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(Abn Ali al Hosain ibn Abdallah ibn Sina, called by the Latins Avicenna). (ABN阿里Hosain伊本阿卜杜拉伊本西纳,呼吁拉丁阿维森纳)。Arabian physician and philosopher, born at Kharmaithen, in the province of Bokhara, 980; died at Hamadan, in Northern Persia, 1037.阿拉伯医生和哲学家,出生于Kharmaithen,980布哈拉省,死在哈马丹,在北波斯,1037。 Avicenna was actually Persian, not Arabian阿维森纳实际上是波斯语,没有阿拉伯

From the autobiographical sketch which has come down to us we learn that he was a very precocious youth; at the age of ten he knew the Koran by heart; before he was sixteen he had mastered what was to be learned of physics, mathematics, logic, and metaphysics; at the age of sixteen he began the study and practice of medicine; and before he had completed his twenty-first year he wrote his famous "Canon" of medical science, which for several centuries, after his time, remained the principal authority in medical schools both in Europe and in Asia.从自传体草图已回落到我们,我们得知,他是一个非常早熟的青年;十岁,他知道心脏“古兰经”,他16岁之前,他已经掌握了什么是物理,数学,逻辑学到和形而上学;在十六岁的他开始了医药的研究和实践;之前,他已完成了他的第二十一届年,他写了他著名的“佳能”的医学科学,这几个世纪以来,他的时间后,仍然无论是在欧洲和亚洲的医学院校的主要权威。 He served successively several Persian potentates as physician and adviser, travelling with them from place to place, and despite the habits of conviviality for which he was well known, devoted much time to literary labours, as is testified by the hundred volumes which he wrote.医生和顾问,他曾担任先后几个波斯的当权者,与他们从一个地方到另一个地方旅行,尽管他是众所周知的欢乐习惯,文学劳动力投入了大量的时间,因为是由他写的一百卷作证。 Our authority for the foregoing facts is the "Life of Avicenna,", based on his autobiography, written by his disciple Jorjani (Sorsanus), and published in the early Latin editions of his works.我们对上述事实的权威,是“阿维森纳的生活”,根据他的自传,由他的弟子Jorjani(Sorsanus)编写,出版,并在他的作品早期的拉美版本。

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Besides the medical "Canon," he wrote voluminous commentaries on Arisotle's works and two great encyclopedias entitled "Al Schefa", or "Al Chifa" (ie healing) and "Al Nadja" (ie deliverance).除了医疗的“佳能”他写道Arisotle的作品,题为“基地Schefa”或“基地吃法”(即愈合)和“基地娜嘉”(即解脱)的两个伟大的百科全书浩繁的评论。 The "Canon" and portions of the encyclopedias were translated into Latin as early as the twelfth century, by Gerard of Cremona, Dominicus Gundissalinus, and John Avendeath; they were published at Venice, 1493-95. “佳能”和部分百科全书翻译成拉丁文,早在十二世纪,由Gerard克雷莫纳,Dominicus Gundissalinus和约翰Avendeath;他们在威尼斯,1493年至1495年出版。The complete Arabic texts are said to be are said to be in the manuscript in the Bodleian Library.完整的阿拉伯语文本说,被说成是在Bodleian图书馆的手稿。An Arabic text of the "Canon" and the "Nadja" was published in Rome, 1593.,1593在罗马发表的“佳能”和“娜嘉”的阿拉伯文文本。

Avicenna's philosophy, like that of his predecessors among the Arabians, is Aristoteleanism mingled with neo-Platonism, an exposition of Aristotle's teaching in the light of the Commentaries of Thomistius, Simplicius, and other neo-Platonists.阿维森纳的哲学,像他的前任阿拉伯人之间,是与新柏拉图,亚里士多德的教学Thomistius,Simplicius评博览会,和其他新柏拉图主义的交融Aristoteleanism。

His Logic is divided into nine parts, of which the first is an introduction after the manner of Porphyry's "Isagoge"; then follow the six parts corresponding to the six treatises composing the "Organon"; the eighth and ninth parts consists respectively of treatises on rhetoric and poetry.他的逻辑是划分成九个部分,其中第一个介绍斑岩的“Isagoge”的方式后,然后遵循的六个部分对应的六个论文构成的“欧加农”;第八届和第九届部分组成的论文分别就修辞和诗歌。 Avicenna devoted special attention to definition, the logic of representation, as he styles it, and also to the classification of sciences.阿维森纳的定义,逻辑的代表,他的风格,特别重视,同时也为科学的分类。 Philosophy, he says, which is the general name for scientific knowledge, includes speculative and practical philosophy.哲学,他说,这是科学知识的总称,包括投机和实践哲学。Speculative philosophy is divided into the inferior science (physics), and middle science (mathematics), and the superior science (metaphysics including theology).思辨哲学分为下科学(物理),和中间的科学(数学),和卓越的科学(包括神学形而上学)。Practical philosophy is divided into ethics (which considers man as an individual); economics (which considers man as a member of domestic society); and politics (which considers man as a member of civil society).实践哲学分为道德(认为作为一个个体的人),经济学(认为作为国内社会成员的人)和政治(作为民间社会的成员的人认为)。 These divisions are important on account of their influence on the arrangement of sciences in the schools where the philosophy of Avicenna preceded the introduction of Aristotle's works.阿维森纳的哲学引入亚里士多德的作品之前在学校的科学安排的影响,而这些部门都是重要的。

A favourite principle of Avicenna, which is quoted not only by Averroes but also by the Schoolmen, and especially by St. Albert the Great, was intellectus in formis agit universalitatem, that is, the universality of our ideas is the result of the activity of the mind itself.一个阿维森纳最喜欢引述的原则,这是不仅阿威罗伊也由Schoolmen,特别是由圣伟业大formis agit universalitatem,那就是intellectus,我们的思想的普遍性的活动的结果心灵本身。The principle, however, is to be understood in the realistic, not in the nominalistic sense.然而,这个原则是可以理解在现实中,不唯名感。Avicenna's meaning is that, while there are differences and resemblances among things independently of the mind, the formal constitution of things in the category of individuality, generic universality, specific universality, and so forth, is the work of the mind.阿维森纳的意思是,虽然存在着差异和东西独立的心灵之间的相似之处,正式宪法的个性类的东西,通用的普遍性,具体的普遍性,等等,是心灵的工作。 Avicenna's physical doctrines show him in the light of a faithful follower of Aristotle, who has nothing of his own to add to the teaching of his master.阿维森纳的身体学说在他的亚里士多德的忠实追随者,谁没有自己添加到他的主人的教学。Similarly, in psychology, he reproduces Aristotle's doctrines, borrowing occasionally an explanation, or an illustration, from Alfarabi.同样,在心理学上,他再现亚里士多德的学说,借款偶尔的解释,或一个例证Alfarabi。On one point, however, he is at pains to set the true meaning, as he understands it, of Aristotle, above all the exposition and elaboration of the Commentators.然而,在一个点上,他是在设置的真正含义的痛苦,因为他明白,亚里士多德的上述所有论述和拟订的评论家,。 That point is the question of the Active and Passive Intellect.这一点,主动和被动的智力问题。(See ARABIAN SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY).(见阿拉伯哲学学院)。He teaches that the latter is the individual mind in the state of potency with regard to knowledge, and that the former is the impersonal mind in the state of actual and perennial thought.他教导,后者是个人的心,在知识方面的效力状态,而前者是没有人情味的头脑的实际和多年生思想状态。In order that the mind acquire ideas, the Passive Intellect must come into contact with the Active Intellect.为了心灵获得思想,被动的智力必须接触到主动智力。Avicenna, however, insists most emphatically that a contact of that kind does not interfere with the independent substantiality of the Passive Intellect, and does not imply that it is merged with the Active Intellect.但是,阿维森纳,坚持最强调的那种接触不会干扰独立的实体性的被动智力,并不意味着它与合并活动智力。He explicitly maintains that the individual mind retains its individuality and that, because it is spiritual and immaterial, it is endowed with personal immortality.他明确认为,个人的心,保留其个性和,因为它是精神的和非物质,它被赋予了个人的不朽。At the same time, he is enough of a mystic to maintain that certain choice souls are capable of arriving at a very special kind of union with the Universal, Active, Intellect, and of attaining thereby the gift of prophecy.与此同时,他是一个神秘的,足以维持某些选择的灵魂能够在一种非常特殊的工会与通用,活跃,智力抵达,从而实现预言的恩赐。

Metaphysics he defines as the science of supernatural (ultra-physical) being and of God.形而上学他定义为超自然(超物理)的科学和神。It is, as Aristotle says, the theological science.这是亚里士多德说,神学的科学。It treats of the existence of God, which is proved from the necessity of a First Cause; it treats of the Providence of God, which, as all the Arabians taught, is restricted to the universal laws of nature, the Divine Agency being too exalted to deal with singular and contingent events; it treats of the hierarchy of mediators between God and material things, all of which emanated from God, the Source of all sources, the Principle of all principles.它把神的存在,这是第一个原因的必要性证明;,对待上帝的普罗维登斯,其中,作为所有阿拉伯人教,仅限于大自然的普遍规律,神圣的机构过于崇高处理奇异和队伍事件,它的调解员之间的上帝和物质的东西,所有这一切都来自上帝,所产生的所有来源的所有原则的原则来源的层次结构将。 The first emanation from God is the world of ideas.从上帝的化身,是思想的世界。This is made up of pure forms, free from change, composition, or imperfection; it is akin to the Intelligible world of Plato, and is, in fact, a Platonic concept.这是由纯粹的形式,自由变化,构图,或不完善;,它类似于柏拉图的可理解的世界,和,其实,柏拉图的概念。Next to the world of ideas is the world of souls, made up of forms which are, indeed, intelligible, but not entirely separated from matter.下一步思想的世界是世界的灵魂,形式,确实可以理解的,但还没有完全从物质分离。It is these souls that animate and energize the heavenly spheres.正是这些灵魂,动画和活力天球。Next to the world of souls is the world of physical forces, which are more or less completely embedded in terrestrial matter and obey its laws; they are, however, to some extent amenable to the power of intelligence in so far as they may be influenced by magic art.下一步的灵魂的世界是世界的物质力量,这是或多或少完全嵌入地面的问题,并遵守其法律,然而,他们在一定程度上顺应到目前为止,因为它们可能会影响智力的电源神奇的艺术。 Lastly comes the world of corporeal matter; this, according to the neo-Platonic conception which dominates Avicenna's thought in this theory of emanation, is of itself wholly inert, not capable of acting but merely of being acted upon (Occasionalism).最后谈到的有形的物质世界;,根据新柏拉图主义的观念,主导阿维森纳在这一理论的化身的思想,本身就是全惰性,没有作用,但只是(Occasionalism)担任。 In this hierarchical arrangement of beings, the Active Intellect, which, as was pointed out above, plays a necessary role in the genesis of human knowledge, belongs to the world of Ideas, and is of the same nature as the spirits which animate the heavenly spheres.在这个层次的众生安排,主动的智力,正如上文指出,起着必要的作用,在人类知识的起源,属于世界的思想,作为性质相同的精神动画天上领域。 From all this it is apparent that Avicenna is no exception to the general description of the Arabian Aristoteleans as neo-Platonic interpreters of Aristotle.这一切很明显,阿维森纳是没有例外的一般描述的新柏拉图,亚里士多德口译阿拉伯Aristoteleans。

There remain two other doctrines of general metaphysical nature which exhibit him in the character of an original, or rather an Arabian, and not a neo-Platonic interpreter.还有两个其他的一般形而上学性质的学说,这表现出他在原始,或者更确切地说,一个阿拉伯,而不是一个新柏拉图主义翻译的字符。 The first is his division of being into three classes: (a) what is merely possible, including all sublunary things; (b) what is itself merely possible but endowed by the First Cause with necessity; such are the ideas that rule the heavenly spheres; (c) what is of its own nature necessary, namely, the First Cause.首先是他被分为三个等级的划分:(一)什么是仅仅是可能的,包括所有sublunary的事情;(二)什么是本身仅仅是可能的,但第一个原因与必要性赋予等规则天球的想法, (三)什么是必要的自身的性质,即,第一个原因。This classification is mentioned and refuted by Averroes.这种分类是提到和阿威罗伊驳斥。The second doctrine, to which also Averroes alludes, is a fairly outspoken system of pantheism which Avicenna is said to have elaborated in a work, now lost, entitled "Philosophia Orientalis".第二个学说,这也阿威罗伊暗示,是一个泛神论阿维森纳是说,在现在失去了工作,题为“Philosophia东方”所阐述的相当敢言的系统。 The Scholastics, apparently, know nothing of the special work on pantheism; they were, however, aware of the pantheistic tendencies of Avicenna's other works on philosophy, and were, accordingly, reluctant to trust in his exposition of Aristotle.的scholastics,显然,知道没有什么特殊的泛神论工作;然而,他们知道阿维森纳哲学的其他作品的泛神论的倾向,并,因此,不愿意在他的亚里士多德的论述信任。

Publication information Written by William Turner.威廉特纳编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Geoffrey K. Mondello, Amy M. Mondello, and Stephen St. Damian Mondello.转录由杰弗里K。蒙德罗,艾米M.蒙德罗,和斯蒂芬圣达米安蒙德罗。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume II.天主教百科全书,第二卷。Published 1907.发布1907年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, 1907.Nihil Obstat,1907年。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约

Bibliography 参考书目
Avicenna Peripatetici. Opera (Venice, 1495); MUNK in Dict.阿维森纳Peripatetici 歌剧院(威尼斯,1495);在快译通芒克。des sciences phil.科学菲尔。 (Paris,1844-52), art.(巴黎,1844 - 52),艺术。Ibn-Sina; CARRA DE VAUX, Avicenne (Paris, 1900); UEBERWEG-HEINZE, Gesch.伊新浪CARRA DE VAUX,Avicenne(巴黎,1900年); UEBERWEG -海因策,Gesch。der Phil., 9th ed. DER菲尔,第9版。(Berlin, 1905), II,247, 248; tr.(柏林,1905年),第二,247,248; TR。MORRIS (New York, 1890), 412, 413; STOCKL, Lehrb.莫里斯(纽约,1890年),412,413; STOCKL,Lehrb。der Gesch.DER Gesch。 der Phil.DER菲尔。(Mainz, 1888), I, 329 sqq., tr. (美因茨,1888年),我,329 SQQ,TR。FINLAY (Dublin, 1903) 293 sqq.; TURNER, Hist.芬利(都柏林,1903年)293 SQQ;特纳,历史。of Phil.菲尔。(Boston, 1903), 312, 313. (波士顿,1903年),312,313。

Also, see:此外,见:
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Pillars of Faith支柱的信仰
Abraham 亚伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham全书亚伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari启示-h adiths从第一册的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari信仰-h adiths从第二册的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari知识-h adiths从第三册的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari时代的祈祷-h adiths从书展1 0个基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari缩短祈祷(在taqseer ) -h adiths从书展2 0铝布哈里
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Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni)malikiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni)shafi'iyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
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Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni)maturidiyyah神学(逊尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni)ash'ariyyah神学(逊尼派)
Mutazilah Theologymutazilah神学
Ja'fari Theology (Shia)ja'fari神学(什叶派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia)nusayriyyah神学(什叶派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia)zaydiyyah神学(什叶派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia)伊玛目(什叶派)
Druze 德鲁兹
Qarmatiyyah (Shia)qarmatiyyah (什叶派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail伊斯梅尔,司马义。
Early Islamic History Outline早在伊斯兰历史纲要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿维森纳
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone天房,黑石头
Ramadan 斋月
Sunnites, Sunni逊尼派,逊尼派
Shiites, Shia什叶派,什叶派
Mecca 麦加
Medina 麦迪
Sahih, al-Bukharisahih ,铝-布哈里
Sufism 苏非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主义
Abu Bakr阿布巴克尔
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭马亚王朝
Fatima 法蒂玛
Fatimids (Shia)法蒂玛王朝(什叶派)
Ismailis (Shia)伊斯玛仪教派(什叶派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 萨拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar伊斯兰日历
Interactive Muslim Calendar互动穆斯林日历

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