The Words Inscribed on the Cross, INRI刻在十字架上, INRI 词

General Information一般资料

Many paintings of the Crucifixion of Jesus include the letters INRI somewhere on or near the Cross.许多绘画的耶稣受难十字架上或附近的字母映里的某处。People often ask what that means.人们经常会问这是什么意思。

The Bible actually tells us. Matthew 27:37 says that, on the Cross, over the head of Jesus, was a sign that said "This is Jesus the King of the Jews."圣经告诉我们。 马太福音 27:37说,在十字架上,在耶稣头上,是一个标志,说:“这是犹太人的王耶稣。 “ (KJAV) Mark 15:26 and John 19:19 say essentially the same thing.马克15点26约翰19时19分 (KJAV)说,本质上是一回事。

Keep in mind that the Romans had crucified many thousands of people in the 70 years before the Crucifixion.请记住,罗马人钉在十字架上成千上万的人在受难前的70年。They had established patterns for much of the procedure.他们建立了许多程序的模式。It was common for those who were about to be executed / crucified to be part of a procession, moving from the court in the city to the place of crucifixion outside of the city.这是那些被执行/钉在十字架上游行的一部分,在全市法院转移到城外的十字架上钉死共同。As part of the procession, one of the guards commonly carried a sign that announced the crime that the person was condemned for.作为游行的一部分,一个卫兵通常进行的一个标志,宣布犯罪事实的人谴责。In the case of Jesus, no actual crime had been determined, so His official crime was in claiming to be the King of the Jews, even though He never actually made that claim.在耶稣的情况下,没有实际的犯罪已经确定,所以自称是犹太人的王,尽管他从来没有声称是他的公务罪。

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In any case, it appears that that sign was then affixed to His Cross, and that is the source of those words.在任何情况下,出现该标志,然后贴在他的十字架,就是这些词的来源。

The painters who painted the Crucifixion worked more than a thousand years after the fact.的画家画的耶稣受难的工作超过了一千多年后的事实。Therefore, they each had a substantial amount of artistic freedom in expressing the scene.因此,他们每人都必须在现场表达了大量的艺术自由。At that time (the Middle Ages), all (Roman Catholic) Church Masses were conducted in Latin, and nearly everything associated with Christianity was written and spoken in Latin.当时(中世纪),(罗马天主教)教会群众在拉丁美洲进行,并在拉美几乎所有与基督教相关的书面和口语。VERY few books existed (before the printing press was invented) and only the Church and government normally had them, so virtually no people in a Congregation had any books, including the Bible.存在极少数书籍(印刷机发明之前),通常只教会和政府了他们,所以几乎没有人在一众的任何书籍,包括“圣经”。However, a number of Christian phrases WERE commonly known by the people, and one was Jesus' official crime, commonly referred to by four Latin words, IESVS NAZARENVS REX IVDAEORVM然而,基督教短语被俗称为人们所,一个是耶稣的公务罪,通常被称为4个拉丁词,IESVS NAZARENVS REX IVDAEORVM

Since anyone who would actually see the paintings of the Crucifixion in the Middle Ages (inside a Church) would then already be familiar with the phrase (in Latin), the painters all apparently chose to simplify their paintings by only including the initials of the four Latin words, INR I. The early Church had also apparently used that abbreviation.由于任何人实际上在中世纪(一所教堂内)受难的画,然后将已经熟悉的短语(在拉美),画家显然选择了只包括四个英文缩写,以简化他们的绘画拉丁词,印度卢比一,早期教会也显然使用的缩写。

Luke 23:38 also mentions the sign on the Cross, and he mentions that the sign was written in three languages, Greek, Latin and Hebrew. 卢克23时38分还提到在十字架上的标志,他提到,三种语言,希腊语,拉丁语和希伯来语的书面符号。Scholars then chose to follow the wording presented in John, as it is more complete by including the reference to Nazareth, and as it might be presenting the Latin version of the text on the Cross.学者,然后选择跟随在约翰提出的措辞,因为它是包括拿撒勒更为完整,而且因为它可能被呈现在十字架上的文字的拉丁版本。 In all three languages the first word was Jesus, but since Greek and Hebrew don't use the letter J, His Name was spelled beginning with an I .在所有这三种语言的第一个字是耶稣,但因为希腊和希伯来文不使用字母J,他的名字是一个我开始拼写。The Roman (Latin) spelling followed that, ( IESVS ) even though their language included a J. The second word represented Nazareth, or Nazarene, N .随后,罗马(拉丁)拼写(IESVS)尽管他们的语言,包括一个研究的第二个字代表拿撒勒,或拿撒勒,N The third word represented king, which in Latin ( REX ) begins with an R .第三个词代表国王,在拉丁美洲(REX)的 R开始。The fourth word represented Jews, ( IVDAEORVM ) again spelled beginning with an I .第四字代表犹太人,(IVDAEORVM)开始与一个再次阐述。You can see that the INRI then says "Jesus Nazareth King Jews".你可以看到,映里,然后说:“耶稣的拿撒勒国王犹太人”。

So the actual Latin words were: Iesvs Nazarenvs Rex Ivdaeorvm.因此实际的拉丁词:Iesvs Nazarenvs雷克斯Ivdaeorvm。Latin did not include a 'u' and 'v's appear where we would read 'u's.拉美不包括一个“U”和“V的出现,我们会阅读”U。

In Greek, the four actual words were: Iesous Nazoraios Basileus Ioudaios在希腊,四的原话是:Iesous Nazoraios巴赛勒斯Ioudaios

There does not presently seem to be solid documentation for the precise Hebrew text.目前不似乎是精确的希伯来文的固体文档。Opinions exist on what the wording was, but they vary.意见上存在的措辞是什么,但他们各不相同。Modern Hebrew is somewhat different from the Hebrew that was used in the time of Jesus, so a modern back-translation would probably be close but possibly not precise.现代希伯来语的希伯来语,是在耶稣时代有所不同,因此,一个现代化的回译可能会被关闭,但可能不准确。

The wording of the Latin seems solid due to the fairly early creation of the Vulgate (Latin) Bible by Saint Jerome.对拉丁美洲的措辞似乎固体由于相当早的武加大(拉丁)圣经圣杰罗姆创造。The wording of the Greek seems solid due to the New Testament Books all having originally been written in Greek, and those texts were used as the sources for the translations into several languages of Bibles (which still exist), so comparison should assure accuracy of the original wording.希腊的措辞似乎固体由于原本在希腊的书面新约圣经的书籍,这些文本被翻译成几种语言的“圣经”(仍存在)来源使用,所以比较应该保证的准确性最初的措辞。

Another Important Thing to Note另一个重要的一点要注意

Many (hopefully, most) Christians acknowledge that the Bible is "inerrant", that is, it contains NO errors.许多(希望,最)基督徒承认圣经是“无误”,也就是说,它不包含任何错误。The reason for this belief is obvious.这种信念的原因是显而易见的的。If one accepts that God participated in the writing of the Bible, it is beyond possibility that He would either intentionally or unintentionally permit errors or misleading statements to have been included in it.如果一个人接受神在“圣经”的写作中参加的,它是超越的可能性,他会有意无意地允许已在它的错误或误导性陈述包括。

Most Christians make an incorrect assumption that modern English translations are therefore inerrant.大多数基督徒作出不正确的假设,因此,现代英语翻译无误。They are not, even though their various translators make enormous efforts to try to make them inerrant.他们都没有,即使他们的各种翻译作出巨大努力,力图使他们无误。

There are several reasons for this.这有几个原因。In both the case of the Old Testament and the New Testament, the contents of many of the Books were originally passed down from generation to generation VERBALLY.在旧约和新约的情况下,许多图书的内容原本是流传下来一代一代口头上。Most people of the time were illiterate, but books as we know them were extremely rare anyway.当时的大多数人是文盲,但书籍,因为我们知道他们反正是极为罕见的。Virtually no one other than governments and wealthy people had any.几乎没有人比其他政府和有钱人有任何。Keep in mind that a "book" had to be created in a very difficult way.请记住,必须在一个非常困难的的方式创建一本“书”。The papyrus or parchment had to first be created, along with the ink.莎草纸或羊皮纸,首先要建立与油墨,。Then a person had to copy an existing book, letter by letter, to create a new book.然后,一个人有复制现有的书,逐个字母逐个字母,以创建一个新的书。And a 'book' was not the convenient thing we imagine.和“书”是不是我们想象的方便的事情。It was generally a collection of rolls of papyrus or parchment which unrolled to strips that were many feet long.这是一般的莎草纸或羊皮纸卷,展开许多英尺长的条集合。Given all this, it is pretty obvious why the great majority of people gained essentially ALL of their knowledge verbally.鉴于这一切,是很明显的,为什么绝大多数人获得了他们的知识基本上全部口头。

By the time the words were actually committed to papyrus or parchment, therefore, a number of generations of verbal description, and human memories, were involved.通过时间的话实际上是致力于莎草纸或羊皮纸,因此,一个几代人的口头描述,和人类的记忆,参与。Where the ORIGINAL MANUSCRIPTS were certainly inerrant, these written copies could possibly have contained some minor flaws.原稿肯定无误,这些书面副本可能载有一些小瑕疵。

Next, consider that writing materials have a limited lifetime before they fade or disintegrate.下一步,考虑书面材料有一个有限的生命周期,才褪色或瓦解。At regular intervals, it was necessary for scribes to copy the entire texts, letter by letter, to make a new copy.定期,有必要为文士复制整个文本,逐个字母逐个字母,使一个新的副本。Of course, all the scribes were extremely careful, but keep in mind that our full Bible contains 773,746 words, or over three million individual characters!当然,所有的文士都非常小心,但请记住,我们充分圣经包含773746个单词,或超过三百万的单个字符!Scribes generally had to work from the most recent copy.文士一般有工作的最新副本。The result is that by around 900 AD (the oldest common documents that still exist of the Bible), those texts are copies of copies of copies.其结果是,公元900年左右(最古老的共同文件仍然存在的“圣经”),这些文本是份副本。If a single character of those three million was mis-copied by any scribe, all later scribes would unknowingly copy that flaw.如果这些三百万的单个字符的任何隶MIS复制,其随后所有的文士会在不知不觉中复制该缺陷。

Another complication arose when the texts were translated from one language to another, and eventually to English.另一个并发症的出现,当文本从一种语言到另一种翻译,并最终以英文。Most words in nearly every language have several possible meanings.几乎每一种语言中的大多数字有几种可能的含义。A translator is faced, for nearly every single word, with selecting the "best" translation.正面临着一个翻译,几乎每一个字,选择“最好”的翻译。Different translators make different choices, which has resulted in our variety of modern Bible translations, all of which generally agree (since they were all created from the same source texts) but which have minor differences due to the translating choices.不同的译者做出不同的选择,这导致我​​们的各种现代圣经译本,其中普遍认同(因为他们都从相同的源文本创建),但由于翻译的选择的细微差别。 How would you translate the English word 'shift'?你会如何​​翻译的英文单词“转向”?As an action when driving a car?作为一个动作时,驾驶汽车?As a key on a computer keyboard?作为一个计算机键盘上的的键?As an eight-hour work period?作为一个8小时工作期间?As what you do when you slightly move in a movie theater seat?至于你做什么,当你稍微移动电影院座椅?See the problem?见问题呢? A translator needs to determine the context of the text, to determine just which translation is most correct.一个翻译的需要来确定文本上下文,确定只是其中的翻译是最正确的。Therefore, individual human judgment is unavoidably involved in the translation process.因此,个别人的判断是,在翻译过程中不可避免地涉及。


The point being made here is that, even though the ORIGINAL MANUSCRIPTS were certainly inerrant, having been directed by God Himself, our modern Bibles can have minor flaws.这里提出的一点是,即使原始手稿被肯定无误的,被上帝亲自执导,我们的现代圣经可以有轻微的缺陷。This is mentioned here because the sign over Jesus on the Cross obvious had some single specific wording.这是这里提到过耶稣在十字架上的明显迹象,因为有一些单一的具体措辞。However, the four Gospels vary slightly on exactly what is said.然而,四福音略有不同说什么。

Matthew 27:37马太福音27:37
This is Jesus the King of the Jews这是犹太人的王耶稣

[Hebrew] (symbols that cannot be displayed here)[希伯来语](符号不能显示在这里)
[Greek] houtos esti Iesous basileus Ioudaios[希腊] houtos估计Iesous巴赛勒斯Ioudaios

Mark 15:26马克十五时26分
The King of the Jews犹太人的王

[Greek] basileus Ioudaios[希腊]巴赛勒斯Ioudaios

John 19:19约翰19时19
Jesus of Nazareth the King of the Jews拿撒勒的耶稣是犹太人的王

[Latin] Iesvs Nazarenvs Rex Ivdaeorvm[拉丁美洲] Iesvs Nazarenvs雷克斯Ivdaeorvm
[Greek] Iesous Nazoraios basileus Ioudaios[希腊] Iesous Nazoraios巴赛勒斯Ioudaios

Luke 23:38卢克23时38分
This is the King of the Jews这是犹太人的王

[Greek] houtos esti basileus Ioudaios[希腊] houtos估计巴赛勒斯Ioudaios
also sometimes given as:有时也给出:
[Greek] outos estin o basileus twn ioudaiwn[希腊] outos estin Ø巴赛勒斯TWN iou​​daiwn


None of those languages used spaces between words.这些语言都没有用单词之间的空格。Since the Latin language was that of the official government, it was almost certainly presented at the top, which gives extra cause for INRI later becoming the (Latin) abbreviation regarding the Crucifixion.由于拉丁语言,官方政府,几乎可以肯定在上面提出的,这让映里后来成为关于在十字架上(拉美)的缩写额外的事业。 That means the top line on the sign would have had 26 letters and no spaces, in Latin.这意味着上签字的顶线将有26个字母和没有空格,在拉丁美洲。

Regarding the Greek, Luke's probable Greek text is already around 26 letters long, which might explain why no reference to Nazareth or even Jesus is included, to fit on the width of the sign.关于希腊,卢克的可能是希腊文,已经是26个字母长,这或许可以解释为什么没有提到拿撒勒甚至耶稣签署的宽度,以适应。

If Matthew gives us the Hebrew text, it only involves 19 Hebrew characters, so there is a potential mystery as to why Nazareth was not included.如果马修为我们提供了希伯来文,只涉及19个希伯来文字符,所以为何拿撒勒是不包括有一个潜在的神秘。However, only the Latin text was legally appropriate, so both the Greek and Hebrew might have been appended, to make sure that the local people would certainly understand the "crime" of Jesus.然而,只有拉丁文字在法律上是恰当的,所以无论是希腊文和希伯来文有可能被追加,以确保当地人民一定会理解的“罪行”耶稣。


Yes, this seems like an irrelevantly minor point!是的,这似乎是一个irrelevantly小点!We all know what the sign meant!大家都知道的符号意味着什么!And there is the possibility that each of the four Gospel writers might have actually phrased it in these various ways.且有四福音书作者可能有实际措辞在这些不同的方式的可能性。Some modern students feel that the precise wording of the three languages were slightly different on the sign, and that John was referring to the 'official' Latin; Luke, writing to a Greek Nobleman (Theophilus), was referring to the Greek; Matthew generally wrote for the Jews, and might have been referring to the Hebrew; and Mark just presented a brief overview.一些现代的学生觉得三种语言的准确措辞上的标志略有不同,约翰是指“官方”拉丁美洲;卢克的,写了希腊的贵族(西奥菲勒斯),是指希腊;马修一般为犹太人写,并可能已经指希伯来文和马克刚刚提交了一份简要概述。 But still, the actual sign had some specific wording, and so three of these (modern translations) might be at least technically incorrect or incomplete.但实际签署了一些具体的措辞,等这些(现代译本)3,可能至少在技术上是不正确或不完整的。

I choose to believe that the four ORIGINAL MANUSCRIPTS each precisely and correctly expressed the exact wording, and that the various effects mentioned above have resulted in the four slightly different current wordings.我选择相信,四个原始手稿每个准确和正确表达的确切措辞,,上面提到的各种影响,在四个目前的措辞略有不同。Where some Christians want to believe in the precise inerrancy of the King James or other modern Bible, such evidence suggests that that might be inappropriate.一些基督徒要相信在国王詹姆斯或其他现代圣经的精确无误的,这样的证据表明,这可能是不合适的的。Modern Bibles are certainly very close, and they certainly get all the main Lessons correct, but on minor items, the possibility exists that they are flawed.现代“圣经”当然是非常密切的,他们一定会得到所有的主要教训是正确的,但小件物品,可能性是存在的,他们是有缺陷的的的。 In the case of the King James, after its original 1611 publication, there were a number of "revised" Versions which corrected many such small flaws that had been found.在国王詹姆斯的情况下,其原来的1611出版后,有一些“修订后的”版本,纠正已发现很多这样的小瑕疵。But with over three million characters in it, even today, the most carefully checked KJAV Bible still must contain flaws.但超过300万字符,即使在今天,最仔细的检查KJAV圣经仍然必须包含的缺陷。Even though the Original Manuscripts didn't!即使原始手稿没有!



Also, see:此外,见:
Seven Words on the Cross七字交叉

Cross 两岸关系
Crucifix 十字架
The Arising of Jesus产生的耶稣


This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语



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