Tribulation苦难

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General Biblical Meaning一般圣经的意义

"Tribulation" is the general term in the Bible to denote the suffering of God's people. “苦难”是在“圣经”的总称,表示神的百姓的痛苦。In the OT the words sara and sar ("straits" or "distress") pertain variously to intense inner turmoil (Pss. 25:17; 120:1; Job 7:11), the pain of childbirth (Jer. 4:31; 49:24), anguish (Job 15:24; Jer. 6:24), and punishment (I Sam. 2:32; Jer. 30:7).在OT的话Sara和特别行政区(“海峡”或“窘迫”)相关的各种激烈的内心风暴(Pss. 25:17; 120:1;作业7点11分),分娩的痛苦(耶利米书4点31 49:24),痛苦(作业15点24分;耶6:24),和惩罚(我萨姆2时32分;耶30:7)。The Greek thlipsis from thlibo ("to press" or "to hem in") often serves to translate sara in the LXX, and refers generally to the oppression and affliction of the people of Israel or the righteous (Deut. 4:30; Ps. 37:39), while in the NT thlipsis is usually translated "tribulation" or "affliction."希腊thlipsis thlibo(“按”或“下摆”)常常是翻译的lxx SARA,一般指的压迫和苦难以色列人民正义(申命记4:30,PS 37:39),而在NT thlipsis通常译为“患难”或“痛苦。”

Varieties of Tribulation品种的苦难

In the NT tribulation is the experience of all believers and includes persecution (I Thess. 1:6), imprisonment (Acts 20:23), derision (Heb. 10:33), poverty (II Cor. 8:13), sickness (Rev. 2:22), and inner distress and sorrow (Phil. 1:17; II Cor. 2:4).在NT的苦难是所有信徒的经验,包括迫害,监禁(使徒20时23分)(帖前1时06分),嘲笑(希伯来书10:33)(二肺心病。8:13),贫困,疾病(启2:22),和内心的苦恼和悲哀(腓1点17;二肺心病2时04分)。 Frequently tribulation is connected with deliverance, which implies that it is a necessary experience through which God glorifies himself in bringing his people to rest and salvation.常见的苦难与解脱,这意味着它是一个必要的经验,通过它,神的荣耀,在他的人民带来休息和拯救自己。

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Tribulation in the Purpose of God灾难中的神的目的

Tribulation may be a means by which God disciplines his people for their unfaithfulness (Deut. 4:30).灾难可能是一种手段,其中神学科他为自己的不忠的人(申命记4:30)。More often, especially in the NT, tribulation occurs in the form of persecution of believers because of their faithfulness (John 16:33; Acts 14:22; Rev. 1:9).更多的时候,尤其是在NT的苦难发生在形式的迫害,因为他们的忠诚的信徒(约翰16时33;使徒行传14:22;启示录1:9)。

The sufferings of Christ provide the model for the believer's experience (I Pet. 2:21-25), and in some sense they participate thus in the sufferings of Christ (Col. 1:24).基督的苦难提供信徒的经验模型(我宠物。2:21-25),在某种意义上,他们因此参与基督的苦难(西1:24)。Tribulations are viewed by Scripture as entirely within the will of God, serving to promote moral purity and godly character (Rom. 5:3-4).磨难被视为圣经完全在神的旨意,为促进道德上的纯洁和虔诚的字符(罗马书5:3-4)。 As such, they must be endured with faith in the goodness and justice of God (see James 1:2-4, where "trials" or "temptations" labels what appears to be the same experience), thus serving as a test of the believer's faith and leading to greater stability and maturity.因此,他们必须忍受在神的善良和正义与信仰(见詹姆斯1:2-4,“试验”或“诱惑”的标签似乎是相同的经验),从而作为测试服务信徒的信心,并导致更大的稳定性和成熟度。

Jesus promised tribulation as the inevitable consequence of his followers' presence in the evil kosmos (John 16:33), something they could expect as a way of life.耶稣应许他的追随者在邪恶的宇宙“(约翰福音16:33),他们可以期望作为一种生活方式的东西存在的必然后果的灾难。 The Apostle Paul echoes this viewpoint when he warns that godly believers will certainly suffer persecution (II Tim. 3:12-13).使徒保罗这样的观点相呼应时,他警告说,虔诚的信徒肯定会遭受迫害(二添。3:12-13)。Jesus nevertheless encouraged his followers through his overcoming of the world to seek their victory through the application of his victory.然而,耶稣鼓励他克服世界寻求通过应用他的胜利,他们的胜利,他的追随者。

The Great Tribulation大灾难

The Teaching of Jesus耶稣的教学

The precise expression, "great tribulation" (Matt. 24:21; Rev. 2:22; 7:14, Gr. thlipsis megale), serves to identify the eschatological form of tribulation.精确的表达,“大灾难”(太24:21;牧师二点22分,7时14分,GR thlipsis megale),用来识别的末世论形式的苦难。These words are Jesus' caption for a worldwide, unprecedented time of trouble that will usher in the parousia, Jesus' return to earth in great glory (see parallels Mark 13:19, "tribulation," and Luke 21:23, "great distress"; also Rev. 3:10, "hour of trial").这些话是耶稣“的标题为全球性的,前所未有的麻烦,将迎来parousia,耶稣返回地球(见平行马克13点19分,”患难“,极大的荣耀和卢克21点23分,”极大的困扰“;也牧师3:10,”审判小时“)。

This period of time will be initiated by the "abomination of desolation" (Matt. 24:15) predicted in Dan.这段时间,将启动“那行毁坏可憎的”(太24:15)于丹预测。9:27, a desecration of the "holy place" by one whom many scholars believe is the same as the "man of lawlessness" of II Thess.9点27,其中许多学者认为是“无法无天的人”二帖前相同的“圣地”的亵渎。2:3, 4.2时03分,4。Jesus gives specific instructions to inhabitants of Judea for their escape and warns that the intensity of its calamities would almost decimate all life (Matt. 24:15-22).耶稣给具体说明他们逃跑的犹太居民,并警告说,其灾害的强度将几乎摧毁一切生命(太24:15-22)。

Views of the Great Tribulation大灾难的意见

Though some modern interpreters, along with many ancient commentators and early fathers, are inclined to regard Jesus' predictions as totally fulfilled during the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70, the words of Matt.虽然一些现代的口译员,伴随着许多古老的评论员和早期父亲,都倾向于把耶稣的预言完全履行期间,在公元70年毁灭耶路撒冷,马特的话。 24:29, "But immediately after the tribulation of those days," seem to connect them with the parousia. 24:29“,但那些日子的灾难后,立即,”似乎与parousia连接。Jesus' words in verse 21 are probably an allusion to Dan.21节耶稣的话可能是暗指丹。12:1 because of the reference there to unparalleled trouble (LXX, thlipsis).因为有无可比拟的麻烦(LXX,thlipsis)12:1。 The Daniel passage strengthens the case for the eschatological view of the great tribulation, because it places this period prior to the resurrection of Daniel's people.丹尼尔通过加强大灾难末世论观点的情况下,因为它把这一时期之前,丹尼尔的人复活。

Since Jesus made this prophecy, major wars, catastrophes, and cosmic phenomena have stimulated belief in the presence of the great tribulation.由于耶稣这个预言,大的战争,灾难,和宇宙现象有刺激的大灾难的信念。Such a tendency is typified by Hesychius of Jerusalem in some correspondence with Augustine.这种倾向是典型耶路撒冷赫西基奥斯在一些与奥古斯丁的书信。Augustine disagreed, preferring to interpret such things instead as characteristics of history as a whole with no particular eschatological significance.奥古斯丁不同意,宁愿去解释这样的事情,而不是作为历史的特点,作为一个整体,没有什么特别的末世论的意义。 In modern times some premillennialists have speculated on the trend of current events as possible precursors of the great tribulation, some even attempting to identify the antichrist with such candidates as Kaiser Wilhelm II and Mussolini.在近代,一些premillennialists有猜测上尽可能的大灾难的前兆,有的甚至试图找出敌基督与德皇威廉二世和墨索里尼等候选人时事趋势。

Adherents of the major millennial views place the great tribulation at different points in relation to the millennium. Both postmillennialists and amillennialists regard it as a brief, indefinite period of time at the end of the millennium, usually identifying it with the revolt of Gog and Magog of Rev. 20:8-9. Postmillennialists view history as moving toward the Christianization of the world by the church and a future millennium of undetermined length on earth culminating in the great tribulation and final return of Christ. 千禧年的主要意见信徒置于不同点在有关千年大灾难。postmillennialists和amillennialists视为一个简短的时间无限期,在千禧年的年底,通常识别与反叛的歌革和玛启示录20:8-9。Postmillennialists查看历史走向世界基督教教会和未来千年地球上,最终在巨大的苦难和基督的最后回报未定长度。 In contrast, amillennialists consider the millennium to be a purely spiritual reality from the first advent to the second, a period lasting already two thousand years and to culminate in the great tribulation, a somewhat less optimistic view of history and the progress of the gospel witness.相比之下,amillennialists考虑千年是一个纯粹精神的现实,从第一次降临第二,持久已有两千年来的一个时期,并最终在巨大的苦难,历史的少了几分乐观的看法和福音见证的进展。

To premillennialists the millennium is a future, literal thousand years on earth, and the great tribulation a chaotic period toward which history is even now moving, a decline, ie, to be terminated by the return of Christ before the millennium. One group, which describes itself as "historic" premillennialists, understands the great tribulation to be a brief but undetermined period of trouble.premillennialists千年未来,文字的千年年在地球上 ,巨大的苦难走向历史,甚至是现在正在一个混乱的时期,下降,即终止基督返回千年前的一组,这描述为“历史性”premillennialists的理解大灾难 ,是一个简短的麻烦,但未确定时期。Another group, dispensational premillennialists, connects it with the seventieth week of Dan.另一组, 时代论premillennialists,连接丹70周。9:27, a period of seven years whose latter half pertains strictly to the great tribulation. 9:27,为期7年的下半年涉及严格的大灾难。

Within the premillennial movement another issue, the time of the rapture of the church, has given rise to three views. Pretribulationists (rapture prior to the seventieth week) and midtribulationists (rapture at the middle of the seventieth week) perceive the great tribulation as characterized by the wrath of God upon an unbelieving world from which the church is necessarily exempt.内premillennial运动教会的狂喜时,另外一个问题,已引起三种观点。Pretribulationists(狂喜第七周前) midtribulationists(第七周中的狂喜)感知为特点的大灾难由神的愤怒后,不信的世界,从教会是必然免除。

Posttribulationists believe that the great tribulation is merely an intensification of the kind of tribulation the church has suffered throughout history, through which the church logically must pass. Posttribulationists相信,巨大的苦难仅仅是一种教会的整个历史上,遭受苦难教会通过它在逻辑上必须通过激化。 A more recent, novel view in the posttribulation camp seeks to maintain the imminence of the rapture despite the fact that notable tribulational events would necessarily intervene.最近的一个新颖的观点,在posttribulation营地,旨在保持紧迫的狂喜,尽管事实显着tribulational事件一定会干预。 In order to do so, the events of the great tribulation would be "potential" but uncertain in their fulfillment.为了做到这一点,大灾难的事件,将“势”,但不确定其履行。Jesus could come at any moment, and one could look back into recent history to see events that fulfilled the great tribulation.耶稣可以在任何时刻,和一个可以看看最近的历史事件,实现了巨大的苦难。

WH Baker WH贝克
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
R. Anderson, The Coming Prince; L. Boettner, The Millennium; MJ Erickson, Contemporary Options in Eschatology; RN Gundry, The Church and the Tribulation; SN Gundry, "Hermeneutics or Zeitgeist as the Determining Factor in the History of Eschatology," JETS 20:45-55; AA Hoekema, The Bible and the Future; JE Hartley, TWOT, II, 778-79; R. Schippers, NIDNTT, II, 807-9; H. Schlier, TDNT, III, 140-48; T. Weber, Living in the Shadow of the Second Coming; D. Wilson, Armageddon Now! R.安德森,即将到来的王子; L. Boettner,千年发展目标; MJ埃里克森,在末世的当代选项;护士Gundry,教会和苦难; SN Gundry,“诠释学或在末世历史的决定性因素的时代精神,”射流20:45-55; AA Hoekema,圣经和未来; JE哈特利,TWOT,二,778-79; R. Schippers,NIDNTT,二,807-9; H. Schlier,TDNT,三,140-48 T.韦伯,在生活的第二次来临的影子; D.威尔逊,世界末日!The Premillenarian Response to Russia and Israel Since 1917; J. Walvoord, The Rapture Question.Premillenarian响应俄罗斯和以色列自1917年以来,J. Walvoord,着迷的问题。


Tribulation苦难

Advanced Information先进的信息

Tribulation is trouble or affiction of any kind (Deut. 4:30; Matt. 13:21; 2 Cor. 7:4).苦难是麻烦或任何形式的affiction(申命记4点半。马特13点21分,2肺心病7时04分)。In Rom.在ROM中。2:9 "tribulation and anguish" are the penal sufferings that shall overtake the wicked. 2时09分“的苦难和痛苦”是刑法的痛苦,应超越恶人。In Matt.在马特。24:21, 29, the word denotes the calamities that were to attend the destruction of Jerusalem. 24:21,29,词是指出席耶路撒冷的毁灭的灾难。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)



Also, see:此外,见:
Second Coming of Christ耶稣第二次来
Eschatology 末世
Dispensation, Dispensationalism配药, dispensationalism
Views of the Millennium意见千年
Last Judgment最后审判
Rapture of the Church破裂的教堂

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