The Rite of Constantinople拜占庭礼仪

Catholic Information天主教信息

(Also BYZANTINE RITE.)(拜占庭成年礼)。

The Liturgies, Divine Office, forms for the administration of sacraments and for various blessings, sacramentals, and exorcisms, of the Church of Constantinople, which is now, after the Roman Rite, by far the most widely spread in the world.礼仪,神圣的办公室,圣礼的管理形式和各种祝福,sacramentals,和驱魔教会的君士坦丁堡,也就是现在,罗马成年礼后,迄今为止最广泛的传播在世界上。 With one insignificant exception -- the Liturgy of St. James is used once a year at Jerusalem and Zakynthos (Zacynthus) -- it is followed exclusively by all Orthodox Churches, by the Melkites (Melchites) in Syria and Egypt, the Uniats in the Balkans and the Italo-Greeks in Calabria, Apulia, Sicily, and Corsica.一个微不足道的例外 - 圣雅各福群会的礼仪是每年一次在耶路撒冷和扎金索斯(Zacynthus) - 它是遵循所有东正教教堂完全由在叙利亚和埃及的Melkites(Melchites),在Uniats普利亚,卡拉布里亚,西西里岛和科西嘉岛,巴尔干半岛和意大利 - 希腊人。So that more than a hundred millions of Christians perform their devotions according to the Rite of Constantinople.所以,一百多百万基督徒履行他们的奉献,根据君士坦丁堡仪式。

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I. HISTORY一,历史

This is not one of the original parent-rites.这是不是原来的家长仪式之一。It is derived from that of Antioch.这是来自安提阿。Even apart from the external evidence a comparison of the two liturgies will show that Constantinople follows Antioch in the disposition of the parts.即使比较两个礼仪除了从外部证据表明君士坦丁堡如下安提在处置的部分。 There are two original Eastern types of liturgy: that of Alexandria, in which the great Intercession comes before the Consecration, and that of Antioch, in which it follows after the Epiklesis.有两个原东部的礼仪类型:亚历山德里亚,在伟大的代祷之前的奉献,并安提阿,在它之后的Epiklesis如下。 The Byzantine use in both its Liturgies (of St. Basil and St. John Chrysostom) follows exactly the order of Antioch.拜占庭使用在其礼仪(圣罗勒和圣约翰金口)如下正是为了安提阿。A number of other parallels make the fact of this derivation clear from internal evidence, as it is from external witness.其他一些相似之处推导从内部证据清楚的事实,因为它是从外部证人。The tradition of the Church of Constantinople ascribes the oldest of its two Liturgies to St. Basil the Great (d. 379), Metropolitan of Cæsarea in Cappadocia.君士坦丁堡教会的传统,归因于它的两个礼仪中最古老的圣罗勒伟大(卒于379),大都会的cæsarea卡帕多西亚。 This tradition is confirmed by contemporary evidence.这个传统是当代的证据证实。It is certain that St. Basil made a reformation of the Liturgy of his Church, and that the Byzantine service called after him represents his reformed Liturgy in its chief parts, although it has undergone further modification since his time.可以肯定的是,圣罗勒提出了他的教会的礼仪改革,和拜占庭式的服务要求后,他表示他在其主要部件的改革的礼仪,虽然经历了进一步的修改,因为他的时间。 St. Basil himself speaks on several occasions of the changes he made in the services of Cæsarea.圣罗勒自己讲多次的变化,他在服务的cæsarea。He writes to the clergy of Neo-Cæsarea in Pontus to complain of opposition against himself on account of the new way of singing psalms introduced by his authority (Ep. Basilii, cvii, Patr. Gr., XXXII, 763).他写信给新cæsarea在庞神职人员抱怨​​新唱诗歌的方式对自己的反对,他的权威(插曲Basilii,cvii,Patr。GR,三十二,763)介绍。 St. Gregory of Nazianzos (Nazianzen, d. 390) says that Basil had reformed the order of prayers (euchon diataxis -- Orat. xx, PG, XXXV, 761).(Nazianzen,D. 390)圣Nazianzos格雷戈里说,罗勒改革为了祈祷(euchon diataxis - Orat XX,PG,第三十五卷,761)。Gregory of Nyssa (died c. 395) compares his brother Basil with Samuel because he "carefully arranged the form of the Service" (Hierourgia, In laudem fr. Bas., PG, XLVI, 808).格雷戈里的nyssa(死于C. 395)比较,他的弟弟罗勒塞缪尔,因为他“精心安排的服务的形式”(Hierourgia,laudem FR。BAS,PG,四十六,808)。 Prokios (Proclus) of Constantinople (d. 446) writes: "When the great Basil . . . saw the carelessness and degeneracy of men who feared the length of the Liturgy -- not as if he thought it too long -- he shortened its form, so as to remove the weariness of the clergy and assistants" (De traditione divinæ Missæ, PG, XLV, 849).Prokios君士坦丁堡(446 D.)(普罗克洛)写道:“当伟大的瓦西里看到的疏忽和简并的人担心的礼仪的长度 - 而不是像他认为太长 - 他缩短其形式,以消除厌学的神职人员和助手“(德traditione divinæ Missæ,PG,四十五,849)。

The first question that presents itself is: What rite was it that Basil modified and shortened?提出了自己的第一个问题是:什么仪式,罗勒修改,缩短?Certainly it was that used at Cæsarea before his time.当然,这是他的时间前在该撒利亚。And this was a local form of the great Antiochene use, doubtless with many local variations and additions.这是一个伟大的安提阿学派使用的局部形式,无疑与许多地方的变化和增加。That the original rite that stands at the head of this line of development is that of Antioch is proved from the disposition of the present Liturgy of St. Basil, to which we have already referred; from the fact that, before the rise of the Patriarchate of Constantinople, Antioch was the head of the Churches of Asia Minor as well as of Syria (and invariably in the East the patriarchal see gives the norm in liturgical matters, followed and then gradually modified by its suffragan Churches); and lastly by the absence of any other source.原成年礼,在这行发展的头是安提阿是从圣罗勒目前礼仪处置证明,这是我们已经提到,从一个事实,即前东正教会的兴起君士坦丁堡,安提阿是小亚细亚的教会负责人以及叙利亚(总是在东方宗法见提供了规范的礼仪事项,然后逐步修改其副主教教会);和最后的缺失任何其他来源。 At the head of all Eastern rites stand the uses of Antioch and Alexandria.在所有东欧仪式的头站的安提阿和亚历山大的用途。Lesser and later Churches do not invent an entirely new service for themselves, but form their practice on the model of one of these two.次级和后来的教会,不为自己创造一个全新的服务,但他们的实践形式这两个模型。Syria, Palestine, and Asia Minor in liturgical matters derive from Antioch, just as Egypt, Abyssinia, and Nubia do from Alexandria.,巴勒斯坦,叙利亚和小亚细亚派生从安提阿的礼仪事项,正如埃及,阿比西尼亚,努比亚从亚历山大。 The two Antiochene liturgies now extant are;目前现存的两个安提阿学派礼仪;

(1) that of the Eighth Book of the Apostolic Constitutions and(1)使徒宪法“第八章

(2) parallel to it in every way, the Greek Liturgy of St. James (see ANTIOCHENE LITURGY). (2)平行以各种方式,希腊礼仪中的圣雅各福群会(见安提阿学派礼仪)。

These are the starting-points of the development we can follow.这些都是发展的出发点,我们可以遵循。But it is not to be supposed that St. Basil had before him either of these services, as they now stand, when he made the changes in question.但它是不应该,圣罗勒在他面前的这些服务之一,因为他们现在的立场,当他提出问题的变化。 In the first place, his source is rather the Liturgy of St. James than that of the Apostolic Constitutions.摆在首位,他的来源是相当礼仪的圣雅各福群会比的使​​徒宪法。There are parallels to both in the Basilian Rite; but the likeness is much greater to that of St. James.有在Basilian成年礼相似之处,但容貌的圣雅各福群会更大。From the beginning of the Eucharistic prayer (Vere dignum et justum est, our Preface) to the dismissal, Basil's order is almost exactly that of James.从圣体圣事的祷告开始(维尔dignum等justum EST,我们的前言)解雇,罗勒的订单几乎是一模一样,詹姆斯。But the now extant Liturgy of St. James (in Brightman, "Liturgies Eastern and Western", 31-68) has itself been considerably modified in later years.但现在现存礼仪的圣雅各福群会(布莱曼,“礼仪东方与西方”,31-68)本身在以后的几年已有很大的修改。Its earlier part especially (the Liturgy of the Catechumens and the Offertory) is certainly later than the time of St. Basil.其先前的部分,尤其是(礼仪的慕道者和Offertory)肯定是不迟于圣罗勒。In any case, then, we must go back to the original Antiochene Rite as the source.然后,在任何情况下,我们必须回到原安提阿学派成年礼源。But neither was this the immediate origin of the reform.但也不是改革的直接来源。It must be remembered that all living rites are subject to gradual modification through use.我们必须记住所有生活礼仪是通过使用逐步修改。The outline and frame remain; into this frame new prayers are fitted.大纲和框架仍然安装到这个框架的新的祈祷。As a general rule liturgies keep the disposition of their parts, but tend to change the text of the prayers.作为一般规则礼仪保持其部分的处置,但往往会改变的祈祷文。St. Basil took as the basis of his reform the use of Cæsarea in the fourth century.圣罗勒了作为其改革的cæsarea在第四世纪基础上。There is reason to believe that that use, while retaining the essential order of the original Antiochene service, had already considerably modified various parts, especially the actual prayers.我们有理由相信使用,同时保留了原安提阿学派服务的基本秩序,已经大大修改后的各部分,特别是实际的祈祷。We have seen, for instance, that Basil shortened the Liturgy.我们已经看到了,例如,罗勒缩短礼仪。But the service that bears his name is not at all shorter than the present one of St. James.但他的名字命名的服务是不是所有短比目前的圣雅各福群之一。We may, then, suppose that by his time the Liturgy of Cæsarea had been considerably lengthened by additional prayers (this is the common development of Liturgies).可能的话,我们假设,他的时间,礼仪的cæsarea已大大加长额外祈祷(这是共同发展的礼仪)。When we say, then, that the rite of Constantinople that bears his name is the Liturgy of St. James as modified by St. Basil, it must be understood that Basil is rather the chief turning-point in its development than the only author of the change.当我们说的话,他的名字命名的仪式是君士坦丁堡的圣雅各福群会的礼仪圣罗勒修改,必须了解,罗勒,而在其发展的主要转折点比只有作者更改。 It had already passed through a period of development before his time, and it has developed further since.它已经通过他的时代之前的发展时期,它有进一步发展。Nevertheless, St. Basil and his reform of the rite of his own city are the starting-point of the special use of Constantinople.然而,圣罗勒和他自己的城市的仪式的改革是君士坦丁堡的特殊用途的起点。

A comparison of the present Liturgy of St. Basil with earlier allusions shows that in its chief parts it is really the service composed by him.圣罗勒与早前的典故目前礼仪的比较表明,它的主要部分,它真的是由他组成的服务。Peter the Deacon, who was sent by the Scythian monks to Pope Hormisdas to defend a famous formula they had drawn up ("One of the Trinity was crucified") about the year 512, writes: "The blessed Basil, Bishop of Cæsarea, says in the prayer of the holy altar which is used by nearly the whole East: Give, oh Lord, strength and protection; make the bad good, we pray, keep the good in their virtue; for Thou canst do all things, and no one can withstand Thee; Thou dost save whom Thou wilt and no one can hinder Thy will" (Petri diac. Ep. ad Fulgent, vii, 25, in PL, LXV, 449).彼得执事,由西徐亚僧侣被送往教皇卡尔米斯达斯捍卫一个著名的公式,他们已制定了大约一年512(“三位一体的被钉在十字架上”),写道:“有福的罗勒,凯撒利亚主教说在神圣的祭坛,这几乎是整个东亚的祈祷:给,主哦,强度和保护;的好坏,我们祈祷,他们凭借良好的保持;祢canst做所有的事情,没有人能承受你的,你多斯特保存其中祢,没有人可以阻碍你的意志“(DIAC EP广告的Petri晶,七,25,在PL,第六十五,449。)。This is a compilation of three texts in the Basilian Liturgy: Keep the good in their virtue; make the bad good by thy mercy (Brightman, op. cit., pp. 333-334); the words: Give, O Lord, strength and protection come several times at the beginning of prayers; and the last words are an acclamation made by the choir or people at the end of several (Renaudot, I, p. xxxvii).这是一个编译的三个文本中的Basilian礼仪:他们凭借良好的保持,使你的怜悯的好坏的话(布莱曼,前引书,页333-334。):给,主阿,强度和保护好几次都在祈祷开始和最后的话是合唱团或几个人(勒诺多,我第XXXVII)以鼓掌方式。 The Life of St. Basil ascribed to Amphilochios (PG, XXIX, 301, 302) quotes as composed by him the beginning of the Introduction-prayer and that of the Elevation exactly as they are in the existing Liturgy (Brightman, 319, 341).圣罗勒生命冲高Amphilochios(PG,二十九,301,302)报价为组成由他介绍祷告开始的标高,正是因为他们是在现有的礼仪(布莱曼,319,341) 。The Second Council of Nicæa (787) says: "As all priests of the holy Liturgy know, Basil says in the prayer of the Divine Anaphora: We approach with confidence to the holy altar . . .".第二届理事会的尼西亚(787)说:“作为神圣的礼仪所有祭司知道,瓦西里说,在祈祷的神圣照应:我们有信心的方法,以神圣的祭坛。。”。 The prayer is the one that follows the Anamnesis in St. Basil's Liturgy (Brightman, p. 329. Cf. Hardouin, IV, p. 371).祷告是一个如下的病历圣罗勒的礼仪(布莱曼,比照。Hardouin,四,第371页第329页)。

From these and similar indications we conclude that the Liturgy of St. Basil in its oldest extant form is substantially authentic, namely, from the beginning of the Anaphora to the Communion.从这些和类似的迹象,我们的结论圣罗勒在其现存最古老的形式的礼仪,实质上是正宗的,即,从开始的照应共融。 The Mass of the Catechumens and the Offertory prayers have developed since his death.的慕道者和offertory祈祷的质量,因为他的死亡。St. Gregory Nazianzen, in describing the saint's famous encounter with Valens at Cæsarea, in 372, describes the Offertory as a simpler rite, accompanied with psalms sung by the people but without an audible Offertory prayer (Greg. Naz., Or., xliii, 52, PG, XXXVI, 561).圣格雷戈里Nazianzen,在描述圣人的著名遇到在该撒利亚瓦伦斯,在372,描述了一个简单的仪式Offertory诗篇传唱的陪同下,由人民,但没有一个发声Offertory祈祷(Greg.纳兹或。XLIII 52,PG,三十六,561)。This oldest form of the Basilian Liturgy is contained in a manuscript of the Barberini Library of about the year 800 (manuscript, III, 55, reprinted in Brightman, 309-344).这Basilian礼仪的最古老的形式是包含在约800年的barberini图书馆(手稿,三,55,重印布莱曼,309-344)的手稿。 The Liturgy of St. Basil now used in the Orthodox and Melkite (or Melchite) Churches (Euchologion, Venice, 1898, pp. 75-97; Brightman, 400-411) is printed after that of St. Chrysostom and differs from it only in the prayers said by the priest, chiefly in the Anaphora; it has received further unimportant modifications.圣罗勒的礼仪在东正教和Melkite(或Melchite)教会(Euchologion,威尼斯,1898年,第75-97页;布莱曼,400-411)现在使用的是印后的圣金口,并从不同在祈祷由牧师说,主要是在照应,它已经收到了进一步的不重要的修改。 It is probable that even before the time of St. John Chrysostom the Liturgy of Basil was used at Constantinople.这是可能的,即使在圣约翰金口礼仪罗勒在君士坦丁堡。We have seen that Peter the Deacon mentions that it was "used by nearly the whole East".我们已经看到,彼得执事提到,这是“用”几乎整个东亚。It would seem that the importance of the See of Cæsarea (even beyond its own exarchy), the fame of St. Basil, and the practical convenience of this short Liturgy led to its adoption by many Churches in Asia and Syria.这似乎撒利亚(甚至超出其自身的exarchy)见的重要性,圣罗勒的知名度,这短短的礼仪实用方便,许多教会在亚洲和叙利亚通过。 The "East" in Peter the Deacon's remark would probably mean the Roman Prefecture of the East (Præfectura Orientis) that included Thrace.“东”在彼得执事的言论可能意味着(Præfectura Orientis),包括色雷斯的东罗马县。 Moreover, when St. Gregory of Nazianzos came to Constantinople to administer that diocese (381) he found in use there a Liturgy that was practically the same as the one he had known at home in Cappadocia.此外,圣格雷戈里的Nazianzos来到君士坦丁堡管理教区(381),他发现在使用中有一个礼仪,作为一个在Cappadocia他在家几乎相同。 His Sixth Oration (PG, XXXV, 721 sq.) was held in Cappadocia, his Thirty-eighth (PG, XXXVI, 311) at Constantinople.他的第六致辞(PG,第三十五卷,721平方米),在Cappadocia举行,他的第三十八届在君士坦丁堡(PG,三十六,311)。 In both he refers to and quotes the Eucharistic prayer that his hearers know.他指的是在这两个引用了圣体圣事的祷告,他的听众知道。A comparison of the two texts shows that the prayer is the same.两个文本的比较表明,祈祷是相同的。This proves that, at any rate in its most important element, the liturgy used at the capital was that of Cappadocia -- the one that St. Basil used as a basis of his reform.这证明,在任何速率在其最重要的元素,在资金使用的礼仪卡帕多西亚 - 圣罗勒用来作为其改革的基础上。It would therefore be most natural that the reform too should in time be adopted at Constantinople.因此,将最自然,改革也应及时在君士坦丁堡通过。But it would seem that before Chrysostom this Basilian Rite (according to the universal rule) had received further development and additions at Constantinople.但它似乎之前金口收到这Basilian成年礼(根据普遍规则)在君士坦丁堡的进一步发展和补充。 It has been suggested that the oldest form of the Nestorian Liturgy is the original Byzantine Rite, the one that St. Chrysostom found in use when he became patriarch (Probst, "Lit. des IV. Jahrhts.", 413).有人曾建议,景教礼仪的最古老的形式是原始拜占庭礼仪,圣金口在使用中发现,当他成为族长(普罗伯斯特,“上火。DES第四。Jahrhts”,413)。

The next epoch in the history of the Byzantine Rite is the reform of St. John Chrysostom (d. 407).下一个划时代的拜占庭成年礼的历史,是改革的圣约翰金口(四407)。He not only further modified the Rite of Basil, but left both his own reformed Liturgy and the unreformed Basilian one itself, as the exclusive uses of Constantinople.他不仅进一步修改的罗勒之祭“,但离开自己的改革的礼仪和没有改革Basilian之一的地位,君士坦丁堡的独家使用。 St. John became Patriarch of Constantinople in 397; he reigned there till 403, was then banished, but came back in the same year; was banished again in 404, and died in exile in 407.圣约翰成为君士坦丁堡宗主教在397,他那里,直到403年在位,然后被驱逐,但在同一年来到回;在404再次被贬,死于流放407。 The tradition of his Church says that during the time of his patriarchate he composed from the Basilian Liturgy a shorter form that is the one still in common use throughout the Orthodox Church.他的教会的传统说,在他的东正教会的时间,他从Basilian礼仪组成的较短的形式,是一个在整个东正教教会的共同使用。 The same text of Proklos (Proclus) quoted above continues: "Not long afterwards our father, John Chrysostom, zealous for the salvation of his flock as a shepherd should be, considering the carelessness of human nature, thoroughly rooted up every diabolical objection. He therefore left out a great part and shortened all the forms lest anyone . . . stay away from this Apostolic and Divine Institution", etc. He would, then, have treated St. Basil's rite exactly as Basil treated the older rite of Cæsarea. Proklos(普罗克洛)相同的文字,上面引述继续说:“不久,我们的父亲,约翰金口,热心为他的羊群作为一个牧羊人的救恩应考虑人性的疏忽,彻底植根于每一个恶魔般的反对他。因此留下了一个伟大的一部分,并缩短了所有的形式,以免任何人。远离这使徒和神圣的机构“等他,然后,对待罗勒治疗圣罗勒的仪式完全按照旧的cæsarea仪式。 There is no reason to doubt this tradition in the main issue.我们没有理由怀疑这一传统中的主要问题。A comparison of the Liturgy of Chrysostom with that of Basil will show that it follows the same order and is shortened considerably in the text of the prayers; a further comparison of its text with the numerous allusions to the rite of the Holy Eucharist in Chrysostom's homilies will show that the oldest form we have of the Liturgy agrees substantially with the one he describes (Brightman, 530-534).礼仪与罗勒金口比较将显示,它遵循相同的顺序和是缩短的祈祷文相当;一个其文本的进一步比较了众多的典故的金口的颂歌圣体圣事的仪式将显示,最古老的形式,我们的礼仪同意大幅一个他形容(布莱曼,530-534)。 But it is also certain that the modern Liturgy of St. Chrysostom has received considerable modifications and additions since his time.但它也有一定的现代礼仪圣金口已收到相当多的修改和补充,因为他的时间。In order to reconstruct the rite used by him we must take away from the present Liturgy all the Preparation of the Offerings (Proskomide), the ritual of the Little and Great Entrances, and the Creed.为了重建他所使用的仪式,我们必须从目前的礼仪,所有这些产品的制备(Proskomide),小和大入口的仪式,和信条。 The service began with the bishop's greeting, "Peace to all", and the answer, "And with thy spirit."服务与主教的问候开始,“所有”和平,得到的回答,“你的精神。”The lessons followed from the Prophets and Apostles, and the deacon read the Gospel.从先知和使徒的教训,和执事读福音。 After the Gospel the bishop or a priest preached a homily, and the prayer over the catechumens was said.后却呈现出一个讲道,在慕道者祈祷的主教或一个牧师说福音。

Originally it had been followed by a prayer over penitents, but Nektarios (381-397) had abolished the discipline of public penance, so in St. Chrysostom's Liturgy this prayer is left out.比忏悔祈祷,原来它一直跟着,但Nektarios(381-397)已取消了公开忏悔的纪律,所以在圣金口的礼仪祈祷冷落。 Then came a prayer for the faithful (baptized) and the dismissal of the catechumens.然后是祈祷的信徒(洗礼)和解雇的慕道。St. Chrysostom mentions a new ritual for the Offertory: the choir accompanied the bishop and formed a solemn procession to bring the bread and wine from the prothesis to the altar (Hom. xxxvi, in I Cor., vi, PG, LXI, 313).圣金口,提到了一个新的Offertory仪式:伴随着合唱团的主教,并形成了一个庄严的游行,使假体的面包和酒坛(Hom. XXXVI,我肺心病,六,PG,LXI 313。 )。Nevertheless the present ceremonies and the Cherubic Chant that accompany the Great Entrance are a later development (Brightman, op. cit., 530).然而,目前的仪式和天真无邪的圣歌,伴随大门口以后的发展(布莱曼,同上,530)。The Kiss of Peace apparently preceded the Offertory in Chrysostom's time (Brightman, op. cit., 522, Probst, op. cit., 208).和平之吻显然之前在金口的时间(布莱曼,同前,522,普罗伯斯特,同前。,208)Offertory。The Eucharistic prayer began, as everywhere, with the dialogue: "Lift up your hearts" etc. This prayer, which is clearly an abbreviated form of that in the Basilian Rite, is certainly authentically of St. Chrysostom.圣体圣事的祷告开始,无处不在,与对话:“抬起你的心”等这样的祈祷,这显然是在Basilian成年礼的缩写形式,肯定是真实的圣金口。 It is apparently chiefly in reference to it that Proklos says that he has shortened the older rite.这显然​​是在提到它的主要Proklos说,他缩短了旧的仪式。The Sanctus was sung by the people as now.圣哉是现在的人所唱的。The ceremonies performed by the deacon at the words of Institution are a later addition.仪式由执事的话,机构是一个后来此外。Probst thinks that the original Epiklesis of St. Chrysostom ended at the words "Send thy Holy Spirit down on us and on these gifts spread before us" (Brightman, op. cit., 386), and that the continuation (especially the disconnected interruption: God be merciful to me a sinner, now inserted into the Epiklesis; Maltzew, "Die Liturgien" etc., Berlin, 1894, p. 88) are a later addition (op. cit., 414).普罗伯斯特认为原Epiklesis圣金口结束的话“送下来,我们和传播摆在我们面前的这些礼物你的圣灵”(布莱曼,同上,386),并继续(特别是断开中断:神啊,开恩可怜我是一个罪人,现在插入Epiklesis; Maltzew,“模具Liturgien”等,柏林,1894年,第88页)以后除了(同上,414)。The Intercession followed at once, beginning with a memory of the saints.一次代祷其次,圣人的记忆开始。The prayer for the dead came before that for the living (ibid., 216-415).为死者祈祷,是为生活在此之前,(同上,216-415)。 The Eucharistic prayer ended with a doxology to which the people answered, Amen; and then the bishop greeted them with the text, "The mercy of our great God and Saviour Jesus Christ be with all of you" (Tit., ii, 13), to which they answered: "And with thy spirit", as usual.圣体圣事的祷告结束一个doxology人回答,阿门;然后主教迎接他们的文字,“我们伟大的神和救主耶稣基督的怜悯与所有你”(Tit.,II,13)他们回答说:“用你的精神”,像往常一样。 The Lord's Prayer followed, introduced by a short litany spoken by the deacon and followed by the well-known doxology: "For thine is the kingdom" etc. This ending was added to the Our Father in the Codex of the New Testament used by St. Chrysostom (cf. Hom. xix in PG, LVII, 282).主祷文其次,由一个短的一连串发言执事和知名的doxology介绍说:“是你的王国”等结束加入到我们的父亲在食品法典委员会由ST新约金口(参磡第十九在PG,第五十七,282)。 Another greeting (Peace to all) with its answer introduced the manual acts, first an Elevation with the words "Holy things for the holy" etc., the Breaking of Bread and the Communion under both kinds.其回答的另一个和平的所有问候,介绍手册的行为,首先海拔的字眼是“神圣的东西,神圣的”等,打破面包和共融下两种。 In Chrysostom's time it seems that people received either kind separately, drinking from the chalice.在金口的时候,似乎人们收到任何一种单独的圣杯饮酒。A short prayer of thanksgiving ended the Liturgy.一个简短的祈祷感恩节结束礼仪。That is the rite as we see it in the saint's homilies (cf. Probst., op. cit., 156-202, 202-226).这是仪式,因为我们看到它在圣人的颂歌(参见普罗伯斯特,同上,156-202,202-226)。It is true that most of these homilies were preached at Antioch (387-397) before he went to Constantinople.这是事实,大部分这些颂歌鼓吹在安提(387-397)之前,他前往君士坦丁堡。It would seem, then, that the Liturgy of St. Chrysostom was in great part that of his time at Antioch, and that he introduced it at the capital when he became patriarch.然后,似乎,圣金口礼仪很大一部分是在他的时间,在安提阿,和他介绍,在资本,当他成为族长。We have seen from Peter the Deacon that St. Basil's Rite was used by "nearly the whole East".我们已经看到了彼得执事,圣罗勒的成年礼是“几乎整个东”。There is, then, no difficulty in supposing that it had penetrated to Antioch and was already abridged there into the "Liturgy of Chrysostom" before that saint brought this abridged form to Constantinople.存在,那么,在假设没有难度,它已经渗透到安提阿和已经删节成“金口礼仪”,在此之前,圣带来了这个缩写的形式,以君士坦丁堡。

It was this Chrysostom Liturgy that gradually became the common Eucharistic service of Constantinople, and that spread throughout the Orthodox world, as the city that had adopted it became more and more the acknowledged head of Eastern Christendom.这是这个金口礼仪,逐渐成为君士坦丁堡的圣体的共同服务,并在整个东正教世界的传播,通过了它的城市成为越来越多的承认东基督教头。 It did not completely displace the older rite of St. Basil, but reduced its use to a very few days in the year on which it is still said (see below, under II).它没有完全取代旧成年礼圣罗勒,但在它仍然是说(见下文,第II)的一年一个非常几天减少其使用。Meanwhile the Liturgy of St. Chrysostom itself underwent further modification.同时,礼仪圣金口本身进行进一步的修改。The oldest form of it now extant is in the same manuscript of the Barberini Library that contains St. Basil's Liturgy.它目前现存最古老的形式是在barberini图书馆手稿包含圣罗勒的礼仪。In this the elaborate rite of the Proskomide has not yet been added, but it has already received additions since the time of the saint whose name it bears.在此阐述的Proskomide仪式尚未被添加,但它已经收到,因为圣人的名字,熊时增加。The Trisagion (Holy God, Holy Strong One, Holy Immortal One, have mercy on us) at the Little Entrance is said to have been revealed to Proklos of Constantinople (434-47, St. John Dam., De Fide Orth., III, 10); this probably gives the date of its insertion into the Liturgy.小入口处的诗歌(神圣的上帝,圣强之一,一个神圣的不朽,怜悯我们)是说已经透露Proklos君士坦丁堡(434-47,圣约翰大坝,德国际棋联奥思,三,10);这可能给其插入到礼仪的日期。 The Cherubikon that accompanies the Great Entrance was apparently added by Justin II (565-78, Brightman, op. cit., 532), and the Creed that follows, just before the beginning of the Anaphora, is also ascribed to him (Joannis Biclarensis Chronicon, PL, LXXII, 863). Cherubikon,伴随着大门口明显增加,由Justin II(565-78,布莱曼,同前引。,532)和遵循的信条,就在照应开头,也归功于他(Joannis Biclarensis Chronicon,PL,LXXII,863)。Since the Barberini Euchologion (ninth cent.) the Preparation of the Offerings (proskomide) at the credence-table (called prothesis) gradually developed into the elaborate rite that now accompanies it.由于巴贝里尼Euchologion(第九%。)准备的祭品轻信表(proskomide)(假体)逐渐发展到精心制作的成年礼,现在伴随着它的。 Brightman (op. cit., 539-552) gives a series of documents from which the evolution of this rite may be traced from the ninth to the sixteenth century.布莱曼(同上,539-552)给出了一系列文件,从这个仪式的演变可追溯到从第九到十六世纪。

These are the two Liturgies of Constantinople, the older one of St. Basil, now said on only a few days, and the later shortened one of St. Chrysostom that is in common use.这些君士坦丁堡,圣罗勒旧两个礼仪,现在说只有几天,后来缩短圣金口之一,是在共同使用。There remains the third, the Liturgy of the Presanctified (ton proegiasmenon).仍有第三,Presanctified(吨proegiasmenon)礼仪。This service, that in the Latin Church now occurs only on Good Friday, was at one time used on the aliturgical days of Lent everywhere (see ALITURGICAL DAYS and Duchesne, Origines, 222, 238).这项服务,在拉丁美洲教会现在只发生在耶稣受难日,在四旬期到处aliturgical天使用一次(见ALITURGICAL天Duchesne,Origines,222,238)。 This is still the practice of the Eastern Churches.这仍然是东方教会的做法。The Paschal Chronicle (see CHRONICON PASCHALE) of the year 645 (PG, XCII) mentions the Presanctified Liturgy, and the fifty-second canon of the Second Trullan Council (692) orders: "On all days of the fast of forty days, except Saturdays and Sundays and the day of the Holy Annunciation, the Liturgy of the Presanctified shall be celebrated."今年逾越节纪事(见CHRONICON PASCHALE)645(PG,XCII)提到Presanctified的礼仪,和第二Trullan会(692)订单第五十二佳能:“在所有天四十天快速,除了周六,周日和圣报喜的日子,礼仪的Presanctified应庆祝。“ The essence of this Liturgy is simply that the Blessed Sacrament that has been consecrated on the preceding Sunday, and is reserved in the tabernacle (artophorion) under both kinds, is taken out and distributed as Communion.这个礼仪的本质是简单的圣体已在之前的星期日奉献,并保留在帐幕(artophorion)下两种,取出作为圣餐。 It is now always celebrated at the end of Vespers (hesperinos), which form its first part.现在是庆祝的晚祷结束(hesperinos),其第一部分。The lessons are read as usual, and the litanies sung; the catechumens are dismissed, and then, the whole Anaphora being naturally omitted, Communion is given; the blessing and dismissal follow.像往常一样,是只读的教训和litanies宋;的慕道者被解雇,然后,整个照应,自然省略,共融;祝福和解雇。A great part of the rite is simply taken from the corresponding parts of St. Chrysostom's Liturgy.简单的仪式的一个很大一部分是从圣金口的礼仪相应部位。The present form, then, is a comparatively late one that supposes the normal Liturgies of Constantinople.目前的形式,那么,是比较晚的一个设君士坦丁堡正常礼仪。It has been attributed to various persons -- St. James, St. Peter, St. Basil, St. Germanos I of Constantinople (715-30), and so on (Brightman, op. cit., p. xciii).它已被归因于不同的人 - 圣雅各福群会,圣彼得大教堂,圣罗勒,圣Germanos我君士坦丁堡(715-30),(布莱曼,前引书,第xciii。)等。But in the service books it is now officially ascribed to St. Gregory Dialogos (Pope Gregory I).但在服务书籍现在正式归因于圣格雷戈里Dialogos(罗马教皇格雷戈里我)。It is impossible to say how this certainly mistaken ascription began.这是不可能说这肯定弄错的归属是如何开始的。The Greek legend is that, when he was apocrisiarius at Constantinople (578), seeing that the Greeks had no fixed rite for this Communion-service, he composed this one for them.希腊传说中,当他在君士坦丁堡(578)apocrisiarius,看到希腊人没有这一共融服务的固定仪式,他组成了他们这个。

The origin of the Divine Office and of the rites for sacraments and sacramentals in the Byzantine Church is more difficult to trace.神圣的办公室,和拜占庭式教堂中的圣礼和sacramentals的仪式的起源是更加难以追查。Here too we have now the result of a long and gradual development; and the starting-point of that development is certainly the use of Antioch.在这里,我们现在的一个长期而逐步发展的结果;,发展的出发点是肯定的安提阿。 But there are no names that stand out as clearly as do those of St. Basil and St. Chrysostom in the history of the Liturgy.但有没有名称的礼仪的历史清楚地做那些圣罗勒和圣金口。We may perhaps find the trace of a similar action on their part in the case of the Office.我们也许可以找到一个类似的行动对他们在办公室的情况下跟踪。The new way of singing psalms introduced by St. Basil (Ep. cvii, see above) would in the first place affect the canonical Hours.唱诗歌的新方式介绍圣罗勒(插曲cvii,见上文),在第一时间将影响规范小时。It was the manner of singing psalms antiphonally, that is alternately by two choirs, to which we are accustomed, that had already been introduced at Antioch in the time of the Patriarch Leontios (Leontius, 344-57; Theodoret, HE, II, xxiv).这是antiphonally唱诗歌的方式,轮流由两个合唱团,这是我们习惯于,已经在安提阿介绍牧莱昂蒂奥斯(Leontius,344-57; Theodoret,HE二,XXIV )。We find one or two other allusions to reforms in various rites among the works of St. Chrysostom; thus he desires people to accompany funerals by singing psalms (Hom. iv, in Ep. ad Hebr., PG, LXIII, 43) etc.我们发现,圣金口的作品中的一个或两个,改革中的各种仪式等典故,因此,他希望人们陪唱圣歌(在EP Hom.第四,广告黑布尔,PG,LXIII,43。)等葬礼

With regard to the Divine Office especially, it has the same general principles in East and West from a very early age (see BREVIARY).特别是对于神圣的办公室,它在东方与西方相同的一般原则,从很小的时候就(见祈祷书)。Essentially it consists in psalm-singing.从本质上讲,它包括在诗篇歌唱。Its first and most important part is the Night-watch (pannychis, our Nocturns); at dawn the orthros (Lauds) was sung; during the day the people met again at the third, sixth, and ninth hours, and at sunset for the hesperinos (Vespers).其第一和最重要的部分是夜间手表(pannychis,我们Nocturns); orthros(赞扬)在黎明唱;白天人在第三,第六,第九个小时再次会见,并为日落hesperinos(晚祷)。Besides the psalms these Offices contained lessons from the Bible and collects.除了诗篇这些办事处中从“圣经”和收集的经验教训。A peculiarity of the Antiochene use was the "Gloria in excelsis" sung at the Orthros (Ps.-Athan., De Virg., xx, PG, XXVIII, 276); the evening hymn, Phos ilaron, still sung in the Byzantine Rite at the Hesperinos and attributed to Athenogenes (in the second cent.), is quoted by St. Basil (De Spir. Sancto, lxxiii, PG, XXXII, 205).安提阿学派使用的特点是“在excelsis凯莱”在Orthros唱(诗篇,Athan,德Virg,XX,PG,二十八,276。)傍晚赞歌,ilaron磷,仍然传唱在拜占庭成年礼在Hesperinos和归因于Athenogenes(第二一毫。),是引用圣罗勒(SPIR。Sancto,lxxiii,PG,三十二,205)。 Egeria of Aquitaine, the pilgrim to Jerusalem, gives a vivid description of the Office as sung there according to Antioch in the fourth century ["S. Silviæ (sic) peregrin.", ed.细叶的阿基坦大区,到耶路撒冷的朝圣者,给该办公室的一个生动的描述,如宋有根据安提在第四世纪[“S Silviæ(SIC)peregrin。”主编。Gamurrini, Rome, 1887]. Gamurrini,罗马,1887]。To this series of Hours two were added in the fourth century.这一系列小时两人在第四世纪。John Cassian (Instit., III, iv) describes the addition of Prime by the monks of Palestine, and St. Basil refers (loc. cit.) to Complin (apodeipnon) as the monks' evening prayer.约翰卡西安(Instit.,III,IV)介绍了巴勒斯坦的僧侣总理此外,圣罗勒指(如上)。Complin(apodeipnon)作为僧侣的晚祷。 Prime and Complin, then, were originally private prayers said by monks in addition to the official Hours.总理和Complin,那么,原本是私人祈祷僧侣说,除了官方小时。The Antiochene manner of keeping this Office was famous all over the East.安提阿学派的方式保持该办公室是各地著名的东。Flavian of Antioch in 387 softened the heart of Theodosius (after the outrage to the statues) by making his clerks sing to him "the suppliant chants of Antioch" (Sozomen, HE, VII, xxiii).安提阿弗拉维安387软化,使他的办事员唱歌给他“安提suppliant圣歌”狄奥多西心脏后的神像的愤怒(Sozomen,何,七,二十三)。 And St. John Chrysostom, as soon as he comes to Constantinople, introduces the methods of Antioch in keeping the canonical Hours (16, VIII, 8).和圣约翰金口,只要他到君士坦丁堡,介绍了安提阿的方法,在保持典型小时(16,八,8)。Eventually the eastern Office admits short services (mesoorai) between the day Hours, and between Vespers and Complin.最终东部办公室承认小时之间的短期服务(mesoorai)之间,以及晚祷和Complin。Into this frame a number of famous poets have fitted a long succession of canons (unmetrical hymns); of these poets St. Romanos the singer (sixth cent.), St. Cosmas the singer (eighth cent.), St. John Damascene (c. 780), St. Theodore of Studion (d. 826), etc., are the most famous (see BYZANTINE LITERATURE, sub-title IV. Ecclesiastical etc.).此帧的著名诗人都装有一个长期继承的大炮(unmetrical赞美诗);(百分之六)这些诗人圣Romanos歌手,圣科斯马斯歌手(第八百分之。),圣约翰大马士革( C. 780),圣西奥多Studion(卒于826)等,都是最有名的(见拜占庭文学,副题四,教会等)。St. Sabas (d. 532) and St. John Damascene eventually arranged the Office for the whole year, though, like the Liturgy, it has undergone further development since, till it acquired its present form (see below).圣Sabas(卒于532)和圣约翰大马士革最终安排全年的办公室,但是,礼仪一样,它已经发生了进一步的发展,因为,直至把它收购了其目前的形式(见下文)。

II.二。THE BYZANTINE RITE AT THE PRESENT TIME在目前的拜占庭成年礼

The Rite of Constantinople now used throughout the Orthodox Church does not maintain any principle of uniformity in language.整个东正教君士坦丁堡之祭“,现在不维护任何语言的统一性原则。 In various countries the same prayers and forms are translated (with unimportant variations) into what is supposed to be more or less the vulgar tongue.在许多国家同样的祈祷和表格翻译(不重要的变化)什么是应该以或多或少的庸俗的舌头。As a matter of fact, however, it is only in Rumania that the liturgical language is the same as that of the people.然而,事实上,它是礼仪语言是相同的人认为,只有在罗马尼亚。Greek (from which all the others are translated) is used at Constantinople, in Macedonia (by the Patriarchists), Greece, by Greek monks in Palestine and Syria, by nearly all Orthodox in Egypt; Arabic in parts of Syria, Palestine, and by a few churches in Egypt; Old Slavonic throughout Russia, in Bulgaria, and by all Exarchists, in Czernagora, Servia, and by the Orthodox in Austria and Hungary; and Rumanian by the Church of that country.在君士坦丁堡(Patriarchists),在马其顿,希腊,希腊(从所有其他的翻译)是在巴勒斯坦和叙利亚,希腊僧侣在埃及几乎所有的东正教;阿拉伯叙利亚,巴勒斯坦的部分地区,并通过在埃及的一些教堂,旧斯拉夫整个俄罗斯,保加利亚,Czernagora,Servia,所有Exarchists,和东正教在奥地利和匈牙利和罗马尼亚由该国的教会。 These four are the principal languages.这四个主要的语言。Later Russian missions use Esthonian, Lettish, and German in the Baltic provinces, Finnish and Tatar in Finland and Siberia, Chinese, and Japanese.后来俄罗斯特派团使用Esthonian,Lettish,和德国在波罗的海各省,芬兰和芬兰,西伯利亚,中国和日本鞑靼。 (Brightman, op. cit., LXXXI-LXXXII).(布莱曼,前引书,捌拾捌拾)。Although the Liturgy has been translated into English (see Hapgood, op. cit. in bibliography), a translation is never used in any church of the Greek Rite.虽然礼仪已翻译成英文(见在书目哈扑古德,同上),翻译是从来没有使用过任何教会的希腊成年礼。The Uniats use Greek at Constantinople, in Italy, and partially in Syria and Egypt, Arabic chiefly in these countries, Old Slavonic in Slav lands, and Rumanian in Rumania. Uniats使用于君士坦丁堡的希腊,意大利和部分在叙利亚和埃及,阿拉伯语,主要是在这些国家,在旧斯拉夫斯拉夫土地,并在罗马尼亚罗马尼亚。 It is curious to note that in spite of this great diversity of languages the ordinary Orthodox layman no more understands his Liturgy than if it were in Greek.奇怪的是要注意,尽管这种语言的伟大多样性在普通东正教外行没有更多的了解他的,如果它在希腊的礼仪比。Old Slavonic and the semi-classical Arabic in which it is sung are dead languages.旧斯拉夫和半古典阿拉伯语,它是宋是死的语言。

The Calendar日历

The Calendar日历

It is well known that the Orthodox still use the Julian Calendar (Old Style).这是众所周知的,东正教仍然使用的儒略历(旧历)。By this time (1908) they are thirteen days behind us.(1908年)到了这个时候,他们在我们身后的十三天。Their liturgical year begins on 1 September, "the beginning of the Indict, that is of the new year".他们的礼仪年9月1日开始,“开始的起诉,在新的一年”。On 15 November begins the first of their four great fasts, the "fast of Christ's birth" that lasts till Christmas (25 December).11月15日开始他们的四个伟大的斋戒第一,持续到圣诞节(12月25日)的“基督诞生的快速”。 The fast of Easter begins on the Monday after the sixth Sunday before Easter, and they abstain from flesh-meat after the seventh Sunday before the feast (our Sexagesima).复活节快速在周一开始后,复活节之前的第六届星期日,他们放弃后的第七个周日从肉,肉前的盛宴(我们的Sexagesima)。 The fast of the Apostles lasts from the day after the first Sunday after Pentecost (their All Saints' Day) till 28 June, the fast of the Mother of God from 1 August to 14 August.使徒的快速持续至8月14日从五旬节之后的第一个星期日后的一天(他们的“万圣节),直到6月28日,上帝之母,从8月1日快速。 Throughout this year fall a great number of feasts.纵观今年秋天大量的节日。The great cycles are the same as ours -- Christmas, followed by a Memory of the Mother of God on 26 December, then St. Stephen on 27 December, etc. Easter, Ascension Day, and Whitsunday follow as with us.伟大的周期是和我们一样 - 圣诞节,12月26日,圣士提反于12月27日,等复活节,耶稣升天节,圣灵遵循与我们的上帝之母内存。Many of the other feasts are the same as ours, though often with different names.许多其他的节日都和我们一样,虽然经常以不同的名称。They divide them into three categories, feasts of our Lord (heortai despotikai), of the Mother of God (theometrikai), and of the saints (ton hagion).他们划分成三大类,节日,我们的主(heortai despotikai)神(theometrikai)的母亲,和圣人(吨hagion)。They count the "Holy meeting" (with St. Simeon, 2 February), the Annunciation (25 March), the Awakening of Lazarus (Saturday before Palm Sunday), etc., as feasts of Our Lord.他们算的“圣灵会议”(与圣西麦翁,2月2日),报喜(3月25日),拉撒路的觉醒(棕榈周日之前星期六)等,作为我们的主宴。 The chief feasts of Our Lady are her birthday (8 September), Presentation in the Temple (21 November), Conception (9 December), Falling-asleep (koimesis, 15 August), and the Keeping of her Robe at the Blachernæ (at Constantinople, 2 July).我们的夫人的首席节日是她的生日(9月8日),在寺庙简报(11月21日),概念(12月9日),降睡着了(koimesis,8月15日),并保持Blachernæ在她的长袍(君士坦丁堡,7月2日)。 Feasts are further divided according to their solemnity into three classes: great, middle, and less days.节日进一步划分根据其分为三个等级的严肃性:伟大的,中间少天。Easter of course stands alone as greatest of all.当然复活节站仅作为最伟大的。It is "The Feast" (he heorte, al-id); there are twelve other very great days and twelve great ones.它是“盛宴”(他heorte,al - ID的),有十二个非常伟大的日子和12个伟大的。Certain chief saints (the Apostles, the three holy hierarchs -- Sts. Basil, Gregory of Nazianzus, and John Chrysostom -- 30 January, the holy and equal-to-the-Apostles Sovereigns, Constantine and Helen, etc.) have middle feasts; all the others are lesser ones.某些行政圣人( - STS的nazianzus,罗勒,格雷戈里约翰金口 - 使徒们,这三个神圣的hierarchs 1月30日,神圣的和平等的使徒主权,君士坦丁和海伦等)有中间节日;所有其他较小的。The Sundays are named after the subject of their Gospel; the first Sunday of Lent is the feast of Orthodoxy (after Iconoclasm), the Saturdays before Meatless Sunday (our Sexagesima) and Whitsunday are All Souls' days.他们的福音的主题被命名后的星期日四旬期的第一个星期日是盛宴的正统(后破除迷信),无肉​​星期日之前的星期六(我们Sexagesima)和圣灵降临节是所有灵魂“天。 Our Trinity Sunday is their All Saints.我们的三位一体的星期天是他们所有的圣徒。Wednesdays and Fridays throughout the year are days of abstinence (Fortescue, "Orth. Eastern Church", 398-401).星期三和星期五是全年天禁欲(Fortescue的,“奥思东方教会”,398-401)。

Service-books服务的图书

The Byzantine Rite has no such compendiums as our Missal and Breviary; it is contained in a number of loosely arranged books.拜占庭成年礼我们Missal和祈祷书没有这样的汇编,它是一个松散的安排书籍的数量中。They are: the Typikon), a perpetual calendar containing full directions for all feasts and all possible coincidences.它们是:Typikon),万年历,包含所有节日和所有可能的巧合方向。The (Euchologion) contains the priest's part of the Hesperinos, Orthros, the three Liturgies, and other sacraments and sacramentals. (Euchologion)包含Hesperinos,Orthros,三个礼拜仪式,和其他圣礼和sacramentals牧师的一部分。The Triodion contains the variable parts of the Liturgy and Divine Office (except the psalms, Epistles, and Gospels) for the movable days from the tenth Sunday before Easter to Holy Saturday.Triodion包含动产天,从第十届周日复活节前的圣周六的礼仪和神圣办事处(除了诗篇,书信和福音)的可变部分。 Tbe Pentekostarion continues the Triodion from Easter Day to the first Sunday after Pentecost (All Saints' Sunday).TBE Pentekostarion继续从复活节到五旬节之后的第一个星期日(诸圣周日)Triodion。 The Oktoechos gives the Offices of the Sundays for the rest of the year (arranged according to the eight modes to which they are sung -- okto echoi) and the Parakletike is for the weekdays. Oktoechos给在今年余下时间的星期天(根据他们唱的八种模式 - 确定“echoi安排)办事处和Parakletike平日。The twelve Menaias, one for each month, contain the Proper of Saints; the Menologion is a shortened version of the Menaia, and the Horologion contains the choir's part of the day Hours.12 Menaias,每月包含正确的圣徒; Menologion是一个缩短的版本,在Menaia Horologion包含合唱团的一部分小时。 The Psalter (psalterion), Gospel (enaggelion), and Apostle (apostolos -- Epistles and Acts) contain the parts of the Bible read (Fortescue, "Orth. E. Ch.", 401-402; Nilles, "Kal. Man.", XLIV-LVI; Kattenbusch, "Confessionskunde", I, 478-486).诗篇(psalterion),福音(enaggelion),和使徒(阿波斯托洛 - 书信和行为)包含的部分“圣经”读(Fortescue的,“奥思E. CH。。”,401-402;尼耶,“卡尔的人。 “,XLIV - 56; Kattenbusch,”Confessionskunde“,我,478-486)。

The altar, vestments and sacred vessels坛,法衣和神圣的船只

A church of the Byzantine Rite should have only one altar.拜占庭礼仪的教会应该只有一个祭坛。In a few very large ones there are side-chapels with altars, and the Uniats sometimes copy the Latin multitude of altars in one church; this in an abuse that is not consistent with their rite.在几个非常大的,有副作用小礼拜堂与神坛,Uniats有时复制拉丁美洲许多在一个教堂的祭坛,这在滥用,是不符合他们的仪式。 The altar (he hagia trapeza) stands in the middle of the sanctuary (ierateion); it is covered to the ground with a linen cloth over which is laid a silk or velvet covering.祭坛(他哈吉亚trapeza)矗立在中间的庇护所(ierateion);,是用亚麻布这是奠定了丝绸或天鹅绒覆盖的地面覆盖。 The Euchologion, a folded antimension, and perhaps one or two other instruments used in the Liturgy are laid on it; nothing else. Euchologion,一个折叠antimension,或许奠定了它的礼仪中使用的一个或两个其他文书;没有别的。[See ALTAR (IN THE GREEK CHURCH).] Behind the altar, round the apse, are seats for priests with the bishop's throne in the middle (in every church). [见祭坛(在希腊教会)。]背后的祭坛,圆后殿,神父与主教的宝座在中间(每堂)的议席。On the north side of the altar stands a large credence-table (prothesis); the first part of the Liturgy is said here.论坛北侧矗立着一个大轻信表(假体)的礼仪的第一部分是在此间表示,。On the south side is the diakonikon, a sort of sacristy where vessels and vestments are kept; but it is in no way walled off from the rest of the sanctuary.南侧diakonikon,圣器收藏室保存船只和法衣,但它是在没有其他圣域壁关。The sanctuary is divided from the rest of the church by the ikonostasis (eikonostasis, picture-screen), a great screen stretching across the whole width and reaching high up to the roof (see sub-title The Iconostasis sv HISTORY OF THE CHRISTIAN ALTAR).该保护区被划分其余由ikonostasis教会(eikonostasis,图片屏幕),一个伟大的画面,在整个宽度伸展,并达到高至屋顶(见子标题基督教祭坛Iconostasis SV历史) 。On the outside it is covered with a great number of pictures of Christ and the saints, arranged in a more or less determined order (Christ always to the right of the royal doors and the Bl. Virgin on the left), before which rows of lamps are hung.在外面覆盖着大量的更或不太确定的顺序排列图片的基督和圣徒(基督总是皇家大门和左侧的“基本法”。维尔京权),前行灯红。 The ikonostasis has three doors, the "royal door" in the middle, the deacon's door to the south (right hand as one enters the church), and another door to the north. ikonostasis有三个门,中间的“皇家门”,执事的南大门(作为一个进入教堂的右手),另有北门。Between the royal door and the deacon's door the bishop has another throne facing the people.与皇家大门和执事的大门主教人民面临的另一个宝座。Immediately outside the ikonostasis is the choir.立即合唱团外ikonostasis。A great part of the services take place here.一个服务的很大一部分在这里举行。In the body of the church the people stand (there are no seats as a rule); then comes the narthex, a passage across the church at the west end, from which one enters by doors into the nave.在教会的人站在的身体(有没有座位作为一项规则),然后是前厅,整个教堂西端的通道,从其中一个进殿的门进入。Most of the funeral rites and other services take place in the narthex.大多数的葬礼及其他服务在前厅举行。Churches are roofed as a rule by a succession of low cupolas, often five (if the church is cross-shaped).教会屋顶为低冲天炉,往往五个继承的规则(如果教会是十字型)。In Russia there is generally a belfry.在俄罗斯,一般是有一个钟楼。The vestments were once the same as the Latin ones, though now they look very different.法衣是曾经作为拉丁美洲的相同,但现在他们看起来非常不同。It is a curious case of parallel evolution.它是一个平行进化的好奇情况。The bishop wears over his cassock the sticharion our alb; it is often of silk and coloured; then the epitrachelion, a stole of which the two ends are sewn together and hang straight down in front, with a loop through which the head is passed.主教穿在他的袈裟sticharion我们ALB,它往往是丝绸和彩色;然后epitrachelion,两端缝在一起,挂在前面直降偷,与通过它的头是通过循环。 The sticharion and epitrachelion are held together by the zone (girdle), a narrow belt of stuff with clasps. sticharion和epitrachelion一起举行由区(腰带),窄腰带扣的东西。Over the wrists he wears the epimanikia, cuffs or gloves with the part for the hand cut off.在手腕,他穿着epimanikia,袖口或手套,与部分切断手。From the girdle the epigonation, a diamond-shaped piece of stuff, stiffened with cardboard, hangs down to the right knee.从腰部epigonation,一个菱形的一块东西,加筋与纸板,垂右膝。Lastly, he wears over all the sakkos, a vestment like our dalmatic.最后,他带着所有的sakkos,像我们的dalmatic法衣。Over the sakkos comes the omophorion.在sakkos omophorion来的。This is a great pallium of silk embroidered with crosses.这是一个伟大的丝绸披肩绣与十字架。There is also a smaller omophorion for some rites.也有一些礼仪较小omophorion。He has a pectoral cross, an enkolpion (a medal containing a relic), a mitre formed of metal and shaped like an imperial crown, and a dikanikion, or crosier, shorter than ours and ending in two serpents between which is a cross.他有一个胸鳍交叉,enkolpion(勋章含有舍利子),尖角形成的金属,状如皇冠,dikanikion,或牧杖,短比我们在两蛇之间这是一个跨结束。 To give his blessing in the Liturgy he uses the trikerion in his right and the dikerion in his left hand.为了给他的祝福,在礼仪,他使用他的权利和左手dikerion的trikerion。These are a triple and double candlestick with candles.这是三和双烛台与蜡烛。The priest wears the sticharion, epitrachelion, zone, and epimanikia.祭司穿的sticharion,epitrachelion,区域和epimanikia。If he is a dignitary he wears the epigonation and (in Russia) the mitre also.如果他是一个权贵,他还戴着epigonation和(俄罗斯)的尖角。Instead of a sakkos he has a phainolion, our chasuble, but reaching to the feet behind and at the sides, and cut away in front (see CHASUBLE and illustrations).而是一个sakkos他有一个phainolion,我们chasuble,但深远的后面,并在双方的脚,并减少在前面(见CHASUBLE和插图)。 The deacon wears the sticharion and epimanikia, but no girdle.执事穿sticharion和epimanikia,但没有腰带。His stole is called an orarion; it is pinned to the left shoulder and hangs straight down, except that he winds it around his body and over the right shoulder at the Communion.他偷走了被称为orarion;它固定到左肩和挂断直下,除了他缭绕他的身体和在右肩在共融。It is embroidered with the word "HAGIOS" three times.它是绣字“HAGIOS”三次。A very common abuse (among Melkites too) is for other servers to wear the orarion.一个非常常见的滥用(其中包括Melkites太)是穿orarion其他服务器。This is expressly forbidden by the Council of Laodicea (c. 360, can. xxii).这是明文禁止的老底嘉理事会(C. 360,可以的。XXII)。The Byzantine Rite has no sequence of liturgical colours.拜占庭成年礼没有序列的礼仪色彩。They generally use black for funerals, otherwise any colours for any day.他们一般采用黑色葬礼,否则任何颜色的任何一天。The vessels used for the holy Liturgy are the chalice and paten (diskos), which latter is much larger than ours and has a foot to stand it (it is never put on the chalice), the asteriskos (a cross of bent metal that stands over the paten to prevent the veil from touching the holy bread), the spoon (labis) for giving Communion, the spear (logche) to cut up the bread, and the fan (hripidion) which the deacon waves over the Blessed Sacrament -- this is a flat piece of metal shaped like an angel's head with six wings and a handle.神圣的礼仪中所使用的船只是圣杯和金属制平碟(diskos),其中后者是比我们大很多,有一只脚站在它(这是从来没有把酒杯),asteriskos(一个弯曲的金属十字站在金属制平碟,防止触摸神圣的面包的面纱),勺子给共融,矛(logche)削减了面包,和风扇(hripidion)(labis)对圣体的执事波 - 这是一个扁平的金属片形如天使的头六个翅膀和处理。The antimension) is a kind of corporal containing relics that is spread out at the beginning of the Liturgy. antimension)是一种体罚包含文物的礼仪开始蔓延。It is really a portable altar.这实在是一种便携式的祭坛。The Holy Bread (always leavened of course) is made as a flat loaf marked in squares to be cut up during the Proskomide with the letters IC.圣面包(总是熘当然)是要削减在以字母集成电路Proskomide广场标志着一个扁平的面包。XC.越野。NI.倪。KA.KA。(Iesous Christos nika). (Iesous克里斯托尼卡)。In the diakonikon a vessel is kept with hot water for the Liturgy (Fortescue, op. cit., 403-409; "Echos d'Orient", V, 129-139; R. Storff, "Die griech. Liturg.", 13-14). diakonikon船只保持热水的礼仪(Fortescue的,同上,403-409;。“回声报”D'东方“,第五,129-139; R. Storff,”。模具griech Liturg“ 13日至14日)。

Church music教会音乐

The singing in the Byzantine Rite is always unaccompanied.在拜占庭成年礼的歌声始终是无人陪伴。 No musical instrument of any kind may be used in their churches.可用于任何形式的乐器在他们的教堂。They have a plain chant of eight modes that correspond to ours, except that they are numbered differently; the four authentic modes (Doric, Phrygian, Lydian, and Mixolydian -- our 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 7th) come first, then the Plagal modes (our 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th).他们有八种模式,符合我们的平原高唱,除不同,它们的编号;四个正宗模式(多立克式,弗里吉亚,吕底亚,和Mixolydian - 我们的第一,第三,第五,和7日)是第一位的,然后我们的第二,第四,第六和第八Plagal模式。But their scales are different.但他们的尺度是不同的。Whereas our plainsong is strictly diatonic, theirs is enharmonic with variable intervals.而我们的plainsong是严格全音阶,是他们与可变间隔enharmonic。They always sing in unison and frequently change the mode in the middle of a chant.他们总是异口同声地唱,诵中的模式,并经常改变。One singer (generally a boy) sings the dominant (to ison) of the mode to the sound of A continuously, while the rest execute their elaborate pneums (see PLAIN CHANT).一个歌手(通常是一个男孩)唱主导模式(ISON)的声音,一个不断,而其余的执行他们的精心pneums(见平原高唱)。 The result is generally -- to our ears -- unmelodious and strange, though in some cases a carefully trained choir produces a fine effect.结果是 - 我们的耳朵 - unmelodious和奇怪,但在某些情况下,仔细训练有素的合唱团,产生了良好的效果。One of the best is that of St. Anne's (Melkite) College at Jerusalem, trained by the French Pères Blancs.其中最好的是圣安妮(Melkite)在耶路撒冷学院由法国佩雷斯Blancs训练。One of these, Père Rebours, has written an exhaustive and practical treatise of their chant ("Traité de psaltique" etc.; see bibliography).书面的Père Rebours,其中之一,他们高唱的详尽和实用的论文(“条约psaltique”等;见参考书目)。In Russia and lately, to some extent, in the metropolitan church of Athens they sing figured music in parts of a very stately and beautiful kind.在俄罗斯,最近,在一定程度上,他们在雅典的大都会教堂唱想通在一个非常庄严和美丽的一种的音乐。It is probably the most beautiful and suitable church music in the world.这可能是在世界上最美丽,最合适的教堂音乐。

The Holy Liturgy神圣的礼仪

The present use of the Byzantine Rite confines the older Liturgy of St. Basil to the Sundays in Lent (except Palm Sunday), Maundy Thursday, and Holy Saturday, also the eves of Christmas and the Epiphany, and St. Basil's feast (1 January).目前使用的拜占庭成年礼范围圣罗勒在四旬期星期日(棕榈周日除外),濯足节,和圣周六,圣诞节和主显节前夕的旧礼仪,和圣罗勒的盛宴(1月1日)。 On all other days on which the Liturgy is celebrated they use that of St. Chrysostom.庆祝他们使用圣金口礼仪是在所有其他的日子。But on the weekdays in Lent (except Saturdays) they may not consecrate, so they use for them the Liturgy of the Presanctified.但在四旬期平日(星期六除外),他们可能不奉献,所以他们为他们使用的Presanctified礼仪。 An Orthodox priest does not celebrate every day, but as a rule only on Sundays and feast-days.一个东正教的神父并不庆祝每一天,但作为一个规则,只有在星期日和盛宴天。the Uniats, however, in this, as in many other ways, imitate the Latin custom. Uniats,然而,在此,在其他许多方面,模仿拉丁定制。They also have a curious principle that the altar as well as the celebrant must be fasting, that is to say that it must not have been used already on the same day.他们也有一个奇怪的原则,坛,以及监礼人必须禁食,这就是说,它不能被用来在同一天已经。So there is only one Liturgy a day in an Orthodox Church.因此,有只有一个礼仪,每天在东正教教堂。Where many priests are present they concelebrate, all saying the Anaphora together over the same offerings.许多牧师,他们concelebrate,都说相同产品的照应。This happens nearly always when a bishop celebrates; he is surrounded by his priests, who celebrate with him.出现这种情况几乎总是一个主教庆祝时,他是由他的祭司,与他庆祝的人包围。The Liturgy of St. Chrysostom, as being the one commonly used, is always printed first in the Euchologia.圣金口礼仪,常用的,始终是第一次印刷的Euchologia。It is the framework into which the others are fitted and the greater part of the Liturgy is always said according to this form.它是安装到其他大部份的礼仪总是说,按照这种形式的框架。After it are printed the prayers of St. Basil (always much longer) which are substituted for some of the usual ones when his rite is used, and then the variants of the Liturgy of the Presanctified.后印刷圣罗勒(总是长得多),这对于一些使用时,他的仪式是平常的,然后礼仪的Presanctified变种取代的祈祷。 The Liturgies of Basil and Chrysostom, then, differing only in a certain number of the prayers, may be described together.罗勒和金口礼仪,那么,不同的只有在一定数量的祈祷,可能会在一起。

The first rubric directs that the celebrant must be reconciled to all men, keep his heart from evil thoughts, and be fasting since midnight.第一个专栏指导的证婚必须协调所有的人,远离邪恶的想法,他的心脏,并自午夜开始禁食。At the appointed hour (usually immediately after None) the celebrant and deacon (who communicates and must therefore also be fasting) say the preparatory prayers before the ikonostasis (Brightman, op. cit., 353-354), kiss the holy ikons, and go into the diakonikon.监礼人及执事(通信,因此也必须禁食)在指定的时间(通常后没有立即)说,筹备祈祷之前ikonostasis(布莱曼,同上,353-354),亲吻神圣的ikons,进入的diakonikon。 Here they vest, the celebrant blessing each vestment as it is put on, say certain prayers, and wash their hands, saying verses 6-12 of Psalm 25 ("Lavabo inter innocentes" etc., op. cit., 354-356).在这里,他们背心,礼祝福每法衣,因为它是把,说一定祈祷,并勤洗手,说经文诗篇25 6-12(“洗手盆间innocentes”等,同上,354-356) 。Then the first part of the Liturgy, the Preparation of the Offering (proskomide) begins at the credence table (prothesis).然后第一部分的礼仪,​​准备开始发售(proskomide)在凭证表(假体)。The loaves of bread (generally five) are marked in divisions as described above under the caption Altar, etc. The celebrant cuts away with the holy lance the parts marked IC.面包饼(一般为5)标记在师以上所述与圣枪标有IC的部分标题下的祭坛,等礼削减。XC.越野。NI.倪。KA., and says: "The Lamb of God is sacrificed."KA,并说:“上帝的羔羊,是牺牲。”These parts are then called the Lamb.这些部件称为羔羊。The deacon pours wine and warm water into the chalice.执事倒入酒杯葡萄酒和温水。Other parts of the bread are cut away in honour of the All-holy Theotokos, nine for various saints, and others for the bishop, Orthodox clergy, and various people for whom he wishes to pray.面包的其他部分被切断在纪念全圣Theotokos,九个不同的圣人,和其他主教,东正教神职人员,和不同的人,他愿祈祷。 This rite is accompanied by many prayers, the particles (prosphorai) are arranged on the diskos (paten) by the Lamb (that of the Theotokos on the right, because of the verse "The Queen stands at thy right hand". A long rubric explains all this), covered with the asteriskos and veils, and the offerings are repeatedly incensed.这个仪式是由许多祈祷的陪同下,颗粒(prosphorai)安排diskos(金属制平碟)(上的权利Theotokos,因为“女王代表在你的右手”的诗句的羔羊。一个长期专栏解释这一切),覆盖asteriskos和面纱,并一再激怒冥。 The deacon then incenses the prothesis, altar, sanctuary, nave, and the celebrant.执事然后incenses假体,坛,避难所,中殿,和证婚。(A detailed account of the now elaborate rite of the Proskomide is given in the "Echos d'Orient", III, 65-78.) They then go to the altar, kiss the Gospel on it and the deacon holding up his orarion says: It is time to sacrifice to the Lord. (一个详细交代的Proskomide现在精心制作的仪式是在“回声报”东方“,三,65-78。),他们然后去到祭坛,亲吻了福音和执事,他orarion说:这是牺牲,向上帝祷告的时间。 Here begin the Litanies (ektenai or synaptai).在这里开始的Litanies(ektenai或synaptai)。The doors of the ikonostasis are opened, and the deacon goes out through the north door. ikonostasis门被打开,通过北门和执事熄灭。Standing before the royal doors he chants the Great Litany, praying for peace, the Church, the patriarch or synod (in Orthodox countries for the sovereign and his family), the city, travellers, etc., etc. To each clause the choir answer "Kyrie eleison".站在皇家门之前,他歌颂伟大的祷文,祈求和平,教会,族长或主教(东正教国家主权和他的家人),城市,旅客,等,等,对每一个条款合唱团答案“垂怜”。 Then follows the first antiphon (on Sundays Ps. cii), and the celebrant at the altar says a prayer.接着第一安提(星期日诗篇。CII),并在祭坛的证婚说祈祷。The Short Litany is sung in the same way (the clauses are different, Brightman, op. cit., 362-375) with an antiphon and prayer, and then a third litany; on Sundays the third antiphon is the Beatitudes.以同样的方式(是不同的条文,布莱曼,同上,362-375。)安提和祈祷,然后第三个长篇累牍的短祷文是唱;上周日第三安提是真福。

The Little Entrance“小入口

Here follows the Little Entrance.这里如下小入口。The deacon has gone back to the celebrant's side.执事已经回到监礼人的身边。They come out through the north door in procession, the deacon holding the book of the Gospels, with acolytes bearing candles.他们通过北门,执事与追随者轴承蜡烛的福音书,在游行。The troparia (short hymns) are sung, ending with the Trisagion: "Holy God, Holy Strong One, Holy Immortal One, have mercy on us" (three times) ; then "Glory be to the Father", etc. "As it was in the beginning", etc. -- and again "Holy God", etc. Meanwhile the celebrant says other prayers.圣颂(短期圣歌)唱,结束的诗歌:“圣洁的神,圣强之一,一个神圣的不朽,怜悯我们”(三次),然后“光荣的父亲”等,因为它“在开始“等 - ”神圣的上帝“等同时在监礼说,其他的祈祷。A reader sings the Epistle; a Gradual is sung; the deacon sings the Gospel, having incensed the book; more prayers follow.一位读者唱的书信;一个渐进的唱歌;执事唱福音,激怒了书,更祈祷遵循。Then come prayers for the catechumens, and they are dismissed by the deacon: "All catechumens go out. Catechumens go out. All catechumens go away. Not one of the catechumens [shall stay]."然后来为慕道者祈祷,并驳回他们执事:“所有慕道者走出去慕道出去所有慕道消失的慕道[应留]。。。”-- Of course nowadays there are no catechumens.- 当然,现在有没有慕道。The prayers for the catechumens bring us to the first variant between the two Liturgies.为慕道者祈祷,为我们带来了两者之间的礼仪的第一个变种。The one said by the celebrant is different (and, as an exception, shorter) in St. Basil's rite (Brightman, op. cit., 374 and 401).一说由监礼人是不同的,在圣罗勒的成年礼(布莱曼,前引书,374和401)(,作为例外,较短)。 The deacon says, "All the faithful again and again pray to the Lord in peace", and repeats several times the curious exclamation "Wisdom!"执事说,“所有的信徒,一次又一次地祈求和平的主”,并重复几次好奇的惊叹号“的智慧!”(sophia) that occurs repeatedly in the Byzantine Rite -- before the Gospel he says "Wisdom! Upright!" (索菲亚),反复出现在拜占庭成年礼 - 福音前,他说:“智慧直立!!”-- sophia.- 索菲亚。orthoi., meaning that the people should stand up.orthoi。意义,人应该站起来。

The Liturgy of the Faithful礼仪的忠诚

The Liturgy of the Faithful begins here.礼仪的忠实从这里开始。Prayers for the faithful follow (different in the two rites, Brightman, op. cit., 375-377 and 400-401); and then comes the dramatic moment of the Liturgy, the Great Entrance.忠实遵循的祈祷(在不同的两个仪式,布莱曼,同上,375-377和400-401。);然后是礼仪,大门口的激动人心的时刻。 The celebrant and deacon go to the prothesis, the offerings are incensed.监礼人及执事去的假体,该产品是气愤。The deacon covers his shoulders with the great veil (see ÆR) and takes the diskos (paten) with the bread; the thurible hangs from his hand; the celebrant follows with the chalice.执事涵盖他的肩膀上,伟大的面纱(见AER),并与面包的diskos(金属制平碟); thurible从他的手挂起;证婚与圣杯如下。Acolytes go in front and form a solemn procession.随从走在了前面,并形成一个庄严的游行。Meanwhile the choir sings the Cherubic Hymn (Cheroubikos hymnos): "Let us, who mystically represent the Cherubim, and who sing to the Life-giving Trinity the thrice holy hymn, put away all earthly cares so as to receive the King of all things [here the procession comes out through the north door] escorted by the army of angels. Alleluia, alleluia, alleluia."同时,合唱团唱的天真无邪的歌(Cheroubikos hymnos):“让我们,那些神秘代表基路伯,和谁唱的赋予生命的三位一体三次神圣的赞歌,收起所有尘世的关心,这样才能收到万物之王[在这里游行出来,通过北门]天使军队护送。哈里路亚,哈里路亚,哈里路亚。“ The procession goes meanwhile all round the church and enters the sanctuary by the royal doors.游行去同时全方位教会和皇家门进入避难所。The Cherubic Hymn has a very elaborate and effective melody (Rebours, op. cit., 156-164) with almost endless pneums.天真无邪的歌有一个几乎是无限的pneums非常复杂和有效的旋律(Rebours,同上,156-164)。This ceremony, with its allusion to the entrance of the "King of all things" before the offerings are consecrated, is a curious instance of a dramatic representation that anticipates the real moment of the Consecration.这个仪式,其入口处的“万物之王”之前的产品奉献的典故,好奇的实例是一个戏剧性的代表性,预计奉献的真正时刻。 After some more prayers at the altar, different in the two liturgies, the deacon cries out, "The doors! The doors! Let us attend in wisdom", and the doors of the ikonostasis are shut.在祭坛上,在两个礼仪不同的祈祷多一些后,执事大声呼喊:“门!门!让我们参加智慧”,并ikonostasis大门被关闭。 The Creed is then sung.然后唱的信条。

The Anaphora (Canon)照应(佳能)

Here begins the Anaphora (Canon).这里开始照应(佳能)。There is first a dialogue, "Lift up your hearts" etc., as with us, and the celebrant begins the Eucharistic prayer: "It is meet and just to sing to Thee, to bless Thee, praise Thee and give thanks to Thee in all places. . . ."第一次对话,“抬起你的心”等,作为我们,监礼始于圣体圣事的祷告:“这是满足,只是唱给你,保佑你,赞美你,感谢祢所有的地方。“ The form in St. Basil's Rite is much longer.在圣罗勒的成年礼是更长的时间。It is not said aloud, but at the end he lifts up his voice and says: "Crying, singing, proclaiming the hymn of victory and saying:" -- and the choir sings "Holy, Holy, Holy" etc., as in our Mass. Very soon, after a short prayer (considerably longer in St. Basil's Rite) the celebrant comes to the words of Institution.它不是大声说,但在最后他举起他的声音,说:“哭,唱歌,宣告胜利的赞歌,说:” - 合唱团唱“神圣的,神圣的,神圣的”等中,我们的马萨诸塞州很快,在一个简短的祈祷(在圣罗勒的成年礼)监礼来的话,机构。He lifts up his Voice and sings: "Take and eat: this is my Body that is broken for you for the forgiveness of sins"; and through the Ikonostasis the choir answers "Amen".他举起了他的声音唱道:“拿吃:这是我的身体,是为你打破赦罪的”;通过Ikonostasis合唱团答案“阿们”。 Then: "Drink ye all of this, this is my Blood of the New Testament that is shed for you and for many for the forgiveness of sins."然后:“你们都喝这一切,这是我的新约,是为您和许多赦罪的流的血。”R. Amen -- as before.R.阿门 - 和以前一样。The Orthodox, as is known, do not believe that these words consecrate, so they go straight on to the Anamnesis, and a special rubric in their Euchologion (ed. Venice, 1898, p. 63) warns them not to make any reverence here.正统,众所周知,不相信这些话奉献,让他们去直上的病历,并在他们Euchologion的特别专栏(主编威尼斯,1898年,第63页)警告他们这里不作任何崇敬。 The Uniats, on the other hand, make a profound reverence after each form.Uniats,另一方面,使每个表单后的一个深刻的崇敬。 The Anamnesis (our "Unde et memores") again is longer in the Basilian Liturgy.病历(“Unde等memores”),再次是在Basilian礼仪。The Epiklesis follows. Epiklesis如下。The deacon invites the celebrant in each case: "Bless, sir, the holy bread [or wine]."执事请监礼人在每一种情况下:“保佑,主席先生,圣面包[或葡萄酒]。”The two forms (of Basil and Chrysostom) may stand as specimens of the principle of abbreviation that distinguishes the later rite.这两种形式(罗勒和金口)的立场作为标本的原则,即区分后来的成年礼的缩写。In St. Basil's Liturgy it is: "We pray and beseech thee, O Holy of Holy ones, that according to the mercy of thy favour thy Holy Spirit come down on us and on these present gifts to bless them, sanctify them and to make"在圣罗勒的礼仪,它是:“我们祈祷,求你,澳神圣的神圣的,根据你赞成你的圣灵的怜悯,我们和这些送礼祝福他们,使他们成圣,使" (Chrysostom: "Send down thy Holy Spirit on us and on these present gifts.").(金口:“我们和这些送礼送下来你圣灵 "). Then, after an irrelevant interpolation, with two verses from Ps.然后,一个不相干的插值后,有两个从诗的诗句。 l about the celebrant's own soul, he continues (Basil): "this bread the precious Body itself of our Lord and God and Saviour Jesus Christ" (Chrys.: "and make this bread the precious Body of thy Christ").升约证婚自己的灵魂,他继续(罗勒):“这个面包宝贵的身体我们的上帝和上帝和救主耶稣基督”(Chrys.:“使这个面包宝贵的身体你的基督”)。 Deacon: "Amen. Bless, Sir, the holy chalice."执事:“ 阿门保佑,主席先生,神圣的圣杯”Celebrant (Basil): "But this chalice the Precious Blood itself of our God and Saviour Jesus Christ" (Chrys.: "And what it is in this Chalice the precious Blood of Thy Christ").礼(罗勒)说:“但是,这个圣杯本身就是我们的上帝和救主耶稣基督的宝血”(Chrys.:“在这个圣杯是你的基督的宝血”)。 Deacon: "Amen. Bless, Sir, both."执事:“ 阿门保佑,主席先生,无论是”Celebrant (Basil): "That was shed for the life and salvation of the world" (Chrys.: "Changing it by thy Holy Spirit").礼(罗勒):(Chrys.:“改变你的圣灵”)“这是世界的生命和救恩棚”。Deacon: "Amen. Amen. Amen."执事:“ 阿门阿门阿门”Both then make a deep prostration, and the deacon waves the ripidion (fan) over the Blessed Sacrament.然后作出了深刻的虚脱,执事波ripidion在圣体(风扇)。This ceremony, now interpreted mystically as a symbol of adoring angels, was certainly once a practical precaution.这个仪式,现在解释为神秘崇拜天使的象征,是一次实际的预防措施。They have no pall over the chalice and there is a danger of flies.他们没有对圣杯的阴云,并有一个苍蝇的危险。The waving of the ripidion occurs several times during the Liturgy.挥舞的ripidion过程中出现的礼仪多次。In the Byzantine Rite, as in all the Antiochene family of liturgies, the Intercession follows at this point.在拜占庭成年礼,在所有的安提阿学派礼仪家庭一样,在这一点上代祷如下。First comes a memory of saints; the deacon then reads the Diptychs of the Dead, and the celebrant says a prayer into which he may introduce the names of any of the faithful departed for whom he wishes to pray.首先是圣人的记忆;执事,然后读取死者的Diptychs,监礼说,到他可能会引入任何的忠实离开他希望为他们祈祷的名称祈祷。 Prayers for the living follow (in Russia for the second time occur the names of "Our Orthodox and Christ-loving Lord Nicholas, Czar and Autocrat of all the Russias" and of all his "right-believing and God-fearing" family), with the names of the patriarch (or Synod) and metropolitan, and the ending; "and all [masc.] and all [fem.]" kai panton kai pason.生活遵循的祈祷(第二次在俄罗斯发生的“我们的东正教和基督爱主尼古拉,全俄罗斯沙皇和独裁者”,他所有的“正确的信仰和敬畏上帝”家庭的名称),族长(或主教)和城域网,截至名称;“和所有[MASC。]和所有[FEM。”启潘启pason。 The deacon then reads the Diptychs of the Living; more prayers for them follow.执事,然后读取Diptychs生活;更多的祈祷,为他们遵循。Here ends the Anaphora.在这里结束的照应。The celebrant blesses the people: "The mercy of our great God and Saviour Jesus Christ be with all of you."证婚祝福的人说:“我们伟大的神和救主耶稣基督的怜悯与大家。”Choir: "And with thy spirit."合唱团:“用你的精神。”And the deacon goes out to his place before the ikonostasis and reads a litany, praying for various spiritual and temporal favours, to each clause of which the choir answers: "Kyrie eleison", and at the last clause -- "Having prayed in the union of faith and in the communion of the Holy Ghost, let us commend ourselves and one another and our whole life to Christ, our God."和执事熄灭他之前ikonostasis的地方,并读取一个长篇累牍,各种精神和时间,有利于,祈祷,每个合唱团答案,其中第:“垂怜”,并在最后一句 - “我在祈祷联盟的信心和圣灵的共融,让我们赞扬自己,彼此和我们的整个生命基督,我们的上帝。“To Thee, O Lord (Soi, Kyrie).给你,耶和华(SOI,垂怜)。---

Meanwhile the celebrant says a long prayer silently.同时监礼说默默很长的祷告。The people sing the Lord's Prayer, and the celebrant adds the clause: For Thine is the Kingdom" etc. The Inclination follows. The deacon says, "Bow your heads to the Lord" (our "Humiliate capita vestra Domino"); they answer, "To Thee, O Lord", and the celebrant says the Prayer of Inclination (different in the two Liturgies). The preparation for Communion begins here. The deacon winds his orarion (stole) around his body, the curtain of the royal doors (they have besides the doors a curtain that is continually drawn backward and forward during the Liturgy) is drawn back, and the celebrant elevates the Holy Eucharist saying, "Holy things for the holy", to which the answer is: "One only is holy, one only is Lord, Jesus Christ in the glory of God the Father.人民唱主祷文,和证婚添加条款:是你的王国你的头弓主“(我们的”羞辱人均vestra骨牌“);他们回答”等倾斜如下执事说,“。 ,“给你,耶和华”,而证婚说,倾斜的祈祷(在两个礼仪不同的)。圣餐准备从这里开始。执事风围绕着他的身体他orarion(偷),皇家门窗帘(他们除了门有一个不断制定向后和向前的窗帘在礼仪)绘制,并监礼说,“神圣的圣物”,答案是:“不仅是提升了圣体圣事是圣洁的,只有主耶稣基督的父神的荣耀。 Amen." The Communion hymn (koinonikon) of the day is sung, and the Communion begins. While the clergy Communicate in the Sanctuary a sermon is sometimes preached. The celebrant breaks the Holy Bread into four parts, as it is marked, and arranges them on the diskos thus: --阿们。“当天共融的赞歌(koinonikon)是宋,与共融开始。神职人员沟通的说教,有时鼓吹保护区监礼人分成四个部分神圣的面包,因为它是标记,并安排diskos从而: -

      ISNIKAXS (Where I=Iota, S=Sigma)ISNIKAXS(其中i = IOTA,S =西格玛)

He puts the fraction marked (IOTA-SIGMA) into the chalice, and the deacon again pours into it a little warm water (the use of warm water is a very old peculiarity of this rite).The part marked (CHI-SIGMA) is divided into as many parts as there are priests and deacons to Communicate.他把酒杯标记(IOTA - SIGMA)的分数,和执事再次倒少许温水(使用温水是一个很老的特殊性,这个仪式)。部分标记(智SIGMA)分为许多部分,有牧师和执事沟通。 Meanwhile, prayers are said; those about to Communicate ask pardon of their offences against each other.同时,祈祷说,有关通信的要求互相反对赦免他们的罪行。The celebrant says, "Behold I draw near to our immortal King" etc., and receives Holy Communion in the form of bread, saying: The precious and all-holy Body of Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ is given to me N. priest [or bishop] for the forgiveness of my sins and for life everlasting." Then he says, "Deacon, approach". and gives him Communion with the same form (To thee N. deacon etc.). The celebrant then drinks of the chalice with a corresponding form -- The precious and all-holy Blood -- and communicates the deacon as before. After Communion each says silently a very beautiful prayer -- I believe, Lord, and I confess that Thou art in very truth Christ, the Son of the living God etc. (Brightman, op. cit., 394.) The rest of the clergy are Communicated from the portion marked (IOTA-SIGMA), that has been put into the chalice and is therefore soaked in the consecrated wine, with one form (The precious and all-holy Body and Blood). The celebrant divides the portions marked NI and KA, and the deacon puts them into the chalice with a sponge. The doors are opened and the deacon says, "Draw near in the fear of God and with faith". The celebrant comes down to the doors with the chalice and the spoon and communicates the people with the Holy Bread dipped in the chalice, and with one form, as before. The people stand to receive Communion (the Byzantine Rite knows practically no kneeling at all). Finally, the deacon puts all the remaining particles into the chalice and carries it back to the prothesis. Those other particles (prosphora) originally cut off from the bread have lain on the diskos (paten) since the proskomide. It has been a great question whether they are consecrated or not. The Orthodox now say that they are not, and the deacon puts them into the chalice after the Communion. It is obviously a question of the celebrant's intention. The Uniat priests are told to consecrate them too, and in their Liturgy the people receive in Communion (Fortescue, op. cit., 417; "Echos d'Orient", III, 71-73).监礼说,“看哪,我走近我们的不朽之王”等,并接收圣餐面包的形式,他说:贵金属和全圣洁的身体是我们的上帝和救主耶稣基督北路牧师给我[或主教]宽恕我的罪孽和永生。“他接着说,”执事,方法。“并赋予他具有相同的形式(你北路执事等)的共融。证婚饮料圣杯 - - 与相应的形式的珍贵和圣洁的所有血液和通信执事像以前那样在圣餐每个静静地说,一个非常美丽的祈祷 - 我相信,主,我承认在非常基督真理,你的艺术,传达标记的部分(IOTA SIGMA),已到圣杯的活着的上帝等(布莱曼,同上,394)。其余的神职人员的儿子,因此浸泡在奉献葡萄酒与某种形式(贵金属和全圣体血)。证婚分NI和KA的部分,和执事,他们将用海绵的圣杯。车门打开,执事说,“画附近的监礼人在上帝和信仰“。恐惧归结chalice和勺子门和通信的人与神圣的面包蘸在高脚酒杯,与一种形式,像以前一样。人民站接收共融(拜占庭成年礼知道,几乎没有跪在所有)。执事最后,放入酒杯所有剩余的颗粒,并拿它回假体。其他粒子(prosphora)原先削减从面包上diskos有说谎(金属制平碟)的proskomide以来已经被一个很大的问题是否他们是神圣的或没有。东正教现在说他们没有,和执事所说到的共融后圣杯他们。这是明显的监礼人的意图的问题Uniat祭司告诉他们过于神圣,并在其礼仪的人接受圣餐(Fortescue的,同上,417。“回声报”D'东方“,三,71-73)。

Dismissal解雇

Here begins the Dismissal.在这里开始解雇。The deacon unwinds his orarion, goes back to the choir before the ikonostasis, and says a short litany again with the choir.执事展开他的orarion,追溯到前ikonostasis合唱团,并说很短的长篇累牍与合唱团再次。He then goes to the prothesis and consumes all that is left of the Holy Eucharist with the prosphora.他接着假体和消耗所有是圣体圣事与prosphora左。Meanwhile, some of the bread originally cut up at the Prothesis has remained there all the time.同时,一些原来减少假体的面包一直有所有的时间。This is now brought to the celebrant, blessed by him, and given to the people as a sacramental (the French pain bénit -- see ANTIDORON).这是现在带来的证婚,祝福他,并给予作为圣礼(法国疼痛bénit - 见ANTIDORON)的人。 After some more prayers the celebrant and deacon go to the diakonikon, the doors are shut, they take off their vestments, and the Liturgy is over.一些更多的祷告后监礼人及执事去的diakonikon,门是关闭的,他们起飞的法衣,礼仪结束。The whole service is very much longer than our Mass. It lasts about two hours.整个服务是非常长于我们的马萨诸塞州,它持续了约两个小时。It should be noted that all the time that the choir are singing or litanies being said the priest is saying other prayers silently (mystikos).应该指出的是,所有的时间,合唱团歌唱或litanies正在说,牧师说其他默默祈祷(mystikos)。 The Byzantine Rite has no provision for low Mass. As they say the Liturgy only on Sundays and feast-days, they have less need for such a rite.拜占庭成年礼没有提供低马萨诸塞州,正如他们所说,只有在星期日和节日天的礼仪,他们不太需要这样一个仪式。In cases of necessity, where there is no deacon, the celebrant supplies his part as best he can.监礼人的必要性,那里是没有执事的情况下,最好的,他可以​​提供他的一部分。The Uniats, who have begun to celebrate every day, have evolved a kind of low Liturgy; and at the Greek College at Rome they have a number of little manuscript books containing an arrangement for celebrating with a priest and one lay server only. Uniats,他们已经开始庆祝每一天,都逐渐形成了一种低礼仪;在希腊在罗马学院,他们有一个小手稿包含一个牧师和一个庆祝安排书籍打下服务器只。 But in the Levant, at any rate, the Liturgy is always sung, and incense is always used; so that the minimum of persons required for the Liturgy is a celebrant, server, and one other man who forms the choir.但在地中海东部,无论如何,礼仪总是唱,和香总是用最低的礼仪所需的人,使一个证婚,服务器,和另外一个的人组成的合唱团。

Liturgy of the Presanctified礼仪的的Presanctified

Liturgy of the Presanctified礼仪的的Presanctified

The Liturgy of the Presanctified is fitted into the general framework of St. Chrysostom's Rite.礼仪的Presanctified安装到圣金口的成年礼的总体框架。It is usually celebrated on Wednesdays and Fridays in the first six weeks of Lent, and on all the days of Holy Week, except Maundy Thursday and Easter Eve which have the real Liturgy (of St. Basil).它通常是在周三和周五庆祝六年四旬期第一周,和所有的圣周的日子,除了濯足节和复活节前夕有真正的礼仪(圣罗勒)。 On other days in Lent there is no liturgical service at all.在四旬期其他天有没有在所有的礼仪服务。On the Sunday before more loaves (prosphorai) are used than otherwise.在周日,比以前更多的面包(prosphorai)用于否则。 The same rite of preparation is made over all.对所有相同仪式的准备工作。After the Elevation the celebrant dips the other prosphoras into the chalice with the spoon, and places it in another chalice in the tabernacle (artophorion) kept for this purpose.高程后礼骤降到用勺子圣杯其他prosphoras,并将其放置在另一个帐幕(artophorion)中的圣杯,它保存这个目的。 The Liturgy of the Presanctified is said after Vespers (hesperinos), which forms its first part.礼仪的Presanctified后晚祷(hesperinos)说,这形式的第一部分。There is of course no further Proskomide, but the preparatory prayers are said by celebrant and deacon as usual.当然还有没有进一步Proskomide,但筹备祈祷是由监礼人及执事说,像往常一样。The Great Litany is introduced into the middle of Vespers.大连祷晚祷中引入。The hymn phos ilaron (see below) is sung as usual, and the lessons are read.赞歌磷ilaron(见下文)唱歌像往常一样,是只读的教训。The prayers for catechumens and their dismissal follow.以下为慕道者祈祷和他们解雇。The Great Entrance is made with the already consecrated offerings, and a changed form of the Cherubic Hymn is sung (Maltzew, "Die Liturgien", 149).大门口已经奉献的产品,一个天真无邪的歌改变形式唱(Maltzew,“模具Liturgien”,149)。The curtain of the royal doors is half-drawn across, the whole Anaphora is omitted, and they go on at once to the Short Litany before the Lord's Prayer.皇家门的窗帘是半绘制跨越,整个照应省略,和他们去一次短祷文主祷文之前。The Lord's Prayer, Inclination, and Elevation with the form: "The presanctified Holy Things to the holy" follow.主祷文,倾角和高程的形式:“神圣presanctified的圣物”的跟进。Wine and warm water are poured into the chalice, but not, of course, consecrated.葡萄酒和温水倒入酒杯,但没有,当然,奉献。 Communion is given with one form only.圣餐是一个形式而已。The Blessed Sacrament already dipped in consecrated wine is now dipped in unconsecrated wine.圣体已经在神圣的葡萄酒,现在unconsecrated酒中蘸蘸。The celebrant drinks of this wine after his Communion without any prayer.这种酒礼饮料后,他的共融祈祷没有任何。The Liturgy ends as usual (with different forms in some parts), and the deacon consumes what is left of the Holy Eucharist (unless some of it is again reserved for the next Presanctified Liturgy and the wine in the Chalice. This is the merest outline of the rite. Its earlier part is inextricably joined to the Vespers (Maltzew, op. cit., 121-158).像往常一样的礼仪结束(在一些地区不同形式),和执事消耗一些,除非它是又预留未来Presanctified礼仪和圣杯酒是圣体圣事(这是微薄的大纲仪式。不可避免地加入到其先前的部分晚祷(Maltzew,同上,121-158)。

The Divine Office神圣的办公室

The Divine Office is very long and complicated.神圣的办公室是非常漫长而复杂的。When sung in choir it lasts about eight hours.在合唱团唱时,它会持续大约8个小时。It is said entirely only by monks.这是说完全只能由僧侣。Secular priests say part of it, as their devotion dictates.世俗教士说,它的一部分,为他们的奉献精神使然。The Uniats frequently apply to Rome to know what to do, and the answer is always: Servetur consuetudo, by which is meant that their secular clergy should say as much of the Office as is customary.Uniats经常适用于罗马知道该怎么做,答案永远是:Servetur consuetudo,这是意味着他们的世俗的神职人员的办公室,按照惯例应该说。It is impossible for them to say it all.他们说这一切是不可能的。The Office is divided into the hours named above (under Service-books) which correspond to ours, with additional short hours (mesoora) intermediate between Prime, Terce, Sext, None, and Vespers.办事处划分成以上(根据服务的图书)命名的时间,这符合我们的额外的小时(mesoora)总理,Terce,SEXT,无,和晚祷之间的中间。 It is made up of psalms, lessons, prayers, and especially of a great number of hymns in rhythmical prose.它是由诗篇,教训,祈祷,特别是大量的圣歌,有节奏的散文。The Psalter is divided into twenty parts called kathismata, each of which is made up of three sections (staseis).的psalter分为所谓kathismata的20个部分,其中每个是由三个部分(staseis)。The whole Psalter is sung every week.整个诗篇传唱每周。The most important of the many kinds of hymns are the following: A canon (kanon) is made up of nine odes corresponding to the nine canticles (of Moses, Exodus 15:1-19; Deuteronomy 32:1-43; of Anna, 1 Samuel 2:1-10; Habakkuk 3:2-19; Isaiah 26:9-20; Jonah 2:2-10; the Benedicite, Magnificat, and Benedictus) sung at Lauds.赞美诗多种最重要的有以下几种:佳能(KANON)9颂歌对应的九个canticle的(摩西出埃及记15:1-19;申命记32:1-43;安娜,撒母耳记上2:1-10;哈巴谷书3:2-19;​​以赛亚书26:9-20;约拿书2:2-10; Benedicite,尊,并Benedictus)宋赞扬。Of these canticles the second is sung only in Lent; therefore most canons have no second ode.这些canticle的第二个是宋仅在大斋期,因此大多数大炮没有第二颂歌。Each ode is supposed to correspond more or less to its canticle.每个ODE是应该或多或少地对应其颂歌。Thus the sixth ode will generally contain a reference to Jona's whale.因此,第六次ODE JONA的鲸鱼通常会包含一个参考。 Otherwise the canon is always about the feast on which it is sung, and much ingenuity is expended in forcing some connexion between the event of the day and the allusions in the canticles.否则,佳能始终关注的盛宴,它是宋,并迫使一些当天的事件,并在canticle的典故之间的联接花费很多别出心裁。 The odes are further divided into a heirmos and troparia of any number, from three to twenty or more.颂歌是进一步分为一个heirmos和任何数量的圣颂,三至二十或更多。The heirmos sets the tune for each ode (see PLAIN CHANT), and the troparia follow it. heirmos设置调整为每个ODE(见平原高唱),和圣颂遵循它。The last troparion of each ode always refers to Our Lady and is called theotokion.每个ODE最后troparion总是指圣母被称为诞神女颂。The odes often make an acrostic in their initial letters; sometimes they are alphabetic.颂歌往往使他们的首字母的acrostic;有时他们是按字母顺序排列。In long canons a poem is intercalated in the middle during which people may sit (they stand for nearly the whole Office); it is called theotokion.在长大炮一首诗是插在中间,在此期间,人可以坐在(他们的立场几乎整个办公室),它被称为诞神女颂。Three troparia form an kathisma ("house", cf. Italian stanza).三个圣颂形成kathisma(“房子”,比照意大利节)。The canons for the weekdays are in the Oktoechos, those for immovable feasts in the Menaias, for movable ones in the Triodion and Pentekostarion (see above under Service-books).平日大炮在Oktoechos,那些在Menaias不动产节日Triodion和Pentekostarion可移动的,(见上述服务的图书)。 One of the most famous of all is St. John Damascene's Golden Canon for Easter Day (translated by Dr. JM Neale in his "Hymns of the Eastern Church", 4th ed., London, pp. 30-44).其中所有最有名的的是圣约翰大马士革的黄金佳能复活节(JM尼尔博士翻译,第4版,伦敦,第30-44“东方教会的圣诗”)。 Other kinds of chant are the kontakion, a short poem about the feast, the stichos a versicle, generally from a psalm (like our antiphons), which introduces a sticheron, or hymn sung at Matins and Vespers.其他种类的咏叹,是集祷颂,有关盛宴的短诗,stichos一个短诗,一般从一个诗篇(像我们antiphons),它引入了一个sticheron,或赞美诗唱晨祷和晚祷。 An idiomelon is a troparion that has its own melody, instead of following a heirmos (for other kinds of chant see Nilles, "Kalend. Man.", pp. lvii-lxix, and the example he gives from the feast of the Transfiguration, 6 August).一个idiomelon是troparion有其自身的旋律,而不是按照一个heirmos(其他类型的咏叹看到尼耶,“Kalend人”,第LVII lxix,和例子,他给节日的变身, 8月6日)。The Great Doxology (doxologia) is our "Gloria in excelsis", the small one our "Gloria Patri".大Doxology(doxologia)是我们的“凯莱在excelsis”,小“凯莱Patri”。The Hymnos Akathistos ("standing hymn") is a complete Office in honour of Our Lady and of her Annunciation. Hymnos Akathistos(“站在赞歌”)是一个完整的Office在纪念我们的夫人和她的报喜。It has all the Hours and is made up of psalms, odes, etc., like other Offices.它具有所有的时间和诗篇,颂歌等,像其他办事处。 It is sung very solemnly on the Saturday before the second Sunday before Easter; and they sing parts of it every Friday evening and Saturday morning in Lent.这是唱的非常郑重地在星期六前复活节前的第二个星期日,他们唱的部分,每星期五晚上和星期六上午在四旬期。It is always sung standing.它始终是宋的地位。The Hymnos Akathistos is printed at the end of the Horologion.Hymnos Akathistos印在Horologion结束。P. de Meester, OSB, has edited it with an Italian translation (Akolouthia tou akathistou hymnou. -- Officio dell' inno acatisto, Rome, 1903).山口梅斯特,定向结构刨花板,先后编辑意大利语翻译(Akolouthia溪头akathistou hymnou - 委员戴尔“的创新acatisto,罗马,1903年)。At the end of Vespers every day is sung the famous phos ilaron, as the evening light disappears, and the lamps are lit: --在晚祷结束每一天都是宋代著名的磷酸ilaron,傍晚光线消失,灯点亮: -

Hail, gladdening Light, of his pure glory poured冰雹,gladdening光他的纯粹的荣耀,浇

Who is the immortal Father, heavenly, blest,谁是不朽的父亲,天堂乐土,布莱斯特,

Holiest of Holies, Jesus Christ, Our Lord.至圣,我们的主耶稣基督,最神圣的。

Now we are come to the sun's hour of rest,现在我们来太阳的休息时间,

The lights of evening round us shine,晚上我们周围的灯光闪耀,

We hymn the Father, Son and Holy Spirit divine,我们的赞歌圣父,圣子和圣灵神圣的,

Worthiest art Thou at all times to be sung在宋代的有价值的艺术你

With undefiled tongue,随着洁净的舌头,

Son of our God, giver of life alone.我们的上帝的儿子,独自生活的送礼者。

Therefore in all the world, thy glories, Lord, they own.因此,在这个世界上,你的荣耀,主,他们自己的。

-- Keble's translation in the "Hymns, Ancient and Modern", No. 18.- Keble“赞美诗,古代和现代”的翻译,第18号。

The Seven Great Mysteries (Sacraments)七个大秘(圣礼)

There are, lastly, services for the administration of the Seven Great Mysteries (the Seven Sacraments) that are printed in the Euchologion after the liturgies (ed. cit., pp. 136-288).最后,有Euchologion在印后的礼仪(编前引书,页136-288)的7大谜(七个圣礼)的管理服务。

Baptism洗礼

Baptism is always conferred by immersion (the Orthodox have grave doubts as to the validity of baptism by infusion. See Fortescue, Orth. E. Church, p. 420).洗礼总是赋予浸泡(东正教的洗礼输液的有效性严重质疑。Fortescue的,奥思E.教会,第420页)。The child is anointed all over its body and dipped three times with its face towards the east.孩子是受膏者所有它的身体和其面对向东蘸三次。The form is: "The servant of God N. is baptized in the name of the Father, Amen, and of the Son, Amen, and of the Holy Ghost, Amen."其形式是:“神N.的仆人是受洗的父亲的名字,阿门,和儿子,阿门,和圣灵,阿门。”

Confirmation确认

Confirmation follows at once and is conferred by priests (the Holy See recognizes this confirmation as valid and neither rebaptizes nor reconfirms converts from Orthodoxy).确认如下一次,是由祭司(罗马教廷认识到这一点确认为有效既不是rebaptizes,也没有再次确认从正统转换)授予。 The whole body is again anointed with chrism (to hagion hyron) prepared very elaborately with fifty-five various substances by the cumenical patriarch on Maundy Thursday (Fortescue, op. cit., 425-426).整个身体都再次受膏者chrism(hagion hyron)与各种物质的五十五个非常精心准备,濯足节(Fortescue的,同上,425-426)cumenical族长。The form is: "The seal of the gift of the Holy Ghost" (Euch., 136-144).其形式是:(Euch. 136-144)“圣灵的恩赐的印章”。 The Orthodox never rebaptize when they are sure of the validity of former baptism; but they reconfirm continually.东正教从未rebaptize当他们确定前的洗礼的有效性,但他们重申不断。Confirmation has become the usual rite of admittance into their Church, even in the case of apostates who have already been confirmed orthodoxly.确认已成为平常的准入的仪式到他们的教会,即使在那些已经被证实orthodoxly变节者的情况下。

Holy Communion圣餐

The pious Orthodox layman Communicates as a rule only four times a year, at Christmas, Easter, Whitsunday, and the Falling Asleep of the Mother of God (15 August).虔诚的东正教门外汉通信作为一项规则只有四次每年在圣诞节,复活节,圣灵降临节,神(8月15日)的母亲入睡。The Blessed Sacrament is reserved for the sick in the artophorion, (or ierophylakion) under both kinds more or less, that is to say it has been dipped into the chalice and allowed to dry.圣体是在artophorion生病了,(或ierophylakion)保留下两种或多或少,也就是说,它已经浸入到圣杯,允许干。 It is given to the sick with a spoon and with the usual form (see above under Holy Liturgy).这是给病人用勺子与通常的形式(见以上教廷礼仪)。They have no tradition of reverence for the reserved Eucharist.他们没有保留体圣事的传统的崇敬。

Penance忏悔

Penance (metanoia) is administered rarely, usually on the same occasions as Holy Communion.忏悔(metanoia)是管理的很少,通常在同一场合,作为圣餐。They have no confessionals.他们有没有告白。The ghostly father (pneumatikos) sits before the ikonostasis under the picture of Our Lord, the penitent kneels before him (one of the rare cases of kneeling is in this rite), and several prayers are said, to which the choir answers "Kyrie eleison".幽灵般的父亲(pneumatikos)坐镇,根据我们的主画面ikonostasis前忏悔,跪在他面前(在这个仪式是跪在极少数情况下),和几个祈祷说,合唱团答案“垂怜“。 The "choir" is always the penitent himself.“合唱团”始终是自己的忏悔。Then the ghostly father is directed to say "in a Cheerful voice: Brother, be not ashamed that you come before God and before me, for you do not confess to me but to God who is present here."幽灵般的父亲是导演说:“在一个欢快的声音:兄弟,不以为耻,你来到神的面前,我之前,为你不承认我,但上帝是谁在座” He asks the penitent his sins, says that only God can forgive him, but that Christ gave this power to his Apostles saying: "Whose sins ye shall forgive", etc., and absolves him with a deprecatory form in a long prayer in which occur the words: "May this same God, through me a sinner, forgive you all now and for ever."他问他的罪过的忏悔,说只有上帝能原谅他,但基督了这项权力,他的使徒说:“谁的罪过,你们应当原谅”等,并免去他在长期的祈祷与贬低的形式发生的话:“通过我这个神一样的5月,是一个罪人,原谅你所有现在和永远。” (Euch., pp. 221-223.) (Euch.,第221-223页。)

Holy Order圣阶

Holy Order (cheirotonia) is given by laying on the right hand only.圣阶(cheirotonia)是由铺设仅右手。The form is (for deacons): "The grace of God, that always strengthens the weak and fills the empty, appoints the most religious sub-deacon N. to be deacon. Let us then pray for him that the grace of the Holy Ghost may come to him."形式是(执事):“上帝的恩典,始终加强薄弱,填补了空,任命最虔诚的分执事北路要执事让我们再祈祷,为他的圣灵的恩典可能会来找他。“ Long prayers follow, with allusions to St. Stephen and the diaconate; the bishop vests the new deacon, giving him an orarion and a ripidion.长祈祷跟进,赤柱和diaconate典故;主教赋予新的执事,给他一个orarion一个ripidion。 For priests and bishops there is the same form, with the obvious variants, "the most religious deacon N. to be priest", or "the most religious elect N. to be Metropolitan of the holy Metropolis N."对于神父和主教有相同的形式,具有明显的变种,“最宗教的执事北路被牧师”,或“最虔诚的选举北路神圣都市报北路大都会”(nearly all their bishops have the title Metropolitan), and the subjects receive their vestments and instruments.(几乎所有他们的主教标题大都会),科目收到他们的法衣和文书。Priests and bishops concelebrate at once with the ordainer (Euch., 160-181).神父和主教concelebrate一次与ordainer(Euch. 160-181)。The Orthodox believe that the grace of Holy orders may perish through heresy or schism, so they generally reordain converts (the Russian Church has officially refused to do this, Fortescue, op. cit., 423-424).东正教认为传戒的宽限期可能通过异端邪说或分裂灭亡,所以他们一般reordain转换(俄罗斯教会已正式拒绝这样做,Fortescue的运算。CIT,423-424)。

Matrimony婚姻

Matrimony (gamos) is often called the "crowning" (stephanoma) from the practice of crowning the spouses (Euch., 238-252).婚姻(gamos)通常被称为“加冕”(stephanoma)加冕的配偶(Euch. 238-252)的做法。They wear these crowns for a week, and have a special service for taking them off again (Euch., 252).他们穿了一个星期的冠,并把他们再次关闭(Euch. 252)有一个特殊的服务。

The Anointing of the Sick恩膏的病

The Anointing of the Sick (euchelaion) is administered (when possible) by seven priests.有病的恩膏(euchelaion)管理(如果可能)由七个祭司。The oil contains as a rule wine, in memory of the Good Samaritan.油中含有酒作为一项规则,在内存的好撒马利亚人。It is blessed by a priest just before it is used.它是使用前的一个牧师祝福。They use a very long form invoking the all-holy Theotokos, the "moneyless physicians" Sts.他们用一个很长的的形式调用所有的圣洁Theotokos,“moneyless医生”STS。Cosmas and Damian, and other saints.Cosmas和达米安,和其他的圣人。They anoint the forehead, chin, cheeks, hands, nostrils, and breast with a brush.他们膏刷额头,下巴,脸颊,手,鼻孔,和乳腺癌。 Each priest present does the same (Euch., 260-288).每个牧师目前不相同(Euch. 260-288)。The service is, as usual, very long.像往常一样,服务很长。They anoint people who are only slightly ill, (they very much resent our name: Extreme Unction), and in Russia on Maundy Thursday the Metropolitans of Moscow and Novgorod anoint everyone who presents himself, as a preparation for Holy Communion (Echos d'Orient, II, 193-203).他们膏的人都只是轻微疾病,(他们很反感我们的名字:临终),濯足节在俄罗斯莫斯科和诺夫哥罗德膏每个人都提出了自己的人,大都会为准备圣餐(回声报德东方二,193-203)。

SacramentalsSacramentals

There are many Sacramentals.有很多Sacramentals。People are sometimes anointed with the oil taken from a lamp that burns before a holy icon (occasionally with the form for confirmation: "The seal of the gift of the Holy Ghost").人们有时从一盏灯,在一个神圣的图标(偶尔与确认的形式:“圣灵的恩赐的印章”)烧伤油的受膏者。They have besides the antidoron another kind of blessed bread -- the kolyba eaten in honour of some saint or in memory of the dead.他们除了antidoron有另一种祝福面包 - 在一些圣人的荣誉,或在内存中的死者吃的kolyba。 On the Epiphany ("The Holy Lights" -- ta hagia phota) there is a solemn blessing of the waters.在主显节(“神圣之光” - 圣索非亚phota TA)的水域有一个庄严的祝福。They have a great number of exorcisms, very stern laws of fasting (involving abstinence from many things besides flesh meat), and blessings for all manner of things.他们有大量的驱魔,空腹非常严厉的法律(涉及肉肉类以外的很多事情禁欲),并祝福所有事物的方式。These are to be found in the Euchologion.这些都是要在Euchologion发现。Preaching was till lately almost a lost art in the Orthodox Church; now a revival of it has begun (Gelzer, Geistliches u. Weltliches, etc., 76-82).讲道是在东正教教堂,直到最近几乎失传的艺术,现在已经开始它的复兴(Gelzer,Geistliches U. Weltliches等,76-82)。There is a long funeral service (Euch., ed. cit., 393-470).(Euch.。前393-470),是一个长期的葬礼服务。For all these rites (except the Liturgy) a priest does not wear all his vestments but (over his cassock) the epitrachelion and phainolion.对于所有这些仪式(礼仪除外)的一个牧师不穿他的法衣,但对他的袈裟epitrachelion和phainolion。 The high black hat without a brim (kalemeukion) worn by all priests of this rite is well known.高这个仪式的所有祭司穿的黑帽无帽檐(kalemeukion)是众所周知的。It is worn with vestments as well as in ordinary life.这是穿的法衣,以及在平凡的生活中。Bishops and dignitaries have a black veil over it.主教和政要有黑色的面纱。All clerks wear long hair and a beard.所有的文员穿长头发和胡须。For a more detailed account of all these rites see "Orth. Eastern Church", pp. 418-428.对于一个更详细的帐户,所有这些仪式“奥思。东部教会”,页418-428。

Publication information Written by Adrian Fortescue.阿德里安Fortescue的书面公开信息。 Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.转录由道格拉斯J.波特。Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV.专用于耶稣基督的圣心天主教百科全书,第四卷。 Published 1908.发布1908。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat.Nihil Obstat。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约

Bibliography 参考书目
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