5月8日重复同样的规定。In general, the Church has always allowed the reading of the Bible in the vernacular, if it was desirable for the spiritual needs of her children; she has forbidden it only when it was almost certain to cause serious spiritual harm.在一般情况下,教会一直允许读“圣经”中的白话,如果她的孩子的精神需求是可取的,她已被禁止,只有当它几乎肯定会导致严重的精神伤害。

VII.七。OTHER SCRIPTURAL QUESTIONS其他圣经问题

The history of the preservation and the propagation of the Scripture-text is told in the articles MANUSCRIPTS OF THE BIBLE; CODEX ALEXANDRINUS (etc.); VERSIONS OF THE BIBLE; EDITIONS OF THE BIBLE; CRITICISM (TEXTUAL); the interpretation of Scripture is dealt with in the articles HERMENEUTICS; EXEGESIS; COMMENTARIES ON THE BIBLE; and CRITICISM (BIBLICAL).在“圣经”的文章手稿中说是历史的保存和传播圣经文本;法典ALEXANDRINUS(等);的圣经版本的圣经版本;批评(文本);圣经的解释是文章诠释学处理;训诂;评圣经;和批评(圣经)。 Additional information on the foregoing questions is contained in the articles INTRODUCTION; OLD TESTAMENT; NEW TESTAMENT.对上述问题的进一步资料载的文章介绍旧约,新约。The history of our English Version is treated in the article VERSIONS OF THE BIBLE.我们的英文版本的历史,被视为在“圣经”的文章版本。

Publication information Written by AJ Maas.AJ马斯编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Robert B. Olson.转录由罗伯特B ·奥尔森。Offered to Almighty God for Timothy and Kris Gray, and for a holy love and understanding of Sacred Scripture for all members of Our Blessed Lord's Church.提摩太和克里斯灰色,和一个圣洁的爱和圣经的理解,为我们的有福了主的教会的所有成员提供给全能的上帝。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIII.天主教百科全书,卷十三。Published 1912.发布1912。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年2月1日。Remy Lafort, DD, Censor.人头马lafort,副署长,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

A list of Catholic literature on Scriptural subjects has been published in the American Ecclesiastical Review, xxxi (August, 1904), 194-201; this list is fairly complete up to the date of its publication.在美国教会的审查,三十一(8月,1904年),194-201天主教文献“圣经”科目名单已经公布,这份名单是相当完整,其发布之日。 See also the works cited throughout the course of this article.见也的作品,整个这篇文章的过程中引。Most of the questions connected with Scripture are treated in special articles throughout the course of the ENCYCLOPEDIA, for instance, in addition to those mentioned above, JEROME; CANON OF THE HOLY SCRIPTURES; CONCORDANCES OF THE BIBLE; INSPIRATION OF THE BIBLE; TESTAMENT, etc. Each of these articles has an abundant literary guide to its own special aspect of the Scriptures.与圣经有关的问题,大多是在特殊物品对待整个百科全书“的过程中,例如,除了上面提到的那些,杰罗姆;佳能圣经语词索引”圣经“;”圣经“的启示;证明等这些文章,每个人都有自己的“圣经”的特殊方面丰富的文学指南。



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