Witness, Witnessing的 见证人,见证

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Properly, a "witness" (martys) is "one who testifies" (martyreo) by act or word his "testimony" (martyrion) to the truth.得当,“证人”(martys),是“作见证”的行为或字,他的“证词”(martyrion)真理(martyreo)。 This act of testifying is called his "testimony" (martyria).这种作证行为被称为他的“证词”(martyria)。In ancient days, as at the present, this was a legal term designating the testimony given for or against one on trial before a court of law.截至目前,在远古时代,这是一个法律术语,指定或反对审判之前法院的证词。 In Christian usage the term came to mean the testimony given by Christian witnesses to Christ and his saving power.在基督教用法一词来意味着基督和他的省电基督教证人提供的证词。Because such testimony often means arrest and scourging (cf. Matt. 10:18; Mark 13:9), exile (Rev. 1:9), or death (cf. Acts 22:20; Rev. 2:13; 17:6) the Greek was transliterated to form the English word "martyr," meaning one who suffers or dies rather than give up his faith.因为这样的证词往往意味着逮捕和鞭打(参太10时18分,马克13时09分。),流放(启示录1:9),或死亡(参徒22点20分;启示录2:13; 17: 6)希腊是译音,以形成的英文单词“烈​​士”,意思是一个人患有或死亡而不是放弃自己的信仰。However, in the NT suffering was an incidental factor in the word.然而,在NT的痛苦是在Word的一个附带因素。

A thorough study of witnessing would necessitate a study of the whole Bible.一个目睹的深入研究,将须整本圣经的研究。Such words as preaching, teaching, and confessing would have to be included.这样的话,将被列入为说教,教学和请罪。Greek words (fifteen in number) stemming from "witness" (martys) are used over two hundred times in the NT.希腊字(在数量上15),“证人”(martys)所引起的,是用来在新台币两百次。The most common usage is found in the Johannine writings, in which seventy-six instances are found.最常见的用法是在约翰的著作中发现,其中76个的情况下被发现。Acts has thirty-nine instances and the Pauline writings thirty-five.行为有三十九个实例和宝莲著作三十五个。

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Leaving aside those uses of the word that refer to man's witness to men (cf. III John 12), God's witness to men (cf. Acts 13:22), man's witness against men (cf. Matt. 18:16), and miscellaneous uses (cf. John 2:25), we will consider the distinctively Christian use of the words.撇开那些字,是指人的见证男子(参见第三约翰12)的使用,神的见证男子(参徒13:22),人对人的见证(参见马特。18时16分),和杂项用途(参见约翰2:25),我们会考虑的话明显的基督教使用。

First, there are those testimonies which are meant to establish the incarnation and the truth of Christianity.首先,是那些为了建立化身和基督教的真理的证词。In John's Gospel, where this is primary, we find instances of all the main witnesses.在约翰福音中,这是主要的,我们发现所有的主要证人的实例。John the Baptist "bears testimony" (martyreo) to Jesus as the coming Savior of the world (John 1:7-8, 15, 32, 34; 3:26; 5:32).施洗约翰的“见证”(martyreo)耶稣作为未来世界的救主(约翰1:7-8,15,32,34; 3:26; 5:32)。The works that Jesus did were a testimony that he came from the Father (John 5:36); this explains why John called the miracles "signs" (semeion).耶稣的作品见证,他从父亲(约翰5:36),这就解释了为什么约翰所谓的奇迹“苗头”(semeion)。The OT Scriptures are a testimony to Jesus (John 5:39); this thought is behind most of the NT quotations from the OT.旧约圣经是耶稣的见证(约翰福音5:39);这一思想最落后的新台币报价从旧约。After the resurrection the main evidences of the truth of Christianity are the ministry of the Holy Spirit (John 15:26), the witness of the disciples to the resurrection (Acts 1:22), and the signs and wonders by which God attested the ministry of the apostles and the churches (Heb. 2:4).复活后的主要证据是基督教的真理部的圣灵(约翰福音15:26),门徒的见证复活(徒1:22),和神迹奇事,其中神核签的使徒和教会部(希伯来书2:4)。

The pattern of Christian missionary and evangelistic activity is set in the NT.基督教传教士和传福音的活动模式是在NT。Several principles emerge.出现的几个原则。

FL Fisher佛罗里达州费舍尔
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)


Witness of the Spirit圣灵的见证

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Witness of the Spirit (Rom. 8:16), is the consciousness of the gracious operation of the Spirit on the mind, "a certitude of the Spirit's presence and work continually asserted within us", manifested "in his comforting us, his stirring us up to prayer, his reproof of our sins, his drawing us to works of love, to bear testimony before the world," etc.圣灵的见证(罗马书8:16),是意识的头脑灵的盛情运作,“圣灵的存在和工作的确定性不断声称在我们的”,表现在他的安慰我们“,他的搅拌我们祈祷,他责备我们的罪,他的绘画我们的爱情作品,承担在世人面前的证词,“等等。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Witness见证

Catholic Information天主教信息

One who is present, bears testimony, furnishes evidence or proof.在场,见证,furnishes证据或证明。Witnesses are employed in various ecclesiastical matters, as in civil, in proof of a statement, fact, or contract.证人受聘于各教会的事项,在民间,在一份声明中,事实上,或合同的证明。According to various circumstances a witness is one who is personally present and sees some act or occurrence and can bear testimony thereto; one who on request or in behalf of a party subscribes his name to an instrument to attest the genuineness of its execution; one who gives testimony on the trial of a cause, appearing before a court, judge, or other official to be examined under oath.根据各种情况下证人亲自出席,并认为一些行为或发生和可以承受的证词及其一个请求或在一个党的代表赞同他的名字,一个手段,以证明其执行的真实性;一个谁提供了证词,导致审判法庭,法官或其他官员在宣誓后接受讯问前出现。 The espousals of Catholics ("Ne temere") to be binding must be in writing, signed by the contracting parties and ordinarily by two witnesses, or by a pastor or ordinary, each within his own territory, as sole witnesses.具有约束力的天主教徒espousals(“NE temere”),必须以书面形式,由缔约方通常由两名证人,或由一个牧师或普通,在自己的领土内每个签署,作为唯一的证人。In case either or both parties are unable for any cause to write, an additional witness is necessary.如果一方或双方是不能写任何原因引起的,额外的证人是必要的。Catholics are incapable of entering into lawful wedlock ("Ne temere") except in the presence of a parish priest, or ordinary, or other priest duly delegated, and two witnesses.天主教徒不能进入到合法婚姻(“NE temere”),除了在教区神父,或普通,或其他牧师正式授予,和两名证人在场。Though not necessary for validity of the act, the Church desires in both cases that these witnesses be Catholics (SO, 19 Aug., 1891).虽然没有必要的行为的有效性,教会的欲望在这两种情况下,这些证人被天主教徒(所以,,1891年8月19日)。Witnesses of a marriage sign no ecclesiastical document, though they may be called upon by the state to attest by their own hand certain civil records.婚姻的见证人签署文件没有教会,虽然他们可能被称为后由国家来证明自己的手某些公民记录。Sponsors at baptism and confirmation are not properly witnesses; they assist for other purposes (see RELATIONSHIP).洗礼和确认的赞助商是不正常的证人;他们协助其他用途(见关系)。A canonical precept, when employed, must be delivered in the presence of the vicar general or two others as witnesses (Cum magnopere, VII).一个规范的戒律,聘用时,必须交付的副主教一般或两个人作为证人(暨magnopere七)。Ecclesiastical documents are attested or witnessed as circumstances require, eg, by the chancellor, clerk of the court, prothonotary apostolic.教会文件证明,或目击视情况需要,例如,由法院的校长,书记,prothonotary使徒。Expert witnesses to some extent have a place in canon law.专家证人在一定程度上有一个在教会法的地方。In ecclesiastical trials witnesses are adduced to prove a fact directly, or indirectly, ie, by establishing the falsity of the contrary.在教会审判证人援引的直接证明一个事实,或间接的,即通过建立相反的是虚假的。

The essential qualifications of a witness are knowledge of the fact at issue and truthfulness: he must be an eye-witness and trustworthy.证人的基本资格,是知识的问题和真实的事实:他一定是一个目击证人和值得信赖的。Hearsay witnesses, however, are admitted, if necessary, in matters not of a criminal nature, eg, in proof of consanguinity or other relationship, baptism, etc. Anyone not expressly prohibited may testify.然而,传闻证据的证人,承认,如有必要,在不属于刑事性质,例如问题,在证明血缘关系或其他关系,洗礼,没有明文禁止任何人都可以作证。 Some, as the insane, infants, the blind or deaf, where sight or hearing is necessary for a knowledge of the facts in question, are excluded by the natural law; others by canon law, as those who are bribed or suborned, those who are infamous in law or in fact, convicted perjurors, excommunicated persons, all in a word whose veracity may be justly suspected. ,因为有些疯狂,婴幼儿,失明或失聪,视力或听力问题的事实的知识是必要的,被排除在外的自然法;其他教会法,谁是行贿或suborned,那些在法律上或事实上是臭名昭著的,被定罪的perjurors,开除教籍的人,一个字,可能有理由怀疑其真实性,。 The law likewise rejects those who on account of affection or enmity may be biased, as well as those who may be specially interested in the case.同样的法律拒绝那些可能是偏颇的感情或敌意帐户的,以及那些可能会特别感兴趣的情况下。Parents as a rule are not admitted for their children, particularly when the rights of a third party are at stake, or against them and vice-versa; relatives for one another; lawyers for their clients; accomplices or enemies for or against one another; Jews or heretics against Christians; lay persons against clerics, except their own interests are at stake, or there are no clerics to testify; minors or women in criminal cases tried criminally, unless their testimony is necessary, or they testify in favor of the accused.父母作为一个规则是不承认他们的孩子,尤其是当第三方的权利受到威胁,或者对他们反之亦然;彼此的亲属,律师为他们的客户;同谋或相互支持或反对的敌人;在于犹太人或基督徒对异教徒;对神职人员的人,除了自己的利益受到威胁,或有没有教士作证;妇女在刑事案件中未成年人或试图刑事责任,除非他们的证词是必要的,或者他们在有利于被告作证。 Clerics, unless compelled by civil authorities, are not allowed to testify against the accused when sentence of death is to be imposed (see IRREGULARITY).牧师,除非由民事当局被迫,不允许对被告人作证时被征收(见不规则)被判处死刑的。There are many exceptions to these general statements.这些一般性发言有很多例外。A witness is more easily admitted in favour of a person than against him, and in civil than in criminal trials.证人是赞成比反对他的人,更容易承认和民间比在刑事审判。No one is tolerated as a witness in his own case.没有人会容忍作为一个在他自己的情况的见证。Hence, those who are engaged in a similar cause, a judge who has adjudicated a like case, etc. are excluded.因此,那些在从事类似的原因,一名法官裁定的情况下,像等被排除在外。False witnesses are those who under oath prevaricate or conceal the truth that they are bound to tell: they are guilty of perjury, and if convicted are infamous in law.虚假的证人在宣誓搪塞或隐瞒真相,他们必然要告诉他们犯伪证罪,如果罪名成立,在法律上臭名昭著。Notaries or others by altering or falsifying documents substantially become guilty of forgery.公证人或变造或者伪造文件的人大幅成为犯伪造。

Publication information Written by Andrew B. Meehan.由Andrew B.米汉的公开信息。Transcribed by Michael T. Barrett.转录由迈克尔巴雷特。Dedicated to Jerry F. Kobelin The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XV.专用杰里楼Kobelin天主教百科全书,卷十五。Published 1912.发布1912。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

Decret. Decret。L., II, tit.L.,二,针锋相对。20, De testibus et Attestationibus; SANTI, Praelect.20日,testibus等Attestationibus;桑蒂,Praelect。Juris Can.; TAUNTON, The Law of the Church, sv法学;陶顿,教会法,SV



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