Chronology of the Life of Jesus Christ耶稣的生命 年表

Catholic Information天主教信息

In the following paragraphs we shall endeavour to establish the absolute and relative chronology of our Lord's life, ie we shall show first how certain facts connected with the history of Jesus Christ fit in with the course of universal history, and secondly how the rest of the life of Jesus must be arranged according to the inter-relation of its single elements.在下面的段落中,我们应努力建立在我们的主的生活绝对的和相对的年表,即我们应当表明首先如何与耶稣基督的历史有关的某些事实符合世界历史的过程中,和第二如何的休息耶稣的生命,必须根据其单个元素的相互关系安排。

I. ABSOLUTE CHRONOLOGY一,绝对年代

The incidents whose absolute chronology may be determined with more or less probability are the year of Christ's nativity, of the beginning of His public life, and of His death.其绝对年代可能会或多或少的概率确定的事件是今年基督的降生,他的公共生活的开始,和他的死亡。As we cannot fully examine the data entering into these several problems, the reader ought to compare what has been said on these points in the article BIBLICAL CHRONOLOGY.正如我们不能完全进入这几个问题研究的数据,读者应该在这些问题上进行比较,说了些什么文章中的圣经年代学。

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A. The NativityA.基督降生

St. Matthew (2:1) tells us that Jesus was born "in the days of King Herod".圣马太(2:1)告诉我们,耶稣诞生的“希律王的日子”。Josephus (Ant., XVII, viii, 1) informs us that Herod died after ruling thirty four years de facto, thirty seven years de jure.约瑟夫(Ant.,第十七条,第八条,1)告诉我们,希律王死亡后执政35四年事实上,37年法理。Now Herod was made rightful king of Judea AUC 714, while he began his actual rule after taking Jerusalem AUC 717.现在希律犹太AUC 714应有的国王,而他开始到耶路撒冷的AUC 717后,他的实际统治。As the Jews reckoned their years from Nisan to Nisan, and counted fractional parts as an entire year, the above data will place the death of Herod in AUC 749, 750, 751.犹太人认为自己多年的从尼散月尼桑,并作为全年计算小数部分,上述数据将发生死亡的希律王的AUC 749,750,751。 Again, Josephus tells us from that an eclipse of the moon occurred not long before Herod's death; such an eclipse occurred from 12 to 13 March, AUC 750, so that Herod must have died before the Passover of that year which fell on 12 April (Josephus, "Ant"., iv, 4; viii, 4).同样,约瑟夫会告一个月球月食发生不长前希律王的去世我们;这样一个月食发生的12日至13年3月,AUC的750,使希律必须有逾越节前死亡,今年其中12日下跌四月(约瑟夫,“蚂蚁”,四,四,八,4)。 As Herod killed the children up to two years old, in order to destroy the new born King of the Jews, we are led to believe that Jesus may have been born AUC 747, 748, 749.希律王杀害的孩子两岁,为了消灭犹太人的王新出生的,我们带领相信耶稣可能已经出生的AUC 747,748,749。The enrollment under Cyrinus mentioned by St. Luke in connection with the nativity of Jesus Christ, and the remarkable astronomical conjunction of Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn in Pisces, in the spring of AUC 748, will not lead us to any more definite result.下Cyrinus入学圣卢克提到与耶稣基督的降生,并显着的火星,木星和土星在双鱼座的天文一起,在春天的AUC 748,我们不会导致任何更明确的结果。

B. Beginning of the Public MinistryB.开始公安部

The date of the beginning of Christ's ministry may be calculated from three different data found respectively in Luke 3:23; Josephus, "Bel. Jud."基督的职事开始日期可能会从三个不同的数据分别在路加福音3:23;“。计算。倍儿达瓦慈善会”约瑟夫,I, xxi, 1; or "Ant.", XV, ii, 1; and Luke 3:1.我XXI,1;或“蚂蚁。”第十五,二,1;和卢克3:1。

The first of these passages reads: "And Jesus himself was beginning about the age of thirty years".这些经文曰:“耶稣自己约三十年的时代的开始”。The phrase "was beginning" does not qualify the following expression "about the age of thirty years", but rather indicates the commencement of the public life.词组“开始”,不符合“三十年左右的年龄”下面的表达式,而是表明了市民的生活开始。As we have found that the birth of Jesus falls within the period 747-749 AUC, His public life must begin about 777-779 AUC正如我们已经发现,耶稣诞生的期限内747-749的AUC下降,他的公共生活必须开始约777-779的AUC

Second, when, shortly before the first Pasch of His public life, Jesus had cast the buyers and sellers out of the Temple, the Jews said: "Six and forty years was this temple in building" (John 2:20).二的时候,不久之前他的公共生活的第一Pasch,耶稣投出寺的买家和卖家,犹太人说:“6年和第四年是这个寺庙建设”(约翰福音2:20)。 Now, according to the testimony of Josephus (loc. cit.), the building of the Temple began in the fifteenth year of Herod's actual reign or in the eighteenth of his reign de jure, ie 732 AUC; hence, adding the forty six years of actual building, the Pasch of Christ's first year of public life must have fallen in 778 AUC现在,根据约瑟夫(如上)的证词,寺的建设在希律王的实际统治的15年或在他统治的法理,即732联合自卫军18的开始,因此,加入第四六个年实际建设中,Pasch基督的公共生活的第一年必须有778的AUC下降

Third, the Gospel of St. Luke (3:1) assigns the beginning of St. John the Baptist's mission to the "fifteenth year of the Tiberius Caesar".第三,圣卢克福音(3:1)分配的圣施洗约翰的使命开始到“十五年的提比略凯撒”。Augustus, the predecessor of Tiberius, died 19 August, 767 AUC, so that the fifteenth year of Tiberius's independent reign is 782 AUC; but then Tiberius began to be associate of Augustus in AUC 764, so that the fifteenth year reckoned from this date falls in AUC 778.奥古斯都,提庇留的前身,死亡19 767联合自卫军,使的厄斯的独立王朝第十五一年是782联合自卫军;但随后厄斯开始AUC的764奥古斯关联,以便在第十五今年从这个日期计算下降AUC的778。 Jesus Christ's public life began a few months later, ie about AUC 779.耶稣基督的公共生活开始几个月后,即约779联合自卫军。

C. The Year of the Death of ChristC.基督的死年

According to the Evangelists, Jesus suffered under the high priest Caiphas (AUC 772-90, or AD 18-36), during the governorship of Pontius Pilate AUC 780-90).据福音,耶稣遭受大祭司Caiphas面积(AUC 772-90,或公元18-36年)期间的总督彼拉多的AUC 780-90)。But this leaves the time rather indefinite.但是,离开的时间,而无限期。Tradition, the patristic testimonies for which have been collected by Patrizi (De Evangeliis), places the death of Jesus in the fifteenth (or sixteenth) year of Tiberius, in the consulship of the Gemini, forty-two years before the destruction of Jerusalem, and twelve years before the preaching of the Gospel to the Gentiles.传统,已收集柏德(德Evangeliis)的教父证词,地点在第十五耶稣之死(或十六)年提庇留在双子座consulship,四十两年耶路撒冷的毁灭之前,前12年外邦人福音的宣讲。 We have already seen that the fifteenth year of Tiberius is either 778 or 782, according to its computation from the beginning of Tiberius's associate or sole reign; the consulship of the Gemini (Fufius and Rubellius) fell in AUC 782; the forty second year before the destruction of Jerusalem is AD 29, or AUC 782, twelve years before the preaching of the Gospel to the Gentiles brings us to the same year, AD 29 or AUC 782, since the conversion of Cornelius, which marks the opening of the Gentile missions, fell probably in AD 40 or 41.我们都已经看到了提庇留第十五今年无论是778或782,根据其从厄斯的联营公司或唯一的统治开始计算;的双子座consulship(Fufius和Rubellius)下降的AUC 782;的第四十的第二个年之前耶路撒冷的毁灭是公元29或782的AUC,十二年前向外邦人宣讲福音给我们带来了同年,在公元29或782的AUC哥尼流的转换,这标志着詹蒂莱任务开放以来,下跌可能在公元40或41。

D. The Day of the Death of ChristD.基督的死节

Jesus died on Friday, the fifteenth day of Nisan.耶稣的死日(星期五),尼散月15日。That He died on Friday is clearly stated by Mark 15:42, Luke 23:54, and John 19:31.他上周五去世是明确地说明了马克23时54分,15时42分,卢克和约翰19时31。The few writers who assign another day for Christ's death are practically lost in the multitude of authorities who place it on Friday.实际上在许多地方上周五当局失去分配基督的死另一天的几个作家。What is more, they do not even agree among themselves: Epiphanius, eg, places the Crucifixion on Tuesday; Lactantius, on Saturday; Westcott, on Thursday; Cassiodorus and Gregory of Tours, not on Friday.更重要的是,他们甚至不同意他们之间埃皮法尼乌斯,例如,地方上周二在十字架上;拉克唐修,上周六;韦斯科特日(星期四); Cassiodorus和格雷戈里的旅行团,上周五。

The first three Evangelists are equally clear about the date of the Crucifixion.前三福音约在十字架上的日期也同样清楚的。They place the Last Supper on the fourteenth day of Nisan, as may be seen from Matthew 26:17-20, Mark 14:12-17 and Luke 22:7-14.他们放置在尼散月十四日的“最后的晚餐”,可从马太福音26:17-20,马克14:12-17,路加福音22:7-14。 Nor can there be any doubt about St. John's agreement with the Synoptic Evangelists on the question of the Last Supper and the Crucifixion.也不能有任何怀疑圣约翰协议与最后的晚餐,并在十字架上的问题的天气福音。 The supper was held "before the festival day of the Pasch" (John 13:1), ie on 14 Nisan, as may be seen from Matthew 22:7-14.举行的晚餐“之前的Pasch一天的节日”(约翰福音13:1),即14日尼散,可以从马太福音22:7-14。 Nor can there be any doubt about St. John's agreement with the Synoptic Evangelists on the question of the Last Supper and the Crucifixion.也不能有任何怀疑圣约翰协议与最后的晚餐,并在十字架上的问题的天气福音。 The Supper was held "before the festival day of the pasch" (John 13:1), ie on 14 Nisan, since the sacrificial day was computed according to the Roman method (Jovino, 123 sqq., 139 sqq.).举行的晚餐“前的Pasch一天的节日”(约翰福音13:1),即14尼散月以来牺牲的日子是根据罗马的方法(139,123 SQQ。Jovino SQQ)计算。

Again, some disciples thought that Judas left the supper table because Jesus had said to him: "Buy those things which we have need of for the festival day: or that he should give something to the poor" (John 13:29).再次,有些弟子认为犹大离开了晚饭表,因为耶稣对他说:“买这些东西,我们有需要为节日当天,他应该给穷人的东西”(约翰13时29分)。 If the Supper had been held on 13 Nisan this belief of the disciples can hardly be understood, since Judas might have made his purchases and distributed his alms on 14 Nisan; there would have been no need for his rushing into the city in the middle of the night.如果13尼散月举行的晚餐,这对弟子的信仰也难以被理解,犹大,因为可能有他的采购,分布在尼散月14他的施舍;本来在中间没有必要为他抢着进入城市夜。 On the day of Christ's Crucifixion the Jews "went not into the hall, that they might not be defiled, but that they might eat the pasch" (John 18:28).犹太人在基督耶稣受难的日子“去不进了大厅,他们可能不会玷污,但他们可能吃的Pasch”(约翰福音18:28)。 The pasch which the Jews wished to eat could not have been the paschal lamb, which was eaten on 14 Nisan, for the pollution contracted by entering the hall would have ceased at sundown, so that it would not have prevented them from sharing in the paschal supper.犹太人愿意吃的Pasch已经不能逾越节的羔羊,这是进入大厅,将停止在日落承包的污染,吃14尼桑,以便它不会阻止他们在逾越节的共享吃晚饭。 The pasch which the Jews had in view must have been the sacrificial offerings (Chagighah), which were called also pasch and were eaten on 15 Nisan.必须已祭品(Chagighah),也被称为pasch和15尼桑吃的Pasch犹太人的观点。Hence this passage places the death of Jesus Christ on the fifteenth day of Nisan.因此,这段话对尼散月15日耶稣基督的死亡。

Again, Jesus is said to have suffered and died on the "parasceve of the pasch", or simply on the "parasceve" (John 19:14, 31); as "parasceve" meant Friday, the expression "parasceve" denotes Friday on which the pasch happened to fall, not the before the pasch.同样,耶稣说,或者干脆就“parasceve”(约翰福音19:14,31),遭受痛苦和死亡“的Pasch parasceve”;“parasceve”是指周五,表达“parasceve”是指上周五其中发生的Pasch下跌,之前的Pasch。Finally, the day following the parasceve on which Jesus died is called "a great sabbath day" (John 19:31), either to denote its occurrence in the paschal week or to distinguish it from the preceding pasch, or day of minor rest.最后,parasceve耶稣死了之后的一天被称为“伟大的安息日”(约翰19时31),表示其发生在逾越节一周来区分它从前面的pasch,或轻微休息一天。

II.二。RELATIVE CHRONOLOGY相对年代

No student of the life of Jesus will question the chronological order of its principal divisions: infancy, hidden life, public life, passion, glory.没有耶稣的生命的学生,将问题按时间顺序排列,其主要部门:处于起步阶段,隐藏的生活,公共生活,激情,再创辉煌。But the order of events in the single divisions is not always clear beyond dispute.但在单一部门的事件的顺序不一定是不争的事实清楚。

A. The Infancy of Jesus答:耶稣的婴儿

The history of the infancy, for instance, is recorded only in the First Gospel and in the Third.处于起步阶段的历史,例如,记录,仅在第一福音和第三。Each Evangelist contents himself with five pictures:每个传播者的内容自己的五张图片:

St. Matthew describes the birth of Jesus, the adoration of the Magi, the flight into Egypt, the slaughter of the Holy Innocents, and the return to Nazareth.马太介绍,朝拜的贤士,到埃及的航班,神圣的无辜者的屠杀,并返回拿撒勒的耶稣的诞生。

St. Luke gives a sketch of the birth, of the adoration of the shepherds, of the circumcision, of the purification of the Virgin, and of the return to Nazareth.圣卢克给出了一个草图的诞生,牧羊人的崇拜,割礼,净化处女,回到拿撒勒。

The two Evangelists agree in the first and the last of these two series of incidents (moreover, all scholars place the birth, adoration of the shepherds, and the circumcision before the Magi), but how are we to arrange the intervening three events related by St. Matthew with the order of St. Luke?这两个福音同意在第一和最后的这两个系列事件(此外,所有的学者都放在前贤士的诞生,牧羊人的崇拜,和割礼),但我们如何安排中间的三个相关的事件圣卢克为了圣马太? We indicate a few of the many ways in which the chronological sequence of these facts has been arranged.我们表明,在许多方面,在这些事实的时间顺序已经安排好几个。

1. 1。The birth, the adoration of the shepherds, the circumcision, the adoration of the Magi, the flight into Egypt, the slaughter of the Innocents, the purification, the return to Nazareth.的诞生,牧羊人,割礼,朝拜的贤士,到埃及的航班,屠杀无辜,净化,回到拿撒勒的崇拜。

This order implies that either the purification was delayed beyond the fortieth day, which seems to contradict Luke 2:22 sqq., or that Jesus was born shortly before Herod's death.这份订单意味着净化被延误超过40天,这似乎是矛盾路加福音2:22 SQQ的。耶稣出生不久,希律王去世前。 so that the Holy Family could return from Egypt within forty days after the birth of Jesus.使神圣家族在40日内返回耶稣诞生后从埃及。Tradition does not seem to favour this speedy return.传统似乎并不赞成这个迅速返回。

2. 2。The birth, the adoration of the shepherds, the circumcision, the adoration of the Magi, the purification, the flight into Egypt, the slaughter of the Innocents, the return to Nazareth.的诞生,牧羊人,割礼,朝拜的贤士,净化,进入埃及的航班,屠杀无辜的,回到拿撒勒的崇拜。

According to this order the Magi either arrived a few days before the purification or they came on 6 January; but in neither case can we understand why the Holy Family should have offered the sacrifice of the poor, after receiving the offerings of the Magi.根据这个顺序贤士要么抵达前几天的净化或他们于1月6日,但在上述两种情况下,无论我们才能理解为什么神圣家族应该有在收到的贤士产品后,提供穷人牺牲,。 Moreover, the first Evangelist intimates that the angel appeared to St. Joseph soon after the departure of the Magi, and it is not at all probable that Herod should have waited long before inquiring concerning the whereabouts of the new born king.此外,内衣的天使出现了圣若瑟贤士出发后不久,这是在所有可能出现的不的希律应该有长期等待询问关于新出生的王下落前的第一传播者。 The difficulties are not overcome by placing the adoration of the Magi on the day before the purification; it would be more unlikely in that case that the Holy Family should offer the sacrifice of the poor.无法克服的困难放在净化前一天朝拜的贤士;神圣家族会更不大可能在这种情况下,应给予穷人的牺牲。

3. 3。As Luke 2:39 appears to exclude the possibility of placing the adoration of the Magi between the presentation and return to Nazareth, there are interpreters who have located the advent of the wise men, the flight to Egypt, the slaughter of the Innocents, and the return from Egypt after the events as told in St. Luke.正如路加福音2:39似乎排除配售贤士来朝之间的演示,并返回拿撒勒的可能性,有位于口译的智者,到埃及的航班,屠杀无辜的到来,在事件发生后,从埃及返回告诉圣卢克。 They agree in the opinion that the Holy Family returned to Nazareth after the purification, and then left Nazareth in order to make their home in Bethlehem.他们同意在神圣家族回到拿撒勒后的净化,然后离开拿撒勒,以使他们的家在伯利恒的意见。Eusebius, Epiphanius, and some other ancient writers are willing to place the adoration of the Magi about two years after Christ's birth; Paperbroch and his followers allow about a year and thirteen days between the birth and the advent of the Magi; while Patrizi agrees with those who fix the advent of the Magi at about two weeks after the purification.尤西比乌斯,埃皮法尼乌斯,和一些其他古代作家都愿意到地方有关基督的诞生后两年崇拜的贤士; Paperbroch和他的追随者有关的出生和贤士的到来之间的一个年和十三天允许;而柏德同意与谁修复的贤士的到来,在大约两个星期后的净化。 The text of Matthew 2:1-2 hardly permits an interval of more than a year between the purification and the coming of the wise men; Patrizi's opinion appears to satisfy all the data furnished by the gospels, while it does not contradict the particulars added by tradition.马太福音2:1-2文本难以许可证一年多的时间间隔之间的净化和未来的智者;柏德的意见出现,以满足所有的福音提供的数据,而并不矛盾的细节补充由传统。

B. The Hidden Life of JesusB.耶稣的隐藏生命

It was in the seclusion of Nazareth that Jesus spent the greatest part of His earthly life.这是在隐居拿撒勒耶稣度过了他的尘世生活中最大的一部分。The inspired records are very reticent about this period: Luke 2:40-52; Mark 6:3; John 6:42; 7:15, are about the only passages which refer to the hidden life.灵感的记录都非常关注这一时期沉默寡言:路加福音2:40-52,马可福音6时03分,约翰6时42分; 7:15,是指隐藏的生活的唯一通道。

Some of them give us a general view of Christ's life: "The child grew, and grew in strength and wisdom; and the grace of God was in him" is the brief summary of the years following the return of the Holy Family after the ceremonial purification in the Temple.他们有的给我们一个基督的生命的一般看法:“孩子渐渐长大,成长的力量和智慧和神的恩典在他”是的岁月简短的总结仪式后地归还圣家在圣殿的净化。 "Jesus advanced in wisdom, and age, and grace with God and men", and He "was subject to them" form the inspired outline of Christ's life in Nazareth after He had attained the age of twelve. “耶稣的先进智慧,和年龄,和恩典”与神和人,和他“他们”基督的生活在拿撒勒的启发轮廓后,他已达到了12岁。

"When he was twelve years old" Jesus accompanied His parents to Jerusalem, 'according to the custom of the feast'; When they returned, the child Jesus remained in Jerusalem; and his parents knew it not." After three days, they found him in the Temple, sitting in the midst of the doctors, hearing them, and asking them questions." “当他12岁的”耶稣陪同他的父母到耶路撒冷“,根据自定义的盛宴”,当他们返回时,孩子耶稣留在耶路撒冷;他的父母知道这不是“三天后,他们发现。他在寺庙,坐在医生中,倾听他们,并问他们问题。“ It was on this occasion that Jesus spoke the only words that have come down from the period of His hidden life: "How is it that you sought me? Did you not know, that I must be about my Father's business [or, "in my Father's house"]?"正是在这个场合,耶稣发言的唯一的话,有来从他隐藏的生命期下来:“如何是它,你征求我难道你不知道,,我必须是关于我父亲的业务[或,?”在我父亲的家“]吗?”

The Jews tell us that Jesus had not passed through the training of the Rabbinic schools: "How doth this man know letters, having never learned?".犹太人告诉我们,耶稣没有通过培训的拉比学校通过:“这个人知道怎样保养字母,从来没有学过吗?”。The same question is asked by the people of Nazareth, who add, "Is not this the carpenter?"由拿撒勒的人,谁添加问同样的问题是,“这不是木匠?”St. Justin is authority for the statement that Jesus specially made "ploughs and yokes' (Contra Tryph., 88). Though it is not certain that at the time of Jesus elementary schools existed in the Jewish villages, it may be inferred from the Gospels that Jesus knew how to read (Luke 4:16) and write (John 8:6). At an early age He must have learned the so called Shema (Deuteronomy 6:4), and the Hallel, or Psalms 113-118 (Hebrew); He must have been familiar with the other parts of the Scriptures too, especially the Psalms and the Prophetic Books, as He constantly refers to them in His public life. It is also asserted that Palestine at the time of Jesus Christ was practically bilingual, so that Christ must have spoken Aramaic and Greek; the indications that He was acquainted with Hebrew and Latin are rather slight. The public teaching of Jesus shows that He was a close observer of the sights and sounds of nature, and of the habits of all classes of men. For these are the usual sources of His illustrations.圣贾斯汀管理局的声明,耶稣特制的“犁轭”(魂斗罗Tryph,88),虽然它不是一定的,耶稣在犹太人的乡村小学学校存在的时间,它可能是从推断福音,耶稣知道如何读(路加福音4:16),写(约翰8:6),在幼年时,他必须了解到所谓玛(申命记6:4),和Hallel,或诗篇113-118 (希伯来文);他必须已经熟悉圣经的其他部分,特别是诗篇和先知书,因为他经常提到他们在他的公共生活,这是还声称,巴勒斯坦在耶稣基督的时间。实际上双语,所以基督必须有发言的阿拉姆语和希腊语,他熟悉的希伯来文和拉丁文的迹象,而轻微的公共教学耶稣表明他是一个大自然的景象和声音的密切观察,和。对男性的所有类的习惯,对于这些,他的作品通常来源。

To conclude, the hidden life of Jesus extending through thirty years is far different from what one should have expected in the case of a Person Who is adored by His followers as their God and revered as their Saviour; this is an indirect proof for the credibility of the Gospel story.总括来说,耶稣的隐藏,通过三十多年的生活是远离人都应该有一个人,谁是他们的神崇拜他的追随者,并为他们的救主崇敬的情况下预计的不同,这是一个间接的信誉证明福音的故事。

C. The Public Life of Jesus: Its DurationC.耶稣的公共生活:它的持续时间

The chronology of the public life offers a number of problems to the interpreter; we shall touch upon only two, the duration of the public life, and the successive journeys it contains.年表的公共生活提供了若干问题的解释,我们将触及只有两个,市民生活的持续时间,以及它所包含的连续行程。

There are two extreme views as to the length of the ministry of Jesus: St. Irenæus (Contra Haer., II, xxii, 3-6) appears to suggest a period of fifteen years; the prophetic phrases, "the year of recompenses", "the year of my redemption" (Isaiah 34:8; 63:4), appear to have induced Clement of Alexandria, Julius Africanus, Philastrius, Hilarion, and two or three other patristic writers to allow only one year for the public life.有两个极端的意见,耶稣部的长度:圣irenæus(魂斗罗Haer,II,22,3-6。)似乎暗示了十五年期;预言的短语,“今年recompenses” (以赛亚书34:8; 63:4)“我赎回的一年”,似乎引起的克莱门特的亚历山德里亚,朱利叶斯Africanus,Philastrius,伊拉里,两个或三个其他教父作家,以便市民的生活只有一年。 This latter opinion has found advocates among certain recent students: von Soden, for instance, defends it in Cheyne's "Encyclopaedia Biblica".这后者的意见,发现最近发生的一些学生之间的主张:冯索登,例如,捍卫进益的“百科全书Biblica”。But the text of the Gospels demands a more extensive duration.但文本的福音需要一个更广泛的持续时间。St. John's Gospel distinctly mentions three distinct paschs in the history of Christ's ministry (2:13; 6:4; 11:55).圣约翰的福音,在基督的部(2:13; 6:4; 11:55)历史清楚地提到的三个截然不同的paschs。The first of the three occurs shortly after the baptism of Jesus, the last coincides with His Passion, so that at least two years must have intervened between the two events to give us the necessary room for the passover mentioned in 6:4. Westcott and Hort omit the expression "the pasch" in 6:4 to compress the ministry of Jesus within the space of one year; but all the manuscripts, the versions, and nearly all the Fathers testify for the reading "En de eggysto pascha heeorteton Ioudaion": "Now the pasch, the festival day of the Jews, was near at hand".耶稣的洗礼后不久发生的三首,最后恰逢他的激情,使至少两年必须有两个事件之间的干预给我们的房间在6点04中提到的逾越节必要。韦斯科特和园艺省略6:4的表达“的Pasch”,一年的空间内压缩耶稣部;但所有的手稿,版本,几乎所有的父亲作证阅读“EN DE eggysto复活节heeorteton Ioudaion” :“现在的Pasch,犹太人的节日当天,近在咫尺”。Thus far then everything tends to favour the view of those writers and more recent commentators who extend the period of Christ's ministry a little over two years. But a comparison of St. John's Gospel with the Synoptic Evangelists seems to introduce another pasch, indicated in the Fourth Gospel, into Christ's public life. John 4:45, relates the return of Jesus into Galilee after the first pasch of His public life in Jerusalem, and the same event is told by Mark 1:14, and Luke 4:14.迄今为止,然后一切往往青睐那些作家和较近期的评论家谁延长基督的一点点超过两年部时期的看法。但一个圣约翰福音的天气福音比较似乎引入另一个pasch,表示第四福音,基督的公共生活。约翰4:45,与耶稣返回加利利在耶路撒冷后,他的公共生活的第一pasch,相同的事件告诉马克1:14,路加福音4:14 。Again the pasch mentioned in John 6:4 has its parallel in the "green grass" of Mark 6:39, and in the multiplication of loaves as told in Luke 9:12 sqq.再次提到约翰6:4的Pasch其在“绿草地”马克6:39的平行,在乘法的面包,在路加福音9:12 SQQ告诉。But the plucking of ears mentioned in Mark 2:23, and Luke 6:1, implies another paschal season intervening between those expressly mentioned in John 2:13 and 6:4. This shows that the public life of Jesus must have extended over four paschs, so that it must have lasted three years and a few months. Though the Fourth Gospel does not indicate this fourth pasch as clearly as the other three, it is not wholly silent on the question.但在马克2时23提到耳朵的采摘,路加福音6:1,意味着另一个逾越节的季节之间约翰2点13分和6时04分中明确提到的那些干预, 这表明耶稣的公共生活必须有超过四个延伸paschs,所以它必须有历时三年,几个月,虽然第四福音,并不表示这第四pasch,显然与其他三个,这是不完全无声的问题。 The "festival day of the Jews" mentioned in John 5:1, has been identified with the Feast of Pentecost, the Feast of Tabernacles, the Feast of Expiation, the Feast of the New Moon, the Feast of Purim, the Feast of Dedication, by various commentators; others openly confess that they cannot determine to which of the Jewish feasts this festival day refers. “犹太人的节日当天”约翰5:1提到,已确定的五旬节,住棚节,赎罪节,新的月亮节,普珥节的盛宴,奉献盛宴,通过各种评论员;其他人公开承认,他们不能确定这个节日的一天是指犹太节日。 Nearly all difficulties will disappear if the festival day be regarded as the pasch, as both the text (heorte) and John 4:35 seem to demand (cf. Dublin Review, XXIII, 351 sqq.).几乎所有的困难都将消失,如果节日当天的Pasch,被视为文本(heorte)和约翰4:35似乎要求(参都柏林审查,二十三,351 SQQ)。

D. The Public Life of Jesus: His JourneysD.耶稣的公共生活:他的行程

The journeys made during His public life may be grouped under nine heads: the first six were mainly performed in Galilee and had Capharnaum for their central point; the last three bring Jesus into Judea without any pronounced central point.可归入九个头在他的公共生活的旅程:上半年主要是在加利利,并为他们的中央点Capharnaum;过去三年带入犹太耶稣没有任何明显的中心点。 We cannot enter into the disputed questions connected with the single incidents of the various groups.我们不能进入到各个群体的单一事件有关的有争议的问题。

1. 1。First Journey.第一程。

December, AUC 778 - Spring, 779.12月,AUC为778 - 春天,779。(Cf. John 1:2; Matthew 3:4; Mark 1; Luke 3:4)(参见约翰1:2;马太福音3:4;马克1;路加福音3:4)

Jesus abandons His hidden life in Nazareth, and goes to Bethania across the Jordan, where He is baptized by John and receives the Baptist's first testimony to His Divine mission.耶稣放弃在拿撒勒他暗藏的生活,跨越约旦,在那里他是约翰的洗礼和接收,浸会的第一次证明了他的神圣使命Bethania。 He then withdraws into the desert of Judea, where He fasts for forty days and is tempted by the devil.然后,他撤回到朱迪亚沙漠,他斋戒四十天受魔鬼的诱惑。After this He dwells in the neighbourhood of the Baptist's ministry, and receives the latter's second and third testimony; here too He wins His first disciples, with whom He journeys to the wedding feast at Cana in Galilee, where He performs His first miracle.在此之后,他住在居委会的浸信会的事工,得到后者的第二次和第三次的证词;这里太他赢得他的第一个弟子,其中他的旅程的塔卡纳在加利利,其中他执行他的第一个奇迹的婚礼盛宴。 Finally He transfers His residence, so far as there can be question of a residence in His public life, to Capharnaum, one of the principal thoroughfares of commerce and travel in Galilee.最后,他转移他的住所,到目前为止,在他的公共生活居住,Capharnaum,在加利利的商业和旅游的主要交通要道之一的,可以有问题。

2. 2。Second Journey.第二程。

Passover, AUC 779 - about Pentecost, 780.AUC的779 - 约780五旬节,逾越节,。(Cf. John 2-5; Mark 1-3; Luke 4-7; Matthew 4-9)(参见约翰2-5 1-3马克;卢克4-7;马太福音4-9)

Jesus goes from Capharnaum to Jerusalem for the Feast of the Passover; here he expels the buyers and sellers from the Temple, and is questioned by the Jewish authorities.耶稣去从Capharnaum耶路撒冷逾越节;在这里,他排出的买家和卖家从庙,是由犹太当局的质疑。Many believed in Jesus, and Nicodemus came to converse with Him during the night.许多人认为在耶稣和尼哥底母在夜间与他交谈。 After the festival days He remained in Judea till about the following December, during which period He received the fourth testimony from John who was baptizing at Ennon (AV Aenon).天祭后,他仍然在朱迪亚,直到大约12月,在此期间,他收到的证词Ennon(AV Aenon)施洗约翰第四。When the Baptist had been imprisoned in Machaerus, Jesus returned to Galilee by way of Samaria where He met the Samaritan woman at Jacob's well near Sichar; He delayed two days in this place, and many believed in Him.当浸会一直被监禁在Machaerus,耶稣回到加利利,撒马利亚的方式,在那里他遇到撒玛利亚妇人在雅各的附近Sichar;他推迟两天在这个地方,许多人相信他。

Soon after His return into Galilee we find Jesus again in Cana, where He heard the prayer who pleaded for the recovery of his dying son in Capharnaum.不久后他到加利利的回报,我们再次找到耶稣在迦拿,在那里他听到了祈祷,承认他垂危的儿子在Capharnaum恢复。 The rejection of Jesus by the people of Nazareth, whether at this time as, St. Luke intimates, or at a later period, as St. Mark seems to demand, or again both now and about eight months later, is an exegetical problem we cannot solve here.拒绝拿撒勒人耶稣,是否在这个时间,圣卢克内衣,或在后期,圣马克似乎要求,或再次无论是现在还是约8个月后,训诂问题,我们不能在这里解决。 At any rate, shortly afterwards Jesus is mostly actively engaged in Capharnaum in teaching and healing the sick, restoring among others Peter's mother-in-law and a demoniac.无论如何,不​​久之后,耶稣主要是积极从事Capharnaum在教学和医治病人,其中包括彼得的母亲和一个邪恶的恢复。 On this occasion He called Peter and Andrew, James and John.在此之际,他叫彼得和安德鲁,詹姆斯和约翰。Then followed a missionary tour through Galilee during which Jesus cured a leper; soon he again taught in Capharnaum, and was surrounded by such a multitude that a man sick of the palsy had to be let down through the roof in order to reach the Sacred Presence.接着通过加利利传教之旅,在此期间,耶稣治好了麻风病人,很快他又曾在Capharnaum,和这样一个众多包围,一个人生病的麻痹,要以达到神圣的存在让他们通过屋顶。 After calling Matthew to the Apostleship, He went to Jerusalem for the second pasch occurring during His public life, it was on this occasion that He healed the man who been sick for thirty-eight years near the pool at Jerusalem.调用马修的使徒后,他去了他的公共生活期间发生的第二pasch到耶路撒冷,这是在这个场合,他治愈了35 - 8年来在耶路撒冷附近的池患病的人。The charge of violating the Sabbath and Christ's answer were the natural effects of the miracle.违反安息日和基督的回答是奇迹的自然效果。The same charge is repeated shortly after the pasch; Jesus had returned to Galilee, and the disciples plucked some ripe ears in the corn fields.同样的罪名是重复的Pasch后不久,耶稣回到加利利,和弟子弹拨在一些成熟的玉米田里的耳朵。The question became more acute in the immediate future; Jesus had returned to Capharnaum, and there healed on the Sabbath day a man who had a withered hand.这个问题在不久的将来变得更加尖锐;耶稣回来了Capharnaum,在安息日医治一个人有一个干瘪的手。The Pharisees now make common cause with the Herodians in order to "destroy him".法利赛人现在共同的事业与Herodians,为了“消灭他”。Jesus withdraws first to the Sea of Galilee, where He teaches and performs numerous miracles; then retires to the Mountain of Beatitudes, where He prays during the night, chooses His Twelve Apostles in the morning, and preaches the Sermon on the Mount.耶稣撤回第一加利利的海,在那里他教导和执行无数奇迹;然后退休山八福,他在夜间祈祷,选择在早上他的十二使徒,并鼓吹“登山宝训。 He is brought back to Capharnaum by the prayers of the centurion who asks and obtains the of his servant.他带回Capharnaum由百夫长要求,并获得他的仆人的祷告。

3. 3。Third Journey.第三旅。

About Pentecost, AUC 780- Autumn, 780.关于圣灵降临节,AUC为780 - 秋,780。(Cf. Luke 7:8; Mark 3:4; Matthew 4, 8, 9, 12, 13)(参见路加福音7:8;马克3:4;马修4,8,9,12,13)

Jesus makes another missionary tour through Galilee; He resuscitates the son of the widow at Naim, and shortly afterwards receives the messengers sent by John from his prison in Machaerus.耶稣另一个通过加利利传教之旅;他resuscitates在Naim的寡妇的儿子,不久之后,收到了由约翰从他的监狱派出的使者在Machaerus。 Then follows the scene of the merciful reception of the sinful woman who anoints the feet of the Lord while He rests at table in Magdala or perhaps in Capharnaum; for the rest of His missionary tour Jesus is followed by a band of pious women who minister to the wants of the Apostles.接着anoints主脚,而他在餐桌上抹大拉或者在Capharnaum有罪的妇人的仁慈接待现场,其余他的传教之旅耶稣是谁部长虔诚的妇女带使徒的希望。 After returning to Capharnaum, Jesus expels the mute devil, is charged by the Pharisees with casting out devils by the prince of devils, and encounters the remonstrances of His kinsmen.返回Capharnaum后,耶稣驱逐静音魔鬼,法利赛人被控以铸造出恶魔王子恶魔,和他的亲属遇到的remonstrances。 Withdrawing to the sea, He preaches what may be called the "Lake Sermon", consisting of seven parables.撤回到海中,他鼓吹什么可称为“湖布道”,包括七个比喻。

4. 4。Fourth Journey.第四旅。

Autumn, AUC 780- about Passover, 781.秋季,AUC为780 - 781左右的逾越节。(Cf. Luke 8:9; Mark 4-6; Matthew 8, 9, 10, 13, 14)(参见路加福音8:9;马克4-6;马修8,9,10,13,14)

After a laborious day of ministry in the city of Capharnaum and on the lake, Jesus with His Apostles crosses the waters.部Capharnaum城市和湖上的一个艰苦的一天后,与他的门徒,耶稣十字架的水域。As a great storm overtakes them, the frightened Apostles awaken their sleeping Master, Who commands the winds and the waves.作为一个伟大的风暴赶超他们,受惊的使徒唤醒他们的睡眠大师,谁命令风和浪。Towards morning they meet in the country of the Gerasens, on the east of the lake, two demoniacs.他们走向上午满足Gerasens国,在湖的东面,两个demoniacs。Jesus expels the evil spirits, but allows them to enter into a herd of swine.耶稣驱逐邪灵,但允许他们进入一个猪群。 The beasts destroy themselves in the waters of the lake, and frightened inhabitants beg Jesus not to remain among them.野兽破坏自己,在湖的水域和惊恐的居民乞求耶稣不留其中。After returning to Capharnaum he heals the woman who had touched the hem of His garment, resuscitates the daughter of Jairus, and gives sight to two blind men.回国后向Capharnaum他医治曾触动了他的衣服下摆的女人,resuscitates睚鲁的女儿,并给出了两个瞎子的视线。 The second Gospel places here Christ's last visit to and rejection by the people of Nazareth.第二个福音的地方在这里基督最后的访问时间和拿撒勒人排斥。Then follows the ministry of the Apostles who are sent two by two, while Jesus Himself makes another missionary tour through Galilee.然后跟随使徒被送到两个,而耶稣自己另一个通过加利利传教之旅部。It seems to have been the martyrdom of John the Baptist that occasioned the return of the Apostles and their gathering around the Master in Capharnaum.它似乎已经被施洗约翰的殉道的使徒和他们周围的法师在Capharnaum收集返回。But, however depressing this event may have been, it did not damp the enthusiasm of the Apostles over their success.但是,但是可能已被压抑了这一事件,它没有潮湿的使徒对他们的成功热情。

5. 5。Fifth Journey.第五旅。

Spring, AUC 781.春天,AUC 781。(Cf. John 6; Luke 9; Mark 6; and Matthew 14) Jesus invites the Apostles, tired out from their missionary labours, to rest awhile. (参见约翰福音6;路加福音9,马克6,和马修14)耶稣邀请的使徒,从他们的传教劳动力累了,休息一段时间。They cross the northern part of the Sea of Galilee, but, instead of finding the desired solitude, they are met by multitudes of people who had preceded them by land or by boat, and who were eager for instruction.他们交叉加利利海北部的一部分,但是,而不是寻找所需的孤独,他们是由众多的人之前曾由陆路或乘船,并指令渴望会面。 Jesus taught them throughout the day, and towards evening did not wish to dismiss them hungry.耶稣教导整个白天,傍晚没有想解雇他们饿了。On the other hand, there were only five loaves and two fishes at the disposal of Jesus; after His blessing, these scanty supplies satisfied the hunger of five thousand men, besides women and children, and remnants filled twelve baskets of fragments.另一方面,只有五饼二鱼在耶稣的处置;他的祝福后,这些微薄的供应满足了五千人饥饿,除了妇女和儿童,以及残余充满12筐片段。 Jesus sent the Apostles back to their boats, and escaped from the enthusiastic multitudes, who wished to make Him king, into the mountain where He prayed till far into the night.耶稣的使徒发送到他们的船,和热情的芸芸众生,谁进山到深夜,直到他祈祷,希望他作王逃脱。Meanwhile the Apostles were facing a contrary wind till the fourth watch in the morning, when they saw Jesus walking upon the waters.与此同时,使徒都面临着一个逆风,直到在今天上午的第四手表,当他们看见耶稣行走后水域。The Apostles first fear, and then recognize Jesus; Peter walks upon the water as long as his confidence lasts; the storm ceases when Jesus has entered the boat.使徒第一个恐惧,然后承认耶稣,彼得走,只要水后,他的信心持续的风暴不再当耶稣已经进入船。The next day brings Jesus and His Apostles to Capharnaum, where He speaks to the assembly about the Bread of Life and promises the Holy Eucharist, with the result that some of His followers leave Him, while the faith of His true disciples is strengthened.第二天将耶稣和他的使徒Capharnaum,其中他谈到大会对生命的面包和承诺的圣体圣事,结果,他的一些追随者离开他,而他真正的门徒的信心加强。

6. 6。Sixth Journey.第六旅。

About May, AUC 781- Sept., 781.关于五月,AUC为781 - 9月,781。(Cf. Luke 9; Mark 7-9; Matthew 14-18; John 7)(参见路加福音9;马克7-9马修14-18;约翰7)

It may be owing to the enmity stirred up against Jesus by His Eucharistic discourse in Capharnaum that He began now a more extensive missionary tour than He had made in the preceding years of His life.这可能是由于他在Capharnaum圣体圣事的话语,现在他开始一个更广泛的传教之旅,比他在他生命的前几年对耶稣的敌意激起。 Passing through the country of Genesar, He expressed His disapproval of the Pharisaic practices of legal purity.路过Genesar国家法律纯度Pharisaic做法,他表示不赞成。Within the boarders of Tyre and Sidon He exorcized the daughter of the Syrophoenician woman.在提尔和西顿的寄宿生,他exorcized的Syrophoenician女人的女儿。From here Jesus travelled first towards the north, then towards the east, then south-eastward through the northern part of Decapolis, probably along the foot of the Lebanon, till He came to the eastern part of Galilee.耶稣从这里走过先向北,然后向东,然后向南,向东通过Decapolis北部的一部分,可能沿黎巴嫩的脚,直到他来到加利利东部部分。 While in Decapolis Jesus healed a deaf-mute, employing a ceremonial more elaborate than He had used at any of His previous miracles; in the eastern part of Galilee, probably not far from Dalmanutha and Magedan, He fed four thousand men, besides children and women, with seven loaves and a few little fishes, the remaining fragments filling seven baskets.虽然在Decapolis耶稣治好了一个聋哑人,用人更详细的一个仪式上,比他在他以前的任何奇迹,在加利利东部,可能不远处Dalmanutha和Magedan,他喂养4万余人,除了儿童,并妇女,七个饼和一些小鱼,其余的碎片填充七个篮子。 The multitudes had listened for three days to the teaching of Jesus, previously to the miracle.众人听了三天耶稣的教学,以前的奇迹。In spite of the many cures performed by Jesus, during this journey, on the blind, the dumb, the lame, the maimed, and on many others, the Pharisees and Sadducees asked Him for a sign from heaven, tempting Him.尽管耶稣,在这个征途上的盲目,许多治疗方法,哑巴,瘸子,致残,和许多其他人,法利赛人和撒都该人问他从天上的迹象,诱人的他。 He promised them the sign of Jonas the Prophet.他答应他们的先知约拿的神迹。After Jesus and the Apostles had crossed the lake, He warned them to beware of the leaven of the Pharisees; then they passed through Bethsaida Julias where Jesus gave sight to a blind man.耶稣和使徒已经越过湖后,他警告他们要提防法利赛人的酵,然后他们通过伯赛大Julias通过耶稣给一个盲人的视线。Next we find Jesus in the confines of Caesarea Philippi, where Peter professes his faith in Christ, the Son of the living God, and in his turn receives from Jesus the promise of the power of the keys.接下来,我们发现耶稣撒利亚腓立比,彼得自称基督,永生神的儿子在他的信仰的范围,并在轮到他从耶稣接收电源键的承诺。 Jesus here predicts His passion, and about a week later is transfigured before Peter, James, and John, probably on the top of Mt.Thabor.耶稣在这里预测他的激情,和前大约一个星期后改变了彼得,雅各,约翰可能Mt.Thabor顶部。On descending from the mountain, Jesus exorcizes the mute devil whom His disciples had not been able to expel.从山上降,耶稣exorcizes静音魔鬼,他的弟子未能驱逐。Bending his way towards Capharnaum, Jesus predicts His Passion for the second time, and in the city pays the tribute-money for Himself and Peter.他对Capharnaum弯曲,耶稣的第二次预测他的激情,并在城市致敬货币支付自己和彼得。This occasions the discussion as to the greater in the kingdom of heaven, and the allied discourses.这种场合的讨论,在天国,和盟军的话语。Finally, Jesus refuses His brethren's invitation to go publicly to the Feast of Tabernacles in Jerusalem.最后,耶稣拒绝他的弟兄们的邀请去公开在耶路撒冷住棚节的盛宴。

7. 7。Seventh Journey.第七旅。

Sept., AUC 781- December, 781.9月,AUC的781 - 12月,781。(Cf. Luke 9-13; Mark 10; Matthew 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 24; John 7-10) (参见路加福音9-13;马克10;马太福音6,7,8,10,11,12,24,约翰7-10)

Jesus now "steadfastly set His face to go Jerusalem", and as the Samaritans refused Him hospitality, He had to take the east of the Jordan.耶稣现在“坚定不移地设置他的脸去耶路撒冷”,和撒马利亚人拒绝他的热情好客,他不得不采取佐敦东。While still in Galilee, He refused the discipleship of several half-hearted candidates, and about the same time He sent other seventy-two, two by two, before His face into every city and place whither He Himself was to come.虽然仍然在加利利,他拒绝了一些半心半意的候选人的门徒,他大约在同一时间发送等七十二个,由两个两个,他到每一个城市和地方的脸往那他自己是来之前。 Probably in the lower part of Peraea, the seventy-two returned with joy, rejoicing in the miraculous power that had been exercised by them.大概在下部的Peraea,第七两个返回的喜悦,在神奇的力量,已经由他们行使大喜。 It must have been in the vicinity of Jericho that Jesus answered the lawyer's question, "Who is my neighbour?"它必须在杰里科附近,耶稣回答律师的问题,“谁是我的邻舍呢?”by the parable of the Good Samaritan.好撒玛利亚人的比喻。Next Jesus was received in the hospitable home of Mary and Martha, where He declares Mary to have chosen the better part.接下来,耶稣是收到好客的马利亚和马大,他宣称玛丽选择了更好的家园。From Bethania He went to Jerusalem for the Feast of Tabernacles, where he became involved in discussions with the Jews.从Bethania他去耶路撒冷,在那里他成为参与讨论与犹太人住棚节。The Scribes and Pharisees endeavoured to catch Him in the sentence which they asked Him to pronounce in the case of the woman taken in adultery.文士和法利赛努力赶上他在句子中,他们问他发音通奸的女人的情况下。When Jesus had avoided this snare, He continued His discussions with the hostile Jews.当耶稣避免了这个圈套,他继续与敌视犹太人的讨论。Their enmity was intensified because Jesus restored sight to a blind man on the Sabbath day.他们的敌意是愈演愈烈,因为耶稣恢复视力,一个盲人在安息日。Jesus appears to have His stay in Jerusalem with the beautiful discourse on the Good Shepherd.耶稣似乎已经留在耶路撒冷,他与美丽的话语善牧。A little later He teaches His Apostles the Our Father, probably somewhere on Mt.过了一会儿,他教导他的门徒我们的父亲,大概某处山。 Olivet.科特。On a subsequent missionary tour through Judea and Peraea He defends Himself against the charges of Pharisees, and reproves their hypocrisy.在随后通过朱迪亚和Peraea传教士参观他维护自己对法利赛人的指控,并谴责其虚伪。 On the same journey Jesus warned against hypocrisy, covetousness, worldly care; He exhorted to watchfulness, patience under contradictions, and to penance.在同样的旅程,耶稣警告反对伪善,贪婪,世俗关怀,他告诫警醒,耐心的矛盾下,以苦修。About this time, too, He healed the woman who had the spirit of infirmity.也大约在这个时候,他医治女子体弱的精神。

8. 8。Eighth Journey.第八旅。

December, AUC 781-February, 782.12月,AUC的781,782。(Cf. Luke 13-17; John 10:11) The Feast of Dedication brought Jesus again to Jerusalem, and occasioned another discussion with the Jews. (参见路加福音13日至17日,约翰10:11)奉献盛宴带来耶稣再次到耶路撒冷,和所引致的另一个犹太人的讨论。This is followed by another missionary tour through Peraea, during which Jesus explained a number of important points of doctrine: the number of the elect, the choice of one's place at table, the guests to be invited, the parable of the great supper, resoluteness in the service of God, the parables of the hundred sheep, the lost groat, and the prodigal son, of the unjust steward, of Dives and Lazarus, of the unmerciful servant, besides the duty of fraternal correction, and the efficacy of faith.这是另一种通过Peraea,在此期间,耶稣解释一些学说的重点传教之旅其次:选民的人数,选择一个人在餐桌地方,客人被邀请,寓言的伟大的晚餐,坚定在上帝的服务,一百只羊,失去的面包类,和浪子,不公正的管家,富豪和拉撒路,无情的仆人,除了兄弟改正的责任,和信仰的疗效的比喻。 During this period, too, the Pharisees attempted to frighten Jesus with the menance of Herod's persecution; on his part, Jesus healed a man who had dropsy, on a Sabbath day, while at table in the house of a certain prince of the Pharisees.在此期间,法利赛人企图以吓唬的希律王的迫害menance耶稣;他的一部分,耶稣治好了一名男子谁曾水肿,在一个安息日一天,同时在一个法利赛人的某些王子的房子表,。 Finally Mary and Martha send messengers to Jesus, asking Him to come and cure their brother Lazarus; Jesus went after two days, and resuscitated His friend who had been several days in the grave.最后,玛丽和玛莎使者耶稣,请他来治愈他们的兄弟拉撒路,耶稣就在两天之后,复活他的朋友的坟墓已在数天。The Jews are exasperated over this miracle, and they decree Jesus must die for the people.犹太人是被激怒了这个奇迹,他们的法令,耶稣必须为人民而死。Hence He withdrew "into a country near the desert, unto a city that is called Ephrem".因此,他退出“到一个靠近沙漠的国家,你们一个名为Ephrem城市”。

9. 9。Ninth Journey.九五之旅。

February, AUC 782- Passover, 782.2月,AUC为782 - 782,逾越节。(Cf. Luke 17-22; Mark 10, 14; Matthew 19-26; John 11, 12.)(参见路加福音17-22;马克10,14,马修19-26;约11,12)

This last journey took Jesus from Ephrem northward through Samaria, then eastward along the border of Galilee into Peraea, then southward through Peraea, westward across the Jordan, through Jericho, Bethania on Mt.这最后的旅程从Ephrem把耶稣通过撒马利亚向北,然后向东沿边境的加利利进入Peraea,然后通过Peraea向南,向西跨越约旦,山Bethania通过杰里科。 Olivet, Bethphage, and finally to Jerusalem.科特,Bethphage,终于到耶路撒冷。While in the most northern part of the journey, He cured ten lepers; a little later, He answered the questions raised by the Pharisees concerning the kingdom of God.虽然最北部的旅程中,他治愈十个麻风病人;稍晚,他回答了有关神的国度的法利赛人提出的问题。Then He urged the need of incessant prayer by proposing the parable of the unjust judge; here too belong the parable of the Pharisee and Publican, the discourse on marriage, on the attitude of the Church towards the children, on the right use of riches as illustrated by the story of the rich young ruler, and the parable of the labourers in the vineyard.然后提出不公正的法官的比喻,他敦促需要不断的祈祷;这里也属于法利赛人与税吏,对婚姻的话语的比喻,教会对儿童的态度,对财富的使用权作为丰富的年轻统治者的故事,和劳动者在葡萄园的比喻说明。 After beginning His route towards Jerusalem, He predicted His Passion for the third time; James and John betray their ambition, but they are taught the true standard of greatness in the Church.开始他对耶路撒冷的路线后,他预言他第三次的热情;詹姆斯和约翰背叛自己的野心,但教他们在教会的伟大的真正的标准。 At Jericho Jesus heals two blind men, and receives the repentance of Zacheus the publican; here He proposed also the parable of the pounds entrusted to the servants by the master.在杰里科耶稣医治两个瞎子,并接收Zacheus的税吏悔改,在这里他也建议磅委托给主的仆人的比喻。

Six days before the pasch we find Jesus at Bethania on Mt.前六天的Pasch我们在Bethania寻找耶稣山。Olivet, as the guest of Simon the leper; Mary anoints His feet, and the disciples at the instigation of Judas are indignant at this seeming waste of ointment.科特,长大麻疯的西门的客人;玛丽anoints他的脚,并唆使犹大的门徒愤慨这种药膏的表面上的浪费。A great multitude assembles at Bethania, not to see Jesus only but also Lazarus; hence the chief priests think of killing Lazarus too.有许多组装Bethania,没有看到耶稣,但也拉撒路,因此祭司长认为杀害拉撒路太多。 On the following day Jesus solemnly entered Jerusalem and was received by the Hosanna cries of all classes of people.翌日耶稣郑重地进入耶路撒冷和撒那人所有类的呼喊收到。In the afternoon He met a delegation of Gentiles in the court of the Temple.在下午,他会见了在法院寺代表团的外邦人。On Monday Jesus curses the barren fig tree, and during the morning He drives the buyers and sellers from the Temple.周一耶稣诅咒无花果树,并在早上他开着从寺的买家和卖家。On Tuesday the wonder of the disciples at the sudden withering of the fig tree provokes their Master's instruction on the efficacy of faith.周二突然枯萎的无花果树的弟子不知,激起他们主人的对信仰的疗效指令。Jesus answers the enemies' questions as to His authority; then He proposes the parable of the two sons, of the wicked husbandmen, and of the marriage feast.耶稣回答的敌人“的问题,以他的权力;然后他提出的两个儿子的比喻,恶人husbandmen,和婚宴。Next follows a triple snare: the politicians ask whether it is lawful to pay tribute to Caesar; the scoffers inquire whose wife a woman, who has had several husbands, will be after resurrection; the Jewish theologians propose the question: Which is the first commandment, the great commandment of the law?接下来三重圈套:政客要求它是否是合法的致敬撒嘲笑者询问其妻子的女人,谁拥有了几个丈夫,将后复活;犹太神学家提出的问题:哪个是第一条诫命法律的大诫命? Then Jesus proposes His last question to the Jews: "What think you of Christ? whose son is he?"然后,耶稣提出他对犹太人的最后一个问题:“什么认为你的基督是他的儿子?”This is followed by the eightfold woe against the Scribes and Pharisees, and by the denunciation of Jerusalem.其次是对文士和法利赛人,八倍的疾苦和谴责耶路撒冷。The last words of Christ in the Temple were expressions of praise for the poor widow who had made an offering of two mites in spite of her poverty.曾提供两个螨,尽管她的贫困的穷寡妇,基督在寺庙的最后一句话是,表达赞美。 Jesus ended this day by uttering the prophecies concerning the destruction of Jerusalem, His second coming, and the future judgement; these predictions are interrupted by the parable of the ten virgins and the talents.耶稣结束了这一天说出的预言,关于耶路撒冷的毁灭,他第二次来,和未来的判断,这些预测是由十个童女的比喻和人才中断。 On Wednesday Jesus again predicted His Passion; probably it was on the same day that Judas made his agreement with the Jews to betray Jesus.星期三耶稣再次预言他的激情,可能在同一天,犹大协议,他与犹太人出卖耶稣。

E. The Passion of Jesus: Its PreparationE.耶稣受难及其制备

Jesus prepares His disciples for the Passion, He prepares Himself for the ordeal and His enemies prepare themselves for the destruction of Jesus.耶稣准备他的弟子的激情,他准备为自己的考验和他的敌人准备自己为耶稣的破坏。

1. 1。Preparation of the Apostles.制备的使徒。

Jesus prepares His Apostles for the Passion by the eating of the paschal lamb, the institution of the Holy Eucharist, the concomitant ceremonies, and His lengthy discourses held during and after the Last Supper.耶稣准备他的门徒吃逾越节的羔羊,圣体圣事的机构,随之而来的仪式,并举行最后的晚餐,期间和之后他漫长的话语激情。 Special mention should be made of the prediction of the Passion, and of the betrayal one of the Apostles and the denial by another.特别值得一提的激情预测,和背叛的使徒之一,拒绝由另一。Peter, James, and John are prepared in a more particular manner by witnessing the sorrow of Jesus on Mt.彼得,雅各和约翰准备在一个更具体的的方式见证耶稣山悲哀。Olivet.科特。

2. 2。Preparation of Jesus.耶稣的制备。

Jesus must have found an indirect preparation in all He did and said to strengthen His Apostles.耶稣必须找到他说,加强他的门徒的间接准备。But the preparation that was peculiarly His own consisted in His prayer in the grotto of His Agony where the angel came to strengthen Him.但他自己独有的准备,包括他在他痛苦的石窟天使来加强他的祈祷。The sleep of His favoured Apostles during the hours of His bitter struggle must have prepared Him too for the complete abandonment He was soon to experience.他喜欢的使徒,在他的苦战小时的​​睡眠,必须有准备,他太他很快就体验到完全抛弃。

3. 3。Preparation of the Enemies.制备的敌人。

Judas leaves the Master during the Last Supper.在最后的晚餐,犹大离开主。The chief priests and Pharisees hastily collect a detachment of the Roman cohort stationed in the castle of Antonia, of the Jewish temple-watch, and of the officials of the Temple.祭司长和法利赛人匆匆收集支队驻扎在安东尼的城堡罗马队列的犹太圣殿观看,寺官员。To these are added a number of the servants and dependents of the high-priest, and a miscellaneous multitude of fanatics with lanterns and torches, with swords and clubs, who were to follow the leadership of Judas.这些都增加了一个高神父的公务员和家属,及杂项众多的灯笼和火把的痴迷者,用剑和俱乐部,遵循犹大领导。They took Christ, bound Him, and led Him to the high-priest's house.他们把基督,约束他,带领他的高神父的房子。

F. The Passion of Jesus: The TrialF.耶稣受难:试用

Jesus was tried first before an ecclesiastical and then before a civil tribunal.耶稣被审判之前,先教会和然后在民事法庭。

1. 1。Before Ecclesiastical Court.教会法院之前。

The ecclesiastical trial includes Christ's appearance before Annas, before Caiphas, and again before Caiphas, who appears to have acted in each case as head of the Sanhedrin.教会的审判,包括基督的外观前安纳斯,前Caiphas,前再次Caiphas,似乎在每一种情况下担任公会负责人。 The Jewish court found Jesus guilty of blasphemy, and condemned Him to death, though its proceedings were illegal from more than one point of view.犹太法院发现耶稣的亵渎而有罪,并谴责他死刑,但其诉讼从多个角度来看是非法的。 During the trial took place Peter's triple denial of Jesus; Jesus is insulted and mocked, especially between the second and third session; and after His final condemnation Judas despaired and met his tragic death.在审判过程中的地方彼得对耶稣的三重否定了耶稣是侮辱和嘲笑,尤其是第二次和第三次会议之间,他最后的谴责后,犹大绝望,并会见了他的不幸逝世。

2. 2。Before the Civil Court.前民事法庭。

The civil trial, too, comprised three sessions, the first before Pilate, the second before Herod, the third again before Pilate.民事审判中,也包括了三次会议,彼拉多面前的第一,希律王前第二,在彼拉多面前的第三个。Jesus is not charged with blasphemy before the court of Pilate, but with stirring up the people, forbidding to give tribute to Caesar, and claiming to be Christ the king.耶稣是不收取彼拉多法庭前的亵渎,但挑起人民,禁止给凯撒的敬意,并自称是基督国王。Pilate ignores the first two charges; the third he finds harmless when he sees that Jesus does not claim royalty in the Roman sense of the word.彼拉多忽略前两个收费;第三,他认为无害的,当他看到耶稣不主张在罗马字的意义版税。

But in order not to incur the odium of the Jewish leaders, the Roman governor sends his prisoner to Herod.但为了不招致odium犹太领袖,罗马总督希律把他的囚犯。As Jesus did not humour the curiosity of Herod, He was mocked and set at naught by the Tetrarch of Galilee and his court, and sent back to Pilate.正如耶稣没有幽默的希律王的好奇心,他被嘲笑,在加利利和他的宫廷分封化为乌有设置,并送回彼拉多。

The Roman procurator declares the prisoner innocent for the second time, but, instead of setting Him free, gives the people the alternative to choose either Jesus or Barabbas for their paschal freedman.罗马检察官宣布无辜的囚犯,第二次,而是他自由设置,使人民的替代选择为他们的逾越节的自由民耶稣或巴拉巴。Pilate pronounced Jesus innocent for the third time with the more solemn ceremony of washing his hands; he had recourse to a third scheme of ridding himself of the burden of pronouncing an unjust sentence against his prisoner.彼拉多宣判耶稣无辜的第三次清洗双手更庄严的仪式,他不得不求助于一个摆脱自己的一个不公正的判决宣判对他的囚犯负担第三计划。 He had the prisoner scourged, thus annihilating, as far as human means could do so, any hope that Jesus could ever attain to the royal dignity.他鞭打囚犯,从而消灭,尽可能的人,意味着可以这样做,任何希望,耶稣都不能够达到皇家的尊严。But even this device miscarried, and Pilate allowed his political ambition to prevail over his sense of evident justice; he condemned Jesus to be crucified.但是,即使此设备流产,彼拉多使他的政治野心战胜他明显的司法意识;他谴责耶稣被钉在十字架上。

G. The Passion of Jesus: His DeathG.耶稣受难:他的死亡

Jesus carried His Cross to the place of execution.耶稣进行他的十字架刑场。Simon of Cyrene is forced to assist Him in bearing the heavy burden.西蒙的昔兰尼是被迫协助他在轴承的沉重负担。On the way Jesus addresses his last words to the weeping women who sympathized with His suffering.在耶稣的方式满足他最后的话,谁同情他的苦难哭泣的妇女。He is nailed to the Cross, his garments are divided, and an inscription is placed over His head.他钉在十字架上,他的衣服上划分,并题词是放置在他的头上。While His enemies mock Him, He pronounces the well-known "Seven Words".而他的敌人嘲笑他,他宣告了著名的“七字”。 Of the two robbers crucified with Jesus, one was converted, and the other died impenitent.耶稣钉在十字架上的两个劫匪,一个是转换,和其他死亡不知悔改。The sun was darkened, and Jesus surrendered His soul into the hands of His Father.太阳变黑了,耶稣到他的父亲手中交回他的灵魂。The veil of the Temple was rent into two, the earth quaked, the rocks were riven, and many bodies of the saints that had slept arose and appeared to many.寺的面纱被一分为二的租金,大地颤抖,岩石四分五裂,出现了许多机构已睡的圣徒,并出现许多。The Roman centurion testified that Jesus was indeed the Son of God.罗马百夫长作证,耶稣的确是神的儿子。The Heart of Jesus was pierced so as to make sure of His death.耶稣的心脏被刺穿,以确定他的死亡。The Sacred Body was taken from the Cross by Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus, and was buried in the new sepulchre of Joseph, and the Sabbath drew near.神圣的身体是从约瑟夫亚利马太和尼哥底母的十字架,被埋没在约瑟的新坟墓,和安息日临近。

H. The Glory of JesusH.耶稣的荣耀

After the burial of Jesus, the holy women returned and prepared spices and ointments.埋葬了耶稣后,神圣的妇女返回,并准备香料和药膏。The next day, the chief priests and Pharisees made the sepulchre secure with guards, sealing the stone.第二天,祭司长和法利赛人的坟墓,与守卫的安全,密封石头。When the Sabbath was passed, the holy women brought sweet spices that they might anoint Jesus.当安息日获得通过,圣洁的妇女带来了甜香料,他们可能膏耶稣。But Jesus rose early the first day of the week, and there was a great earthquake, and an angel descended from heaven, and rolled back the stone.但耶稣早在一周的第一天上涨,并有大地震,和一个天使从天而降,并回滚石头。 The guards were struck with terror, and became as dead men.警卫被击中与恐怖,和死人一样。On arriving at the sepulchre the holy women found the grave empty; Mary Magdalen ran to tell the Apostles Peter and John, while the other women were told by an angel that the Lord had arisen from the dead.圣洁的妇女,在到达坟墓的发现坟墓空;玛利亚抹大拉跑去告诉使徒彼得和约翰,而其他妇女,主有从死里出现的天使告诉。 Peter and John hasten to the sepulchre, and find everything as Magdalen has reported.彼得和约翰赶紧到坟墓,和马格德林报告发现的一切。Magdalen too returns, and, while weeping at the sepulchre, is approached by the arisen Saviour Who appears to her and speaks with her.马格德林太多的回报,并在坟墓哭泣时,出现救主似乎她和与她说话接触。On the same day Jesus appeared to the other holy women, to Peter, to the two disciples on their way to Emmaus, and to all the Apostles excepting Thomas.耶稣就在同一天出现其他圣洁的妇女,对彼得的道路上,以马忤斯的两个弟子,和所有的使徒,除了托马斯。A week later He appeared to all the Apostles, Thomas included; later still He appeared in Galilee near the Lake of Genesareth to seven disciples, on a mountain in Galilee to a multitude of disciples, to James, and finally to His disciples on the Mount Olivet whence He ascended into heaven.一个星期后,他似乎所有的使徒,托马斯后,他仍然出现在加利利Genesareth湖附近的七个弟子,在加利利山的众多弟子,詹姆斯,和山终于向他的门徒科特何处,他升天。 But these apparitions do not exhaust the record of the Gospels, according to which Jesus showed Himself alive after His Passion by many proofs, for forty days appearing to the disciples and speaking of the kingdom of God.但这些幻象不排气的福音的纪录,根据耶稣表明自己还活着后,他的许多证据的热情,为四十天,向门徒显现,讲神的国度。

Publication information Written by AJ Maas.AJ马斯编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Joseph P. Thomas.转录由约瑟夫托马斯。In Memory of Archbishop Mathew Kavukatt The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.在记忆大主教马修Kavukatt的天主教百科全书,第八卷。Published 1910.发布1910。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约



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