Saint John Chrysostom圣约翰金口

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(c.346-407 AD)(c.346 - 407 AD)

John Chrysostom, c.346-407, was patriarch of Constantinople and one of the four great Eastern Fathers of the Church.约翰金口,c.346 - 407,是族长君士坦丁堡和四大东部父亲教会之一。The son of Christian parents, John was educated in rhetoric and later in theology by Diodore of Tarsus.基督徒父母的儿子,约翰是在言辞和后来在神学教育大数Diodore。Feeling a call to the monastic life, he practiced a strict asceticism at home and later retreated to a mountainous area, after suffering damage to his health.调用的寺院生活的感觉,他在家里练了严格的禁欲主义,后来撤退到山区,他的健康受到损害后,。On his return to Antioch, he was ordained deacon (381) and priest (386).在他返回安提阿,他被祝圣执事(381)和牧师(386)。His bishop, Flavian, appointed him to preach, a duty that he discharged with skill, and he acquired a large popular following in the next 12 years.他的主教,弗拉维安,任命他为宣扬,他出院的责任与技巧,以及他在未来12年收购了一个大受欢迎以下。

In 398, John was consecrated as patriarch of Constantinople.398,约翰是神圣的族长君士坦丁堡。 He administered the diocese with fidelity and courage, especially in a series of reforms.他管理的忠诚和勇气的教区,特别是在一系列的改革。An ascetic in an age of luxury, John was unable to be subservient to the emperor Arcadius and his wife, Eudoxia.约翰是一个禁欲主义者在一个豪华的年龄,不能屈从于皇帝Arcadius和他的妻子,多迦。His tactlessness and idealism united the opposition against him, and he was condemned and deposed at the illegal Synod of the Oaks in 403.他tactlessness和唯心主义美国对他的反对,他是在403奥克斯非法主教谴责和被废黜。After a brief return to Constantinople, he angered the empress again and was forced to leave the city in 404.经过短暂返回君士坦丁堡,他激怒了慈禧再次被迫离开城市在404。He died on an enforced journey to Pontus.他死了强迫旅程庞。Feast day: Nov. 13 (Eastern); Sept. 13 (Western).节日:11月13日(东区)9月13日(西方)。

A writer of pure, almost Attic style, John is one of the most attractive of the Greek preachers, and his eloquence gained him the name of Chrysostom (Golden Mouth).约翰纯,几乎阁楼风格的作家,是最有吸引力的希腊传教士之一,并获得他的口才他的金口(黄金口)的名称。Most of his writings are in sermon form.他的著作大部分是说教的形式。Homilies survive on Genesis, Psalms, Isaiah, Matthew, John, Romans, Galatians, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Timothy, Titus, and Philemon.颂歌生存创世记,诗篇,以赛亚,马太,约翰,罗马书,加拉太书,1和2哥林多前书,以弗所书,腓立比,歌罗西书,提摩太,提多书,和腓利门。

Ross Mackenzie罗斯麦肯齐

Bibliography: Baur, Chrysostomus, John Chrysostom and His Times, trans.参考书目:鲍尔,Chrysostomus,约翰金口和他的时代,跨。by M. Gonzaga, 2 vols.M. Gonzaga大学,2卷。(1960-61). (1960-61)。

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St. John Chrysostom圣约翰金口

Catholic Information天主教信息

(Chrysostomos, "golden-mouthed" so called on account of his eloquence). (Chrysostomos,“黄金口”等呼吁他的口才帐户)。Doctor of the Church, born at Antioch, c.教会的医生,出生在安提阿,C.347; died at Commana in Pontus, 14 September, 407.庞,9月14日,407,347;死在Commana。

John -- whose surname "Chrysostom" occurs for the first time in the "Constitution" of Pope Vigilius (cf. PL, LX, 217) in the year 553 -- is generally considered the most prominent doctor of the Greek Church and the greatest preacher ever heard in a Christian pulpit.约翰 - 姓“金口”发生在“宪法”教皇Vigilius(参见PL,LX 217)首次在一年553 - 被普遍认为是最突出的希腊教会医生和最大传道听过一个基督教的讲坛。His natural gifts, as well as exterior circumstances, helped him to become what he was.他的天赋,以及外观的情况下,帮助他成为他。

I. LIFE一,生命

(1) Boyhood(1)少年期

At the time of Chrysostom's birth, Antioch was the second city of the Eastern part of the Roman Empire.在金口的诞生时,安提阿是罗马帝国东部的第二大城市。During the whole of the fourth century religious struggles had troubled the empire and had found their echo at Antioch.在整个第四世纪的宗教斗争已陷入困境的帝国,并发现了他们的回声在安提。Pagans, Manichaeans, Gnostics, Arians, Apollinarians, Jews, made their proselytes at Antioch, and the Catholics were themselves separated by the schism between the bishops Meletius and Paulinus.异教徒,摩尼教,诺斯替教,亚利安,Apollinarians,犹太人,他们proselytes在安提阿,和天主教徒自己Meletius和Paulinus主教之间的分裂分开。 Thus Chrysostom's youth fell in troubled times.因此金口的青年下跌乱世。His father, Secundus, was an officer of high rank in the Syrian army.他的父亲,Secundus,是在叙利亚军队人员的高排名。On his death soon after the birth of John, Anthusa, his wife, only twenty years of age, took the sole charge of her two children, John and an elder sister.约翰,Anthusa,他的妻子出生后不久,在他的死亡只有20岁,她的两个孩子,约翰和一个姐姐的唯一负责。Fortunately she was a woman of intelligence and character.幸运的是,她的智力和性格的女人。She not only instructed her son in piety, but also sent him to the best schools of Antioch, though with regard to morals and religion many objections could be urged against them.她不仅在孝指示她的儿子,但也送他到安提阿的最好的学校,虽然与道德和宗教的许多反对方面可以对他们的呼吁。Beside the lectures of Andragatius, a philosopher not otherwise known, Chrysostom followed also those of Libanius, at once the most famous orator of that period and the most tenacious adherent of the declining paganism of Rome.旁边的Andr​​agatius,不能称为一个哲学家的讲座,金口其次也是Libanius,在那个时期和最顽强的附着下降异教罗马最有名的演说家。 As we may see from the later writings of Chrysostom, he attained then considerable Greek scholarship and classical culture, which he by no means disowned in his later days.金口后来的著作中我们可以看到,他获得了希腊可观的奖学金和古典文化,这是他没有在他以后的日子里六亲不认。His alleged hostility to classical learning is in reality but a misunderstanding of certain passages in which he defends the philosophia of Christianity against the myths of the heathen gods, of which the chief defenders in his time were the representatives and teachers of the sophia ellenike (see A. Naegele in "Byzantin. Zeitschrift", XIII, 73-113; Idem, "Chrysostomus und Libanius" in Chrysostomika, I, Rome, 1908, 81-142).他指称的古典学习的敌意,但在现实中的某些段落,他抵御基督教的异教徒神的神话,在他的时间,其中的主要捍卫者的代表和教师索菲亚ellenike philosophia的误解(见A.内格勒在“Byzantin(杂志)。”,第十三,73-113;同上,“Chrysostomus和Libanius”Chrysostomika我,罗马,1908年,81-142)。

(2) Chrysostom as Lector and Monk(2)金口作为讲师和僧

It was a very decisive turning-point in the life of Chrysostom when he met one day (about 367) the bishop Meletius.这是一个非常果断金口生活的转折点时,他会见了一天(约367)主教Meletius。 The earnest, mild, and winning character of this man captivated Chrysostom in such a measure that he soon began to withdraw from classical and profane studies and to devote himself to an ascetic and religious life.这个男人的认真,温和,并赢得的性格迷住了金口,他很快就开始撤出古典与亵渎的研究,并投身到一个禁欲主义和宗教生活在这样一个措施。 He studied Holy Scripture and frequented the sermons of Meletius.他研究圣经和经常光顾的Meletius说教。About three years later he received Holy Baptism and was ordained lector.大约三年后,他获得了神圣的洗礼,被祝圣讲师。But the young cleric, seized by the desire of a more perfect life, soon afterwards entered one of the ascetic societies near Antioch, which was under the spiritual direction of Carterius and especially of the famous Diodorus, later Bishop of Tarsus (see Palladius, "Dialogus", v; Sozomenus, "Hist. eccles.", VIII, 2).但年轻的神职人员,更完美的生活的愿望检获,不久进入安提阿附近的禁欲主义的社会,这是根据Carterius精神方向,特别是著名的的狄奥多罗斯,后来主教(见帕拉丢,大数“ Dialogus“,V; Sozomenus,”嘘埃克尔斯“,第八条,2)。Prayer, manual labour and the study of Holy Scripture were his chief occupations, and we may safely suppose that his first literary works date from this time, for nearly all his earlier writings deal with ascetic and monastic subjects [cf.体力劳动和研究圣经的祷文,他的主要职业,而我们可以安全地假设,他的第一个文学作品日期从这个时候几乎所有他的早期作品,与苦行和寺院科目[比照处理。 below Chrysostom writings: (1) "Opuscuia"].下面金口著作:(1)“Opuscuia”]。Four years later, Chrysostom resolved to live as an anchorite in one of the caves near Antioch.四年后,金口解决生活作为一个隐士在安提阿附近的洞穴之一。He remained there two years, but then as his health was quite ruined by indiscreet watchings and fastings in frost and cold, he prudently returned to Antioch to regain his health, and resumed his office as lector in the church.他在那里停留了两年,但然后,为他的健康是非常指手划脚watchings和霜冻和寒冷的禁食毁,他谨慎地返回安提阿,以恢复他的健康,并恢复他的办公室在教会讲师。

(3) Chrysostom as Deacon and Priest at Antioch(3)金口执事和在安提阿牧师

As the sources of the life of Chrysostom give an incomplete chronology, we can but approximately determine the dates for this Aniochene period.金口生活来源作为一个不完整的年表,我们可以但大约这个Aniochene时期确定的日期。Very probably in the beginning of 381 Meletius made him deacon, just before his own departure to Constantinople, where he died as president of the Second Ecumenical Council.很可能在381 Meletius开始他执事,就在他自己出发前往君士坦丁堡,在那里他担任主席的第二次大公会议死亡。The successor of Meletius was Flavian (concerning whose succession see F. Cavallera, "Le Schime d'Antioche", Paris, 1905).Meletius继任弗拉维安(关于见楼Cavallera的继承,“乐Schime Antioche”,巴黎,1905年)。Ties of sympathy and friendship connected Chrysostom with his new bishop.同情和友谊的纽带连接金口,与他的新主教。 As deacon he had to assist at the liturgical functions, to look after the sick and poor, and was probably charged also in some degree with teaching catechumens.作为主祭,他协助在礼仪职能,照顾病人和穷人,大概也被控在某种程度与教学慕道。At the same time he continued his literary work, and we may suppose that he composed his most famous book, "On the Priesthood", towards the end of this period (c. 386, see Socrates, "Hist. eccl.", VI, 3), or at latest in the beginning of his priesthood (c. 387, as Nairn with good reasons puts it, in his edition of "De Sacerd.", xii-xv).与此同时,他继续他的文学作品,我们可以假设,他组成了他的的最有名的书,“在圣职”,对这一时期结束时,(C. 386,苏格拉底,“组织胺。传道书”,六3),或最迟在他的圣职的开始(公元前387,作为很好的理由说,在他的版的“德Sacerd。”XII - 15奈伦)。There may be some doubt if it was occasioned by a real historical fact, viz., that Chrysostom and his friend Basil were requested to accept bishoprics (c. 372).可能有一些疑问,如果它是由一个真正的历史事实,即所引致,金​​口和他的朋友罗勒被要求接受主教(公元前372)。All the earliest Greek biographers seem not to have taken it in that sense.最早的希腊传记作家似乎有在这个意义上说。In the year 386 Chrysostom was ordained priest by Flavian, and from that dates his real importance in ecclesiastical history.在今年386金口被祝圣司铎由弗拉维安,并从可以追溯到他在教会历史的真实重要性。His chief task during the next twelve years was that of preaching, which he had to exercise either instead of or with Bishop Flavian.在未来的12年里,他的首要任务是说教,这是他行使,而不是或与主教弗拉维安。But no doubt the larger part of the popular religious instruction and education devolved upon him.但毫无疑问,大部份流行的宗教指令和他下放的教育。The earliest notable occasion which showed his power of speaking and his great authority was the Lent of 387, when he delivered his sermons "On the Statues" (PG, XLVIII, 15, xxx.).最早的显着之际,这表明他的权力的发言和他的巨大权威是387封斋期,当他发表了他的的讲道:“在雕像”(PG,四十八,15,XXX。)。 The people of Antioch, excited by the levy of new taxes, had thrown down the statues of Emperor Theodosius.安提阿,开征新税激励,人们投掷下来狄奥多西皇帝的雕像。In the panic and fear of punishment which followed, Chrysostom delivered a series of twenty or twenty-one (the nineteenth is probably not authentic) sermons, full of vigour, consolatory, exhortative, tranquilizing, until Flavian, the bishop, brought back from Constantinople the emperor's pardon.在一片恐慌和害怕惩罚,金口交付的20或21系列(十九可能不是正宗的)的说教,充满活力,安慰,劝勉,镇静,直到弗拉维安,主教,从君士坦丁堡带回来皇帝的赦免。 But the usual preaching of Chrysostom consisted in consecutive explanations of Holy Scripture.但通常的金口的说教,在连续的解释圣经。To that custom, unhappily no longer in use, we owe his famous and magnificent commentaries, which offer us such an inexhaustible treasure of dogmatic, moral, and historical knowledge of the transition from the fourth to the fifth century.自定义,不幸不再使用,我们欠了他的著名的,宏伟的评论,这为我们提供这样一个取之不尽,用之不竭的宝库教条化,道德和历史知识的过渡,从第四至第五世纪。 These years, 386-98, were the period of the greatest theological productivity of Chrysostom, a period which alone would have assured him for ever a place among the first Doctors of the Church.这些年来,386-98,金口期间,仅会保证他以往任何时候都教会的第一个医生之间发生的最大的神学生产力的时期。 A sign of this may be seen in the fact that in the year 392 St. Jerome already accorded to the preacher of Antioch a place among his Viri illustres ("De Viris ill.", 129, in PL, XXIII, 754), referring expressly to the great and successful activity of Chrysostom as a theological writer.本的一个标志可以看出,在今年392圣杰罗姆已经给予一个他Viri illustres(德Viris生病了。“129 PL,二十三,754,)的安提阿传道,指明确的金口作为一个神学作家的伟大和成功的活动。 From this same fact we may infer that during this time his fame had spread far beyond the limits of Antioch, and that he was well known in the Byzantine Empire, especially in the capital.从这个相同的事实,我们可以推断,在此期间他的名声已远远超出限制的安提传播的时间,并说他很清楚在拜占庭帝国,尤其是在首都。

(4) St. Chrysostom as Bishop of Constantinople(4)圣金口作为主教君士坦丁堡

In the ordinary course of things Chrysostom might have become the successor of Flavian at Antioch.在普通的事情当然金口有可能成为继任者的弗拉维安在安提。But on 27 September 397, Nectarius, Bishop of Constantinople, died.但是,君士坦丁堡的主教,于9月27日397,Nectarius死亡。 There was a general rivalry in the capital, openly or in secret, for the vacant see.是在首都的一般竞争,公开或秘密,为空置见。After some months it was known, to the great disappointment of the competitors, that Emperor Areadius, at the suggestion of his minister Eutropius, had sent to the Prefect of Antioch to call John Chrysostom out of the town without the knowledge of the people, and to send him straight to Constantinople.几个月后,它是已知的,非常失望的竞争对手,皇帝Areadius,在他的部长特罗皮乌斯的建议,曾派人到知府的安提阿调用镇约翰金口,没有知识的人,和直送他到君士坦丁堡。 In this sudden way Chrysostom was hurried to the capital, and ordained Bishop of Constantinople on 26 February, 398, in the presence of a great assembly of bishops, by Theophilus, Patriarch of Alexandria, who had been obliged to renounce the idea of securing the appointment of Isidore, his own candidate.在这场突如其来的方式金口赶到首都,并规定了2月26日,398君士坦丁堡的主教在一个伟大的主教大会存在的西奥菲勒斯,牧首亚历山大,曾被迫放弃安全的想法,任命伊西多尔,他自己的候选人。 The change for Chrysostom was as great as it was unexpected.金口变化是很大的,因为它是意想不到的。His new position was not an easy one, placed as he was in the midst of an upstart metropolis, half Western, half Oriental, in the neighbourhood of a court in which luxury and intrigue always played the most prominent parts, and at the head of the clergy composed of most heterogeneous elements, and even (if not canonically, at least practically) at the head of the whole Byzantine episcopate.他的新职务是不容易的,他是一个暴发户的大都市,半西方半东方在法院豪华和阴谋始终扮演着最突出的部位附近,中放置,并在头神职人员组成的最复杂的异构元素,甚至在整个拜占庭主教团团长(如果不规范,实际上至少)。 The first act of the new bishop was to bring about a reconciliation between Flavian and Rome.新主教的第一幕是带来弗拉维安和罗马之间的和解。Constantinople itself soon began to feel the impulse of a new ecclesiastical life.君士坦丁堡不久就开始感受到了一个新的教会生活的冲动。

The necessity for reform was undeniable.改革的必要性是不可否认的。Chrysostom began "sweeping the stairs from the top" (Palladius, op. cit., v).金口开始的“从顶部席卷的楼梯”(帕拉丢,同上,V)。 He called his oeconomus, and ordered him to reduce the expenses of the episcopal household; he put an end to the frequent banquets, and lived little less strictly than he had formerly lived as a priest and monk.他呼吁他的oeconomus,并命令他的主教家庭,以减少费用;他杜绝频繁的宴会,住少严格比他以前作为一名牧师和僧侣生活。 With regard to the clergy, Chrysostom had at first to forbid them to keep in their houses syneisactoe, ie women housekeepers who had vowed virginity.关于神职人员,金口起初,禁止他们继续在自己的房子syneisactoe,即妇女的管家曾发誓童贞。He also proceeded against others who, by avarice or luxury, had given scandal.他还起诉其他人,贪婪或豪华给予丑闻。He had even to exclude from the ranks of the clergy two deacons, the one for murder and the other for adultery.他甚至排除神职人员两个执事,谋杀案之一,其他为通奸的行列。Of the monks, too, who were very numerous even at that time at Constantinople, some had preferred to roam about aimlessly and without discipline.僧人,也非常多,即使在当时,在君士坦丁堡,有些人的首选漫游大约是漫无目的的和无纪律。Chrysostom confined them to their monasteries.金口局限于他们的寺庙。Finally he took care of the ecclesiastical widows.最后,他采取了照顾教会寡妇。Some of them were living in a worldly manner: he obliged them either to marry again, or to observe the rules of decorum demanded by their state.他们中有些人生活在一个世俗的方式:他有义务再次结婚,或观察他们的国家所要求的礼仪规则。After the clergy, Chrysostom turned his attention to his flock.经过神职人员,金口把注意力转向了他的羊群。As he had done at Antioch, so at Constantinople and with more reason, he frequently preached against the unreasonable extravagances of the rich, and especially against the ridiculous finery in the matter of dress affected by women whose age should have put them beyond such vanities.正如他在安提阿,在君士坦丁堡,与更多的理由,他经常鼓吹反对不合理富人的奢侈,而可笑的服饰,尤其是对妇女的年龄,就应该把他们超越这样的面盆受影响的礼服问题。 Some of them, the widows Marsa, Castricia, Eugraphia, known for such preposterous tastes, belonged to the court circle.寡妇马尔萨,Castricia,Eugraphia,这种荒谬的口味而闻名,其中有些属于法院圈。It seems that the upper classes of Constantinople had not previously been accustomed to such language.它似乎君士坦丁堡的上层阶级没有以前一直习惯这样的语言。Doubtless some felt the rebuke to be intended for themselves, and the offence given was the greater in proportion as the rebuke was the more deserved.毫无疑问,有些人认为要为自己打算的训斥和指责更当之无愧的罪行是在比例越大。On the other hand, the people showed themselves delighted with the sermons of their new bishop, and frequently applauded him in the church (Socrates, "Hist. eccl." VI).另一方面,人们发现自己很高兴与他们的新主教布道,并经常称赞他在教堂(苏格拉底,“组织胺。传道书。”六)。They never forgot his care for the poor and miserable, and that in his first year he had built a great hospital with the money he had saved in his household.为穷人和悲惨的,他们从来没有忘记他的关心,并在他的第一年,他建造了一个与他在他的家庭节省下来的钱的伟大医院。 But Chrysostom had also very intimate friends among the rich and noble classes.但金口也非常亲密的朋友之间的丰富和高尚的类。 The most famous of these was Olympias, widow and deaconess, a relation of Emperor Theodosius, while in the Court itself there was Brison, first usher of Eudoxia, who assisted Chrysostom in instructing his choirs, and always maintained a true friendship for him.其中最有名的是奥林匹亚,遗孀和执事,皇帝狄奥多西的关系,而在法院本身有Brison,首先迎来的多迦,指示他的合唱团在协助金口,并始终保持着对他的真正的友谊。 The empress herself was at first most friendly towards the new bishop.慈禧自己是第一个最友好迈向新的主教。She followed the religious processions, attended his sermons, and presented silver candlesticks for the use of the churches (Socrates, op. cit., VI, 8; Sozomenus, op. cit., VIII, 8).她遵循的宗教游行,参加他的布道,并提出了使用的教堂(苏格拉底,同上,第六,8。。; Sozomenus,同上,第八,8)银烛台。

Unfortunately, the feelings of amity did not last.不幸的是,友好的感情没有持续下去。At first Eutropius, the former slave, now minister and consul, abused his influence.在第一特罗皮乌斯,前奴隶,现在部长和领事,滥用​​自己的影响力。He deprived some wealthy persons of their property, and prosecuted others whom he suspected of being adversaries of rivals.他被剥夺了一些有钱的人,其财产和起诉他涉嫌被对手对手。More than once Chrysostom went himself to the minister (see "Oratio ad Eutropium" in PG, Chrys. Op., III, 392) to remonstrate with him, and to warn him of the results of his own acts, but without success.不止一次金口了自己的部长(见“Oratio广告Eutropium”在PG,Chrys。欧普,三,392)劝谏他,警告他自己的行为的结果,但没有成功。 Then the above-named ladies, who immediately surrounded the empress, probably did not hide their resentment against the strict bishop.上述命名的女士们,立即包围了慈禧,大概没有掩饰他们对严格的主教的不满。 Finally, the empress herself committed an injustice in depriving a widow of her vineyard (Marcus Diac., "Vita Porphyrii", V, no. 37, in PG, LXV, 1229).最后,慈禧自己犯下不公平,剥夺了她的葡萄园(马库斯DIAC,“维他Porphyrii”,第五,没有37,在PG,第六十五,1229)的遗孀。 Chrysostom interceded for the latter.金口后者交涉。But Eudoxia showed herself offended.但多迦表明自己得罪了。Henceforth there was a certain coolness between the imperial Court and the episcopal palace, which, growing little by little, led to a catastrophe.此后,出现了一定的凉意,朝廷和主教宫殿之间,一点点成长,导致一场灾难。 It is impossible to ascertain exactly at what period this alienation first began; very probably it dated from the beginning of the year 401.这是不可能准确地确定在什么时期这种异化首先开始,很可能从开始的每年401月。 But before this state of things became known to the public there happened events of the highest political importance, and Chrysostom, without seeking it, was implicated in them.但是,在这个国家的事情,成为为公众所知悉有发生的事件的最高政治上的重要性,金口,无求,他们有牵连。These were the fall of Eutropius and the revolt of Gainas.这些特罗皮乌斯下降Gainas起义。

In January, 399, Eutropius, for a reason not exactly known, fell into disgrace. ,399一月,特罗皮乌斯,不完全已知的原因,下跌的耻辱。Knowing the feelings of the people and of his personal enemies, he fled to the church.了解人民和他个人的敌人的感情,他逃到了教堂。As he had himself attempted to abolish the immunity of the ecclesiastical asylums not long before, the people seemed little disposed to spare him.正如他自己试图取消教会收容所的免疫力没多久,人们似乎很少出售,饶了他。 But Chrysostom interfered, delivering his famous sermon on Eutropius, and the fallen minister was saved for the moment.但金口干涉,提供特罗皮乌斯他著名的讲道,和堕落的部长暂时保存。As, however, he tried to escape during the night, he was seized, exiled, and some time later put to death.但是,由于他试图逃跑,在夜间,他被查获,被放逐,一段时间后置于死地。Immediately another more exciting and more dangerous event followed.随后立即另一个更令人振奋的和更危险的的事件。Gainas, one of the imperial generals, had been sent out to subdue Tribigild, who had revolted. Gainas,帝国的将领之一,已出动制服Tribigild,曾起兵。In the summer of 399 Gainas united openly with Tribigild, and, to restore peace, Arcadius had to submit to the most humiliating conditions.在夏天的399 Gainas公开Tribigild,联合国,恢复和平,Arcadius提交到最屈辱的条件。Gainas was named commander-in-chief of the imperial army, and even had Aurelian and Saturninus, two men of the highest rank at Constantinople, delivered over to him. Gainas被评为帝国军队的统帅,甚至Aurelian和Saturninus,两名男子在君士坦丁堡的最高排名,交付给他。It seems that Chrysostom accepted a mission to Gainas, and that, owing to his intervention, Aurelian and Saturninus were spared by Gainas, and even set at liberty.看来,金口接受的使命是Gainas,而且,由于他的干预,Aurelian和Saturninus不遗余力地通过Gainas,甚至在自由设置。 Soon afterwards, Gainas, who was an Arian Goth, demanded one of the Catholic churches at Constantinople for himself and his soldiers.此后不久,Gainas,谁是阿里安哥特,要求为自己和他的士兵在君士坦丁堡天主教教堂之一。 Again Chrysostom made so energetic an opposition that Gainas yielded.再次金口,使精力充沛的反对,认为Gainas取得了。Meanwhile the people of Constantinople had become excited, and in one night several thousand Goths were slain.同时,君士坦丁堡的人变得兴奋,一晚几千哥特被杀害。Gainas however escaped, was defeated, and slain by the Huns.Gainas然而逃过一劫,被击败了,和匈奴被杀。Such was the end within a few years of three consuls of the Byzantine Empire.这是拜占庭帝国的领事几年内结束。There is no doubt that Chrysostom's authority had been greatly strengthened by the magnanimity and firmness of character he had shown during all these troubles.没有金口的权力得到了极大的气度和性格的坚定性,他在所有这些麻烦的加强无疑。It may have been this that augmented the jealousy of those who now governed the empire -- a clique of courtiers, with the empress at their head.它可能已被增强嫉妒那些现在所管辖的帝国 - 慈禧集团的臣子,在他们的头。 These were now joined by new allies issuing from the ecclesiastical ranks and including some provincial bishops -- Severian of Gabala, Antiochus of Ptolemais, and, for some time, Acacius of Beroea -- who preferred the attractions of the capital to residence in their own cities (Socrates, op. cit., VI, 11; Sozomenus, op. cit., VIII, 10).这些人现在加入了教会的行列,并发出新的盟友,包括一些省级主教 - 塞韦里安加巴拉,托勒梅斯安提阿哥伊,一段时间后,Beroea Acacius - 资本的吸引力,在自己居住的首选城市(苏格拉底,同上,第六,11;。Sozomenus,同上,第八,10)。The most intriguing among them was Severian, who flattered himself that he was the rival of Chrysostom in eloquence.其中最耐人寻味的是塞韦里安,谁受宠若惊自己,他的金口口才的对手。But so far nothing had transpired in public.但到目前为止,什么也没有蒸发,在市民。A great change occurred during the absence of Chrysostom for several months from Constantinople.在金口从君士坦丁堡几个月的情况下发生了很大变化。This absence was necessitated by an ecclesiastical affair in Asia Minor, in which he was involved.这是缺乏必要在小亚细亚,他参与教会事务。Following the express invitation of several bishops, Chrysostom, in the first months of 401, had come to Ephesus, where he appointed a new archbishop, and with the consent of the assembled bishops deposed six bishops for simony.明示邀请了几位主教,金口,在401头几个月,来到以弗所,在那里他任命了一个新的大主教,并与组装主教同意废黜6买卖圣职的主教。 After having passed the same sentence on Bishop Gerontius of Nicomedia, he returned to Constantinople.通过gerontius的尼科美底亚主教相同的句子后,他回到君士坦丁堡。Meanwhile disagreeable things had happened there.同时不愉快的事情发生了。Bishop Severian, to whom Chrysostom seems to have entrusted the performance of some ecclesiastical functions, had entered into open enmity with Serapion, the archdeacon and oeconomus of the cathedral and the episcopal palace.主教塞韦里安,谁金口似乎已委托一些教会功能的表现,已经进入开放的敌意谢拉皮翁,副主教和oeconomus的大教堂和主教宫殿。 Whatever the real reason may have been, Chrysostom, found the case so serious that he invited Severian to return to his own see.无论真正的原因可能有,金口,发现如此严重的情况下,他邀请塞韦里安返回自己看到的。It was solely owing to the personal interference of Eudoxia, whose confidence Serapion possessed, that he was allowed to come back from Chalcedon, whither he had retired.这完全是由于多迦,其信心谢拉皮翁拥有个人的干涉,他被允许来自迦克墩,向何处去,他已经退休。The reconciliation which followed was, at least on the part of Severian, not a sincere one, and the public scandal had excited much ill-feeling.随后的和解,至少在塞韦里安的一部分,而不是一个真诚的,是和公共丑闻兴奋得多生病的感觉。The effects soon became visible.效果很快成为可见。When in the spring of 402, Bishop Porphyrius of Gaza (see Marcus Diac., "Vita Porphyrii", V, ed. Nuth, Bonn, 1897, pp. 11-19) went to the Court at Constantinople to obtain a favour for his diocese, Chrysostom answered that he could do nothing for him, since he was himself in disgrace with the empress.当在402春,加沙的主教(见马库斯DIAC,“维他Porphyrii”,第五,主编。Nuth,波恩,1897年,页11-19)Porphyrius了在君士坦丁堡向法院获得了他的青睐教区,金口回答,他可以为他做什么,因为他是自己的耻辱与慈禧。 Nevertheless, the party of malcontents were not really dangerous, unless they could find some prominent and unscrupulous leader.然而,党的不满者不是真的很危险,除非他们能找到一些著名的和不择手段的领导者。Such a person presented himself sooner than might have been expected.这样的人介绍自己可能已经比预期的更早。It was the well-known Theophilus, Patriarch of Alexandria.这是众所周知的西奥菲勒斯,牧首亚历山大。He appeared under rather curious circumstances, which in no way foreshadowed the final result.他下出现,而好奇的情况下,没有办法,最终的结果埋下了伏笔。Theophilus, toward the end of the year 402, was summoned by the emperor to Constantinople to apologize before a synod, over which Chrysostom should preside, for several charges, which were brought against him by certain Egyptian monks, especially by the so-called four "tall brothers".西奥菲勒斯,向今年年底402,由皇帝被传唤到君士坦丁堡道歉前主教会议,其中金口应主持几个收费,这是对他提出的一些埃及僧侣,特别是由所谓的四大“高兄弟”。 The patriarch, their former friend, had suddenly turned against them, and had them persecuted as Origenists (Palladius, "Dialogus", xvi; Socrates, op. cit., VI, 7; Sozomenus, op. cit., VIII, 12).族长,他们以前的朋友,突然转身对他们,他们迫害Origenists(帕拉丢,“Dialogus”,十六;苏格拉底,同上,第六,七;。。Sozomenus,同上,第八,12) 。

However, Theophilus was not easily frightened.然而,提阿不容易受到惊吓。He had always agents and friends at Constantinople, and knew the state of things and the feelings at the court.他曾在君士坦丁堡总是代理商和朋友,知道在法庭上的事物和感情状态。He now resolved to take advantage of them.现在,他决心利用它们。He wrote at once to St. Epiphanius at Cyprus, requesting him to go to Constantinople and prevail upon Chrysostom at to condemn the Origenists.他写了一次圣塞浦路斯埃皮法尼乌斯,要求他到君士坦丁堡,并获胜后,金口谴责的Origenists。Epiphanius went.埃皮法尼乌斯去。 But when he found that Theophilus was merely using him for his own purposes, he left the capital, dying on his return in 403.但是,当他发现,西奥菲勒斯仅仅是用他自己的目的,他离开首都,对他的回报在403死。At this time Chrysostom delivered a sermon against the vain luxury of women.金口此时发表了对妇女的徒劳豪华的说教。It was reported to the empress as though she had been personally alluded to.据报道,皇后,虽然她已亲自提到。In this way the ground was prepared.在这样的地面准备。Theophilus at last appeared at Constantinople in June, 403, not alone, as he had been commanded, but with twenty-nine of his suffragan bishops, and, as Palladius (ch. viii) tells us, with a good deal of money and all sorts of gifts.西奥菲勒斯终于出现在君士坦丁堡在6月,403,并不孤单,因为他一直指挥,但他的副主教主教,二十九个,帕拉丢斯(章八)告诉我们,有一个良好的金钱交易和所有各种各样的礼品。 He took his lodgings in one of the imperial palaces, and held conferences with all the adversaries of Chrysostom.他在帝王宫殿之一,他的住所,并与所有对手的金口举行了会议。Then he retired with his suffragans and seven other bishops to a villa near Constantinople, called epi dryn (see Ubaldi, "La Synodo ad Quercum", Turin, 1902).然后,他退休了他suffragans和其他七个主教到君士坦丁堡附近的别墅,称为外延dryn(见Ubaldi,“香格里拉Synodo广告Quercum”,都灵,1902年)。 A long list of the most ridiculous accusations was drawn up against Chrysostom (see Photius, "Bibliotheca", 59, in PG, CIII, 105-113), who, surrounded by forty-two archbishops and bishops assembled to judge Theophilus in accordance with the orders of the emperor, was now summoned to present himself and apologize.对金口制定了一个长长的清单是最荒谬的指控(见Photius,“书目”,59岁,在PG,CIII,105-113),由四十二个大主教和主教组装判断西奥菲勒斯按照包围现在,皇帝的命令,传唤目前自己和道歉。 Chrysostom naturally refused to recognize the legality of a synod in which his open enemies were judges.金口自然拒绝承认的主教会议,在他开的敌人是法官的合法性。After the third summons Chrysostom, with the consent of the emperor, was declared to be deposed.第三传票金口皇帝同意,之后被宣布为被废黜。In order to avoid useless bloodshed, he surrendered himself on the third day to the soldiers who awaited him.为了避免无用的流血事件,他交出了自己的第三天等待他的士兵们。But the threats of the excited people, and a sudden accident in the imperial palace, frightened the empress (Palladius, "Dialogus", ix).但激动的人,并在皇宫的突发事故,威胁吓坏了慈禧(帕拉丢,“Dialogus”,第九章)。She feared some punishment from heaven for Chrysostom's exile, and immediately ordered his recall.她担心一些从天堂金口的流放的处罚,并立即下令将他召回。After some hesitation Chrysostom re-entered the capital amid the great rejoicings of the people.经过一番犹豫金口重新进入中人民的伟大rejoicings的资本。Theophilus and his party saved themselves by flying from Constantinople.西奥菲勒斯一行保存自己从君士坦丁堡飞行。 Chrysostom's return was in itself a defeat for Eudoxia.金口的回报,这本身就是一个多迦击败。When her alarms had gone, her rancour revived.当她已经报警,她的怨恨复活了。Two months afterwards a silver statue of the empress was unveiled in the square just before the cathedral.两个月之后,在大教堂广场前的一个银皇后雕像揭幕。The public celebrations which attended this incident, and lasted several days, became so boisterous that the offices in the church were disturbed.出席这次事件,并持续数天,公众庆祝活动变得如此热闹,在教会的办公室被干扰。 Chrysostom complained of this to the prefect of the city, who reported to Eudoxia that the bishop had complained against her statue.金口抱怨这给知府的城市,报多迦,主教曾抱怨对她的雕像。This was enough to excite the empress beyond all bounds.这是足以激发慈禧超越一切界限。She summoned Theophilus and the other bishops to come back and to depose Chrysostom again.她召见西奥菲勒斯和其他主教回来,并再次废黜金口。The prudent patriarch, however, did not wish to run the same risk a second time.然而,谨慎的族长,不希望第二次运行相同的风险。 He only wrote to Constantinople that Chrysostom should be condemned for having re-entered his see in opposition to an article of the Synod of Antioch held in the year 341 (an Arian synod).他只写了君士坦丁堡,金口,应该有重新进入他看到在反对文章341(阿里安主教会议)在今年举行的安提阿主教谴责。 The other bishops had neither the authority nor the courage to give a formal judgment.其他主教既无权力,也没勇气给一个正式的判断。All they could do was to urge the emperor to sign a new decree of exile.他们可以做的是敦促皇帝签署一项新法令的流亡。A double attempt on Chrysostom's life failed.一个双金口的生活尝试失败。On Easter Eve, 404, when all the catechumens were to receive baptism, the adversaries of the bishop, with imperial soldiers, invaded the baptistery and dispersed the whole congregation.在复活节前夕,404,所有的慕道者接受洗礼时,主教的对手,帝国士兵,入侵的洗礼和分散整个聚集。At last Arcadius signed the decree, and on 24 June, 404, the soldiers conducted Chrysostom a second time into exile.在去年Arcadius签署的法令,并于6月24日,404,战士们进行了金口第二次流亡。

(5) Exile and Death(5),流放和死亡

They had scarcely left Constantinople when a huge conflagration destroyed the cathedral, the senate-house, and other buildings.他们几乎没有离开君士坦丁堡时,一个巨大的大火烧毁教堂,参议院内部,和其他建筑物。The followers of the exiled bishop were accused of the crime and prosecuted.流亡的主教的追随者被指控的罪行和起诉。In haste Arsacius, an old man, was appointed successor of Chrysostom, but was soon succeeded by the cunning Atticus.在匆忙Arsacius中,一个老头,被任命为继任者的金口,但很快就被狡猾的Atticus成功。Whoever refused to enter into communion with them was punished by confiscation of property and exile.谁拒绝进入共融与他们被处以没收财产和流放。Chrysostom himself was conducted to Cucusus, a secluded and rugged place on the east frontier of Armenia, continually exposed to the invasions of the Isaurians.金口自己进行Cucusus,亚美尼亚的东部边境上的一个隐蔽和坚固的地方,不断暴露的Isaurians入侵。 In the following year he had even to fly for some time to the castle of Arabissus to protect himself from these barbarians.在接下来的一年中,他甚至飞行一段时间Arabissus城堡,以保护自己免受这些野蛮人。Meanwhile he always maintained a correspondence with his friends and never gave up the hope of return.与此同时,他始终保持着与他的朋友的书信,从来没有放弃希望的回报。When the circumstances of his deposition were known in the West, the pope and the Italian bishops declared themselves in his favour.当他沉积的情况在西方,教皇和意大利主教团宣布他的青睐。Emperor Honorius and Pope Innocent I endeavoured to summon a new synod, but their legates were imprisoned and then sent home.挪皇帝和教皇英诺森我努力拿出一个新的主教,但他们的legates被囚禁,然后被送回家。The pope broke off all communion with the Patriarchs of Alexandria, Antioch (where an enemy of Chrysostom had succeeded Flavian), and Constantinople, until (after the death of Chrysostom) they consented to admit his name into the diptychs of the Church.教皇断绝所有与共融的始祖的亚历山大,安提阿(敌人的金口已成功弗拉维安),和君士坦丁堡,直到金口死亡后,他们同意接纳教会的diptychs他的名字。 Finally all hopes for the exiled bishop had vanished.最后希望所有流亡的主教都已经消失。Apparently he was living too long for his adversaries.很显然,他是生活时间过长,他的对手。In the summer, 407, the order was given to carry him to Pithyus, a place at the extreme boundary of the empire, near the Caucasus.407,在夏季,为了给他Pithyus,帝国的极端边界附近的高加索地区,在地方进行。One of the two soldiers who had to lead him caused him all possible sufferings.曾带领他的两名士兵之一,引起了所有可能的痛苦。 He was forced to make long marches, was exposed to the rays of the sun, to the rains and the cold of the nights.他被迫作出长期的游行,被暴露在太阳的射线,降雨和寒冷的夜晚。His body, already weakened by several severe illnesses, finally broke down.他的身体,已经削弱了一些严重的疾病,终于爆发了。 On 14 September the party were at Comanan in Pontus.9月14日党在Comanan庞。In the morning Chrysostom had asked to rest there on the account of his state of health.在上午金口问过他的健康状况的帐户上有休息。In vain; he was forced to continue his march.徒劳的;他不得不继续他的行军。Very soon he felt so weak that they had to return to Comana.很快,他觉得很薄弱,他们不得不回到科马纳。Some hours later Chrysostom died.几个小时后,金口死亡。His last words were: Doxa to theo panton eneken (Glory be to God for all things) (Palladius, xi, 38).他的最后一句话是:DOXA西奥PANTON eneken(荣耀归于上帝为万物)(帕拉丢,十一,38)。He was buried at Comana.他被安葬在科马纳。On 27 January, 438, his body was translated to Constantinople with great pomp, and entombed in the church of the Apostles where Eudoxia had been buried in the year 404 (see Socrates, VII, 45; Constantine Prophyrogen., "Cæremoniale Aul Byz.", II, 92, in PG, CXII, 1204 B). 1月27日,438,他的身体被翻译到君士坦丁堡大排场,埋葬在其中已埋在今年404多迦(见苏格拉底,七,45使徒的教会;康斯坦丁Prophyrogen,“Cæremoniale AUL BYZ。 “二,92 PG,CXII,1204乙)。

II.二。THE WRITINGS OF ST. ST的著作。CHRYSOSTOM金口

Chrysostom has deserved a place in ecclesiastical history, not simply as Bishop of Constantinople, but chiefly as a Doctor of the Church.金口已当之无愧的,在教会历史的地方,不能简单地作为君士坦丁堡的主教,但主要是作为医生的教会。Of none of the other Greek Fathers do we possess so many writings.没有其他的希腊教父,我们拥有这么多的著作。We may divide them into three portions, the "opuscula", the "homilies", and the "letters".我们可分为三部分,“opuscula”,“颂歌”,以及“信”。(1) The chief "opuscula" all date from the earlier days of his literary activity. (1)行政“opuscula”所有的日期从他的文学活动的早期。The following deal with monastical subjects: "Comparatio Regis cum Monacho" ("Opera", I, 387-93, in PG, XLVII-LXIII), "Adhortatio ad Theodorum (Mopsuestensem?) lapsum" (ibid., 277-319), "Adversus oppugnatores vitae monasticae" (ibid., 319-87). monastical科目如下处理:“Comparatio瑞吉暨Monacho”(“歌剧”,我,387-93,在PG,四十七LXIII),“Adhortatio广告Theodorum(Mopsuestensem?)lapsum”(同上,277-319) “Adversus oppugnatores简历monasticae”(同上,319-87)。Those dealing with ascetical subjects in general are the treatise "De Compunctione" in two books (ibid., 393-423), "Adhortatio ad Stagirium" in three books (ibid., 433-94), "Adversus Subintroductas" (ibid., 495-532), "De Virginitate" (ibid., 533-93), "De Sacerdotio" (ibid., 623-93).处理一般苦修科目的论文“德Compunctione”两书“(同上,393-423),”Adhortatio广告Stagirium“三书”(同上,433-94),“Adversus Subintroductas”(同上495-532),“德Virginitate”(同上,533-93),“德Sacerdotio”(同上,623-93)。 (2) Among the "homilies" we have to distinguish commentaries on books of Holy Scripture, groups of homilies (sermons) on special subjects, and a great number of single homilies. (2)在“颂歌”我们必须区分圣经的书籍,专题讲道(讲道)组和一个单一的颂歌大量的评论。(a) The chief "commentaries" on the Old Testament are the sixty-seven homilies "On Genesis" (with eight sermons on Genesis, which are probably a first recension) (IV, 21 sqq., and ibid., 607 sqq.); fifty-nine homilies "On the Psalms" (4-12, 41, 43-49, 108-117, 119-150) (V, 39-498), concerning which see Chrys. (一)行政化“的评论”旧约,是第六个颂歌“创世记”(8成因,这或许是第一个校订说教)(四,21 SQQ。,和同上,607 SQQ。 );五十九个颂歌“在诗篇”(4-12,41,43-49,108-117,119-150)(V,39-498)看到Chrys,。Baur, "Der urspr ngliche Umfang des Kommentars des hl. Joh. Chrysostomus zu den Psalmen" in Chrysostomika, fase.鲍尔,“明镜urspr ngliche Umfang DES Kommentars DES HL。荷兰Joh。Chrysostomus祖书房Psalmen”,FASE Chrysostomika。i (Rome, 1908), 235-42, a commentary on the first chapters of "Isaias" (VI, 11 sqq.).我(罗马,1908年),235-42,“伊萨亚斯”(六,11 SQQ。)第一章的评注。The fragments on Job (XIII, 503-65) are spurious (see Haidacher, "Chrysostomus Fragmente" in Chrysostomika, I, 217 sq.); the authenticity of the fragments on the Proverbs (XIII, 659-740), on Jeremias and Daniel (VI, 193-246), and the Synopsis of the Old and the New Testament (ibid., 313 sqq.), is doubtful.杂散作业(十三,5​​03-65)片段(见Haidacher,“Chrysostomus Fragmente”在Chrysostomika,我,217平方米);箴言片段的真实性(十三,659-740)上赫雷米亚斯,并丹尼尔(六,193-246),和旧的概要和新约圣经(同上,313 SQQ),是值得怀疑的。The chief commentaries on the New Testament are first the ninety homilies on "St. Matthew" (about the year 390; VII), eighty-eight homilies on "St. John" (c. 389; VIII, 23 sqq. -- probably from a later edition), fifty-five homilies on "the Acts" (as preserved by stenographers, IX, 13 sqq.), and homilies "On all Epistles of St. Paul" (IX, 391 sqq.).在新约中的主要评论是第一九十颂歌“圣马太”(约390年;七),“圣约翰”(公元前389的八十八个颂歌;第八,23 SQQ - 可能以后版),“行为”(作为速记员,第九,13 SQQ保留),和讲道:“在圣保罗的所有书信”(第九,391 SQQ。)五十五个颂歌。The best and most important commentaries are those on the Psalms, on St. Matthew, and on the Epistle to the Romans (written c. 391).最好的和最重要的评论是这些诗篇,圣马太,书信入乡随俗(书面C. 391)。 The thirty-four homilies on the Epistle to the Galatians also very probably comes to us from the hand of a second editor.书信向加拉太34个讲道也很可能涉及到我们从第二个编辑器之手。(b) Among the "homilies forming connected groups", we may especially mention the five homilies "On Anna" (IV, 631-76), three "On David" (ibid., 675-708), six "On Ozias" (VI, 97-142), eight "Against the Jews" (II, 843-942), twelve "De Incomprehensibili Dei Naturæ" (ibid., 701-812), and the seven famous homilies "On St. Paul" (III, 473-514). (b)在“颂歌形成连接群体”,我们可能特别要提到的“在安娜”五个颂歌(四,631-76),三个“在大卫”(同上,675-708),六“在Ozias”六,(97-142),8个“对犹太人的”(第二卷,843-942),十二条“Incomprehensibili业会Naturæ”(同上,701-812),以及7位赫赫有名的颂歌“在圣保罗”(第三,473-514)。 (c) A great number of "single homilies" deal with moral subjects, with certain feasts or saints. (三)大量“单颂歌”与道德主体的交易,与某些节日或圣人。(3) The "Letters" of Chrysostom (about 238 in number: III, 547 sqq.) were all written during his exile. (3)“字母”金口(共约238:三,547 SQQ)都写在他的流放。Of special value for their contents and intimate nature are the seventeen letters to the deaconess Olympias.其内容具有特殊价值和亲切自然的十七个字母的执事奥林匹亚。Among the numerous "Apocrypha" we may mention the liturgy attributed to Chrysostom, who perhaps modified, but did not compose the ancient text.在众多的“伪经”,我们可能会提到的礼仪归因于金口,可能修改,但没有撰写的古文字。 The most famous apocryphon is the "Letter to C sarius" (III, 755-760).最有名的apocryphon是“信到C sarius”(三,755-760)。It contains a passage on the holy Eucharist which seems to favour the theory of "impanatio", and the disputes about it have continued for more than two centuries.它包含了一个通过圣体圣事,这似乎有利于“impanatio”的理论,关于它的争议已经持续了两个多世纪。 The most important spurious work in Latin is the "Opus imperfectum", written by an Arian in the first half of the fifth century (see Th. Paas, "Das Opus impefectum in Matthæum", Tübingen, 1907).寄生在拉美最重要的工作是“作品imperfectum”,在上半年的第五世纪由阿里安书面(见钍。PaaS的,“达斯作品impefectum在Matthæum”,图宾根,1907年)。

III.三。CHRYSOSTOM'S THEOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE金口的神学的重要性

(1) Chrysostom as Orator(1)金口作为演说家

The success of Chrysostom's preaching is chiefly due to his great natural facility of speech, which was extraordinary even to Greeks, to the abundance of his thoughts as well as the popular way of presenting and illustrating them, and, last but not least, the whole-hearted earnestness and conviction with which he delivered the message which he felt had been given to him.金口的说教的成功是主要是由于他的伟大的自然设施的言论,甚至超常希腊人在他的思想的丰度,以及的介绍,并说明他们的流行方式,和,最后但不是最少,在整个善良的认真和信念,与他传达的信息,他认为已经给了他。 Speculative explanation did not attract his mind, nor would they have suited the tastes of his hearers.投机性的解释并不能吸引他的心中,也他们有适合他的听众的口味。He ordinarily preferred moral subjects, and very seldom in his sermons followed a regular plan, nor did he care to avoid digressions when any opportunity suggested them.他通常首选的道德主体,在他的布道很少遵循定期计划,他也没有照顾任何机会时,建议他们避免离题。In this way, he is by no means a model for our modern thematic preaching, which, however we may regret it, has to such a great extent supplanted the old homiletic method.这样,他绝不是为我们的现代专题说教,但是,我们可能会后悔,这么大的程度上取代了旧的说教方法模式。But the frequent outbursts of applause among his congregation may have told Chrysostom that he was on the right path.但在他的众掌声频繁爆发可能已告诉金口,他在正确的道路。

(2) Chrysostom as an exegete(2)作为一个注释家金口

As an exegete Chrysostom is of the highest importance, for he is the chief and almost the only successful representative of the exegetical principles of the School of Antioch.作为一个注释家金口是最重要的是,他是行政和几乎是唯一的成功代表的安提阿学院的训诂原则。Diodorus of Tarsus had initiated him into the grammatico-historical method of that school, which was in strong opposition to the eccentric, allegorical, and mystical interpretation of Origen and the Alexandrian School.狄奥多罗斯的塔尔苏斯开始他到学校grammatico历史的方法,这是强烈反对的偏心,寓言,和神秘的解释渊源和亚历山大学校。 But Chrysostom rightly avoided pushing his principles to that extreme to which, later on, his friend Theodore of Mopsuestia, the teacher of Nestorius, carried them.但金口正确地避免极端,后来,他的朋友西奥多的摩普绥提亚,涅斯老师,进行他们推着他的原则。He did not even exclude all allegorical or mystical explanations, but confined them to the cases in which the inspired author himself suggests this meaning.他甚至不排除所有寓言或神秘的解释,但只限于他们启发作者本人的案件中,表明这个意思。

(3) Chrysostom as Dogmatic Theologian(3)金口作为教条式的神学家

As has already been said, Chrysostom's was not a speculative mind, nor was he involved in his lifetime in great dogmatic controversies.正如已经表示,金口的是不是一个投机的心态,也不是他在生前伟大的教条式的争论。Nevertheless it would be a mistake to underrate the great theological treasures hidden in his writings.然而,这将是一个错误低估伟大的神学宝藏隐藏在他的著作。From the very first he was considered by the Greeks and Latins as a most important witness to the Faith.从一开始,他被认为是由希腊人和拉丁人作为最重要的信仰见证。Even at the Council of Ephesus (431) both parties, St. Cyril and the Antiochians, already invoked him on behalf of their opinions, and at the Seventh Ecumenical Council, when a passage of Chrysostom had been read in favour of the veneration of images, Bishop Peter of Nicomedia cried out: "If John Chrysostom speaks in the way of the images, who would dare to speak against them?"即使是在安理会的以弗所(431)双方,圣西里尔和Antiochians,已经调用时,他代表他们的意见,并在第七次大公会议,通过了金口已赞成崇拜的图像读取主教彼得的尼科美底亚哭了出来:“如果约翰金口的图像,谁还敢对他们说话的方式说话吗?” which shows clearly the progress his authority had made up to that date.这清楚地表明他的权力作出了该日期的进展。

Strangely enough, in the Latin Church, Chrysostom was still earlier invoked as an authority on matters of faith.奇怪的是,在拉丁美洲教会,金口仍作为一个权威的信仰问题上调用。The first writer who quoted him was Pelagius, when he wrote his lost book "De Naturæ" against St. Augustine (c. 415).伯拉纠引述他的第一个作家,当他写了他的失落的书“德Naturæ”对圣奥古斯丁(公元前415)。The Bishop of Hippo himself very soon afterwards (421) claimed Chrysostom for the Catholic teaching in his controversy with Julian of Eclanum, who had opposed to him a passage of Chrysostom (from the "Hom. ad Neophytos", preserved only in Latin) as being against original sin (see Chrys. Baur, "L'entrée littéraire de St. Jean Chrys. dans le monde latin" in the "Revue d'histoire ecclés.", VIII, 1907, 249-65).河马自己的主教很快​​之后(421)声称在他的争议与朱利安Eclanum,曾反对他通过了金口(从“坎广告Neophytos”,仅保留在拉丁美洲)天主教教学金口对原罪(见Chrys。鲍尔,“欧莱雅主菜littéraire德圣让Chrys。”世界拉丁“,在”历史杂志埃克尔斯。“,第八条,1907年,249-65)。 Again, at the time of the Reformation there arose long and acrid discussions as to whether Chrysostom was a Protestant or a Catholic, and these polemics have never wholly ceased.再次,在时间的改革是否金口是一个新教或天主教产生长期和刺鼻的讨论,这些论战从来没有完全停止。It is true that Chrysostom has some strange passages on our Blessed Lady (see Newman, "Certain difficulties felt by Anglicans in Catholic Teachings", London, 1876, pp. 130 sqq.), that he seems to ignore private confession to a priest, that there is no clear and any direct passage in favour of the primacy of the pope.这是事实,金口有一些奇怪的通道对我们的祝福夫人(见纽曼,“一定的困难,在天主教教义圣公会感觉”,伦敦,1876年,第130 SQQ),他似乎忽略私人供认一个牧师,有没有明确的和赞成的教皇至上的任何直接通过。But it must be remembered that all the respective passages contain nothing positive against the actual Catholic doctrine.但必须记住,所有各自的段落包含任何针对实际天主教教义的积极。On the other side Chrysostom explicitly acknowledges as a rule of faith tradition (XI, 488), as laid down by the authoritative teaching of the Church (I, 813).在另一边金口明确承认奠定了教会的权威教学(813),作为一个信仰传统的规则(十一,488)。This Church, he says, is but one, by the unity of her doctrine (V, 244; XI, 554); she is spread over the whole world, she is the one Bride of Christ (III, 229, 403; V, 62; VIII, 170).他说,这个教会只有一个,她的学说统一(V,244席,554),她是在整个世界蔓延,她是基督的新娘(III,229,403,V, 62,第八,170)。As to Christology, Chrysostom holds clearly that Christ is God and man in one person, but he never enters into deeper examination of the manner of this union.至于基督,金口持有明确,基督是上帝和男子一人,但他从来没有进入这个联盟的方式进入更深的考试。Of great importance is his doctrine regarding the Eucharist.重视的是他的学说,关于圣体圣事。There cannot be the slightest doubt that he teaches the Real Presence, and his expressions on the change wrought by the words of the priest are equivalent to the doctrine of transubstantiation (see Naegle, "Die Eucharistielehre des hl. Joh. Chry.", 74 sq.).不能有在丝毫怀疑,他教的真实存在,牧师的话造成变化他表达式等价的,陷于变体学说(见Naegle,“模具Eucharistielehre DES HL。荷兰Joh。Chry。”,74平方米)。

Publication information Written by Chrysostom Baur.金口鲍尔编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Mike Humphrey.转录由Mike汉弗莱。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.天主教百科全书,音量八。Published 1910.发布1910。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

A complete analysis and critique of the enormous literature on Chrysostom (from the sixteenth century to the twentieth) is given in BAUR, S. Jean Chrysostome et ses oeuvres dans l'histoire litt raire (Paris and Louvain, 1907), 223-297.一个完整的分析和批判的巨大文学对金口(从十六世纪到二十)是在鲍尔,S.让Chrysostome等SES小菜DANS L' histoire利特raire(巴黎和鲁汶大学,1907),223-297。

(1) LIFE OF CHRYSOSTOM.(1)生活的金口。

(a) Sources.(一)的来源。-- PALLADIUS, Dialogue cum Theodoro, Ecclesioe Romanoe Diacono, de vit et conversatione b.- 帕拉丢,对话暨Theodoro,Ecclesioe Romanoe Diacono,维生素等conversatione B.Joh.荷兰Joh。Chrysostomi(written c. 408; best source; ed. BIGOT, Paris, 1680; PG, XLVII, 5-82) MARTYRIUS, Panegyricus in S. Joh.Chrysostomi(书面C. 408的最佳来源; ED偏执,巴黎,1680; PG,四十七,5-82)MARTYRIUS,S.荷兰Joh Panegyricus。Chrysostomum (written c. 408; ed. PG, loc. cit., XLI-LII); SOCRATES, Hist.Chrysostomum(书面C. 408;。PG版,LOC前,四十一理);苏格拉底,历史。Eccl., VI, 2-23, and VII, 23, 45 (PG, LXVII, 661 sqq.); SOZOMENUS, Hist.。传道书,六,2-23,和第七条,23,45(PG,LXVII,661 SQQ); SOZOMENUS,历史。eccl., VIII, 2-28 (PG,ibid., 1513 sqq.), more complete than Socrates, on whom he is dependent; THEODORET, Hist.。传道书,第八条,2-28(PG,同上,1513 SQQ。),比苏格拉底更完整,他是依赖; THEODORET,历史。 eccl., V, 27-36; PG, LXXXII, 1256-68, not always reliable; ZOSIMUS, V, 23-4 (ed. BEKKER, p. 278-80, Bonn. 1837), not trustworthy.。传道书,V,27-36; PG捌拾贰,1256年至1268年,并不总是可靠; ZOSIMUS,V,23-4(主编BEKKER,页278-80,波恩1837年),不值得信赖。

(b) Later Authors.(二)后来的作者。-- THEODORE OF THRIMITUS, (PG, XLVII, col. 51-88), without value, written about the end of the seventh century; (PSEUDO-) GEORGIUS ALEXANDRINUS, ed.- 西奥多的THRIMITUS(PG,四十七,COL 51-88),没有写入的值约七世纪结束,;(伪)GEORGIUS ALEXANDRINUS,主编。SAVILE, Chrys.萨维尔,Chrys。 opera omnia (Eton, 1612), VIII, 157-265 (8th - 9th century); LEO IMPERATOR, Laudatio Chrys.歌剧OMNIA(伊顿公学,1612),第八章,157-265(8 - 9世纪);利奥规划,施工,Laudatio Chrys。(PG, CVII, 228 sqq.); ANONYMUS, (ed. SAVILE, loc. cit., 293-371); SYMEON METAPHRASTES, (PG, CXIV, 1045-1209).(PG,CVII,228 SQQ)ANONYMUS,(主编萨维尔,LOC CIT,293-371。); SYMEON METAPHRASTES(PG,CXIV,1045年至一二〇九年)。

(c) Modern Biographies.(三)现代传记。-- English: STEPHENS, Saint John Chrysostom, his life and times, a sketch of the Church and the empire in the fourth century (London, 1871; 2nd ed., London, 1880), the best English biography, but it anglicanizes the doctrine of Chrysostom; BUSH, The Life and Times of Chrysostom (London, 1885), a popular treatise.- 英语:斯蒂芬斯,圣约翰金口,他的生活和时代,教会的草图和帝国在第四世纪(伦敦,1871年第二版,伦敦,1880年),最好的英文传记,但它anglicanizes的金口学说;布殊,生活和时代的金口(伦敦,1885年),一个流行的论文。 French: HERMANT, La Vie de Saint Jean Chrysostome .法国:HERMANT的La Vie de圣徒吉恩Chrysostome。..divis e en 12 livres (Paris, 1664; 3rd ed., Paris, 1683), the first scientific biography; DE TILLEMONT, M moires pour servir l'histoire eccl siastique des six premiers si cles, XI, 1-405, 547-626 (important for the chronology); STILTING, De S. Jo.divis发送EN 12里弗(巴黎,1664,第3版,巴黎,1683年),第一个科学传记; DE TILLEMONT,男moires倒SERVIR L'历史传道书siastique DES六个总理SI CLES,第十一,1-405,547 - 626(重要的年表); STILTING,德S.乔。Chrysostomo . Chrysostomo。. .Commentarius historicus in Acta SS., IV, Sept., 401-700 (1st ed., 1753), best scientific biography in Latin; THIERRY, S. Jean Chrysostome et l'imp ratrice Eudoxie (Paris, 1872; 3rd ed., Paris, 1889), "more romance than history"; PUECH, Saint Jean Chrysostome (Paris, 1900); 5th ed., Paris, 1905), popular and to be read with caution.Commentarius historicus在文献SS,最好的科学传记在拉美四,9月,401-700(第1版,1753)。蒂埃里S.让Chrysostome ET L' IMP ratrice Eudoxie(巴黎,1872年第3版;巴黎,1889年),“比历史更浪漫”; PUECH,圣让Chrysostome(巴黎,1900年),第5版,巴黎,1905年),流行的,要谨慎阅读。German: NEANDER, Der hl.德国:尼安德,DER HL。Joh.荷兰Joh。Chrysostomus und die Kirche, besonders des Orients, in dessen Zeitalter, 2 vols.Chrysostomus与Kirche,besonders DES定向,dessen Zeitalter,2卷。(Berlin, 1821 - 22; 4th ed., Berlin 1858); first vol., translated into English by STAPLETON (London, 1838), gives an account of the doctrine of Chrysostom with Protestant views; LUDWIG, Der hl.(柏林,1821年 - 22;第4版,1858柏林);芮(伦敦,1838年),翻译成英文的第一个卷,给出了一个帐户金口学说与新教的意见;路德维希明镜HL。Joh.荷兰Joh。Chrys.Chrys。in seinem Verh liniss zum byzantinischen Hof.seinem Verh liniss ZUM byzantinischen霍夫。(Braunsberg, 1883), scientific. (Braunsberg 1883年),科学性。Chrysostom as orator: ALBERT, S. Jean Chrysostome consid r comme orateur populaire (Paris, 1858); ACKERMANN, Die Beredsamkeit des hl.金口作为演说家:伟业,S.让Chrysostome考虑ř COMME orateur人民报“(巴黎,1858);阿克曼,模具Beredsamkeit HL。Joh.荷兰Joh。Chrys.Chrys。(W rzburg, 1889); cf. (宽rzburg,1889年);比照。WILLEY, Chrysostom: The Orator (Cincinnati, 1908), popular essay.威利,金口:演说家(辛辛那提,1908年),流行的作文。

(2) CHRYSOSTOM'S WRITINGS.(2)金口的著作。

(a) Chronology.(一)年表。-- See TILLEMONT, STILTING, MONTFAUCON, Chrys.- TILLEMONT,STILTING,MONTFAUCON,Chrys。Opera omnia; USENER, Religionsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen, I (Bonn, 1889), 514-40; RAUSCHEN, Jahrb cher der christl.歌剧OMNIA; USENER,Religionsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen,我(波恩,1889年),514-40; RAUSCHEN,Jahrb雪儿DER christl。Kirche unter dem Kaiser Theodosius dem Grossen (Freiburg im Br., 1897), 251-3, 277-9, 495-9; BATIFFOL, Revue bibl., VIII, 566-72; PARGOIRE, Echos d'Orient, III 151-2; E. SCHARTZ, J dische und chrisl.温特DEM凯泽Kirche狄奥多西DEM Grossen(弗莱堡BR,1897年)。,251-3,277-9,495-9; BATIFFOL,杂剧bibl,第八,566-72; PARGOIRE,回声D'东方,三,151 - 。 2,E. SCHARTZ,歼dische和chrisl。Ostertafeln (Berlin, 1905), 169-84.Ostertafeln(柏林,1905年),169-84。

(b) Authenticity.(B)的真实性。-- HAIDACHER, Zeitschr.- HAIDACHER,Zeitschr。fr Kath.FR凯丝。Theologie, XVIII-XXXII; IDEM, Deshl.神学,十八,三十二;同上,Deshl。Joh.荷兰Joh。Chrys.Chrys。Buchlein ber Hoffart u.Buchlein BER Hoffart U.Kindererziehung (Freiburg, im Br., 1907).Kindererziehung(弗赖堡,IM溴​​,1907年)。

(3) CHRYSOSTOM'S DOCTRINE.(3)金口的学说。

MAYERUS, Chrysostomus Lutheranus (Grimma, 1680: Wittenberg, 1686); HACKI, D. Jo. MAYERUS,Chrysostomus Lutheranus(Grimma,1680:维滕贝格,1686年); HACKI,乔四。Chrysostomus . Chrysostomus。. .a Lutheranismo .一个Lutheranismo。..vindicatus (Oliva, 1683); F RSTER, Chrysostomus in seinem Verh ltniss zur antiochen.vindicatus(奥利瓦,1683年),F RSTER,Chrysostomus在seinem Verh ltniss楚antiochen。Schule (Gotha, 1869); CHASE, Chrysostom, A Study in the History of Biblical Interpretation (London, 1887); HAIDACHER, Die Lehre des hl.学派(哥达,1869年);大通,金口,在解释圣经(伦敦,1887年)的历史研究; HAIDACHER,模具Lehre HL。Joh.荷兰Joh。Chrys.Chrys。ber die Schriftinspiration (Salzburg, 1897); CHAPMAN, St. Chrysostom on St. Peter in Dublin Review (1903), 1-27; NAEGLE, Die Eucharistielehre des hl. BER死Schriftinspiration(萨尔茨堡,1897年);查普曼,圣金口圣彼得在都柏林评论(1903),1-27; NAEGLE,模具Eucharistielehre HL。Johannes Chrysostomus, des Doctor Eucharisti (Freiburg im Br., 1900).约翰内斯Chrysostomus,德医生Eucharisti(弗莱堡BR,1900年)。

(4) EDITIONS.(4)版本。

(a) Complete.(a)完成。-- SAVILE (Eton, 1612), 8 volumes (the best text); DUCAEUS, (Paris, 1609-1636), 12 vols.; DE MONTFAUCON, (Paris, 1718-1738), 13 vols.; MIGNE, PG, XLVII - LXIII.- 萨维尔(伊顿公学,1612),8卷(最好的文字); DUCAEUS,(巴黎,1609年至1636年),12卷;德MONTFAUCON,(巴黎,1718年至1738年),13卷;米涅,PG。第四十七 - LXIII。

(b) Partial.(b)部分。-- FIELD, Homilies in Matth.- 现场,颂歌在Matth。(Cambridge, 1839), 3 vols., best actual text reprinted in MIGNE, LVII - LVIII; IDEM, Homilioe in omnes epistolas Pauli (Oxford, 1845-62), VII. (剑桥,1839年),3卷,最好的实际文本重印米涅,第五十七 - LVIII;同上,Homilioe义务epistolas圣保利(牛津,1845年至1862年),第七章。The last critical edition of the De Sacerdotio was edited by NAIRN (Cambridge, 1906).最后关键的De Sacerdotio版编辑奈恩(剑桥,1906年)。There exist about 54 complete editions (in five languages), 86 percent special editions of De Sacerdotio (in twelve languages), and the whole number of all (complete and special) editions is greatly over 1000.存在着约54的完整版本(五种语言),DE Sacerdotio(十二种语言)的86%,特别版,和整个的所有版本(完整的和特殊)数量大大超过1000人。The oldest editions are the Latin; of which forty-six different incunabula editions (before the year 1500) exist.是拉丁美洲最古老的版本,其中有四十六个不同incunabula的版本(1500年)之前。See DIODORUS OF TARSUS, METETIUS OF ANTIOCH, ORIGENISTS, PALLADIUS, THEODORE OF MOPSUESTIA.见狄奥多罗斯的塔尔苏斯,ORIGENISTS,帕拉丢斯,西奥多的摩普绥提亚的安提阿,METETIUS。


Joannes ChrysostomusJoannes Chrysostomus

Catholic Information天主教信息

JewishEncyclopedia.com Patriarch of Constantinople, one of the most celebrated of the Church Fathers, and the most eminent orator of the early Christian period; born in 347 at Antioch; died Sept. 14, 407, near Comana, in Pontus. JewishEncyclopedia.com族长君士坦丁堡,最为著名的教父之一,和早期基督教时期最杰出的演说家; 347出生在安提阿;死亡,407 9月14日,近科马纳,在庞。Chrysostom originally devoted himself to the law, but soon felt dissatisfied with this vocation, and at the age of twenty-three was made a deacon.金口原本献身的法律,但很快就觉得这个职业感到不满,并在23岁是一个执事。About fifteen years later (386) he advanced to the rank of presbyter, and in 398 was appointed by the emperor Bishop of Constantinople.大约15年后,他(386)先进的长老排名,并在398皇帝君士坦丁堡主教任命。 Having attacked the empress Eudoxia in his sermons, he was banished (403), but was recalled soon after, upon the unanimous demand of his congregation.攻击慈禧多迦在他的布道,他被放逐(403),但被召回后不久后,他的会众的一致要求,。He repeated his attacks upon the empress, and was again banished in 404, first to Nicæa, then to Cucusus in the desert of the Taurus, and finally to Pityos on the Black Sea; but he died while on the way to the last-named place.他重复了他的攻击后,皇后,并再次被放逐在404,首先尼西亚,然后在沙漠的金牛座Cucusus,终于就黑海Pityos,但他最后命名,而途中死亡地方。

The name "Chrysostomus" ("golden-mouthed"; χρυσός "gold," and στόμα "mouth") is a title of honor conferred on this Church father only.这个名字“Chrysostomus”(“黄金口”;χρυσός“黄金”,并στόμα“口”),是一种荣誉称号,授予这个教会的父亲只。 It was first used by Isidore of Seville (636), and is significant of the importance of the man, whose sermons, of which one thousand have been preserved, are among the very best products of Christian rhetoric.这是第一次使用伊西多尔的塞维利亚(636),是显著的男子,其布道,其中万已被保存的重要性,基督教修辞学的最好的产品之一。 As a teacher of dogmatics and exegesis Chrysostom is not of so much importance, although much space in his works is devoted to these two branches.作为教义和训诂学金口的老师是不是如此重视,虽然在他的作品多的空间是专门到这两个分支。Among his sermons, the "Orationes VIII. Adversus Judæos" (ed. Migne, i. 843-944) deserve special notice, inasmuch as they mark a turning-point in anti-Jewish polemics.在他的布道,“Orationes第八Adversus Judæos”(编辑米涅,一843-944)值得特别通知,因为它们标志着一个反犹太人的论战的转折点。While up to that time the Church aspired merely to attack the dogmas of Judaism, and did that in a manner intended only for the learned, with Chrysostom there began the endeavor, which eventually brought so much suffering upon the Jews, to prejudice the whole of Christendom against the latter, and to erect hitherto unknown barriers between Jews and Christians.而高达当时教会的渴望只是攻击犹太教教义,并没有,仅用于了解到,与金口的方式开始了努力,并最终带来这么多痛苦后,犹太人,损害了整个对后者基督教,并竖立迄今未知的犹太人和基督徒之间的壁垒。

Attack on Jews.攻击犹太人。

It was the existing friendly intercourse between Jews and Christians which impelled Chrysostom to his furious attacks upon the former.这是现有的,这促使金口他愤怒的攻击后,前者的犹太人和基督徒之间的友好交往。Religious motives were not lacking, for many Christians were in the habit of celebrating the Feast of the Blowing of the Shofar, or New-Year, the Day of Atonement, and the Feast of Tabernacles ("Adversus Judæos," i.; ed. Migne, i. 848).宗教动机并不缺乏,许多基督徒在庆祝节日的Shofar吹,或新的一年习惯,在赎罪日的住棚节(“Adversus Judæos,”一节;版。米涅,一848)。"What forgiveness can we expect," he exclaimed, "when we run to their synagogues, merely following an impulse or a habit, and call their physicians and conjurers to our houses?" “我们能期望什么宽恕,”他感叹道,“当我们运行他们的犹太教堂,只是一种冲动,一种习惯,并呼叫医生和魔术师,我们的房子?”(ib. viii.).八,(同上)。In another place Chrysostom.在另一个地方金口。says: "I invoke heaven and earth as witnesses against you if any one of you should go to attend the Feast of the Blowing of the Trumpets, or participate in the fasts, or the observance of the Sabbath, or observe an important or unimportant rite of the Jews, and I will be innocent of your blood" (ib. i. 8; ed. Migne, i. 855).说:“我对你的证人天地调用,如果任何一个你应该去参加吹小号,或参加斋戒节,或遵守安息日,或观察的一个重要或不重要的仪式犹太人,和我将无辜的你的血“(同上一8;米涅,一855)。 Not only had Chrysostom to combat the pro-Jewish inclinations of the Antiochians in religious matters, but the Jews were held in so much respect at that time, that Christians preferred to bring their lawsuits before Jewish judges, because the form of the Jewish oath seemed to them more impressive and binding than their own (ib. i. 3; ed. Migne, i. 847).不仅金口,以打击在宗教事务Antiochians的亲犹太人的倾向,但犹太人举行了这么多的尊重,因为犹太宣誓的形式似乎在那个时候,基督徒宁愿把他们的诉讼之前,犹太人法官他们比自己更令人印象深刻,绑定(同上一3;米涅,一847)。

Arguments Against Judaism.反对犹太教的论据。

Chrysostom further argues at length in his writings that Judaism has been overcome and displaced by Christianity.金口进一步指出,在他的著作中,犹太教已被克服和流离失所由基督教在长度。 He attempts to prove this by showing that the Jewish religion can not exist without a temple and sacrifice and a religious center in Jerusalem, and that none of the later religious institutions can fill the place of the ancient ones.他试图证明,显示没有寺庙和牺牲和在耶路撒冷的宗教中心的犹太宗教不能存在,以及后来的宗教机构,没有人能填补古老的地方。 Chrysostom derides the Patriarchs, who, he declares, were no priests, but gave themselves the appearance of such, and merely played their parts like actors.金口嘲笑,他宣称,没有神父,但给了自己这样的外观,而只是像演员发挥其部分的始祖,。He adds: "The holy Ark, which the Jews now have in their synagogues, appears to be no better than any wooden box offered for sale in the market" (ib. vi. 7; ed. Migne, i. 614).他补充说:“现在的犹太人在他们的犹太教堂,圣方舟,似乎没有比在市场出售任何木箱”(7 ib.六版米涅,一614。)。

But he is not satisfied with the derision of all things sacred to the Jews.但他并不满足与一切事物的嘲笑犹太人的圣地。He tries to convince his hearers that it is the duty of all Christians to hate the Jews (ib. vi. 7; ed. Migne, i. 854), and declaresit a sin for Christians to treat them with respect.他试图说服他的听众,这是所有基督徒的责任仇恨犹太人(ib.六7。ED米涅,一854),并declaresit为基督徒的罪,尊重地对待他们。 In spite of his hatred of the Jews and Judaism, Chrysostom—as, indeed, the whole Antiochian school in their Bible exegesis—shows a dependence upon the Haggadah, which at the time predominated among the Palestinian Jews.尽管他的仇恨犹太人和犹太教,金口为,事实上,在他们的圣经整个Antiochian学校训诂显示了后哈加达,这在当时占主导地位的巴勒斯坦犹太人之间的依赖性。 A few parallels with the Haggadists have been given by Weiss, but they could be easily increased; and even in instances not directly taken from the Haggadah, its influence can be noticed in the writings of Chrysostom.魏斯已Haggadists一些相似之处,但他们可以很容易地增加;即使在不直接从哈加达实例,其影响力可以注意到在金口的著作。

Kaufmann Kohler, Louis Ginzberg考夫曼科勒,路易金兹伯格

Bibliography: The best edition of Chrysostom's works is by Montfaucon, 13 vols., in Patrologiœ Cursus Completus, ed.参考书目:金口的作品的最佳版本Montfaucon,13卷Patrologiœ Cursus Completus,编辑。Migne, Greek series, Paris, 1718-38; Böhringer, Die Kirche Christi und Ihre Zeugen, ix.; Bush, Life and Times of Chrysostomus, 1875; Lutz, Chrysostomus und die Berühmtesten Redner, 1859, Cassel, in Ersch and Gruber, Encyc.米涅,希腊系列,巴黎,1718年至1738年; Böhringer,模具Kirche斯蒂和Ihre Zeugen,IX;布什,生活和时代,1875年Chry​​sostomus;卢茨,Chrysostomus与Berühmtesten卫特拿,1859年,卡塞尔在Ersch和格鲁伯,,百科全书。 xxvii.; Grätz, Gesch. XXVII。Grätz,Gesch。der Juden, iv.DER Juden,四。356-357; Perles, Chrysostomus and the Jews, in Ben Chananja, iii. 356-357;珍珠,Chrysostomus和犹太人,在本Chananja,三。569-571; Weiss, Dor, iii. 569-571;魏斯,DOR,III。128-129.KLG128 - 129.KLG



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