Averroes, Averroës阿威罗伊

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(Abul Walid Mahommed Ibn Achmed, Ibn Mahommed Ibn Roschd). (阿布瓦利德Mahommed伊本艾哈迈德伊本Mahommed伊Roschd)。

Arabian philosopher, astronomer, and writer on jurisprudence; born at Cordova, 1126; died at Morocco, 1198.阿拉伯哲学家,天文学家,作家对判例;出生在科尔多瓦,1126;死在摩洛哥,1198。

Ibn Roschd, or Averroës, as he was called by the Latins, was educated in his native city, where his father and grandfather had held the office of cadi (judge in civil affairs) and had played an important part in the political history of Andalusia.伊Roschd,或阿威罗伊,因为他是所谓的拉丁人,在他的家乡城市,在这里举行了他的父亲和祖父卡迪(民政部法官)办公教育,发挥了安达卢西亚的政治史的重要组成部分。 He devoted himself to jurisprudence, medicine, and mathematics, as well as to philosophy and theology.他致力于法理学,医学,数学,以及哲学和神学。Under the Califs Abu Jacub Jusuf and his son, Jacub Al Mansur, he enjoyed extraordinary favor at court and was entrusted with several important civil offices at Morocco, Seville, and Cordova.根据Califs阿布Jacub优素福和他的儿子,铝曼苏尔Jacub的,他在法庭上享有非凡的青睐,并与摩洛哥,塞维利亚和科尔多瓦等几个重要的民事办公室委托。 Later he fell into disfavor and was banished with other representatives of learning.后来,他陷入失宠,并与其他代表学习放逐。Shortly before his death, the edict against philosophers was recalled.不久之前,他的死亡,对哲学家的诏书被召回。Many of his works in logic and metaphysics had, however, been consigned to the flames, so that he left no school, and the end of the dominion of the Moors in Spain, which occurred shortly afterwards, turned the current of Averroism completely into Hebrew and Latin channels, through which it influenced the thought of Christian Europe down to the dawn of the modern era.然而,许多人在逻辑学和形而上学他的作品,已燃起熊熊大火,使他没有留下任何学校,并统治西班牙的摩尔人,发生不久之后,完全变成了希伯来文的Averroism和拉丁美洲的渠道,通过它影响了基督教欧洲思想的现代时代的曙光。

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Averroes' great medical work, "Culliyyat" (of which the Latin title "Colliget" is a corruption) was published as the tenth volume in the Latin edition of Aristotle's works, Venice, 1527.阿威罗伊“伟大的医疗工作,”Culliyyat“(拉丁文的标题”Colliget“是腐败)在亚里士多德的著作的拉丁文版,威尼斯1527第十卷出版。 His "Commentaries" on Aristotle, his original philosophical works, and his treatises on theology have come down to us either in Latin or Hebrew translations.他的“评”亚里士多德,他原有的哲学著作,以及他对神学的论文已回落到我们在拉丁文或希伯来文翻译。His "Commentaries", which earned for him the title of the "Commentator", were of three kinds: a short paraphrase or analysis, a brief exposition of the text, and a more extended exposition.他的“评”,这为他赢得了“特约评论员”的称号,3种:短的意译或分析,对文本的简要的阐述,更延伸的论述。 These are known as the Minor, the Middle, and the Major Commentary, respectively.这些被称为小亚细亚,中东,和主要的评论,分别。None of them is of any value for the textual criticisms of Aristotle, since Averroes, being unacquainted with Greek and Syriac, based his exposition on a very imperfect Arabic translation of the Syriac version of the Greek text.他们没有一个是亚里士多德的文本批评的任何值,因为阿威罗伊,极不完善叙利亚版本的希腊文翻译成阿拉伯文,希腊和叙利亚,根据他的论述与陌生。 They were, however, of great influence in determining the philosophical and scientific interpretation of Aristotle.,但是他们的影响很大,在确定亚里士多德的哲学和科学的解释。His original philosophical treatises include: a work entitled "Tehafot al Tchafot", or "Destructio Destructiones" (a refutation of Algazel's "Destructio Philosophorum") published in the Latin edition, Venice 1497 and 1527, two treatises on the union of the Active and Passive intellects, also published in latin in the Venice edition; logical treatises on the different parts of the "Organon", published in the Venice edition under the title "Quaesita in Libros Logicae Aristotelis"; physical treatises based on Aristotle's "Physics" (also in the Venice edition); a treatise in refutation of Avicenna, and another on the agreement between philosophy and theology.他原来的哲学论文如下:题为“Tehafot人Tchafot”或“Destructio Destructiones”(Algazel的“Destructio Philosophorum”驳斥)的拉丁版的出版,威尼斯1497和1527,两个工会活动的论文和著作被动的智力,也是在拉丁美洲出版的威尼斯版的“欧加农”的不同的威尼斯版的标题“在Libros Quaesita Logicae Aristotelis”下发表的部分,逻辑的论述;亚里士多德的“物理学”的基础物理论文(也在威尼斯版);在阿维森纳驳斥这篇论文,哲学和神学之间的协议。 Of the last two, only Hebrew and Arabic texts exist.最后两个,只有希伯来文和阿拉伯文文本存在。

Averroes professed the greatest esteem for Aristotle.阿威罗伊自称为亚里士多德最大的自尊。 The word of the Stagirite was for him the highest expression of truth in matters of science and philosophy. Stagirite的话是对他的最高体现在科学和哲学方面的真理。In this exaggerated veneration for the philosopher he went farther than any of the Schoolmen.在这种夸张的崇拜的哲学家,他比任何Schoolmen更远。Indeed, in the later stages of Scholastic philosophy it was the Averroists and not the followers of Aquinas and Scotus who, when accused of subservience to the authority of a master, gloried in the title of "Aristotle's monkey".事实上,在经院哲学的后期阶段,它是Averroists和阿奎那和司各脱的追随者指责俯首帖耳,当主,“亚里士多德的猴子”的标题gloried的权威。 Averroes advocated the principle of twofold truth, maintaining that religion has one sphere and philosophy another.阿威罗伊主张双重真理的原则,维护宗教领域和哲学的另一个。Religion, he said, is for the unlettered multitude; philosophy for the chosen few.宗教,他说,是胸无点墨众多选择数哲学。Religion teaches by signs and symbols; philosophy presents the truth itself.宗教教标志和符号;哲学提出了真理本身。In the mind, therefore, of the truly enlightened, philosophy supersedes religion.在脑海中,因此,真正的开明,哲学取代宗教。 But, though the philosopher sees that what is true in theology is false in philosophy, he should not on that account condemn religious instruction, because he would thereby deprive the multitude of the only means which it has of attaining a (symbolic) knowledge of the truth.但是,尽管哲学家认为,什么是真正的神学,哲学虚假的,他不应该谴责该帐户上的宗教教育,因为他会因此剥夺了众多的唯一途径,它实现的(符号)知识真理。 Averroe's philosophy, like that of all other Arabians, is Aristoteleanism tinged with neo-Platonism. Averroe哲学的所有其他阿拉伯人一样,是与新柏拉图主义的色彩A​​ristoteleanism。In it we find the doctrine of the eternity of matter as a positive principle of being; the concept of a multitude of spirits ranged hierarchically between God and matter and mediating between them; the denial of Providence in the commonly accepted sense; the doctrine that each of the heavenly spheres is animated; the notion of emanation or extraction, as a substitute for creation; and, finally, the glorification of (rational) mystical knowledge as the ultimate aspiration of the human soul -- in a word, all the distinctively neo-Platonic elements which Arabians added to pure Aristoteleanism.我们发现作为一个正在积极原则,在它的物质主义的永恒;多种烈酒的概念介于上帝和他们之间的问题和调解的层次;静宜拒绝在普遍接受的意义;学说,每个天球动画;流溢或提取的概念,作为替代的创作;的颂扬神秘的知识(理性)作为人类灵魂的最终愿望 - 一个字,最后,所有的独特新柏拉图主义的元素,其中阿拉伯人纯Aristoteleanism。

What is peculiar in Averroes' interpretation of Aristotle is the meaning he gives to the Aristotelean doctrine of the Active and Passive Intellect.什么是阿威罗伊“解释亚里士多德的奇特的含义是他给亚里士多德学说的主动和被动的智力。His predecessor, Avicenna, taught that, while the Active Intellect is universal and separate, the Passive Intellect is individual and inherent in the soul.他的前任,阿维森纳,教导,而活跃的智力是普遍的,独立的,被动的智力是个人和固有的灵魂。Averroes holds that both the Active and the Passive Intellect are separate from the individual soul and are universal, that is, one in all men.阿威罗伊认为,无论是主动和被动的智力是从个人的灵魂是分开的,是普遍的,也就是说,所有的人之一。He thinks that Alexander of Aphrodisias was wrong in reducing the Passive Intellect to a mere disposition, and that the "other Commentators" (perhaps Themistius and Theophrastus) were wrong in describing it as an individual substance endowed with a disposition; he maintains that it is, rather, a disposition in us, but belonging to an intellect outside us.他认为Aphrodisias亚历山大是错误的减少被动智力仅仅处置,和“其他评论”(也许Themistius和泰奥弗拉斯)错误的描述为拥有处置个人物质;,他认为这是,而是在我们的处置,但属于我们之外的智力。 The terms Passive, Possible, Material are successively used by Averroes to designate this species of intellect, which, in ultimate analysis, if we prescind from the dispositions of which he speaks, is the Active Intellect itself.阿威罗伊条款被动,可能,材料先后使用了指定这个物种的智慧,在最终的分析,如果我们prescind其中他讲的处置,是主动的智力本身。 In other words, the same intellect which, when in the act of actually abstracting intelligible species is called active, is called passive, possible or material so far as it is acted upon, is potential, and furnishes that out of which ideas are fabricated.换句话说,同样的智力,当在实际抽象理解的物种的行为被称为主动,被称为被动,可能或材料,迄今为止,因为它是采取行动,是潜在的,并furnishes,其中的想法是编造出来。 Besides, Averroes speaks of the Acquired Intellect (intellectus acquisitus, adeptus), by which he means the individual mind in communication with the Active Intellect.此外,阿威罗伊后天智力(intellectus acquisitus,adeptus)说话,他指个人的心,在与主动智力沟通。Thus, while the Active Intellect is numerically one, there are as many acquired intellects as there are individual souls with which the Active Intellect has come in contact.因此,而主动的智力数值之一,有许多收购智力有个体灵魂,主动智力接触。(The Scholastics speak of continuatio of the universal with the individual mind, translating literally the Arabic word which here means contiguity rather than union.) The sun, for instance, while it is and remains one source of light, may be said to be multiplied and to become many sources of light, in so far as it illuminates many bodies from which its light is distributed; so it is with the universal mind and the individual minds which come in contact with it. (普遍continuatio的scholastics发言与个人的心,从字面上翻译的阿拉伯语单词,这里指的而不是联盟毗连。)太阳,例如,虽然它仍然是一个光源,可说是成倍增加并成为许多光线来源,到目前为止,因为它照亮了许多机构,从它的光线分布,所以它是普遍的心态,在接触到它的个别头脑。

The weakness of this doctrine, as a psychological explanation of the origin of knowledge, is its failure to take account of the facts of consciousness, which, as the Scholastics were not slow to point out, indicate that not merely an individual disposition but an active individual principle enters into the action which ones expresses by the words "I think".这一学说的弱点,作为一个心理学上的解释知识的来源,是其失败的意识,不慢的scholastics指出的事实,表明的,不仅是个人的处分,但活跃个别的原则,进入行动的通过的话:“我认为”表示。 Another weakness of the doctrine of monopsychism, or the doctrine that there is but one mind, a weakness at least in the eyes of the Scholastics, is that it leaves unanswered the question of the immortality of the individual soul.另一个monopsychism学说,学说是有,但一心,至少在眼睛的scholastics的弱点,缺点是,它留下未答复的个体灵魂不朽的问题。 Indeed, Averroes openly admitted his inability to hold on philosophic grounds the doctrine of individual immortality, being content to maintain it as a religious tenet.事实上,阿威罗伊公开承认他的无能上举行个人不朽的学说的哲学理由,内容,以保持它作为一个宗教的宗旨。Averroes' greatest influence was as a commentator.阿威罗伊“影响最大的是作为一个评论员。His doctrines had a varying fortune in Christian schools.他的学说曾在教会学校不同的财富。At first they secured a certain amount of adherence, then, gradually, their incompatibility with Christian teaching became apparent, and finally, owing to the revolt of the Renaissance from everything Scholastic, they secured once more a temporary hearing.起初,他们获得了一定数额的坚持,然后,渐渐地,他们与基督教教义不相容明显,最后,由于文艺复兴时期的一切学术的反抗,他们得到一次临时听证。 His commentaries, however, had immediate and lasting success.然而,他的评论,立即和持久的成功。St. Thomas Aquinas used the "Grand Commentary" of Averroes as his model, being, apparently, the first Scholastic to adopt that style of exposition; and though he refuted the errors of Averroes, and devoted special treatises to that purpose, he always spoke of the Arabian commentator as one who had, indeed, perverted the Peripatetic tradition, but whose words, nevertheless, should be treated with respect and consideration.圣托马斯阿奎那作为“大评论”的阿威罗伊,他的模型,显然,第一次学业采取的论述风格;但他反驳这一目的的阿威罗伊的错误,并致力于特殊的论文,他总是发言的确,作为一个谁阿拉伯评论员,变态巡回传统,但其词,不过,应该被视为与尊重和考虑。 The same may be said of Dante's references to him.同样可以说他但丁的引用。It was after the time of St. Thomas and Dante that Averroes came to be represented as "the arch-enemy of the faith".这是后阿威罗伊来到被称为“头号敌人的信念”为代表的圣托马斯和但丁的时间。

Publication information Written by William Turner.威廉特纳编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Geoffrey K. Mondello.转录由Geoffrey K.蒙德罗。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume II.天主教百科全书,第二卷。Published 1907.发布1907年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, 1907.Nihil Obstat,1907年。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约

Bibliography 参考书目
AVERROES' works in the Venice edition, 1497, 1527, and, in part, in MUNK'S Melanges &c.AVERROES在威尼斯版,1497,1527,“工程,并在部分,在蒙克的混杂&C.(Paris, 18569); MUNK, in Dict. (巴黎,18569);芒克,快译通。des sciences philosophiques (Paris, 1844-52), art.科学philosophiques(巴黎,1844年至1852年),艺术。Ibn Roschd; RENAN, Averroes et l'Averroisme (Paris, 9th ed., 1882); MANDONNET, Siger de Brabant et l'Averroisme latin au XIII siecle (Fribourg, 1899); EUBERWEG-HEINZE, Gesch.伊Roschd;雷南,阿威罗伊ET L' Averroisme(巴黎,1882年,第9版。);芒多,Siger的布拉班特ET L' Averroisme拉丁美洲坳第十三世纪末(弗里堡,1899年); EUBERWEG海因策,Gesch。der Phil., (9th ed., Berlin, 1905), VI 250 sqq.DER菲尔,(第九版,柏林,1905年),第六章250 SQQ。(tr. I); TURNER, Hist. (编辑部我);特纳,组织胺。of Phil.菲尔。(Boston, 1903), 313 sqq.; STOCKL, Gesch.(波士顿,1903年),313 SQQ; STOCKL,Gesch。der Phil.DER菲尔。des Mittelalters, (Mainz, 1865), II.DES Mittelalters,(美因茨,1865年),二。

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Ja'fari Theology (Shia)ja'fari神学(什叶派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia)nusayriyyah神学(什叶派)
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Machpela machpela
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Medina 麦迪
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Sufism 苏非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主义
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Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
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Aisha 的Aisha
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