(Pesach Passover) Seder(逾越节逾越节)家宴

General Information一般资料

(This presentation primarily discusses Jewish perspectives on the Eucharist. At the end of this presentation are links to Catholic and Protestant persectives, and a more general presentation on the Eucharist that includes presentation of the Orthodox perspective.) (本演示主要讨论犹太圣体的观点,在此演示文稿结束是天主教和新教persectives的链接,和一个更一般性介绍,圣体,包括东正教的角度介绍。)

General Information一般资料

The seder (from the Hebrew word for "order") is the festal meal eaten on the first two nights of Passover, the Jewish celebration of the Exodus from Egypt.家宴(从“订单”的希伯来字)是犹太人庆祝逾越节,从埃及出逃的前两晚吃节日餐。The main seder meal does not begin until the story of the Exodus has been retold through the reading of the Haggadah and, more important, reexperienced by the celebrants.主要家宴餐没有开始,直到出埃及记的故事已通过读哈加达重述,更重要的是,在监礼reexperienced。 This recreation of the circumstances of bondage, together with the minutiae of the deliverance, form the heart and spirit of the seder and of the Passover festival itself. “这种娱乐束缚的情况下,一起解脱细枝末节,形式Seder和逾越节本身的心脏和精神。

Certain foods are eaten in set order during the ceremony, including matzoth, the unleavened bread of bondage; maror, bitter herbs (grated horseradish), commemorating the bitterness of slavery; baitzah, a hard-cooked egg, symbolic of life's cycle of birth and death; zaroah, a roasted lamb bone representing the paschal lamb; haroseth, chopped nuts, apples, and wine, symbolic of the clay used by Pharaoh's Hebrew slaves to make bricks; and karpas, parsley, lettuce or other greens, as a reminder that the new growth during this spring festival brings renewed hope of universal peace.在仪式上设定的顺序,某些食物吃掉,包括matzoth,的束缚无酵面包; maror,苦药草磨碎辣根,纪念奴隶制的辛酸; baitzah,硬,煮熟的鸡蛋,象征着生命的诞生周期和死亡; zaroah,一个烤羊肉骨代表的逾越节的羔羊; haroseth,切碎的坚果,苹果,葡萄酒,法老的希伯来奴隶,以使砖的粘土的象征;和卡帕斯,香菜,生菜或其他球场作为提醒人们,今年春节期间的新的经济增长带来新的普遍和平的希望。 Four cups of wine are drunk at various moments in the ceremony.在仪式上的各种时刻饮用四杯葡萄酒。A goblet of wine for Elijah is placed on the seder table in the symbolic hope that the prophet, whose appearance will presage the coming of the Messiah, may enter and partake of the wine that awaits him.以利亚的葡萄酒杯状放在家宴表象征希望的先知,其外观将预示着未来的弥赛亚,可进入和分享,等待他的酒。

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Passover逾越节

General Information一般资料

Passover (in Hebrew, Pesach) is one of the most important Jewish festivals.逾越节(希伯来文,逾越节)是最重要的犹太节日之一。Celebrated in late March or early April (by the Jewish calendar, Nisan 15-22), it commemorates the Exodus--the deliverance of Israel from slavery in Egypt.在三月下旬或四月上旬(犹太历尼散月15-22)庆祝活动,纪念出埃及记 - 以色列从埃及的奴役解脱。The name Passover is interpreted in the Mishnah to refer to the statement (Exod. 12:23) that God would pass over the houses of the Israelites in killing the firstborn of Egypt.逾越节是解释在mishnah声明(出12:23),神会越过以色列人的房屋,在杀死埃及的长子。In the Bible, however, the name is applied to a festival involving the sacrifice of a lamb or kid and the eating of unleavened bread; this was probably an ancient spring festival.然而,在圣经里,名字是节日牺牲的羔羊或孩子,吃无酵饼,这可能是一个古老的春节。

The Passover is celebrated for 7 days (outside Israel, traditionally observant Jews add an extra day), the first and last days being full holidays when work is not to be done.逾越节庆祝(传统细心的犹太人在以色列之外,增加一个额外的一天)为7天,第一天和最后一天完整的假期,工作​​时不要做。 Throughout the week only unleavened bread (matzo) is eaten; the scrupulously observant abstain from all leavened food and even from nonleavened food not prepared for the festival with special care.整个一周唯一的无酵饼(matzo)被吃掉;严格细心的放弃所有膨化食品,即使没有特殊照顾的节日准备的nonleavened食品。 Samaritans still perform the ancient Passover sacrifice; all other Jews gave up this rite when the Temple was destroyed.撒玛利亚仍执行古代逾越节牺牲其他所有的犹太人放弃了这个仪式的圣殿被毁时。Instead, the first two evenings of Passover are marked by a festal meal, called the seder, at which the story of the Exodus is retold through the reading of the Haggadah (story) and the symbols of the occasion--unleavened bread, bitter herbs, and others--are explained.相反,逾越节的前两个晚上都标志着一个节日餐,所谓的家宴,是通过阅读哈加达(故事)和符号的场合出埃及记的故事新编 - 无酵饼,苦菜,和其他人 - 解释。

The Christian feast called Easter in English is called Passover in many other languages (Pascha, Pascuas, Paques).基督教盛宴所​​谓的复活节在英国被称为在许多其他语言的逾越节(逾越节,Pascuas,帕克环保)。

The Passover lamb is interpreted as foreshadowing the sacrifice on the cross of Jesus, the lamb of God.逾越节的羔羊被解释为铺垫牺牲的十字架上的耶稣,上帝的羔羊。

Bernard J. Bamberger伯纳德研究班贝格

Bibliography 参考书目
Bokser, BM, The Origins of the Seder (1984); Gaster, TH, Passover: Its History and Traditions (1949; repr. 1962); Goodman, Philip, ed., The Passover Anthology (1961); Wolfson, Ron, and Grishaver, JL, The Art of Jewish Living: The Passover Seder (1988) Bokser,BM,在家宴的起源(1984);法莫替丁,TH,逾越节:其历史和传统(1949年,1962年再版。);古德曼,菲利普,教育署,逾越节文集(1961年);沃尔夫森,罗恩。 Grishaver,犹太生活的艺术JL:逾越节家宴(1988)


Pesach Passover Seder逾越节逾越节家宴

General Information (Basic)一般资料(基本)

Of all the Jewish holidays, Pesach is the one most commonly observed, even by otherwise non-observant Jews.在所有的犹太节日逾越节是一个最常见的,甚至其他非细心的犹太人。According to the 1990 National Jewish Population Survey (NJPS), more than 80% of Jews have attended a Pesach seder.据1990年全国犹太人人口调查(NJPS),超过80%的犹太人都出席了逾越节家宴。

Pesach begins on the 15th day of the Jewish month of Nissan. It is the first of the three major festivals with both historical and agricultural significance (the other two are Shavu'ot and Sukkot). 逾越节日产犹太一个月的第15天开始,这是历史和农业意义(其他两个是Shavu'ot和住棚节)的三个重大节日第一。Agriculturally, it represents the beginning of the harvest season in Israel, but little attention is paid to this aspect of the holiday.农业,它代表了在​​以色列的收获季节的开始,但很少关注这方面的假日。The primary observances of Pesach are related to the Exodus from Egypt after generations of slavery.逾越节的主要纪念活动都与从埃及的奴役后的几代人出埃及记。This story is told in Exodus, Ch.这个故事是告诉记者,在出埃及记“,CH。1-15.1-15。Many of the Pesach observances are instituted in Chs.提起在CHS许多逾越节纪念活动。12-15.12-15。

The name "Pesach" (PAY-sahch, with a "ch" as in the Scottich "loch") comes from the Hebrew root Peh-Samech-Chet , meaning to pass through, to pass over, to exempt or to spare.来自希伯来文根PEH - Samech -切特命名为“逾越节”(支付sahch,“CH”Scottich“湖”),意思是通过传递过来,豁免或以备用。It refers to the fact that Gd "passed over" the houses of the Jews when he was slaying the firstborn of Egypt.它指的是事实GD“传了过来:”犹太人的房子,当他被杀害埃及的长子。In English, the holiday is known as Passover.在英语中,假期被称为逾越节。"Pesach" is also the name of the sacrificial offering (a lamb) that was made in the Temple on this holiday.“逾越节”的祭品(羔羊),在这个假期寺的名称。The holiday is also referred to as Chag he-Aviv , (the Spring Festival), Chag ha-Matzoth , (the Festival of Matzahs), and Z'man Cherutenu , (the Time of Our Freedom) (again, all with those Scottish "ch"s).这个节日也被称为所有与这些苏格兰再次Chag他特拉维夫(春节),Chag HA - Matzoth(Matzahs​​节),并Z'man Cherutenu,(我们的自由时间)(, “CH”)。

Probably the most significant observance related to Pesach involves the removal of chametz (leaven; sounds like "hum it's" with that Scottish ch) from our homes.也许最显著遵守相关逾越节涉及chametz去除(面肥;听起来像“哼哼”,苏格兰CH)从我们的家园。This commemorates the fact that the Jews leaving Egypt were in a hurry, and did not have time to let their bread rise. It is also a symbolic way of removing the "puffiness" (arrogance, pride) from our souls.这是为了纪念犹太人离开埃及在匆忙的事实,并没有时间让他们的面包,这也是一个象征的方式,从我们的灵魂中删除的“虚胖”(嚣张气焰,骄傲)。

Chametz includes anything made from the five major grains (wheat, rye, barley, oats and spelt) that has not been completely cooked within 18 minutes after coming into contact with water. Chametz包括在18分钟内还没有被完全熟后与水接触的五个主要谷物(小麦,黑麦,大麦,燕麦和拼写)作出的任何。Orthodox Jews of Ashkenazic background also avoid rice, corn, peanuts, and legumes (beans) as if they were chametz.Ashkenazic背景的东正教犹太人也避免了水稻,玉米,花生,豆类,如果他们chametz。All of these items are commonly used to make bread, thus use of them was prohibited to avoid any confusion.所有这些项目通常用来制作面包,因此,使用它们是被禁止的,以避免任何混淆。Such additional items are referred to as "kitniyot."这些额外的项目被称为“kitniyot。”

We may not eat chametz during Pesach; we may not even own it or derive benefit from it.我们可能无法在逾越节吃chametz,我们甚至可能没有自己的,或从中受益。We may not even feed it to our pets or cattle.我们甚至有可能不会给它给我们的宠物或牲畜。All chametz, including utensils used to cook chametz, must either be disposed of or sold to a non-Jew (they can be repurchased after the holiday).所有chametz,包括器皿用来煮chametz,必须加以处置或出售给非犹太人(他们可以节后购回)。Pets' diets must be changed for the holiday, or the pets must be sold to a non-Jew (like the food and utensils, the pets can be repurchased after the holiday ends).宠物的饮食,必须改变为假日,或宠物必须出售给非犹太人(喜欢的食物和用具,宠物假期结束后,可购回)。I have noticed that many non-Jews and non-observant Jews mock this practice of selling chametz as an artificial technicality.我注意到,许多非犹太人和非细心的犹太人模拟这种销售chametz作为人工技术性的做法。I assure you that this sale is very real and legally binding, and would not be valid under Jewish law if it were not.我向你保证,这次出售是非常真实和具有法律约束力的的,并不会犹太法律下有效的,如果不是。From the gentile's perspective, the purchase functions much like the buying and selling of futures on the stock market: even though he does not take physical posession of the goods, his temporary legal ownership of those goods is very real and potentially profitable.从外邦的角度来看,购买功能很像股市期货购买和销售:即使他不采取实际占有的货物,这些货物他的临时法律所有权是非常现实的和潜在的有利可图的的的。

The process of cleaning the home of all chametz in preparation for Pesach is an enormous task. To do it right, you must prepare for several weeks and spend several days scrubbing everything down, going over the edges of your stove and fridge with a toothpick and a Q-Tip, covering all surfaces that come in contact with foil or shelf-liner, etc., etc., etc. After the cleaning is completed, the morning before the seder, a formal search of the house for chametz is undertaken, and any remaining chametz is burned. 所有chametz家庭清洁为逾越节作准备的过程,是一项艰巨的任务,要做到这一点,你必须准备好几个星期,花费数天洗涤一切,超过你的炉灶和冰箱的边缘,用牙签棉条,覆盖所有表面来接触箔或保质期班轮,等等,等等,等等。在清洗完毕后,早晨的家宴前,房子为chametz正式进行搜索,和任何剩余chametz是烧了。

The grain product we eat during Pesach is called matzah. Matzah is unleavened bread, made simply from flour and water and cooked very quickly. 在逾越节期间吃的粮食产品,我们称为无酵饼。无酵饼是无酵饼,只是用面粉和水,且很快烤好。This is the bread that the Jews made for their flight from Egypt.这是面包,犹太人从埃及的航班。We have come up with many inventive ways to use matzah; it is available in a variety of textures for cooking: matzah flour (finely ground for cakes and cookies), matzah meal (coarsely ground, used as a bread crumb substitute), matzah farfel (little chunks, a noodle or bread cube substitute), and full-sized matzahs (about 10 inches square, a bread substitute).我们想出了许多创造性的方式使用无酵饼,它是在各种烹饪纹理可供选择:无酵饼粉(蛋糕和饼干细磨),无酵饼餐(粗糙的地面,作为面包粉代替),无酵饼farfel (小块,一个面条或面包立方体代替),以及全尺寸matzahs​​(约10平方英寸,一个面包的替代品)。

The day before Pesach is the Fast of the Firstborn, a minor fast for all firstborn males, commemorating the fact that the firstborn Jewish males in Egypt were not killed during the final plague.逾越节前一天是所有的长子男性轻微快速,长子的快速,纪念的长子,在埃及的犹太男性没有在最后鼠疫杀害的事实。

On the first night of Pesach (first two nights for traditional Jews outside Israel), we have a special family meal filled with ritual to remind us of the significance of the holiday.在(前两晚)以色列以外的传统犹太人的逾越节的第一天晚上,我们有一个特殊的仪式充满节日的意义,提醒我们的家庭聚餐。 This meal is called a seder , from a Hebrew root word meaning "order," because there is a specific set of information that must be discussed in a specific order.这顿饭是叫家宴 ,从希伯来文根意思是“为了,”因为有一个特定的信息,必须在一个特定的顺序进行讨论。It is the same root from which we derive the word "siddur" , (prayer book).从中我们推导出单词“siddur”(祈祷书),它是同根生。An overview of a traditional seder is included below.包括传统家宴概述如下。

Pesach lasts for seven days (eight days outside of Israel).逾越节持续七天(八天以外的以色列)。The first and last days of the holiday (first two and last two outside of Israel) are days on which no work is permitted.假期第一天和最后一天(前两个和最后两个以色列以外)没有工作许可的天。See Extra Day of Holidays for more information.见额外的一天假期更多信息。Work is permitted on the intermediate days.允许在中间的天工作。These intermediate days on which work is permitted are referred to as Chol Ha-Mo'ed, as are the intermediate days of Sukkot.这些工作是允许的中间天被称为澈下,Mo'ed,住棚节的中间天。

When Pesach Begins on a Saturday Night当逾越节开始于一个星期六的晚上

Occasionally, Pesach begins on a motzaei Shabbat, that is, on Saturday night after the sabbath has concluded.有时,逾越节上motzaei安息日,这是上周六晚,在安息日结束后开始。This occured in the year 5761 (2001).这发生在5761年(2001年)。This complicates the process of preparing for Pesach, because many of the preparations normally undertaken on the day before Pesach cannot be performed on Shabbat.这逾越节准备过程中的复杂性,因为许多通常在逾越节前一天进行的筹备工作,不能在安息日执行。

The Fast of the Firstborn, normally observed on the day before Pesach, is observed on Thursday instead.长子快速,通常在逾越节前一天观察,观察日(星期四)。The search for chametz, normally performed on the night before Pesach, is performed on Thursday night. chametz搜索,通常执行前逾越节之夜,是在周四晚上进行。The seder should be prepared for as much as possible before Shabbat begins, because time should not be taken away from Shabbat to prepare for Pesach.家宴应尽可能准备在安息日开始之前,因为时间不应该采取远离安息日准备逾越节。In addition, there are severe complications dealing with the conflict between the requirement of removing chametz no later than mid-morning on Saturday, the prohibition against eating matzah on the day before the seder, and the requirement of eating three meals with bread during Shabbat!此外,有严重的并发症,不迟于上午的处理上周六消除chametz的要求之间的冲突时,禁止对前一天的家宴上吃无酵饼,在安息日三餐吃面包的要求! For further details, see an excellent summary from the Orthodox Union, the world's largest, oldest and perhaps most respected kosher certification agency.欲知详情,请参阅从正统联盟,世界上最大,历史最悠久,也许是最受人尊敬的KOSHER认证机构的一个很好的总结。

The Pesach Seder逾越节家宴

The text of the Pesach seder is written in a book called the haggadah.逾越节家宴的文字是写在一本书名为哈加达。Suggestions for buying a haggadah are included below.购买一个哈加达的建议包括如下。The content of the seder can be summed up by the following Hebrew rhyme:家宴的内容可以概括为以下的希伯来文韵:
Kaddesh, Urechatz, Kaddesh,Urechatz,
Karpas, Yachatz,卡帕斯,Yachatz,
Maggid, Rachtzah, Maggid,Rachtzah,
Motzi, Matzah,Motzi,无酵饼,
Maror, Korech,Maror,Korech,
Shulchan Orech,Shulchan Orech
Tzafun, Barech,Tzafun,Barech,
Hallel, Nirtzah Hallel,Nirtzah

Now, what does that mean?现在,这是什么意思?

1.1。 Kaddesh: SanctificationKaddesh:成圣
A blessing over wine in honor of the holiday.一个在荣誉的节日祝福过酒。The wine is drunk, and a second cup is poured.酒是喝醉了,倒第二杯。

2.2。 Urechatz: WashingUrechatz:洗衣机A washing of the hands without a blessing, in preparation for eating the Karpas.一个没有洗的手祝福,在准备吃卡帕斯的。

3.3。 Karpas: Vegetable卡帕斯:蔬菜A vegetable (usually parsley) is dipped in salt water and eaten.蘸盐水和吃蔬菜(通常是香菜)。The vegetable symbolizes the lowly origins of the Jewish people; the salt water symbolizes the tears shed as a result of our slavery.蔬菜象征着卑微的起源犹太人民;咸水象征着我们的奴役而流下眼泪。Parsley is a good vegetable to use for this purpose, because when you shake off the salt water, it looks like tears.香菜是一个很好的蔬菜用于此目的,因为当你摆脱盐水,它看起来像眼泪。

4.4。 Yachatz: BreakingYachatz:突破One of the three matzahs on the table is broken.桌子上的三个matzahs​​之一被打破了。Part is returned to the pile, the other part is set aside for the afikomen (see below).部分返回到桩,另一部分则是预留afikomen(见下文)。

5.5。 Maggid: The StoryMaggid:故事A retelling of the story of the Exodus from Egypt and the first Pesach.从埃及和第一个逾越节出埃及记的故事复述。 This begins with the youngest person asking The Four Questions, a set of questions about the proceedings designed to encourage participation in the seder.这开始提出的四个问题,有关旨在鼓励参与的家宴诉讼的问题与最年轻的人。The Four Questions are also known as Mah Nishtanah (Why is it different?), which are the first words of the Four Questions.四个问题也被称为麻将Nishtanah(为什么它有什么不同?),这是四个问题的第一句话。This is often sung.这是经常唱的。See below.见下文。

The maggid is designed to satisfy the needs of four different types of people: the wise one, who wants to know the technical details; the wicked one, who excludes himself (and learns the penalty for doing so); the simple one, who needs to know the basics; and the one who is unable to ask, who doesn't even know enough to know what he needs to know. maggid是旨在满足四种不同类型的人的需要:明智的,想知道谁的技术细节;恶人之一,谁不包括自己(和学会这样做的刑罚);,简单的一,谁需要知道的基本知识;,和一个人是无法要求,甚至不知道,知道他需要知道。

At the end of the maggid, a blessing is recited over the second cup of wine and it is drunk.在maggid结束,是福是背诵了第二杯葡萄酒,它是喝醉了。

6.6。 Rachtzah: WashingRachtzah:洗衣机A second washing of the hands, this time with a blessing, in preparation for eating the matzah一个第二洗的手,祝福这个时候,在准备,吃无酵饼

7.7。 Motzi: Blessing over Grain ProductsMotzi:对粮食产品的祝福The ha-motzi blessing, a generic blessing for bread or grain products used as a meal, is recited over the matzah.背诵的HA - motzi的祝福,作为一餐的面包或谷物产品的通用祝福,在无酵饼。

8.8。 Matzah: Blessing over Matzah无酵饼:较无酵饼的祝福A blessing specific to matzah is recited, and a bit of matzah is eaten.背诵,一个特有的无酵饼的祝福和吃的无酵饼位。

9.9。 Maror: Bitter HerbsMaror:苦菜A blessing is recited over a bitter vegetable (usually raw horseradish; sometimes romaine lettuce), and it is eaten.是福是背诵过惨痛的蔬菜(通常为原料辣根,有时生菜),和被吃掉。This symbolizes the bitterness of slavery.这象征着的奴役之苦。The maror is dipped charoset, a mixture of apples, nuts, cinnamon and wine, which symbolizes the mortar used by the Jews in building during their slavery. maror蘸charoset,苹果,坚果,肉桂,酒,它象征着犹太人在他们的奴役建设砂浆混合。

Note that there are two bitter herbs on the seder plate: one labeled Maror and one labeled Chazeret.请注意,有两个苦菜的家宴板上:一个标记Maror和一个标记Chazeret。The one labeled Maror should be used for Maror and the one labeled Chazeret should be used in the Korech, below.一个标记Maror应当用于Maror和一个标记Chazeret应在Korech使用,下面。

10.10。 Korech: The SandwichKorech:三明治Rabbi Hillel was of the opinion that the maror should be eaten together with matzah and the paschal offering in a sandwich.拉比希勒尔的maror应与无酵饼和三明治在逾越节的提供一起吃。In his honor, we eat some maror on a piece of matzah, with some charoset (we don't do animal sacrifice anymore, so there is no paschal offering to eat).在他的荣誉,我们吃了一块无酵饼maror,与一些charoset我们不这样做动物牺牲了,所以没有吃逾越节的提供。

11.11。 Shulchan Orech: DinnerShulchan Orech:晚餐A festive meal is eaten.吃的节日餐。There is no particular requirement regarding what to eat at this meal (except, of course, that chametz cannot be eaten).有没有什么特别的的要求,就在这顿饭吃的什么(chametz不能吃的除外,当然)。Among Ashkenazic Jews, gefilte fish and matzah ball soup are traditionally eaten at the beginning of the meal.在Ashkenazic犹太人,gefilte鱼类和无酵饼丸子汤是传统上吃了一顿​​的开始。Roast chicken or turkey are common as a main course, as is beef brisket.烤鸡肉或火鸡肉作为主菜共同的,如牛腩。

12.12。 Tzafun: The AfikomenTzafun:“AfikomenThe piece of matzah set aside earlier is eaten as "desert," the last food of the meal.无酵饼一块设置预留较早吃“沙漠”了一顿最后的食物。Different families have different traditions relating to the afikomen.不同的家庭有不同的传统有关的afikomen。 Some have the children hide it, while the parents have to either find it or ransom it back.有些孩子隐藏起来,而家长们可以找到它或赎金回来。Others have the parents hide it.其他人的父母将其隐藏。The idea is to keep the children awake and attentive throughout the pre-meal proceedings, waiting for this part.这样做是为了保持清醒的儿童和周到的整个前餐程序,等待这部分。

13.13。 Barech: Grace after Meals饭后Barech:格雷斯The third cup of wine is poured, and birkat ha-mazon (grace after meals) is recited.第三杯的酒浇,和背诵的Birkat公顷mazon(饭后恩典)。This is similar to the grace that would be said on any Shabbat.这是类似的宽限期将在任何安息日说。At the end, a blessing is said over the third cup and it is drunk.最后,祝福是说在第三杯是喝醉了。The fourth cup is poured, including a cup set aside for the prophet Elijah, who is supposed to herald the Messiah, and is supposed to come on Pesach to do this.倒第四杯,包括预留先知以利亚,谁应该预示着弥赛亚的一个杯子,而应该是在逾越节来做到这一点。The door is opened for a while at this point (supposedly for Elijah, but historically because Jews were accused of nonsense like putting the blood of Christian babies in matzah, and we wanted to show our Christian neighbors that we weren't doing anything unseemly).门被打开了,而在这一点(据说以利亚,但历史上,因为犹太人被指控的废话,就像把无酵饼基督教婴儿的血液,和我们想表明我们的基督教邻居,我们并没有做什么不体面) 。

14.14。 Hallel: PraisesHallel:好评Several psalms are recited.若干诗篇是背诵。A blessing is recited over the last cup of wine and it is drunk.是福是背诵的最后一杯葡萄酒,它是喝醉了。

15.15。 Nirtzah: ClosingNirtzah:闭A simple statement that the seder has been completed, with a wish that next year, we may celebrate Pesach in Jerusalem (ie, that the Messiah will come within the next year).一个简单的语句的家宴已经完成了一个心愿,明年,我们可能会在耶路撒冷庆祝逾越节(即弥赛亚会在未来一年内)。This is followed by various hymns and stories.其次是各种圣歌和故事。

The Music of Pesach逾越节音乐

Many people think of Pesach as a time of deprivation: a time when we cannot eat bread or other leavened foods.很多人认为作为一种被剥夺时的逾越节的时候,我们不能吃面包或其他熘食品。This is not the traditional way of viewing the holiday.这是不是假日观看的传统方式。Pesach is Zeman Herutenu, the Time of Our Freedom, and the joy of that time is evident in the music of the season.逾越节是泽曼Herutenu,我们的自由时间,和当时的喜悦是显而易见的,在本赛季的音乐。There are many joyous songs sung during the seder.有许多欢乐的歌曲在传唱的家宴。Mah Nishtanah (Why is it Different?)麻将Nishtanah(为什么不同?)

This is the tune sung during the youngest participant's recitation of the Four Questions.这是最年轻的参与者的朗诵了这四个问题期间所唱的调。

Why is this night different from all other nights, from all other nights?这是为什么晚不同于所有其他晚,从所有其他晚?Mah nishtanah ha-lahylah ha-zeh mi-kol ha-layloht, mi-kol ha-layloht?麻将nishtanah HA - lahylah HA - zeh MI - KOL HA - layloht,MI - KOL HA - layloht?

On all other nights, we may eat chametz and matzah, chametz and matzah.在所有其他的夜晚,我们可以吃chametz和无酵饼,chametz和无酵饼。On this night, on this night, only matzah.She-b'khol ha-layloht anu okhlin chameytz u-matzah, chameytz u-matzah.在这个夜晚,在这个夜晚,只有matzah.She - B“科尔HA - layloht ANU okhlin chameytz U -无酵饼,chameytz U -无酵饼。Ha-lahylah ha-zeh, ha-lahylah ha-zeh, kooloh matzah.哈lahylah公顷zeh lahylah HA - HA - zeh,kooloh无酵饼。On all other nights, we eat many vegetables, many vegetables.在所有其他的夜晚,我们吃很多蔬菜,许多蔬菜。On this night, on this night, maror.She-b'khol ha-layloht anu okhlin sh'ar y'rakot, sh'ar y'rakot.在这个夜晚,在这个夜晚,maror.She - B'科尔公顷layloht ANU okhlin sh'ar y'rakot,sh'ar y'rakot。Ha-lahylah ha-zeh, ha-lahylah ha-zeh, maror.哈lahylah公顷zeh,HA - lahylah公顷zeh,maror。

On all other nights, we do not dip even once.在所有其他夜,我们不沾甚至一度。On this night, on this night, twice.She-b'khol ha-layloht ayn anu mat'bilin afilu pa'am echat, afilu pa'am echat.在这个夜晚,在这个夜晚,twice.She - B'科尔公顷layloht泉ANU mat'bilin afilu pa'am echat,afilu pa'am echat。Ha-lahylah ha-zeh, ha-lahylah ha-zeh, sh'tay p'amim.哈lahylah公顷zeh lahylah HA - HA - zeh,sh'tay p'amim。

On all other nights, we eat either sitting or reclining, either sitting or reclining.在所有其他的夜晚,我们吃的或者坐或斜倚,无论是坐或躺椅。On this night, on this night, we all recline.She-b'khol ha-layloht anu okhlin bayn yosh'bin u'vayn m'soobin, bayn yosh'bin u'vayn m'soobin.在这个夜晚,在这个夜晚,我们所有的recline.She - B'科尔公顷layloht ANU okhlin bayn yosh'bin u'vayn m'soobin,bayn yosh'bin u'vayn m'soobin。Ha-lahylah ha-zeh, ha-lahylah ha-zeh, koolanu m'soobin.哈lahylah公顷zeh lahylah HA - HA - zeh,koolanu m'soobin。

Dahyenu (It Would Have Been Enough For Us)Dahyenu(这本来是我们足够)

This is one of the most popular tunes of the seder, a very up-beat song about the many favors that Gd bestowed upon us when He brought us out of Egypt.这是一个家宴最流行的曲调,钆赋予我们,当他带着我们走出埃及的许多主张的一个非常向上击败的歌曲。The song appears in the haggadah after the telling of the story of the exodus, just before the explanation of Pesach, Matzah and Maror.这首歌出现在出埃及记的故事告诉哈加达后,就在逾越节,无酵饼和Maror解释。I provide just two sample verses from a rather long song.我提供的只是两个样品的诗句,从一个相当长的歌曲。The English does not include all of the repetition that is in the Hebrew.英语并不包括所有在希伯来文的重复。

Had He brought us out of Egypt and not judged them, it would have been enough for us.Ilu hotzi-hotzianu hotzianu mi-Mitzrayim, v'lo asah bahem s'fateem dahyenu.他给我们带来了埃及,而不是评判他们,就已经足够了us.Ilu hotzi hotzianu hotzianu MI - Mitzrayim,v'lo asah bahem s'fateem dahyenu。

(Chorus) It would have been enough for us.(合唱)对我们来说已经足够了。Dahy-dahyenu, dahy-dahyenu, dahy-dahyenu, dahyenu, dahyenu, dahyenu.Dahy - dahyenu dahy dahyenu,dahy - dahyenu dahyenu,dahyenu,dahyenu。Dahy-dahyenu, dahy-dahyenu, dahy-dahyenu, dahyenu, dahyenu!Dahy - dahyenu dahy dahyenu,dahy - dahyenu dahyenu,dahyenu!Had He judged them and not done so to their idols, it would have been enough for us.Ilu asah bahem s'fateem, v'lo asah beyloheyhem, v'lo asah beyloheyhem dahyenu.假如他判断他们并没有这样做,以自己的偶像,就已经足够了us.Ilu asah bahem s'fateem,v'lo asah beyloheyhem,v'lo asah beyloheyhem dahyenu。

Chorus, etc.合唱等

Eliyahu Ha-Navi (Elijah, the Prophet)埃利亚胡夏导航(以利亚先知)

Many people sing this song when the Cup of Elijah is poured and the door is opened in anticipation of his return.很多人唱这歌利亚杯倒在期待他的回归打开门时,。

Elijah the Prophet, Elijah the Tishbite, Elijah, Elijah, Elijah the GileaditeEliyahu ha-Navi, Eliyahu ha-Tishbi, Eliyahu, Eliyahu, Eliyahu ha-Giladi.以利亚先知,提斯比人以利亚,以利亚,以利亚,以利亚的GileaditeEliyahu公顷的Navi,埃利亚胡HA - Tishbi,埃利亚胡,埃利亚胡,埃利亚胡HA - Giladi。

Speedily and in our days, come to us, with the messiah, son of David, with the messiah, son of David.Bimhayrah v'yamenu, yavo aleynu, im Moshiach ben David, im Moshiach ben David.迅速,并在我们的日子,到我们这里来,与弥赛亚的儿子大卫,与弥赛亚,David.Bimhayrah v'yamenu,yavo aleynu,IM Moshiach本大卫,IM Moshiach本大卫的儿子。Adir Hu (He is Mighty) ADIR胡(他是威武)

Adir Hu is a great sing-along song, because it has a lot of repetition. ADIR胡锦涛是一个伟大的歌曲,唱沿,因为它有一个很多重复。You don't need to know much Hebrew to get by with this one!这个你不需要知道多少希伯来语!It's also got a catchy tune.这也得到了一个朗朗上口的曲调。It's sung as the seder comes to a close.这是唱的家宴即将结束。It expresses our hope that the messianic age will begin soon, and the Temple will be rebuilt.它表达了我们的希望,弥赛亚时代即将开始,将重建圣殿。Each line of praise begins with a different letter of the Hebrew alphabet, in alphabetical order, a common gimmick in Jewish hymns.赞美的每一行开始与不同的希伯来字母,按字母顺序排列,在犹太赞美诗共同噱头字母。

He is mighty, He is mightyAdir hu, adir hu他是强大的,他是mightyAdir胡锦涛,胡锦涛ADIR

Chorus:合唱:
May He soon rebuild his house他很快重建他的房子
Speedily, speedily and in our days, soon.迅速,迅速,并在我们的日子的到来。
Gd, rebuild!GD,重建!Gd, rebuild!GD,重建!
Rebuild your house soon!尽快重建你的房子!Chorus:合唱:
Yivneh vayto b'karovYivneh vayto b'karov
Bim'hayrah, bim'hayrah, b'yamenu b'karovBim'hayrah,bim'hayrah,b'yamenu b'karov
E-yl b'nay!E - YL b'nay! E-yl b'nay!E - YL b'nay!
B'nay vayt'kha b'karovB'nay vayt'kha b'karov
He is distinguished, He is great, He is exhalted他是杰出的,他是伟大的的,他是开天辟地
(Chorus)Bachur hu, gadol hu, dagul hu,(合唱)Bachur胡,gadol胡,dagul胡,
(Chorus)(合唱)
He is glorious, He is faithful, He is faultless, He is righteous他是光荣的,他是信实的,他是无可挑剔的,他是正义的的
(Chorus)Hadur hu, vatik hu, zakay hu, chasid hu,(合唱)Hadur胡,vatik胡,zakay胡,chasid胡,
(Chorus)(合唱)
He is pure, He is unique, He is powerful,他是纯洁的,他是独一无二的的,他是强大的,
He is wise, He is King, He is awesome,他是明智的,他是国王,他是真棒,
He is sublime, He is all-powerful, He is the redeemer, He is他是崇高的,他是全能的,他是救世主,他是
all-righteous自以为是
(Chorus)Tahor hu, yachid hu, kabir hu,(合唱)Tahor胡,yachid胡,卡比尔胡锦涛,
Lamud hu, melekh hu, nora hu, Lamud胡,melekh胡,娜拉胡锦涛,
Sagiv hu, izuz hu, podeh hu, tzadik huSagiv胡,izuz胡,podeh胡,tzadik胡
(Chorus)(合唱)
He is holy, He is compassionate, He is almighty, He is omnipotent他是圣洁的,他是值得同情的,他是全能的,他是万能的的
(Chorus)Kadosh hu, rachum hu, shaddai hu,(合唱)卡多什胡,rachum胡,shaddai胡,
takif hutakif胡锦涛
(Chorus) (合唱)

Recipe for Charoset食谱Charoset

This fruit, nut and wine mix is eaten during the seder.在家宴吃这种水果,坚果和葡萄酒混合。It is meant to remind us of the mortar used by the Jews to build during the period of slavery.这是提醒我们犹太人建立在奴隶制时期的迫击炮。It should have a coarse texture.它应该有一个纹理粗糙。The ingredient quantities listed here are at best a rough estimate; I usually just eye-ball it.这里列出的成分数量充其量只是一个粗略的估计,我通常只眼球。The recipe below makes a very large quantity, but we usually wind up making more before the holiday is over.下面的配方,使一个非常大的数量,但我​​们通常风使更多的节前。Other fruits or nuts can be used.可以用其他水果或坚果。

4 medium apples, 2 tart and 2 sweet4个中型苹果,2个蛋挞和2甜
1/2 cup finely chopped almonds1 / 2杯切碎的杏仁
1/4 cup sweet wine1 / 4杯甜葡萄酒
1/4 cup dry wine1 / 4杯干酒
1 Tbs. 1汤匙。cinnamon肉桂

Shred the apples.粉碎的苹果。Add all other ingredients.添加所有其他成分。Allow to sit for 3-6 hours, until the wine is absorbed by the other ingredients.允许坐3-6小时,直到酒是由其他成分的吸收。 Serve on matzah.服务上的无酵饼。 Goes very well with horseradish.与辣根,很好。

Buying a Haggadah购买一个哈加达

If you want to know more about Pesach, the best place to start is with the haggadah.如果你想知道更多关于逾越节,最好的地方开始与哈加达。The haggadah was written as a teaching tool, to allow people at all levels to learn the significance of Pesach and its symbols.书面哈加达是作为一种教学工具,使各级人民学习的逾越节和它的符号的意义。There are a wide variety of Haggadahs available for every political and religious point of view: traditional haggadahs, liberal haggadahs, mystical haggadahs, feminist haggadahs, and others.有各种各样的Haggadahs各个角度的政治和宗教的角度:传统haggadahs,自由haggadahs,神秘haggadahs,女权主义者haggadahs,以及其他。 I have even seen what might be described as an atheist haggadah: one that does not mention the role of Gd in the Exodus.我什至看到了什么,可能是作为一个无神论者哈加达:一个没有提到的GD在出埃及记中的作用。

If you're buying a haggadah for study or collection, there are many haggadahs with extensive commentary or with pictures from illuminated medieval haggadahs.如果你买一个哈加达,研究或收集有许多具有广泛的评论,或者从照亮中世纪haggadahs图片haggadahs。 However, if you're buying haggadahs for actual use at a seder, you're best off with an inexpensive paperback.不过,如果你买的实际使用,在家宴haggadahs,你最好用廉价的平装书。Keep in mind that you'll need one for everybody, you're likely to get food and wine on these things, and you'll be using them year after year.请记住,你需要一个为大家,你可能得到这些东西的美食和葡萄酒,你会使用他们年复一年。

I'm particularly partial to the Artscroll/Mesorah series' The Family Haggadah.我特别部分Artscroll / Mesorah系列“家庭哈加达。It has the full, Orthodox text of the haggadah in English side-by-side with Hebrew and Aramaic, with complete instructions for preparing for and performing the seder.它有充分的哈加达英语东正教文与希伯来文和阿拉姆侧端,为准备和执行家宴的完整说明。The translations are very readable and the book includes marginal notes explaining the significance of each paragraph of the text.翻译是非常具有可读性,本书包括旁注解释文本每个段落的意义。This book is usually only available at Jewish gift or book stores, and usually sells for about $2.50.这本书是通常只适用于犹太人的礼物或书店,和通常的售价是2.50美元左右。

Another good traditional one is Nathan Goldberg's Passover Haggadah.另外一个很好的传统之一是弥敦道戈德堡的逾越节哈加达。This is the familiar "yellow and red cover" haggadah that so many of us grew up with.这是熟悉的“黄色和红色封面”哈加达,我们这么多人一起长大。Believe it or not, it is frequently available in grocery stores in the Passover aisle.不管你信不信,这是经常可以在逾越节的过道杂货店。It usually sells for less than $5, and is often given away free with certain grocery purchases.它通常售价低于5美元,并具有一定的杂货店购买往往是送人免费。

Watch out for Christianized versions of the haggadah. The Christian "last supper" is generally believed to have been a Pesach seder, so many Christians recreate the ritual of the seder, and the haggadahs that they use for this purpose tend to reinterpret the significance of the holiday and its symbols to fit into their Christian theology.观看基督教版本的哈加达。 基督教的“最后的晚餐”一直是逾越节家宴一般认为 ,这么多的基督徒重建的家宴仪式,他们为此使用的haggadahs倾向于重新诠释的意义假期及其符号,以适应他们的基督教神学。For example, they say that the three matzahs represent the Trinity, with the broken one representing Jesus on the cross (in Judaism, the three matzahs represent the three Temples, two of which have been destroyed, and the third of which will be built when the moshiach comes).例如,他们说,三个matzahs​​代表破碎的代表在十字架上的耶稣(在犹太教中,三个matzahs​​代表三个寺庙,其中两个已被销毁,其中将建成时的第三三位一体, moshiach自带)。They speak of the paschal lamb as a prophecy of Jesus, rather than a remembrance of the lamb's blood on the doorposts in Egypt.他们讲的是耶稣的预言,而不是羔羊的血液在埃及doorposts纪念逾越节的羔羊。If you want to learn what Pesach means to Jews, then these "messianic" haggadahs aren't for you.如果你想了解什么逾越节对犹太人的手段,那么,这些“弥赛亚”haggadahs,不适合你。

Key Terms主要条款

Note: Pronunciations are intended to reflect the way these terms are most commonly pronounced by Jews in the United States, and may not be strictly technically correct.注:发音旨在反映这些条款在美国是最常见的犹太人宣布的方式,可能不严格技术上是正确的。

Term长期 Meaning的含义 Pronunciation发音
Hebrew希伯来文
Pesach逾越节 Passover逾越节 PAY-sahkh or PEH-sahkh支付sahkh或PEH - sahkh
Matzah无酵饼 Unleavened bread无酵饼 MAHTZ-uhMAHTZ - UH
ChametzChametz Leavened things熘的事情 KHUH-mitzKHUH - mitz
Seder家宴 Home ritual performed on the首页仪式上进行
first two nights of Pesach前两晚的逾越节
SAY-d'rSAY - d'r
Haggadah哈加达 The book read during the seder在家宴读的书 huh-GAH-duh呵呵- GAH -咄

List of Dates日期一览表

Pesach will occur on the following days of the Gregorian calendar:逾越节将出现在公历随后的日子里:

Jewish Year 5764: sunset April 5, 2004 - nightfall April 13, 2004犹太新年5764:夕阳,2004年4月5日 - 夜幕降临,2004年4月13日
Jewish Year 5765: sunset April 23, 2005 - nightfall May 1, 2005犹太新年5765:夕阳,2005年4月23日 - 夜幕降临5月1日,2005年
Jewish Year 5766: sunset April 12, 2006 - nightfall April 20, 2006犹太新年5766:夕阳4月12日,2006年 - 2006年4月20日,夜幕降临
Jewish Year 5767: sunset April 2, 2007 - nightfall April 10, 2007犹太新年5767:夕阳,2007年4月2日 - 夜幕降临,2007年4月10日
Jewish Year 5768: sunset April 19, 2008 - nightfall April 27, 2008犹太新年5768:夕阳,2008年4月19日 - 夜幕降临,2008年4月27日

Tracey R Rich特雷西ř丰富


A Seder Outline一个家宴大纲

General Information一般资料

The Seder can perhaps best be described as a "talk-feast."最好的家宴或许可以形容为“谈宴”。 Conducted around a table laden with the bounty of the earth, it is people spending a leisurely evening engaged in good talk and good food.围着一张桌子拉丹与富饶的大地进行,它是人们从事很好的会谈和良好的食品消费悠闲傍晚。For the rabbis who formalized its procedures, Seder was the pre-eminent vehicle of cultural transmission from one generation to the next.对于谁形式化其程序的拉比,家宴文化代代相传下卓越的车辆。Long before printed books and formal schools, the yearly Seder night transformed every Jewish home into a classroom, with the Haggadah (from the Hebrew root "to tell") as the text.很久以前,印刷书籍和正规学校,每年的家宴之夜转化成课堂的每一个犹太家庭,与文本哈加达(从希伯来文根“告诉”)。

The word "Seder" means order.“家宴”字意味着秩序。The tradition understands the Passover table ritual as a fixed progression, 15 steps, a logical unfolding of the single most important Jewish lesson from the retelling of the single most significant Jewish experience.传统理解逾越节表礼仪作为一个固定的进展,15个步骤,一个最重要的单一犹太复述的一个最显著的犹太经验教训的逻辑展开。 In actuality, the Pesach Seder is one of the most carefully constructed learning experiences ever created.实际上,逾越节家宴是有史以来最精心构造的学习经验之一。In an amazing combination of aural and tactile learning tasks, the Seder has something for everybody--drink, food, symbols, prayers, songs, stories, philosophy, text study, simulations, ritual actions--all designed with one overall goal: to take each person at the Seder back to Egypt, to re-enact the dramatic Exodus story, to make each one of us feel as she or he had actually been redeemed from Mitzrayim (Egypt).在听觉和触觉的学习任务的完美结合,家宴已为大家的东西 - 饮料,食品,符号,祈祷,歌曲,故事,哲学,文字学,模拟,礼仪行动 - 设计一个总体目标:家宴回埃及的每个人,重新制定戏剧性的出埃及记的故事,使我们每个人都觉得作为他或她Mitzrayim(埃及)实际上已赎回。 The Pesach Seder is a talk-feast in four acts.逾越节家宴是在四幕的通话盛宴。Four is an all-important number in understanding the Haggadah.四是所​​有重要的数字,在理解的哈加达。And so, here is the "script," the Seder outline.所以,这里是“脚本,”家宴的轮廓。

Act I: The Beginning第一幕:开始

The Prologue序幕

Even before the Seder begins, there are a number of activities which create the setting.即使家宴开始之前,有一些活动,创建设置。A production of this magnitude cannot be staged without adequate preparation.这种规模的生产不能没有充分的准备上演。Formal preparations can include ridding the house of chametz, "kashering" the kitchen for Passover, setting the Passover table, and preparing the meal.正式的筹备工作可以包括消除chametz的房子,“kashering”逾越节厨房,设置逾越节表,并准备了一顿。

Hadlakat ha-Nerot (Lighting the Festival Candles)Hadlakat HA - Nerot(照明节蜡烛)

Before the seder begins, the Yom Tov (festival) candles are lit, signifying the begining of the holiday.家宴开始之前,赎罪TOV(节)蜡烛点燃,标志着开始的假期。

Scene 1: Kadeish (The First Cup of Wine)场景1:Kadeish(酒第一杯)

The festival Kiddush is chanted, praising God who sanctifies the people Israel and the Festival seasons, and thanking God for enabling us to reach this time of celebration.节Kiddush高呼,赞美上帝谁成圣人民以色列和节日来临,并感谢上帝,使我们能够达到这个普天同庆的日子。

Scene 2: Ur'chatz (Wash Hands)场景2:Ur'chatz(洗手)

In traditional homes it is the custom to wash hands before eating.在传统的家庭,这是自定义进食前先洗手。Here, we wash hands as if preparing to eat, but without reciting a blessing.在这里,我们仿佛准备吃洗的手,但没有背诵的祝福。

Scene 3: Karpas (Appetizer)场景3:卡帕斯(菜)

A green vegetable is dipped in salt water, a reminder of the tears of our ancestors in Egypt.绿色蔬菜浸在盐水中,提醒我们的祖先在埃及的眼泪。It is a kind of historic appetizer.它是一种历史性的开胃。

Scene 4: Yachatz (Break the middle Matzah)场景4:Yachatz(打破中间无酵饼)

The matzah is introduced silently.介绍默默无酵饼是。We break the middle matzah in order to hide one portion as the afikomen, the "dessert" of our meal, a symbol of the redemption yet to come.为了隐藏部分afikomen,我们吃饭的“甜点”,一个象征赎回尚未到来,我们打破了中间的无酵饼。Curtain: Ha Lachma Anya (Invitation): We uncover the matzot, calling them the "bread of affliction," for as we are about to begin our story, our ancestors are enslaved in Egypt.窗帘:哈Lachma安雅(邀请):我们发现matzot,称他们为“痛苦的面包,”我们即将开始我们的故事,我们的祖先在埃及被奴役。 We invite all who are hungry or needy to join in our Pesach service.我们邀请所有饥饿或有需要的人士加入我们的逾越节服务。As Act I closes, we acknowledge our slavery, but hope for our freedom.法我关闭,我们承认我们的奴役,但希望我们的自由。

Act II: Maggid (The Telling)第二幕:Maggid(讲述)

Act II is the heart of the seder experience.第二幕是家宴经验的心脏。We tell the story of our Exodus from slavery to freedom in four ways, in four different tellings.从奴隶到自由在四个方面,在四个不同的tellings,我们告诉我们出埃及记的故事。Each telling begins with a question, to which an answer is given, and for which we praise God, the Hero of our story.每讲一个问题开始,一个答案是,我们赞美神,我们的故事的主人公。

Scene 1: The First Telling场景1:首先告诉

The first telling begins with the famous Four Questions (really one question with four statements), traditionally asked by the youngest member of the seder party.第一讲开始与著名的四大问题(实际上是四个报表的问题)传统家宴党的最年轻的成员问,。The answer, which is to begin with the degradation of our people and end with the story of redemption, tells the story in one brilliant, concise sentence: "We were slaves to Pharaoh in Egypt, but Adonai our God brought us forth with a mighty hand and with an outstretched arm."答案,这是开始与我们的人民和赎回的故事结束的退化的故事,讲述了一个辉煌的,简洁的句子:“我们埃及法老的奴隶,但阿多奈我们的神为我们带来了一个强大的提出手和伸出来的膀臂。“ But this story deserves more than a one-sentence summary, so, we have three more versions to come.但这个故事值得超过一个句子总结,所以,我们有三个版本来。God is deserving of praise which we pronounce four times.神是值得赞美我们发音四次。

Scene 2: The Second Telling场景2:第二告诉

The second telling begins with the question of the Four Children.第二讲开始与四个孩子的问题。Here, the Haggadah teaches us that to tell the story well, we must tell it differently to different types of learners.在这里,哈加达教导我们,讲故事,我们必须告诉它不同学习者的不同类型。Although the questions are different, they all relate to the same central question: "What is this Passover service all about?"虽然问题是不同的,它们都涉及到相同的核心问题:“这是什么逾越节服务所有?”The answer in this telling goes back even earlier in Jewish history, back to our idol-worshipping roots.在回答这个告诉追溯到更早在犹太人的历史,回到我们的偶像崇拜的根源。Yet, we recall the promise God made to Abraham to make his descendants a great nation.然而,我们记得的承诺,上帝创造了亚伯拉罕,使他的后裔一个伟大的民族。We praise God who kept a promise then and keeps the Covenant with us alive to this day.我们赞美上帝,然后保持一个承诺,并保持与我们的“公约”还活着这一天。

Scene 3: The Third Telling场景3:第三告诉

The third telling offers the learner the core story of the Exodus as related in four verses in Deuteronomy.第三告诉提供学习者在四个经文在申命记有关的出埃及记的核心故事。By exploring the meaning of these words, we embellish the answer, we flesh out the story of our liberation.通过探索这些话的含义,我们美化答案,我们充实了我们的解放的故事。The climax of this story is the awe-full series of Ten Plagues which God brought upon Egypt, convincing Pharaoh to let the people go.这个故事的高潮是全系列,十灾上帝后,埃及带来的,有说服力的法老,让人们去敬畏。We then praise God who, if God had performed only this one act of kindness, Dayeinu--it would have been enough!然后,我们赞美上帝,如果上帝只有这一个仁慈的行为表现,Dayeinu - 它本来已经足够了!

Scene 4: The Fourth Telling场景4:第四告诉

The fourth telling returns to concrete symbols with questions about the Pesach (paschal lamb), matzah, and maror, the central symbols on the seder table.第四告诉返回到具体的符号逾越节(逾越节的羔羊),无酵饼,和maror,中央的家宴表上符号的问题。The specific questions are answered, but once again, the key question is "Why do we do this ritual? Why do we tell this story?"具体问题的回答,但再次,关键的问题是“我们为什么做这个仪式我们为什么讲这个故事吗?”The answer is directed to each person, individually: "Because in each generation, every individual should feel as if he or she had actually been redeemed from Egypt."答案是每个人,个别:“因为在每一代,每个人都应该感到,如果他或她实际上已经从埃及赎回。”We are redeemed and therefore, we acclaim God with a new song, Halleluyah, and we praise Adonai, Redeemer of Israel.我们赎回,因此,我们的一致好评与一个新的歌曲,Halleluyah神,我们赞美阿多奈,以色列的救赎。

Curtain: Kos Sheini.窗帘:科斯Sheini。(the second cup of wine) (第二杯葡萄酒)

Act II comes to a close with the sanctification of the second cup of wine, a reminder of God's promise to deliver us.第二幕密切与成圣的第二杯葡萄酒,上帝的承诺,提供我们的提醒。We have told the Exodus story four times, we have relived the slavery and the liberation from bondage.我们已经告诉出埃及记的故事四倍,我们眼前的奴役和从束缚的解放。We celebrate our redemption with a cup of wine.我们庆祝我们的救赎与一杯酒。

Act III: The Feast第三幕:盛宴

The third act of the talk-feast is the feast itself.谈宴第三幕的盛宴本身。As with all Jewish holiday meals, there are ritual actions before and after the meal.所有犹太节日餐,也有之前和之后的餐礼仪行动。On Passover, some of these rituals are common to any Jewish meal (washing hands, motzi, birkat ha-mazon), while others are specific to the Passover celebration (maror, korech, tzafun).在逾越节,这些仪式的一些共同任何犹太餐(洗手,motzi的Birkat公顷mazon),而另一些特定的逾越节庆祝(maror,korech,tzafun)。 The importance of these rituals is to underscore the fact that this is no ordinary meal.这些仪式的重要性,强调的是,这绝不是普通的的餐。In fact, it is no ordinary Festival meal.事实上,这绝不是普通的节日餐。It is the Pesach feast which we reenact today as our ancestors did on that fateful night in Egypt.这是我们重演今天,我们的祖先在埃及的命运之夜没有在逾越节的盛宴。To some observers, this is the climax of the seder itself; we eat the matzah, the maror, and the korech--substitute for the paschal sacrifice, just as the Israelites did on the eve of Passover.一些观察家,这是家宴本身的高潮,我们吃的无酵饼,maror korech - 替代逾越节的牺牲,就像以色列人在逾越节前夕。

Scene 1: Prepare to eat场景1:准备吃

We actually began the preparation for the meal at the very beginning of the seder with the kiddush.实际上,我们在一开始就与kiddush家宴开始准备了一顿。Then, we washed without a blessing and ate an appetizer, the karpas.然后,我们洗净,无福,吃了开胃,卡帕斯。Now, we continue the preliminaries to the feast by performing the four ritual acts:现在,我们继续预赛的盛宴,执行四个仪式的行为:

(rochtza) (Washing) --we wash our hands and recite the blessing for this act which precedes the breaking of bread at every traditional Jewish meal. (rochtza)(洗衣机) - 我们洗手和背诵之前在每一个传统的犹太餐面包打破这种行为的祝福。

Motzi/Matza (Motzi/Blessing of the Matzah)--we praise God, first for the general blessing of bringing forth the bread from the earth, and then for the specific blessing of matzah, the bread of freedom.Motzi / Matza的无酵饼(Motzi /祝福) - 我们赞美神,首次从地球上带来了面包的祝福,然后为特定的无酵饼,面包自由祝福。

Maror--we eat the bitter herbs, symbol of our former slavery.Maror - 我们吃的苦菜,我们以前的奴隶制的象征。

Koreich--we bind the matzah and maror together, just as Rabbi Hillel did at his seder nearly 2000 years ago as a reminder of the paschal offering on Passover night. Koreich - 我们的无酵饼和maror绑定在一起,就像拉比希勒尔近2000年前,在他的家宴逾越节的逾越节晚上提供的提醒。

Scene 2: Schulchan Orech (Set the Table)场景2:Schulchan Orech(设置表)

The festive meal is eaten.节日餐吃。

Scene 3: Tzafun (Dessert)场景3:Tzafun(甜品)

We find or redeem that which is tzafun--hidden, the afikomen.我们发现或赎回,这是tzafun - 隐藏,afikomen。It is our dessert, the last morsel of food eaten at the seder, a symbol of redemption.这是我们的甜点,最后一口食物,吃家宴,赎回的象征。

Scene 4: Bareich (Blessing after the food)场景4:Bareich(祝福的食品后)

We praise God for providing us food, the Promised Land, the Feast of Unleavened Bread, Jerusalem, and all the goodness we have in our lives.我们赞美上帝为我们提供食品,乐土,除酵节,耶路撒冷,和我们在我们的生活中的所有的善良。

Curtain:Kos Shli'shee (The third cup of wine)窗帘:Shli'shee科斯(第三杯葡萄酒)

The meal concludes with the third cup of wine, another reminder of God's promise of redemption.这顿饭的结论与第三杯葡萄酒,另一个神的救赎的承诺提醒。

Act IV: Redemption法四:赎回

We have told the story of the Exodus.我们已经告诉出埃及记的故事。We have eaten the symbolic foods and the festive meal.我们吃了象征性的食品和节日餐。Now, we celebrate our redemption, with praise for God the Redeemer and prayers for our ultimate redemption in Messianic times.现在,我们庆祝我们的赎回,赞美上帝的救赎和祈祷我们在弥赛亚时代的最终赎回。We sing songs of praise, songs of joy, we recognize the harvest season, and we conclude with the final cup of wine and the prayer for our return to Jerusalem.我们唱赞美歌,欢乐的歌曲,我们认识到了收获的季节,和我们最终的葡萄酒杯和我们返回耶路撒冷祈祷结束。

Scene 1: Eliahu ha-Navi (Elijah the Prophet)场景1:Eliahu公顷的Navi(先知以利亚)

The redemption theme is sounded by the lilting, hopeful strains of "Elliahu ha-Navi," welcoming to the table Elijah the Prophet, harbinger of the Messiah.赎回的主题是响起轻快,希望株“Elliahu公顷的Navi,”欢迎到表以利亚先知,弥赛亚的预兆。

Scene 2: Hallel (Songs of Praise)场景2:Hallel(赞美歌)

The recitation of Hallel which began before the meal with Halleluyah, now continues with the remaining psalms of praise for God who redeems the people Israel.与Halleluyah餐前开始Hallel背诵,现在继续与余下的赞美上帝的诗篇赎回人民以色列。

Scene 3:Songs场景3:歌曲

With the formal requirement of the seder completed, the mood turns more festive with the singing of songs which celebrate our rejoicing.随着正式要求完成家宴,心情会唱的歌曲,庆祝我们的大喜节日。

Curtain: Kos R'vi'i/Nirtzah (The fourth cup of wine/acceptance)窗帘:科斯R'vi'i / Nirtzah(第四杯葡萄酒/验收)

The seder now draws to a conclusion, marked by the fourth cup of wine and a prayer that our seder be accepted and the promise of our redemption be fulfilled.家宴现在提请一个结论,标志着第四杯葡萄酒和接受我们的家宴和救赎我​​们的承诺得到履行的祈祷。We end with the messianic hope spoken by generations of Jews: "Next year in Jerusalem!"我们最终的救世主希望几代犹太人的发言:“明年在耶路撒冷!”

This seder outline was adapted from The Art of Jewish Living: The Passover Seder by Dr. Ron Wolfson, published by the Federation of Jewish Men's Clubs and the University of Judaism, 1988.改编自犹太人生活的艺术:罗恩欧胜博士的犹太男子俱乐部和犹太教的大学,1988年联合会公布的逾越节家宴,这家宴轮廓。


A Christian Version of the Seder一个基督教的家宴版本

General Information一般资料

A Messianic Passover Seder一个救世主逾越节家宴

Introduction简介

The leader should read thru the Leader's Haggadah book in advance, before the eve of the Seder.领导者应该提前读通过领导者的哈加达书,之前的家宴前夕。He should prepare himself spiritually and his home for the Seder.他应该准备自己精神上和他家的家宴。This is to be a time of joy.这是一个欢乐的时间。The Seder may be celebrated by just the immediate family as in Jewish home or as a teaching ministry.只是直系亲属在犹太人家里,或作为教学部,可举行的家宴。Either way, it will glorify the Lord Jesus and draw everyone closer to Him.无论哪种方式,将荣耀主耶稣,并绘制每个人都接近他。 Don't worry about your Seder being "perfect."不要担心你的家宴“完美。”This is a celebration not a performance.这是一个庆祝不是性能。The leader is the coordinator of the Seder not a performer.领导者是不是一个表演者的家宴协调员。

While reading the Haggadah book in advance, select which optional text you want to include.虽然事先阅读哈加达书,选择您要包括哪些可选文本。Also select which Bible verses you want read and by whom.还可以选择你想读的经文的是谁。Feel free to add your own observations and comments.随意添加您自己的看法和意见。You may want to add comments and corrections in the margins.您可能需要添加注释和更正的边缘。

The Seder is divided into three parts, I have noted the approximate time of each portion: the time before the meal (1 hour), the festival meal (1 hour) and the time after the meal (45 min.).家宴是分为三个部分,我注意到每个部分的大致时间:饭前(1小时)的时间,节日餐(1小时)和饭后的时间(45分钟)。 So provide 2 to 3 hours for the Seder depending on the amount of optional text and Scripture read and the number of courses of the meal.因此,提供可选文字和圣经读了一顿课程量取决于家宴2至3小时。

Jews for Jesus, holds an annual Seder banquet where you can learn and enjoy.为耶稣的犹太人,每年举行一次家宴的宴会,在那里你可以学习和享受。You can write or call them if you are interested in their Seder.您可以写信或打电话,如果你有兴趣在他们的家宴。

References Material参考材料

Haggadah for the American Family: by Rabbi Martin Berkowitz, ©1975, Martin Berkowitz, Merio, PA.美国家庭哈加达:© 1975贝尔科维奇,拉比马丁,马丁贝尔科维奇,Merio,巴勒斯坦权力机构。(simple short version in Modern English)(在现代英语简单的短版)

Passover Haggadah: A Messianic Celebration: by Eric Peter Lipson, ©1986, Jews for Jesus逾越节哈加达:一个救世主的庆祝活动:由Eric彼得李碧菁,© 1986,为耶稣的犹太人

Celebrate Passover Haggadah, by John Lipis, Jews for Jesus由约翰拉立卑,为耶稣的犹太人庆祝逾越节哈加达,

The Messianic Passover Haggadah: by Barry and Steffi Rubin, The Lederer Foundation弥赛亚逾越节哈加达:巴里和格拉芙鲁宾,莱德勒基金会

Comments评论

A comment on removing all leaven.一个评论上删除所有的酵。Since the following is said and we are not under the Ceremonial law, (but under grace) we do not have to remove all leaven from our houses.由于下面的是说,我们是没有根据的礼仪法,(但在宽限期),我们没有从我们的房子删除所有的酵。

ANY LEAVEN THAT MAY STILL BE IN THE HOUSE, WHICH I HAVE OR HAVE NOT SEEN, WHICH I HAVE OR HAVE NOT REMOVED, SHALL BE AS IF IT DOES NOT EXIST, AND AS THE DUST OF THE EARTH.的房子,我没有见过,我有或没有拆除,仍可能在任何酵,应仿佛它不存在,地球上的尘土。

David Sargent大卫萨金特


Seder家宴

Jewish Viewpoint Information犹太观信息

Passover at Jerusalem.逾越节在耶路撒冷。

The term used by the Ashkenazic Jews to denote the home service on the first night of the Passover, which, by those who keep the second day of the festivals, is repeated on the second night.术语用来表示由Ashkenazic犹太人的逾越节,第二晚反复,那些保持节日的第二天,第一天晚上的家庭服务。The Sephardic Jews call this service the "Haggadah" (story); and the little book which is read on the occasion is likewise known to all Jews as the "Haggadah," more fully as "Haggadah shel Pesaḥ" (Story for the Passover). Sephardic犹太人调用这个服务的“哈加达”(故事);和小书,读之际,同样是被称为“哈加达”,更充分地“哈加达SHELPesaḥ”(逾越节的故事)所有的犹太人。 The original Passover service, as enjoined in Ex.原来的逾越节服务,如前嘱咐。xii.XII。1 et seq., contemplates an ordinary meal of the household, in which man and wife, parents and children, participate.1起。考虑一个家庭的普通餐,其中丈夫和妻子,父母和子女,参加。The historical books of Scripture do not record how and where the Passover lamb was eaten during the many centuries before the reform of King Josiah, referred to in II Kings xxiii.; it is related only that during all that long period the Passover was not celebrated according to the laws laid down in the Torah.圣经的历史书籍不记录在约西亚王在二世国王XXIII,改革前许多个世纪吃逾越节的羔羊是如何以及在何处;它关系只有在所有长期不庆祝逾越节依法订定,在诵读经文。 In the days of the Second Temple, when these laws were observed literally, the supper of the Passover night must have lost much of its character as a family festival; for only the men were bidden to attend at the chosen place; and the Passover lamb might not be killed elsewhere (Deut. xvi. 5-6).逾越节之夜的晚饭必须在第二圣殿,当这些法律的字面观察的日子里,已经失去了其作为一个家庭的节日字符;只有男子吩咐出席在选定的地点和逾越节的羔羊可能不会被杀死在别处(申命记十六5-6)。 Thus, only those dwelling at Jerusalem could enjoy the nation's birthday as a family festival.因此,只有那些在耶路撒冷的住宅,可以享受国家的生日作为一个家庭的节日。There is no information as to how the night was celebrated during Temple times by the Jews outside the Holy Land, who did not "go up to the feast."夜是如何庆祝犹太人的圣地,谁没有在庙倍外面有没有“上去过节。”The destruction of the Temple, while reducing the Passover-night service into little more than a survival or memorial of its old self, again brought husbands, wives, and children together around the same table, and thus enabled the father to comply more closely with the Scriptural command: "Thou shalt tell thy son on that day."圣殿被毁,同时降低到比旧的自我生存或纪念逾越节通宵服务,再次带来了的丈夫,妻子,和孩子在一起大约在同一表,从而使父亲更加紧密地遵守圣经的命令:“你必告诉你儿子那一天。”

Before the schools of Hillel and Shammai arose in the days of King Herod, a service of thanks, of which the six "psalms of praise" (Ps. cxiii.-cxviii.) formed the nucleus, had already clustered around the meal of the Passover night; of this meal the roasted lamb, unleavened bread, and bitter herbs were necessary elements (Ex. lc; Num. ix. 11). hillel和沙麦学校之前在希律王,服务的感谢,其中六个“诗篇赞美”(诗篇cxiii. cxviii。)形成的核天站起身来,已经聚集围绕吃饭逾越节的晚上这顿饭的烤羊肉,无酵饼,和苦菜(出立法会;编号IX 11。)必要的元素。 The service began with the sanctification of the day as at other festivals, hence with a cup of wine (See Ḳiddush); another cup followed the after-supper grace as on other festive occasions.服务与成圣的一天开始于其他节日,因此一杯酒(见Ḳiddush);另一杯其次为晚饭后宽限期等喜庆场合。But to mark the evening as the most joyous in the year, two other cups were added: one after the "story" and before the meal, and one at the conclusion of the whole service.但是,标志着一年中最欢乐的晚上,另外两个杯补充说:“故事”后,饭前,并在整个服务的结论之一。The Mishnah says (Pes. x. 1) that even the poorest man in Israel should not drink less than four cups of wine on this occasion, this number being justified by the four words employed in Ex.该mishnah说(Pes.十1),甚至在以色列最贫穷的人不应该喝不到四杯葡萄酒,在这个场合,这个数字是由前雇的四个字合理。 vi.VI。6-7 for the delivery of Israel from Egypt.以色列从埃及交付6-7。

The Seder Table.家宴表。

Both in the arrangement of the table and in the psalms, benedictions, and other recited matter the Seder of the present day agrees substantially with the program laid down in the Mishnah.无论是在表的安排和吟诵的诗篇,祝福,和其他同意在mishnah规定的程序,大大此事至今家宴。 Three thick unleavened cakes, wrapped in napkins, are laid upon the Seder dish; parsley and a bowl of salt water are placed next, to represent the hyssop and blood of the Passover of Egypt; further, watercress or horse-radish-tops, to serve as bitter herbs, and a mixture of nuts and apples, to imitate the clay which the Israelites worked into bricks; also slices of horseradish.三个粗的无酵饼,包裹在餐巾,下岗后的家宴菜,香菜和一碗盐水放在旁边,代表牛膝草和埃及的逾越节的血;进一步,西洋菜或辣根上衣,作为苦菜,和混合坚果和苹果,模仿以色列人砖工作的粘土;辣根片。 A roasted bone as a memorial of the paschal lamb, a roasted egg in memory of the free-will offering of the feast, and jugs or bottles of wine, with a glass or silver cup for each member of the family and each guest, likewise are placed on the table.作为一个纪念逾越节的羔羊,在记忆的盛宴自由将提供烤鸡蛋,水罐或瓶酒,为每个家庭成员和每一位客人用玻璃或银杯,同样的一个烤骨放在桌子上。 It is customary to fill an extra cup for the prophet Elijah.这是习惯,以填补额外的先知以利亚杯。Ḳiddush is recited first, as at other festivals; then the master of the house (as priest of the occasion), having washed his hands, dips the parsley in the water, and, with the short prayer of thanks usual before partaking of a vegetable, hands some of it to those around him. Ḳiddush是先背诵,在其他节日一样,那么这家的主人(作为牧师的场合),洗净双手,蘸在水香菜,与通常的感谢简短的祈祷,前一个蔬菜的意旨手中一些它的周围的人。 He then breaks off one-half of the middle cake, which is laid aside for Afiḳomen, to be distributed and eaten at the end of the supper.然后,他折断中间的蛋糕,这是搁置Afiḳomen,分发和在吃过晚饭结束一半。Then all stand and lift up the Seder dish, chanting slowly in Aramaic: "This is the bread of affliction which our fathers ate in Egypt: whoever is hungry come and eat: whoever is in need celebrate Passover with us," etc.然后,全体起立,抬起的家宴菜,念经慢慢在阿拉姆:“这是我们列祖在埃及吃面包的痛苦:不管是谁饿了吃:是谁在需要和我们一起庆祝逾越节”等

Thereupon the youngest child at the table asks: "Why is this night different from other nights?"于是,在餐桌上最小的孩子问:“为什么是这个夜晚不同于其他晚?”etc., referring to the absence of leavened bread, to the bitter herbs, and to the preparations for dipping.等等,指的是没有酵的饼,苦菜,和浸渍的筹备工作。In the days of the Temple, and for some time after its downfall, there was also a question, "Why is the meat all roasted, and none sodden or broiled?"寺的日子里,一段时间后的倒台,也有一个问题,“为什么是肉烤,没有烂或火烤?”For this no longer appropriate question another was substituted, now also obsolete: "Why do all of us 'lean around'?"这已不再适合的问题的另一个被替换下场,现在也过时:“为什么我们所有人的”精益解决'?“in allusion to the Roman custom at banquets-which became current among the Jews-of reclining on couches around the festive board.针对罗马的习俗在宴会成为当前之间的犹太人的节日板周围的沙发上斜倚。The father or master of the house then answers: "We were slaves to Pharaoh in Egypt, and the Lord delivered us thence," etc. This question and its answer are meant as a literal compliance with the Biblical command, found thrice in Exodus and once in Deuteronomy, that the father shall take occasion at the Passover ceremonies to tell his children of the wonderful delivery from Egypt.父亲或家的主人,然后回答说:“我们埃及法老的奴隶,主交付我们那里,”这个问题,其答案是作为一个与“圣经”的命令的字面遵守,发现在出埃及记三次一次在申命记,父亲应在逾越节的仪式之际,告诉他的孩子们的精彩从埃及交付。

A number of detached passages in the language of the Mishnah-all referring in some way to the Exodus-follow, introducing Bible verses or commenting upon them, and "beginning with reproach and ending with praise," eg, the verses from Joshua xxiv.一个在语言分离通道的mishnah所有指在一些出埃及记遵循的方式,介绍经文或对他们的评论,和“开头的非议和赞誉结束,”例如,从约书亚XXIV的诗句。 declaring that before Abraham men were all idolaters, but that he and Isaac and Jacob were chosen.宣布,在亚伯拉罕的男子都是拜偶像的,但他和以撒和雅各被选为。The longest of these passages is a running comment on Deut.这些段落中最长的是申运行评论。xxvi.二十六。5: "A wandering Syrian [AV "a Syrian ready to perish"] was my father," etc., almost every word of which is illustrated by a verse from some book of Scripture; the comment closing with the suggestion that the last words (ib. verse 8), "with a mighty hand and with an out-stretched arm, and with great terribleness, with signs and with wonders," refer to the Ten Plagues. 5:“流浪叙利亚[影音”叙利亚准备灭亡“是我的父亲,”等,几乎每一个字,这是由从一些圣经的书经文说明;意见与建议关闭的最后一句话(同上,第8节),“大能的手和外伸胳膊,并与伟大terribleness,体征和奇事”是指十灾。 Further on it is stated that none has done his duty on that night until he has given voice to the three words "pesaḥ" (paschal lamb), "maẓẓah" (unleavened bread), and, "maror" (bitter herb).进一步说,没有完成他当晚的责任,直到他的声音的三个字“pesaḥ”(逾越节的羔羊),“maẓẓah”(无酵饼),“maror”(苦草本)。 A more important remark follows, to the effect that it is the duty of every Israelite to feel as if he personally had been delivered from Egypt.更重要的意见如下,大意是,它是每一个以色列人责任的感觉,如果他个人已经从埃及交付。Then two of the "psalms of praise" (Ps. cxiii.-cxiv.) are read, in accordance with the teaching of Hillel's school; while Shammai's school read only one of these before supper.两个“赞美的诗篇”(诗篇cxiii. cxiv)是阅读,按照希勒尔的学校教学;而沙麦的学校读晚饭前只是其中之一。 A benediction follows, in which the restoration of the Passover sacrifice is prayed for.如下一个祝福,恢复逾越节的牺牲是祈祷。A second cup of wine is drunk; and with this the first part of the Seder ends, all present washing their hands for supper.第二杯的葡萄酒是喝醉了;家宴结束的第一部分,所有在场的洗他们的手,吃夜宵。

This meal is begun by handing around morsels of the first and third cakes, giving thanks first to Him "who brought forth bread from the earth," and then to Him "who sanctified us by the command to eat maẓẓah."这顿饭是围绕第一和第三的蛋糕俎移交开始,首先感谢他“从地球上带来了面包,”然后他“神圣的命令吃maẓẓah我们。” The bitter herb, dipped in the imitation clay, is eaten next, with thanks for the duty of eating bitter herbs; and then horseradish-slices are made into sandwiches with parts of the middle cake, in memory of Hillel's action in Temple times, when he ate pieces of paschal lamb literally "upon" unleavened cake and bitter herbs.的苦药草,蘸的仿陶土,是吃了吃了苦菜的职责表示感谢;和辣根,片成部分中间蛋糕三明治,在内存中希勒尔的行动在寺倍时他吃逾越节的羔羊件字面意思是“经”无酵饼和苦菜。

The real meal then begins, its last morsels being broken from the afiḳomen.然后开始真正的餐,其最后的点点滴滴afiḳomen破碎。Then follows the grace after meals with the insertion for the festival; and afterward the third cup is drunk.接着后插入节餐的恩典;之后第三杯是喝醉了。This grace, the remaining four psalms of praise (Ps. cxv.-cxviii.), the so-called "Great Hallel."此宽限期,其余四个诗篇赞美(诗篇cxv. cxviii。),所谓的“大Hallel。”(Ps. cxxxvii.) with its recurring burden "Ki le'olam ḥasdo" (His mercy endureth forever), Nishmat, and the words of thanks after wine make up the second part of the Seder. (诗cxxxvii。),其经常性的负担“奇le'olamḥasdo”(他的怜悯永远长存),Nishmat,感谢的话后,葡萄酒的家宴第二部分。

Such was the order of exercises as far back as the middle of the third century.这种演习是为了尽可能的第三个世纪中叶。But as he "who talked the most of the departure from Egypt" was always deemed most worthy of praise, a few additions were made in various countries at different times.但是,因为他“谈到从埃及出发”一直被认为最值得赞美的,各国在不同的时间作了一些补充。Thus, the Jews of Yemen still insert in the ḳiddush on this night, after the words "who has chosen us above every people," a piece of rather grotesque self-praise, such as "He called us a community of saints, a precious vineyard, a pleasant plantation; compared to the host of heaven and set like stars in the firmament."因此,也门的犹太人仍然在这个夜晚ḳiddush插入后的话,“谁选择了我们每个人以上,”一片而怪诞的自我表扬,如“他叫我们的圣人的社会,一个宝贵的葡萄园,一个愉快的人工林;相比苍穹的星星一样的天堂和设置主机“。 Such passages were at one time recited in other countries also.这种通道在一次背诵在其他国家也。Many of the Jews in Mohammedan countries have in their service-books legendary comments upon the Haggadah, mainly in Arabic, which the father reads by way of explanation and elaboration of the text.在伊斯兰教的国家有许多犹太人在他们服务的图书后,父亲的文字解释和制定的方式读取的主要集中在阿拉伯哈​​加达传奇意见。 The Sephardic Jews in Turkey recite in Spanish some legends about the Exodus, not found in the Haggadah.在土耳其Sephardic犹太人在西班牙关于出埃及记背诵一些传说,没有发现在哈加达。The German and Polish Jews add five poetic pieces at the end of the exercises: one arranged according to the alphabet, with the burden, "It was in the midst of the night" (referring to events in the past, or foretold in prophecy, which happened at that hour); another, an indescribablejingle ("Ki lo Na'eh") before the last cup.德国和波兰的犹太人在演习结束的5个诗意件:按字母表排列的负担,添加“,它是在夜间的情况下”(指在过去的事件,或在预言预言,发生在这一个小时),另外,之前的最后一杯indescribablejingle(“劳Na'eh文”)。 In Germany two other pieces were added which from old German nursery songs had first become festal songs and then were invested with a higher significance as if they typified specific Jewish ideas.在德国,其他两个部分,分别加入岁的德国童谣首次成为节日的歌曲,然后用一个更高的意义投资,如果他们代表特定的犹太教思想。 See Eḥad Mi Yodea' and Ḥad Gadya.见Eḥad宓Yodea“,并已Gadya。

Cyrus Adler, Lewis N. Dembitz赛勒斯阿德勒,刘易斯北路Dembitz
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.1901至1906年之间出版的犹太百科全书。

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Pes.PES。x.; Maimonides, Yad, Ḥameẓ, vii.-viii.; Caro, Shulḥan 'Aruk, Oraḥ Ḥayyim, 472-484; Lauterbach, Minḥah Ḥadashah, Drohobicz, 1893; Friedmann, Das Festbuch Haggadah, Vienna, 1895; LN Dembitz, Jewish Services in Synagogue and Home, pp. 356-367, Philadelphia, 1898. X.;迈蒙尼德,屠杀,Ḥameẓ,vii. - VIII。卡洛,Shulḥan“Aruk,OraḥḤayyim,472-484;劳特巴赫,MinḥahḤadashah,Drohobicz,1893年,弗里德曼,DAS Festbuch哈加达,维也纳,1895年;号法律公告Dembitz犹太人在犹太教堂和家庭服务,第356-367页,1898年费城。



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