Sermon on the Mount讲道山

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The Sermon on the Mount is the discourse of Jesus in Matt.登山宝训是耶稣的话语在马特。5-7, containing the epitome of his ethical teaching.5-7,包含他的道德教学的一个缩影。The shorter but parallel sermon in Luke 6:20-49 is usually known as the Sermon on the Plain, because of a different description of the setting.在路加福音6:20-49短但平行的说教,是通常被称为平原上的讲道,因为设置了不同的描述。No other block of Jesus' teaching has enjoyed such wide influence and intense examination.没有耶稣的教导其他块享有如此广泛的影响力和激烈的考试。Its uniqueness derives not only from its impact as a whole, but also from the fact that some of its parts have attained classical status on their own.它的独特性不仅来自其作为一个整体的影响,而且从它的某些部分已经达到自己的经典地位的事实派生。

The sermon has been called anything from essential Christianity to Jesus' manifesto, but it is best seen as the height of Jesus' ethical demands on his disciples occasioned by the nearness of the kingdom.讲道被称为什​​么必不可少的基督教耶稣“宣言,但最好是耶稣的高度对他的弟子”道德王国接近所引起的需求。Since Matt.由于马特。portrays Jesus as seated in rabbinic posture teaching his disciples, the term "sermon" is an unfortunate, though now unavoidable, one.描绘耶稣教导他的弟子在拉比的姿势坐在,长期的“布道”是一个不幸的的,虽然现在不可避免的,一。

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Contexts of the Sermon语境的说教

Matthew马修

(1) Structure.(1)结构。 The body of Matt.马特的身体。 is organized around five discourses of Jesus, each ending with a transitional formula beginning, "When Jesus finished."组织围绕五个话语耶稣,每一个过渡性的公式开始的结尾,“当耶稣完成"The sermon is the first of these discourses, and, coupled with the narrative section which follows in chs.讲道是第一,这些话语,加上在CHS如下叙述部分。8-9, forms a characterization of Jesus' early Galilean ministry.8-9,形成了耶稣早期伽利略部的特征。Some of the Beautitudes have corresponding woes in ch.有些Beautitudes有相应的疾苦,在CH。23, whereas in Luke these appear in the sermon itself.23日,而在路加福音出现在讲道本身。

(2) Theology.(2)神学。The sermon meshes well with the theology of Matt.讲道网格以及与马特神学。in several respects, especially in parallels with the Pentateuch and emphasis on the kingdom.在以下几个方面,特别是在平行pentateuch和重点王国。The initial verse calls to mind early statements in Gen., and as he presents Jesus' preadult life, certain similarities with Moses are quite striking.最初的诗句令人想起早在将军报表,并为他介绍耶稣的成年期前的生活,与摩西的某些相似之处是相当惊人的的。The sermon is set on a mountain, and Jesus comes to fulfill the law (5:17) and sets himself up as the authoritative interpreter of its true meaning in the antitheses of ch.讲道是设置在山上,耶稣来履行法律(5:17),并设置为自己的权威解释其真正意义的对立CH。5.5。The kingdom theme combines with that of righteousness in 5:20 and 6:33, but its importance is seen above all in the Beatitudes, which begin and end with a promise of the kingdom, thus indicating that this is their overriding focus.王国主题相结合,义五时20分和6时33,但其重要性是看到上面讲到,开始和结束与王国的承诺,从而表明,这是他们的压倒一切的重点。

Synoptic Gospels观福音

Various attempts to place the sermon precisely in Jesus' ministry have proven problematic, but it certainly belongs early.各种尝试放置在耶稣的事工讲道正是已被证明存在问题,但它肯定属于早期。That it bears some relationship to Luke's Sermon on the Plain is evident, especially from the overall agreement in the ordering of parallel material.它蕴藏着一些卢克的平原上的讲道关系是显而易见的,尤其是在并行材料订货的总体协议,。The greatest difference is the absence in Luke of the Palestinian Jewish or OT background to the sayings and of the whole block of material where Jesus' teaching is set over against some of contemporary Judaism (5:17-6:18).最大的区别是在路加福音巴勒斯坦犹太人的格言或OT背景和整个块的材料,耶稣的教导是通过对一些当代犹太教(5:17-6:18)设置的情况下。 Of the various explanations of the relationship between the two sermons, the most satisfactory one is that they represent two separate teaching occassions reflecting different versions of a discourse Jesus gave on several occasions, but adapted to each situation.两个说教之间的关系的各种解释中,最满意的的是他们所代表的两个独立的教学​​场合,反映耶稣多次了一种话语的不同版本,但适应每一种情况。 This allows for the redactional activity in Matt., but ascribes the basic sermon as it stands to Jesus himself.这使得在马特。redactional活动,但归因于基本的说教,因为它代表耶稣自己。

NT as a WholeNT作为一个整体

The position of the sermon on the continuum of NT theology may be seen in light of the commonly perceived extremes, James and Paul.可以看出普遍认为的极端,詹姆斯和保罗的说教上连续新台币神学的立场。There are more close parallels between the sermon and James than with any other NT writing, and both of them belong in the Wisdom tradition.比任何其他的NT书面的说教和詹姆斯之间有更密切的相似之处,他们的智慧传统属于。Because of the widespread belief that Paul and Jesus, in the sermon, taught faith-righteousness versus works-righteousness, the two are often seen as poles apart theologically.由于人们普遍相信,保罗和耶稣在讲道,教信仰义与工程义,这两个经常被看作是南辕北辙神学。

Theological Assessment神学评估

Famous Sections著名的第

Three parts of the sermon have wielded considerable influence in their own right on Christian consciousness and liturgy.三个部分的说教挥起了相当大的影响,他们对自己的权利基督教意识和礼仪。The Beatitudes have the kingdom as their primary theme, but they also introduce other of the sermon's emphases.八福都作为自己的首要主题的国度,但他们还引进其他讲道的重点。In contrast to their consoling nature in Luke, in Matt.相反,他们在路加福音,在马特的安慰性质。they assume the character of ethical demands, and the focus of the blessings themselves is eschatological.他们承担的道德要求的字符,末世论的祝福自己的重点是。The Matthean version of the Lord's Prayer is poetic with beautiful symmetry and has heavily influenced Christian liturgy.Matthean版本的主祷文是与美丽的对称性诗意,并已严重影响了基督教礼拜仪式。Jesus uses it as an illustration of the need for simplicity in prayer, and some of its words suggest his follow-up principle of reciprocal forgiveness.耶稣使用它需要在祈祷简单的说明,以及它的一些话,建议他跟进的相互宽恕的原则。The Golden Rule (7:12) brings to their apex the sermon's earlier teachings on interpersonal relations.黄金法则(7:12)带给他们的顶点说教的早期教义,人与人之间的关系。Its interpreters have often stressed Jesus' positive mode of formulating this principle in contrast to the negative way by other great religious teachers.它的口译员经常强调耶稣的这一原则,在与其他伟大的宗教教师的负面方式制定的积极模式。In the context of Jesus' thought as a whole, the Golden Rule is his way of expressing Lev.在耶稣“作为一个整体思想的背景下,金科玉律是他的表达列弗方式。19:18b, which he elsewhere calls the second great commandment (Matt. 22:39), for he sees both as the epitome of the law and the prophets.19点18 B,他在其他地方调用第二大诫命(太22:39),因为他看到法律和先知的缩影。

Troublesome Passages阴阳旅费

Several of Jesus' precepts are presented in such an absolute form that many interpreters have questioned the sermon's applicability to the average Christian.耶稣的一些戒律在这样一个绝对的形式,很多口译员的平均基督教讲道的适用性提出质疑。Tolstoi, on the other hand, while failing to recognize Jesus' use of such techniques as hyperbole, found here maxims the serious person must literally observe.另一方面,托尔斯泰,而没有承认耶稣为夸张等技术的使用,发现这里的格言,严重者必须从字面上观察。Certainly the person who literally destroys an eye or a hand (5:29-30) has not solved his problem, because he still has another left.当然的人从字面上破坏眼睛或手(5:29-30)没有解决他的问题,因为他还有另一个左。Hyperbole here serves to underscore the urgency of radical action to remove the source of a temptation.在这里,夸张,强调激进行动的紧迫性消除的诱惑之源。Jesus' forbidding of judging (7:1) has led some to conclude that a Christian cannot be a judge or serve on a jury; however, he is not giving the word a legal meaning, but is talking about being judgmental in interpersonal relations.耶稣(7:1)的判断不准,导致一些结束,基督徒不能成为法官或陪审;然而,他不给这个词一个法律意义,但在人与人的关系的判断。 The prohibition against swearing (5:34) has led some to refuse to swear, even in court, but Jesus' words are best seen against the background of the elaborate rabbinic system of loopholes that precluded simple honesty in personal dealings.禁止对宣誓就职(5:34),使一些人甚至在法庭上拒绝宣誓,但耶稣的话是最好的对阐述拉比系统漏洞的背景下,排除简单的诚实的个人交易。 Jesus himself took an oath (Mark 8:12).耶稣自己的誓言(马可福音8:12)。Finally, Jesus' principle of nonresistance (Matt. 5:39) has been applied even to military and police force, whereas, again, Jesus relates it to interpersonal relationships.最后,耶稣“不抵抗(太5:39)的原则已经应用甚至军队和警察部队,而再次,耶稣与人际关系。

Influence and Interpretation影响及释义

Influence影响

Since the second century no block of Scripture of comparable size has exerted as great an influence as the sermon.第二个世纪以来,没有同等规模的圣经块产生了很大影响的说教。In the pre-Nicene period, passages from this discourse were quoted or alluded to more than from any other part of the Bible.前尼西亚时期,从这个话语的段落引用或提到比从“圣经”的任何其他部分。To the present day these words still profoundly challenge Christians and non-Christians alike.这些话至今仍然深刻的挑战基督徒和非基督徒。They caused Tolstoi to change completely his social theory and influenced the development of Gandhi's use of nonviolence as a political force.他们造成托尔斯泰彻底改变了他的社会理论,影响了甘地的非暴力作为一种政治力量的发展。Even Nietzche, who objected to the teachings of the sermon, did not ignore them.即使尼采,谁反对说教的教诲,并没有忽视他们。

History of Interpretation历史的解释

The arresting nature of the sermon has produced numerous diverging efforts to explain, or even explain away, Jesus' words.逮捕性质的说教已经产生了众多分歧的努力来解释,甚至解释了,耶稣的话。Many have resisted efforts to limit the sermon's applicability.很多人抵制努力限制说教的适用性。One approach sees Jesus teaching an obedience-righteousness that cannot be reconciled with Paul.一种方法看到耶稣教学服从义,不能与保罗不甘心。Anabaptists did not go so far, but insisted that Jesus' words are so absolute that their obedience precludes Christian participation in certain social and political institutionss.再洗礼派教徒并没有走这么远,但坚持认为,耶稣的话是绝对的,他们服从排除在一定的社会和政治institutionss基督教参与。 Bonhoeffer reacted against those who would analyze and interpret but fail to do the sermon.潘霍华的反应,对那些将分析和解释,但不能做讲道。It must be done, but the power to do it comes only from the cross.它必须做的,但只有从交叉的权力做它。Luther attempted to avoid what he regarded as the extremes of both the Roman and Anabaptist interpretations and stressed the obligation to keep the sermon's commandments.路德企图,以避免他的罗马和再洗礼派诠释的极端,并强调保持说教的诫命的义务。Liberal Protestantism has seen the sermon as the heart of the gospel and as Jesus' program for reforming society.自由新教视为福音的心脏和耶稣的社会改革计划的说教。

Others have attempted to limit the sermon's applicability.另一些人试图限制说教的适用性。 The predominant Lutheran view, though not of Luther himself, is that the sermon presents an impossible ideal which cannot be realized, so its function is to show man his inadequacy so he will be prepared for the gospel.路德的主要观点,虽然不是路德本人,是说教提出了一个不可能的理想不能实现,因此,它的功能是显示男子他的不足之处,于是他将福音准备。 What is sometimes called the existential position sees Jesus as attempting to change attitudes, not actions.什么是有时被称为存在主义的立场,认为耶稣试图改变态度,而不是行动。The medieval Catholic interpretation called these precepts "evangelical counsels" for the few who would seek perfection, rather than commandments for every Christian.中世纪的天主教解释称,这些戒律的“福音派律师”为少数人会追求完美,为每一个基督徒,而比诫命。Two approaches limit the full applicability of the sermon to the breaking in of the kingdom, but with different results: Schweitzer saw Jesus primarily as an eschatological figure, so he coined the term "interim ethics" to emphasize that the stringent requirements of the sermon could apply only to the stress-packed times immediately before God introduced his kingdom, an event which never occurred, so the sermon does not apply to our modern situation.两种方法限制打破王国的说教完全适用,但有不同的结果:施魏​​策尔看到耶稣主要是作为一个末世论图,所以他提出了“临时道德”强调,说教的严格要求可以只适用于应力包装的时候,立即在神前推出他的国度,一个事件从未发生过,这样的说教并不适用于我们的现代处境。 Dispensationalists also limit the sermon's focus to the kingdom, so for them Jesus' teachings will fully apply only at its future coming. Dispensationalists王国也限制了布道的工作重点,对他们来说,耶稣的教导,将充分运用在其今后的到来。

Meaning of the Sermon讲道的含义

Jesus concludes the sermon by setting up certain requirements that relate directly to one's being saved or lost.耶稣最后的说教,设立一定的要求,直接关系到一个人的被保存或丢失。He divides mankind into three classes: those who (1) follow him (7:13-14, 17, 21, 24-25), (2) do not follow him (vss. 13-44, 26-27), and (3) pretend to follow him (vss. 15-20, 21-23).他人类划分为三类:(1)跟随他(7:13-14,17,21,24日至25日),(2)不按照他(VSS的13-44,26-27),和(3)假装跟随他(VSS的15-20,21-23)。 To be saved one must actually follow the teachings of the sermon, but Jesus does not say they must be performed perfectly.要保存必须遵循的教义​​的说教,但耶稣并没有说他们必须完全执行。The saved are those who accept and actually attempt to direct their lives by the sermon; the lost are those who pretend to follow or who reject these teachings.保存的是那些接受,实际上是企图直接的说教他们的生活,失去的是那些假装遵循或拒绝这些教义。Is this any different from Paul's man of faith?这是保罗的信仰的人有什么不同?Was Paul not scandalized by the notion that a person may live the way he wants?保罗的概念,即一个人生活的方式,他希望不反感? The person who rests his faith in Jesus determines to follow him.谁掌握在他的信仰耶稣的人,决定跟着他。This is Jesus and Paul.这是耶稣和保罗。Mere profession of belief, without the following, will secure Jesus' condemnation, "I never knew you. You evildoers, depart from me" (vs. 23).仅仅界的信仰,没有以下,将确保耶稣的谴责,“我从来不知道你,你作恶的,离开我”(23)。An unfortunate feature of much post-Reformation Christianity has been the interpretation of Jesus in light of Paul rather than the converse.一个不幸的功能已被多后宗教改革基督教解释耶稣,保罗,而不是相反。 One of the contributions of Bonhoeffer's treatment of this sermon is his insistence on reading Paul in light of Jesus and, hence, his stressing the necessity of doing the sermon.潘霍华的治疗这种说教的贡献之一是他坚持阅读保罗在耶稣的光,因此,他强调有必要做的说教。Perfection is not demanded and aid is provided, but still the true disciple is "the who does the will of the Father" (vs. 21).并不是完美的要求和提供援助,但仍然是真正的门徒是“谁天父的旨意”(21节)。

GT Burke (Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)GT伯克(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
Augustine, Our Lord's Sermon on the Mount; M. Luther, The Sermon on the Mount; HK McArthur, Understanding the Sermon on the Mount; WS Kissinger, The Sermon on the Mount; A Dictionary of the Bible, extra vol., 1-45; K. Grayston, IDB, IV, 279-89; G. Friedlander, The Jewish Sources of the Sermon on the Mount; CG Montefiore, Rabbinic Literature and Gospel Teachings; D. Bonhoeffer, The Cost of Discipleship; AN Wilder, IB, VII, 155-64; J. Jeremias, The Sermon on the Mount; WD Davies, The Setting of the Sermon on the Mount and The Sermon on the Mount; RM Grant, "The Sermon on the Mount in Early Christianity," Sem 12:215-31; R. Guelich, The Sermon on the Mount; JRW Stott, Christian Counter-Culture.奥古斯丁,我们的主山讲道,M.,山上宝训路德港元麦克阿瑟,了解登山宝训,基辛格,山上宝训圣经词典,额外的卷,1 - 45;光格雷斯顿,美洲开发银行,四,279-89; G.弗里德兰德,登山宝训的犹太来源; CG蒙蒂菲奥里,拉比文学和福音教; D.朋霍费尔,作门徒的代价;狂放,IB七,155-64; J.赫雷米亚斯,山上宝训的WD,山山和说教的说教设置戴维斯; RM格兰特,“山在早期基督教讲道,”SEM 12:215-31;河,山上宝训Guelich; JRW斯托特,基督教反文化。


Sermon on the Mount讲道上的山

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After spending a night in solemn meditation and prayer in the lonely mountain-range to the west of the Lake of Galilee (Luke 6:12), on the following morning our Lord called to him his disciples, and from among them chose twelve, who were to be henceforth trained to be his apostles (Mark 3:14, 15).我们的主支出在庄严的冥想和祈祷一晚,在孤独的山范围西部的加利利湖(路加福音6:12),于次日早上,后叫他他的弟子,并从他们中间拣选了十二个,谁今后的训练,他的使徒(马可福音3:14,15)。 After this solemn consecration of the twelve, he descended from the mountain-peak to a more level spot (Luke 6:17), and there he sat down and delivered the "sermon on the mount" (Matt. 5-7; Luke 6:20-49) to the assembled multitude.庄严的奉献在此之后的12个,他从山上峰值下降到一个更公平的现货(路加福音6:17),和在那里,他坐了下来,并发表了“山上宝训”(马太福音5-7;卢克6 :20 - 49)的组装多种。The mountain here spoken of was probably that known by the name of the "Horns of Hattin" (Kurun Hattin), a ridge running east and west, not far from Capernaum.这里谈到的山被称为“两角的Hattin”(Kurun Hattin),一垄运行东部和西部,而不是从迦百农的名称可能是。It was afterwards called the "Mount of Beatitudes."后来被称为“八福的山”。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)



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Beatitudes beatitudes


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