Simony西摩尼

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Simony is the buying or selling of spiritual things.西摩尼是精神的东西的购买或销售。The word is derived from the biblical sorcerer Simon Magus, who attempted to buy spiritual powers from the apostle Peter (see Acts 8:18-24).这个词是来自“圣经”的巫师,试图从使徒彼得(见使徒行传8:18-24)购买的精神力量的西蒙magus。

Simony was a problem in the Christian church from the time of the Edict of Milan (313), when the church began to accumulate wealth and power, until modern times.西摩尼是一个问题的基督教教堂,从米兰(313),当堂开始积累财富和权力,直到近代上谕的时间。This is evident from the frequent legislation against it.这是显而易见的,从经常反对立法。In 451, the Council of Chalcedon proscribed ordination for money; this prohibition was reaffirmed by the Third Lateran Council in 1179 and by the Council of Trent (1545-63).迦克墩的钱被禁协调委员会;这一禁令是在451,重申在1179第三次拉特兰会议和安理会的遄达(1545至1563年)。 Simony was rampant from the 9th to the 11th century.西摩尼从9到11世纪是猖獗。During that period simony pervaded church life on every level, from the lower clergy to the papacy.在各个层面上这一时期充斥着买卖圣职的教会生活,从较低的神职人员教皇。At the time of the Reformation, major abuses centered on the sale of indulgences and relics.在时间的改革,主要侵犯上出售的宽容和文物中心。

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Ecclesiastical law forbids simony and condemns it as a sinful practice that bespeaks a shallow understanding of spiritual values.教会法禁止买卖圣职,并谴责它作为一个罪孽深重的做法,四起的精神价值的认识肤浅。Prohibited are all monetary transactions surrounding blessed or consecrated religious objects, prayers and masses (excluding ecclesiastically authorized offerings for the support of the clergy), and church offices and promotions.禁止周围的祝福或神圣的宗教对象,祈祷和群众(ecclesiastically授权的神职人员的支持产品除外),并教会办事处和促销活动的所有货币性交易。


Simony西摩尼

Catholic Information天主教信息

(From Simon Magus; Acts 8:18-24)(从西蒙magus;徒8:18-24)

Simony is usually defined "a deliberate intention of buying or selling for a temporal price such things as are spiritual of annexed unto spirituals".西摩尼通常被定义为“一个这样的事情,是精神的时间的价格购买或出售的蓄意所不欲,灵所附”。While this definition only speaks of purchase and sale, any exchange of spiritual for temporal things is simoniacal.虽然这个定义只谈到购销,任何时间的东西交流的精神simoniacal。Nor is the giving of the temporal as the price of the spiritual required for the existence of simony; according to a proposition condemned by Innocent XI (Denzinger-Bannwart, no. 1195) it suffices that the determining motive of the action of one party be the obtaining of compensation from the other.也不是给予精神买卖圣职的存在所需的价格时间;根据谴责无辜第十一(登青格Bannwart,1195。)一个命题,它足以一方的行动的决定动机取得从其他赔偿。

The various temporal advantages which may be offered for a spiritual favour are, after Gregory the Great, usually divided in three classes.这可能是一种精神的青睐提供的各种时空优势,后高利大,通常分为三类。These are: (1) the munus a manu (material advantage), which comprises money, all movable and immovable property, and all rights appreciable in pecuniary value; (2) the munus a lingua (oral advantage) which includes oral commendation, public expressions of approval, moral support in high places; (3) the munus ab obsequio (homage) which consists in subserviency, the rendering of undue services, etc.它们是:(1)munus一个马努(物质利益),其中包括金钱,所有的动产和不动产,金钱价值可观的所有权利;(2)munus语言(口头的优势),其中包括口头表扬,公共批准道义上的支持,在高的地方表达;(3)munus AB obsequio(参拜)包括在subserviency,渲染不必要的服务,等。

The spiritual object includes whatever is conducive to the eternal welfare of the soul, ie all supernatural things: sanctifying grace, the sacraments, sacramentals, etc. While according to the natural and Divine laws the term simony is applicable only to the exchange of supernatural treasures for temporal advantages, its meaning has been further extended through ecclesiastical legislation.精神的对象包括凡是有利于灵魂的永恒的福利,即所有超自然的东西:sanctifying恩典,圣礼,sacramentals等,同时根据自然和神圣的法律,长期买卖圣职是只适用于超自然的珍品交流时间优势,其意义已通过教会立法的进一步扩展。 In order to preclude all danger of simony the Church has forbidden certain dealings which did not fall under Divine prohibition.为了排除所有买卖圣职的危险,禁止教会不属于神圣禁止某些交易。It is thus unlawful to exchange ecclesiastical benefices by private authority, to accept any payment whatever for holy oils, to sell blessed rosaries or crucifixes.因此,这是非法交换教会benefices由民营机构,接受任何支付任何神圣的油,卖祝福念珠或十字架。Such objects lose, if sold, all the indulgences previously attached to them (S. Cong. Of Indulg., 12 July, 1847).这样的对象输了,如果出售,先前连接到他们(S.丛。Indulg 7月12日,1847年)的所有放纵。Simony of ecclesiastical law is, of course a variable element, since the prohibitions of the Church may be abrogated or fall into disuse.教会法西摩尼,当然变量元素,因为教会的禁令可能被废止或荒废。Simony whether it be of ecclesiastical or Divine law, may be divided into mental, conventional, and real (simonia mentalis, conventionalis, et realis).西摩尼无论是教会或神法,可分为精神,传统,和真正的的(simonia颏,conventionalis等realis)。 In mental simony there is lacking the outward manifestation, or, according to others, the approval on the part of the person to whom a proposal is made.精神买卖圣职是缺乏外在表现,或根据其他人,上的人的建议是批准。 In conventional simony an expressed or tacit agreement is entered upon.在传统的买卖圣职明示或默契进入。It is subdivided into merely conventional, when neither party has fulfilled any of the terms of the agreement, and mixed conventional, when one of the parties has at least partly complied with the assumed obligations.它只是传统的细分,当任何一方已经履行协议的任何条款,以及混合的传统,当一方当事人已至少部分地遵守所承担的义务。 To the latter subdivision may be referred what has been aptly termed "confidential simony", in which an ecclesiastical benefice is procured for a certain person with the understanding that later he will either resign in favour of the one through whom he obtained the position or divide with him the revenues.后者细分可能被称为被恰当地称为“机密买卖圣职”,其中一个教会的采邑是具有一定的了解后,他将辞职赞成一个人经手,他获得的位置或鸿沟采购与他的收入。 Simony is called real when the stipulations of the mutual agreement have been either partly or completely carried out by both parties.西摩尼是所谓真正的相互协议的规定,已部分或完全由双方进行的。

To estimate accurately the gravity of simony, which some medieval ecclesiastical writers denounced as the most abominable of crimes, a distinction must be made between the violations of the Divine law, and the dealings contrary to ecclesiastical legislation.准确地估计买卖圣职,一些中世纪的教会作家谴责为最恶劣的犯罪的严重性,必须区分之间的神圣法律的侵犯,违背教会立法的交易。 Any transgression of the law of God in this matter is, objectively considered, grievous in every instance (mortalis ex toto genere suo).任何法神在这个问题上的罪过,客观地认为,在每一个实例严重(mortalis当然TOTO genere锁)。For this kind of simony places on a par things supernatural and things natural, things eternal and things temporal, and constitutes a sacrilegious depreciation of Divine treasures.对于这种面值的东西一种超自然的买卖圣职的地方和事物发展的自然规律,事物的永恒和时间的事情,并构成一个亵渎神圣的宝物贬值。 The sin can become venial only through the absence of the subjective dispositions required for the commission of a grievous offense.只通过一个严重罪行委员会所要求的主观处置的情况下,可以成为venial罪恶。The merely ecclesiastical prohibitions, however, do not all and under all circumstances impose a grave obligation.只是教会的禁令,然而,并非所有的,在任何情况下都带来了严重的义务。The presumption is that the church authority, which, in this connection, sometimes prohibits actions in themselves indifferent, did not intend the law to be grievously binding in minor details.推定是教会的权威,在这方面,有时禁止在自己无动于衷的行动,不打算法在微小的细节重挫约束力。As he who preaches the gospel "should live by the gospel" (1 Corinthians 9:14) but should also avoid even the appearance of receiving temporal payment for spiritual services, difficulties may arise concerning the propriety or sinfulness of remuneration in certain circumstances.由于他传福音“活的福音”(1哥林多前书9:14),但也应避免连接受精神服务的时间支付的外观,可能会出现困难在某些情况下,适当的报酬的罪恶。 The ecclesiastic may certainly receive what is offered to him on the occasion of spiritual ministrations, but he cannot accept any payment for the same.精神ministrations之际向他提供的传教士当然可以接收,但他不能接受任何支付相同。The celebration of Mass for money would, consequently, be sinful; but it is perfectly legitimate to accept a stipend offered on such occasion for the support of the celebrant. ,因此,大众的钱的庆祝会是有罪的,但它是完全合法的,接受监礼人的支持等场合提供津贴。The amount of the stipend, varying for different times and countries, is usually fixed by ecclesiastical authority (SEE STIPEND).助学金金额,不同时期,不同国家的不同,通常是固定的教会权威(见津贴)。It is allowed to accept it even should the priest be otherwise well-to-do; for he has a right to live from the altar and should avoid becoming obnoxious to other members of the gy.不准接受,甚至牧师,否则到;他有生存的权利,从祭坛,并应避免成为其他成员的GY的厌恶。It is simoniacal to accept payment for the exercise of ecclesiastical jurisdiction, eg, the granting of dispensations; but there is nothing improper in demanding from the applicants for matrimonial dispensations a contribution intended partly as a chancery fee and partly as a salutary fine calculated to prevent the too frequent recurrence of such requests.是simoniacal接受支付行使教会的管辖范围,例如,授予的特许,但有什么不正当的婚姻特许申请人要求部分旨在为尚书费贡献部分作为一个有益的罚款计算,以防止和这样的请求太频繁复发。 It is likewise simony to accept temporal compensation for admission into a religious order; but contributions made by candidates to defray the expenses of their novitiate as well as the dowry required by some female orders are not included in this prohibition.同样接受成一个宗教秩序入场时间补偿的买卖圣职,但这一禁令不包括候选人的捐款,以支付他们的见习期的费用,以及一些女性订单所需的嫁妆。

In regard to the parish clergy, the poorer the church, the more urgent is the obligation incumbent upon the faithful to support them.关于教区神职人员,教会越穷,显得更为迫切的是支持他们的忠实后义不容辞的义务。In the fulfilment of this duty local law and custom ought to be observed.在履行这一职责的当地法律和习俗应该得到遵守。The Second Plenary Council of Baltimore has framed the following decrees for the United States: (1) The priest may accept what is freely offered after the administration of baptism or matrimony, but should refrain from asking anything (no. 221).以下为美国巴尔的摩的第二次国务院全体会议陷害法令:(1)牧师可以接受什么是自由后的洗礼,或婚姻管理提供的,但不应要求什么(第221号)。 (2) The confessor is never allowed to apply to his own use pecuniary penances, nor may he ask or accept anything from the penitent in compensation of his services. (2)忏悔是决不允许应用到自己所用金钱penances,也不得要求或接受任何在赔偿他的服务忏悔。Even voluntary gifts must be refused, and the offering of Mass stipends in the sacred tribunal cannot be permitted (no. 289).即使是自愿的礼物必须被拒绝,并提供质量奖助学金在神圣的法庭不能容许(第289号)。(3) The poor who cannot be buried at their own expense should receive free burial (no. 393). (3)谁也不能埋自费的穷人应得到免费安葬(第393号)。The Second and Third action of a compulsory contribution at the church entrance from the faithful who wish to hear Mass on Sundays and Holy Days (Conc. Plen. Balt. II, no 397; Conc. Plen. Balt. III, no 288).第二和第三的行动在希望听到星期日和节日的质量。。;浓PLEN BALT第三,没有288 Conc. PLEN BALT第二,没有397的忠实教堂入口处强制的贡献。As this practice continued in existence in many churches until very recently, a circular letter addressed 29 Sept., 1911, by the Apostolic Delegate to the archbishops and bishops of the United States, again condemns the custom and requests the ordinaries to suppress it wherever found in existence.由于这种做法在许多教会继续存在,直到最近,通函解决由使徒代表,1911年9月29日,美国的大主教和主教,再次谴责自定义,并要求普通压制它的地方发现存在。

To uproot the evil of simony so prevalent during the Middle Ages, the Church decreed the severest penalties against its perpetrators.为了铲除邪恶在中世纪盛行的买卖圣职,教会下令对肇事者最严厉的刑罚。Pope Julius II declared simoniacal papal elections invalid, an enactment which has since been rescinded, however, by Pope Pius X (Constitution "Vacante Sede", 25 Dec., 1904, tit. II, cap. Vi, in "Canoniste Contemp.", XXXII, 1909, 291).教皇朱利叶斯二世宣布simoniacal教皇选举无效的,自被撤销,但由教皇Pius X(“宪法”的“Vacante塞”,第六章,1904年12月第二,针锋相对。,在25日,颁布“Canoniste中国当代。”三十二,1909年,291)。 The collation of a benefice is void if, in obtaining it, the appointee either committed simony himself, or at least tacitly approved of its commission by a third party.采邑的排序规则是无效的,获得它,如果获委任致力于买卖圣职自己,或至少默许其佣金由第三方批准。Should he have taken possession, he is bound to resign and restore all the revenues received during his tenure.他接管,他是必然要辞职,并恢复在他任职期间所收到的所有收入。Excommunication simply reserved to the Apostolic See is pronounced in the Constitution "Apostolicae Sedis" (12 Oct., 1869): (1) against persons guilty of real simony in any benefices and against their accomplices; (2) against any persons, whatsoever their dignity, guilty of confidential simony in any benefices; (3) against such as are guilty of simony by purchasing or selling admission into a religious order; (4) against all persons inferior to the bishops, who derive gain (quaestum facientes) from indulgences and other spiritual graces; (5) against those who, collecting stipends for Masses, realize a profit on them by having the Masses celebrated in places where smaller stipends are usually given.逐出教会使徒看到的是“宪法”宣判“Apostolicae Sedis”(1869年10月,12)简单的保留:(1)对任何人在任何benefices和对他们的同谋的真正的买卖圣职罪;(2)对任何人,任何其尊严,在任何benefices保密买卖圣职罪;(3)对诸如购买或出售成一个宗教秩序的入场买卖圣职(4)对所有的人逊色主教,获取收益(quaestum facientes)从放纵犯罪;和其他精神青睐;(5)对那些人,收集群众的津贴,实现群众在较小的津贴通常地方庆祝,对他们的利润。The last-mentioned provision was supplemented by subsequent decrees of the Sacred Congregation of the Council.最后提到的条款进行了补充,随后安理会的神圣的会众法令。The Decree "Vigilanti" (25 May, 1893) forbade the practice indulged in by some booksellers of receiving stipends and offering exclusively books and subscriptions to periodicals to the celebrant of the Masses. “Vigilanti”(1893年)5月25日,该法令禁止的实践中,接受助学金,并提供专门的书籍和订阅期刊群众的证婚一些书商姑息迁就。The Decree "Ut Debita" (11 May, 1904) condemned the arrangements according to which the guardians of shrines sometimes devoted the offerings originally intended for Masses partly to other pious purposes.该法令“Debita UT”(5月11日,1904年)谴责的安排,根据圣地的监护人有时专门为部分其他虔诚的用途群众原本打算冥。The offenders against the two decrees just mentioned incur suspension ipso facto from their functions if they are in sacred orders; inability to receive higher orders if they are clerics inferior to the priests; excommunication of pronounced sentence (latae sententiae) if they belong to the laity.对两名罪犯法令刚才提到招致暂停其职能的事实本身,如果他们在神圣的订单;未能得到上级的命令,如果他们是神职人员逊于祭司;宣判的刑期绝罚(latae sententiae),如果他们属于俗人。

Publication information Written by NA Weber.NA韦伯编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Lucia Tobin.转录露西亚托宾。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.天主教百科全书,第十四卷。Published 1912.发布1912。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年7月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约



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